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Hoverflies (Diptera, Syrphidae) new to the fauna of mainland Portugal, with an updated hoverfly checklist

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Some species and genera of hoverflies (Diptera, Syrphidae) new to the fauna of mainland Portugal are presented. The annotated hoverfly checklist originally published by Van Eck (2011) is updated to take account of these records together with recent taxonomic and nomenclatural changes. The number of species known from mainland Portugal increases by 28 to a total of 195 species. Two of these species are new to the European continent. In addition, new records are listed for the species selected for further details by Van Eck (2011).
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Boletín de la Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa (S.E.A.),59 (31/12/2016): 187–203. ISSN: 1134-9064
HOVERFLIES (DIPTERA, SYRPHIDAE) NEW TO THE FAUNA OF MAINLAND
PORTUGAL, WITH AN UPDATED HOVERFLY CHECKLIST
André van Eck
Korte Hoefstraat 30, 5046DB Tilburg, the Netherlands. eckvana@xs4all.nl
Abstract: Some species and genera of hoverflies (Diptera, Syrphidae) new to the fauna of mainland Portugal are presented. The
annotated hoverfly checklist originally published by Van Eck (2011) is updated to take account of these records together with recent
taxonomic and nomenclatural changes. The number of species known from mainland Portugal increases by 28 to a total of 195
species. Two of these species are new to the European continent. In addition, new records are listed for the species selected for fur-
ther details by Van Eck (2011).
Key words: Diptera, Syrphidae, faunistics, annotated checklist, Portugal.
Nuevos sírfidos (Diptera, Syrphidae) de Portugal continental
Resumen: Se presentan especies y géneros de sírfidos (Diptera, Syrphidae) nuevos para la fauna de Portugal peninsular. Se ac-
tualiza el listado de sírfidos de Van Eck (2011) y se presenta aquí también la última versión. Esta incluye algunos cambios tax-
onómicos y nomenclaturales. El número de especies conocidas para Portugal peninsular aumenta en 28, elevándose a 195 espe-
cies. Dos de estas especies son nuevas para el continente europeo. Además, se dan nuevos registros de una selección de espe-
cies, según la selección hecha en Van Eck (2011).
Palabras clave: Diptera, Syrphidae, faunística, lista comentada, Portugal.
Novos sirfídeos (Diptera, Syrphidae) para a fauna de Portugal continental
Resumo: Apresentam-se espécies e géneros de sirfídeos (Diptera, Syrphidae) novos para a fauna de Portugal continental. A
checklist anotada dos sirfídeos de Van Eck (2011) é actualizada e a sua última versão é também aqui disponibilizada. Incluem-se
algumas alterações a nível da taxonomia e nomenclatura. O número de espécies conhecidas de Portugal continental sofre um
acréscimo em 28 espécies, para um total de 195. Duas destas espécies são novas para o continente Europeu. Adicionalmente,
novos registos de um conjunto de espécies é dado, de acordo com a selecção feita em Van Eck (2011).
Palavras chave: Diptera, Syrphidae, faunística, lista comentada, Portugal.
Introduction
The first thorough review of the hoverflies of mainland Por-
tugal was carried out by Van Eck and published in 2011. The
result was a list of 167 species. In contrast, Marcos-García et
al. (2002) provided a checklist of the Spanish syrphids which
recorded 355 species while Speight (2015) later listed 377
species as present in Spain. These figures indicate that the
number of species that might occur in Portugal are likely to be
higher than previously reported, especially since there are still
relatively few people collecting hoverflies in Portugal. For
this reason, further research was carried out in order to better
understand the Portuguese hoverfly fauna and the ecology of
individual species in support of local as well as national na-
ture conservation efforts.
In this paper new species to the Portuguese fauna are
presented. Additional information and collecting records for a
selection of other species are also provided.
Material and methods
Study area
Portugal is situated in the west of the Iberian Peninsula, in the
north and east bordered by Spain, and in the west and south
by the Atlantic Ocean. Continental Portugal can be devided
into two Holarctic biogeographical regions: the Eurosiberian
and the Mediterranean Region (Rivas-Martínez et al., 2004).
The Eurosiberian Region reaches Portugal in the northwest.
This part of Portugal has a mild and rainy climate without a
clear dry season. The Mediterranean Region is characterised
by a climate of scarce summer rainfall but there may, howe-
ver, be an excess of water in the other seasons. While the
northwest region of Portugal is one of the wettest spots in
Europe, with mean annual accumulated precipitation in ex-
cess of 3000 mm, average rainfall in the interior of the
Alentejo is of the order of 500 mm and experiences large
interannual variability. The average minimum temperature in
winter varies between 2°C in the mountainous interior zone
and 12°C in the Algarve (Miranda et al., 2002; Fernandes et
al., 2015).
Within the Mediterranean region lies the mountain
range of Serra da Estrela which, with its summit at 1990 m, is
part of the Iberian mountain system Sistema Central (Figure
1). The Sistema Central runs from east to west roughly along
the southern border of the Spanish autonomous community of
Castilla y León continuing into Portugal (Source: http://www.
iberianature.com). Portugal also has a chain of limestone
mountains (Figure 2) of low altitude not exceeding 670 m
(Sierras Sico, Rabaçal, Alvaiázere, Aire, Candeeiros and
Montejunto). Of these, the higher limestone areas, like Serra
de Aire é Candeeiros, Serra de Montejunto and Serra da
Arrábida in the west, are relatively isolated from similar cen-
tral Iberian limestone areas (Figure 3).
Data collection and presentation
The checklist by Van Eck (2011) has been used as the prima-
ry reference for this article. Additions and changes are first of
all based upon fieldwork of various collectors from Portugal
188
Fig. 1. Position of Sistema Central in the Iberian Peninsula (de Jong,
2006; unedited, licenced under CC BY 2.0). Fig. 2. Limestone areas in
Portugal. (Ferreira, 2000). Fig. 3. Relative isolation of limestone areas
in Portugal. Map of the Iberian Peninsula showing three major geolog-
ic settings and the major rivers that drain to the southwestern Iberian
margin (Pereira & Benedetti, 2013).
and abroad. Collectors from Portugal have sent their material
to be identified by the author and this material has been in-
corporated into his own private collection. Non-Portuguese
collectors have shared their collected material to be reviewed
and, in some cases, re-identified by the author before return-
ing it.
In only a few instances have records of photographed
hoverflies been accepted for this paper but then only if the
species concerned were already confirmed for Portugal by
Van Eck (2011); they were taken at a precise location in Por-
tugal; and their identification was unmistakable.
New species to the Portuguese fauna have been reported
in a few publications since 2011 and these have been added to
the updated checklist presented here.
New records for species previously listed in Van Eck
(2011) are presented in the section 'New data and remarks'
within the species accounts section of this paper.
During all fieldtrips collecting was mainly done using a
hand net. In cases where pan traps were used, this is indicated
in the text. In addition, a Malaise trap project was carried out
by J.M. Almeida in 2009 and J.M. Almeida and F. Barros in
2013.
Larvae of Ferdinandea spp. were collected by the au-
thor and by Paulo Lemos and reared at home. Larvae of
Sphegina were also collected by the author and reared at
home as were bulbs of Drimia maritima (Asparagaceae).
In several genera examination of the terminalia was es-
sential for reliable identification of specimens especially in
the genera Cheilosia, Eumerus, Merodon, Pipizella and
Sphaerophoria. To study the male terminalia, these were
dissected with the aid of an entomological pin. If not enough
features were visible for accurate determination then further
preparation was necessary. Firstly, the genitalia were cleared
by boiling them in water-diluted KOH pellets for a few
minutes. This was followed by brief immersion in acetic acid
to neutralize the KOH. The genitalia were then studied in
ethanol (which also removes the acid). Following examina-
tion, the genitalia were stored in microvials containing glycer-
ine or glued on mounting boards and put on the same pin as
the studied hoverfly specimen.
The only genitalia image included in this paper was cre-
ated using a Bresser MicroCam 5 MegaPixel attached to a
Leica 6 binocular microscope under 40x magnification. Stack-
ing was performed using the program Helicon Focus6. The
colour photo then was turned to a grey scale image with
IrfanView.
Distribution maps and graphics related to the data used
in this article were created using the database program Klasse
(www.klasse-info.nl).
The records and distribution maps are clearly influenced
by the collecting efforts of the author himsel♀, whose usual
base was Batalha, and of some of the main contributors, e.g
collectors living near Porto and Viseu. Figure 4 shows the
main hoverfly collecting activities in Portugal by the author
and other contributors to the checklist (excluding specimens
in museum collections). Figure 5 illustrates the number of
taxa collected throughout the country (again excluding speci-
mens in museum collections). The collecting intensity over
the years can also be expressed in monthly intervals (exclud-
ing specimens in museum collections) and is shown in Fig-
ures 6 to 10. It demonstrates that April stands out as the
month with the highest collecting intensity in terms of speci-
mens, localities and records but that the highest numbers in
terms of genera and species are recorded from May. June and
the winter months December to February are the months with
the poorest collecting efforts.
189
190
Taxonomic nomenclature and synonymy
This checklist follows the systematics used by Marcos-García
et al. (2002) while nomenclature follows Speight (2015).
In the previous checklist (Van Eck 2011) it was stated
that the nomenclature followed Speight (2010). Lapposyrphus
lapponicus (Zetterstedt, 1838) was erroneously listed under
the genus Eupeodes. This is corrected in the present list. Vujić
et al. (2013b) demonstrate the validity of recognising Neoc-
nemodon Goffe, 1944 as a separate genus, instead of as a
subgenus of Heringia. This new point of view is followed in
the present checklist, adding one more genus to the Portu-
guese fauna. Since it is a junior synonym, Eumerus bayardi
Séguy, 1961 is now listed as E. micans (Fabricius, 1798)
(Speight et al., 1998).
The status of species of the Merodon avidus complex
has become clearer recently (Popović et al., 2015; Speight,
2015). M. avidus A (listed in Van Eck, 2011) is currently
recognised as M. avidus of Rossi and listed as such. Merodon
longicornis Sack, 1913 is now present in the new checklist
under the name M. italicus Rondani, 1845 since M. longicor-
nis is a junior synonym of M. italicus (Vujić et al., 2011).
In the previous checklist (Van Eck, 2011) Microdon
analis (Macquart, 1842) is listed as a species known from
Portugal. However, it is at present not possible to morpholog-
ically distinguish between M. analis and M. major Andries,
1912. Until larvae are found no decisive conclusion can be
made on which species is present in Portugal.
The status of different taxa hiding in the Cheilosia
latifrons group of species was the subject of an unpublished
genetic and morphologic study in recent years. Four taxa were
recognised but it has proved very difficult to find sufficient
characters to seperate these species morphologically. At least
two of these taxa occur in Portugal (pers. comm. C. Claussen
and G. Ståhls) but these are omitted from the checklist.
Acronyms
The following acronyms for collectors and collections are used:
AB = Aat Barendregt (Voorthuizen, The Netherlands), private col-
lection.
AvE = André van Eck (Tilburg, The Netherlands), private collec-
tion.
ARG = Ana Rita Gonçalves (Coimbra, Portugal), collector.
NHM = British Museum of Natural History (London, UK), public
collection.
CP = Chris Palmer (Portsmouth, UK), private collection.
GP = Gerard Pennards (Amersfoort, The Netherlands), private
collection.
JA = Jorge Mota Almeida (Silgueiros, Portugal), collector.
MS = Martin Speight (Dublin, Ireland), private collection.
MW = Michiel Willemse (Ede, The Netherlands), private collection.
PL = Paulo Lemos (Caldas da Rainha, Portugal), collector.
RA = Rui Andrade (Barcelos, Portugal), collector.
VJ = Valter Jacinto (Faro, Portugal), collector.
WvS = Wouter van Steenis (Breukelen, The Netherlands), private
collection.
ZFMK = Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig
(Bonn, Germany), public collection.
Abbreviations used:
col = collection.
ex = specimens.
♀ = female.
leg = collected by.
♂ = male.
m asl = meters above sea level.
The checklist of the Syrphidae of mainland Portugal
This checklist is an update to the version published in Van
Eck (2011), including some nomenclatural changes (Appen-
dix 1).
Species accounts
A total of 28 species are added to the previous checklist in
Van Eck (2011). Records of these species are listed below in
the section 'New species to the Portuguese fauna'. The updat-
ed checklist is presented in Appendix 1. Four of these species
are new to the Iberian Peninsula, of which two are new to
Europe as well. The number of genera known from mainland
Portugal has increased by five.
New species to the Portuguese fauna
Brachyopa scutellaris
New genus and species to Portugal.
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1, Viseu, Silgueiros, Póvoa Dão,
29T589-4489, 10.VI.2013, JA leg & col.
NOTES: This specimen was sunbathing on an Urtica lea♀, a
second -not collected- specimen was resting on a Poaceae
leaf (pers comm JA). Second record from the Iberian Peninsu-
la. In Spain one recent record from the province of Lugo in
the region Galicia (Ricarte et al., 2014).
Brachypalpoides lentus
New genus and species to Portugal.
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1, Marco de Canaveses, along Rio
Tâmega, 29T569-4560, +160m, 18.V.2011, AvE leg & col.
Callicera fagesii
New species to Portugal.
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1, Beja, Ourique, Azinhaga dos
Mouros, 29S568-4167, +200m, 27.IX.2015, M. do Carmo
leg, AvE col.
NOTES: This bee mimic was collected in a private garden,
feeding on Hedera sp. (pers. comm M. do Carmo). It was
found together with a female of Callicera spinolae, treated
below.
Callicera spinolae
New species to Portugal.
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1♀, Beja, Ourique, Azinhaga dos
Mouros, 29S568-4167, +200m, 10.XI.2014, M. do Carmo
leg, AvE col.; 1♀, Beja, Ourique, Azinhaga dos Mouros,
29S568-4167, +200m, 27.IX.2015, M. do Carmo leg, AvE
col; 1♀, Arganil, 29T582-4451, 30.X.2016, photographed by
PL, identified by AvE.
NOTES: This bee mimic was collected twice in the same pri-
vate garden, feeding on Hedera sp. (pers. comm M. do Car-
mo). On the second occasion it was together with the male of
C. fagesii listed above. The photographed specimen was also
feeding on Hedera sp.
Cheilosia bracusi
New species to Portugal.
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1♀, Palmeira de Faro, Quinta da Seara,
29T521.5-4598.8, +60m, 28.IV.2013, AvE leg & col.
NOTES: This fly was collected on low vegetation under decid-
uous trees. The vegetation consisted of grasses and plants
such as Rumex sp., Veronica sp., Mentha sp., Ranunculus
bulbosus, Trifolium repens and Digitalis purpurea. Just like
Cheilosia hypena, in Portugal this species does not seem to be
restricted to higher altitudes.
191
Cheilosia chrysocoma
New species to Portugal.
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1, Serra do Caramulo, Caramulo,
29T567-4488, +990m, 9.V.2011, JA leg, AvE col.
NOTES: This specimen was identified using the keys in
Claussen (1998) and Ricarte et al. (2014).
Cheilosia impressa
New species to Portugal.
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 2, Serra da Estrela, Famalição, Car-
apita, +660m, 29T637-4476, 13.V.2011, AvE leg & col; 2
& 1♀, Serra da Estrela, Guarda, Chãos, 29T642-4489, +800
m, 14.V.2011, AvE leg & col; 1, Serra da Estrela, Guarda,
Trinta, 29T637-4485, +750m, 22.IX.2013, RA leg, AvE col.
Epistrophe nitidicollis
New species to Portugal.
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1, Cabeceiras de Basto, Soalheira,
near Rio de Ouro, +200m, 29T585-4595, 22.IV.2012, AvE
leg & col; 1♀, Viana do Castelo, Mosteiro, river floodplain
forests, +10m, 29T521-4615, 22.IV.2013, AvE leg & col.
Eumerus sabulonum
New species to Portugal.
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1, Guimarães, Citânia de Briteiros,
29T557-4597, 15.V.2006, MW leg & col; 2, Vila do Conde,
Mindelo, 29T522-4574, 13.V.2013, RA leg, AvE col; 1,
Viseu, Silgueiros, Póvoa Dão, 29T589-4489, 15.VI.2013, JA
leg, AvE col.
NOTES: These specimens have been confirmed by Jeroen van
Steenis (Amersfoort, Netherlands).
Ferdinandea aurea
New species to Portugal.
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1♀, Arganil, 29T582-4451, 14.XI.
2016, PL leg, AvE col.
NOTES: This specimen was photographed and collected on the
leaves of Quercus robur.
Ferdinandea ruficornis
New species to Portugal.
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 2♀, Arganil, 29T582-4451, May 2015,
PL leg, AvE col.
NOTES: These specimens were photographed and collected at
a sap run on Quercus robur.
Mallota fuciformis
New species to Portugal.
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 12 sp. maximum, 29S568-4284, Mon-
temor-o-Novo, Fazendas do Cortiço, 10-14.III.2015, on
Prunus domestica, R.R. da Silva leg, 1f ARG col.
NOTES: Several males and females were observed in mid
March 2015 near Montemor-o-Novo, in central Portugal,
flying around and on the flowers of European plum (Prunus
domestica). These trees were bordering a large plantation of
cork oaks (Quercus suber). On 10 March 2015 the first spec-
imen was photographed (Figure 11), on 14 March one speci-
men could be collected for identification purposes. About
twelve specimens were seen on that last occasion; at 10:30
a.m. eight flies around the bigger tree and four flies on the
smaller one. One of the flies had a persisting chasing behav-
iour toward another one (personal observation R.R. da Silva).
Meligramma cincta
New species to Portugal.
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1, Campo do Gerez (on label
'Campode Geres'), 29T566-4622, 19.V.2006, MW leg & col;
Fig. 11. Mallota fuciformis on European plum (photo: R.R. da Silva).
1, Marco de Canaveses, along Rio Tâmega, +160m,
29T569-4560, 18.V.2011, AvE leg & col.
Merodon antonioi
New species to Portugal.
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1, Algarve, Faro, 29S590-4098,
2.X.2016, on Dianthus broteri in a Pinus pinea f ore st, VJ l eg,
AvE col.
NOTES: This fly was identified using the keys in the revision
of Iberian Merodon by Marcos-García et al. (2007) and com-
pared to related species. The typical shape of the cercus is
clearly visible.
Merodon calcaratus
New species to Europe.
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 2, Algarve, Faro, Quinta do Lago, on
Drimia maritima, 29S588-4098, 14.X.2016, VJ leg, AvE col.
NOTES: Both males were collected in a calcarious area with
Pinus pinea on sandy soil (Figure 12). One typical plant and
possible host for their larvae, present and flowering at the
locality was Scilla autumnalis (pers. comm. VJ). M. cal-
caratus resembles M. pulveris Vujić & Radenković, 2011,
from which distinguishing characters are described and illus-
trated in Radenković et al. (2011). Their illustrations are from
the Fabricius type specimen (pers. comm. A. Vujić). The
species is not listed in Dirickx (1994). According to Raden-
ković et al. (2011) it is present in 'North Africa'. No other
publications seem to exist besides the original description by
Fabricius.
Figure 13 shows the habitus of one of the collected
males. Figure 14 gives a lateral view of its terminalia.
Merodon confusus
New species to Portugal.
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1, Figueira de Castelo Rodrigo,
29T671-4529, +640m, 19.IV.2006, AvE leg & col.
NOTES: Recorded from Portugal for the first time in a publica-
tion by Marcos-García et al. (2011), where they describe this
new species belonging to the Merodon equestris species
group. Their Portuguese specimen was found in the Algarve,
fitted the type material description of M. confusus, but was
not included in their molecular analysis. Re-examination of
192
Portuguese specimens of Merodon equestris in the collection
of the author revealed one additional M. confusus, date and
location listed above, formerly published as M. equestris in
Van Eck (2011).
Merodon elegans
New species to Portugal.
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1 & 3♀ , Sa nta rém, Amiai s de Cima,
Quinta do Arrife, +290m, 29S521-4368, 2-17.VII.2013, Al-
meida & Barros leg (Malaise trap), AvE col; 1 & 3♀, San ta-
rém, Amiais de Cima, Quinta do Arrife, +290m, 29S521-
4368, 17.VII.-08.VIII.2013, Almeida & Barros leg (Malaise
trap), AvE & ZFMK col.
NOTES: This species was collected during a Malaise trap
project at the southern borders of Serra de Candeeiros, a lime-
stone massif in western Central Portugal. The locality is cha-
racterised by a zone of mixed deciduous forest on humid soils
in the lower parts, with nearby higher, drier, rocky and more
open places. Most parts have been modified by humans but
without large scale agricultural or forestry practises. In the
field, this species looks quite similar to M. avidus. The termi-
nalia of this species are depicted by Marcos-García et al.
(2007).
Merodon eques
New species to Portugal.
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 4 & 1♀, Sintra, Lourel, Park Lourel,
+140m, 29S467-4295, 10.IX.2011, GP leg & col; 1, Sintra,
Lourel, Park Lourel, +140m, 29S467-4295, 10.IX.2011, GP
leg & col.
NOTES: Ebejer & Bensusan (2011) found this species in Gi-
braltar, foraging on the flowers of Drimia maritima (L.)
Stearn (= Urginea maritima (L.) Baker) (Asparagaceae). This
was the first record from Iberian Peninsula and it was antici-
pated by the authors that it would eventually be discovered
elsewhere in the Iberian Peninsula. Hurkmans and De Goffau
(1995) reared M. eques in The Netherlands, from a batch of
infested Narcissus tazetta and from a bulb of Rhodophiala
sp., all imported from Israel. Pehlivan & Akbulut (1991),
reared these flies in Turkey from Narcissus bulbs, apparently
in crops. However, their food plants in natural conditions may
be different (Andrić et al., 2014). Often, Merodon can be
found foraging on flowers of the plant species they can be
found in as larvae. A good example is M. luteihumerus (Ri-
carte et al., 2008). So maybe the larvae of M. eques can also
be found in the bulbs of D. maritima. However, a search for
the larvae of this species in 2015 at the locality where the
adults have been found, by collecting bulbs of D. maritima,
was to no avail (see also: Merodon luteihumerus).
Merodon legionensis
New species to Portugal.
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1 & 1♀, Serra da Estrela, Nave de
Santo António, +1600m, 29T621-4463, 6.IX.2009, JA leg,
AvE col; 1, Montalegre, Pitões das Junias, +1100m,
29T587-4632, 10.IX.2012, RA leg, AvE col; 1♀, Marvão,
Quinta da Abegoa, 25.VIII.2014, JA leg, AvE col.
Merodon natans
New species to Portugal.
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1♀, Algarve, Faro, 29S590-4099,
4.X.2016, resting on the sand, VJ leg, AvE col; 1♀, Algarve,
Sagres, 29S504-4098, 10.X.2016, VJ leg, AvE col; 1♀, Al-
garve, Sagres, 29S504-4098, 3.XI.2016, VJ leg, AvE col.
193
Microdon mutabilis / M. myrmicae
New species to Portugal.
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1, Serra da Estrela, Nave de Santo
António, +1600m, 29T621-4463, VII.2011, JA leg & col.
NOTES: O nly one adu lt mal e wa s co lle cted. I t is at pres ent not
reliably possible to morphologically distinguish between M.
mutabilis and M. myrmicae Schönrogge et al., 2002. The
adult of M. myrmicae is of somewhat smaller size than the
average M. mutabilis specimen, though small specimens of M.
mutabilis are similar in size to M. myrmicae (Speight, 2015).
Until larvae are found no definite conclusion can be made
about which of these two species is present in Portugal.
Orthonevra nobilis
New species and genus to Portugal and the Iberian Peninsula.
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1, Serra da Estrela, Carapita, Fama-
licão, +660m, 29T637-4476, 16.V.2011, AvE leg & col; 1♀,
Marco de Canaveses, along Rio Tâmega, +160m, 29T569-
4560, 18.V.2011, AvE leg & col.
Pelecocera caledonica
New species to Portugal.
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1, Valongo, Campo, 29T543-4558,
11.X.2010, RA leg, AvE col; 1♀, Barcelos, Gilmonde, 29T
529-4595, 26.X.2013, RA leg, AvE col.
NOTES: These specimens were identified with the latest key in
Speight & Sarthou (2015) and compared with specimens from
Norway, Andorra and Russia.
Pipizella zeneggenensis
New species to Portugal.
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 3, Serra da Estrela, Nave de Santo
António, +1600m, 29T621-4463, 13.V.2011, AvE leg & col.
NOTES: These flies were collected in a former glacier valley,
with little streams and grazed by sheep. The vegetation rich in
grasses and herbacious perennial plant species stays relatively
short.
Platycheirus brunnifrons
New species to Portugal.
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1, Figueira de Castelo Rodrigo, East
of town, +640m, 29T671-4529, 16.V.2011, AvE leg & col.
NOTES: This species was identified using the keys in Bartsch
et al. (2009) and the key to the European species of the
Platycheirus ambiguus-group by Nielsen (2004).
Platycheirus marokkanus
New species to Europe.
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1 & 1♀ (as P. albimanus in Van Eck,
2011), Montalegre, Frades, Rio Cávado, +940m, 29T594-
4630, 23.IV.2006, AvE leg & col; 1 (as P. albimanus in
Van Eck, 2011), Serra da Estrela, Nave de Santo António,
+1600m, 29T621-4463, 19.VII.2010, AvE leg & col; 1,
Guarda, in town, +900m, 29T646-4489, 14.V.2011, AvE leg
& col; 1, Resende, Caldas de Aregos, +100m, 29T582-
4549, 23.III.2014, on Saxifraga, AvE leg & col.
NOTES: Platycheirus marokkanus belongs to the Platycheirus
albimanus sub-group and closely resembles P. albimanus. In
all existing Platycheirus keys this species would run to P.
albimanus. Yet, a number of characters described by Kasse-
beer (1998) are useful for the separation of P. marokkanus
from P. albimanus and other related species. These characters
are present in the specimens collected in Portugal:
Males: frons above and laterally to the antennae some-
what swollen and angle of the eyes clearly blunt (less so in
albimanus), front tibiae with a more slender distal widening
and laterally straight and pointed (not incurved like albi-
manus), tarsomeres of leg I more slender, black spot at ventral
side of the second tarsomere of leg I, differences in the termi-
nalia as described by Kassebeer (1998).
Females are difficult to separate from the related P. al-
bimanus. They have a broader face, darker antennae (entirely
or almost entirely black basoflagellomere), usually darker
legs, and shorter pilosity medially on the abdominal tergites
III-IV.
Additionally, in the Portuguese males the postero-lateral
long black pile near the bases of femur I seems less dense, not
so strongly curved at their tips and less flattened in P. marok-
kanus, when compared to most specimens of P. albimanus.
But this is based on four male specimens of P. marokkanus
and, as in P. albimanus, variability may occur.
The specimens used by Kassebeer were all collected in
the Atlas Mountains of Morocco, at altitudes ranging from
1000 to 3500 m. In Portugal, one specimen was found at an
altitude of 100 m, so they seem not to be restricted to higher
altitudes. In Portugal they were found on flight together with
P. albimanus.
Sphaerophoria infuscata
New species to Portugal and Iberian Peninsula.
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1, Vila Real, Lamas de Olo, Fisgas,
29T601-4578, +1100m, 17.V.2006, MW leg & col.
NOTES: The fly was caught on a stoney hill near an artificial
lake in the north of Portugal.
Sphegina elegans
New species to Portugal.
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1 & 1♀ ex larva, P.N. Peneda-Gerês,
Portela do Homem, near N308-1, +680m, 29T571-4627,
23.IV.2013, AvE leg & col.
NOTES: In a small meadow with little streams, surrounded by
big oak trees and deciduous forest, three Sphegina-larvae
were found on a branch in one of the little streams. Rearing
the larvae, the male emerged on 17.V.2013, the female after
29.V (found dead 18.VI.2013). One larva died and has been
preserved in 96% ethanol.
New data and remarks
Anasimyia contracta
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1, Vilar Formoso, near the river
Ribeira de Tourões, +760m, 29T683-4498, 15.V.2011, AvE
leg & col.
NOTES: This species has not yet been reported from Spain.
Ceriana conopsoides
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 2, Figueira de Castelo Rodrigo, east
of town, +640m, 29T671-4529, 16.V.2011, fouraging on
Thapsia villosa, AvE leg & col; 1 ex., Viseu, Silgueiros,
Póvoa Dão, 29T589-4489, 25.VIII.2012, on Foeniculum
vulgare, JA leg & col.
Chalcosyrphus nemorum
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1♀, Estarreja, Canelas, 29T537-4507,
12.VIII.2010, RA leg, AvE col; 1♀, Estarreja, Canelas,
29T537-4507, 6.IV.2013, AvE leg & col.
Cheilosia albitarsis
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1 & 1♀, Serra da Estrela, Famalicão,
Carapita, +660m, 29T637-4476, 13.V.2011, AvE leg & col;
1, Figueira de Castelo Rodrigo, east of town, +640m, 29T
194
Fig. 15. Phenology of Ch. hypena in Portugal.
671-4529, 16.V.2011, AvE leg & col; 1, Estarreja, Salreu,
wetlands, 29T536.5-4509.2, 17.IV.2012, AvE leg & col; 11♂
& 7♀, Aveiro, Loure, Solimas, forests NW and W of the
village, near Rio Vouga, 29T537-4499, 18.IV.2012, AvE leg
& col; 2♂ & 1♀, Cabeceiras de Basto, Soalheira, near Rio de
Ouro, +200m, 29T585.7-4595.0, 22.IV.2012, AvE leg; 1♂ &
1♀, Cabeceiras de Basto, Soalheira, Pena Torta, +200m,
29T586.2-4595.2, 24.IV.2012, AvE leg; 1♂, Vila Nova de
Gaia, Seixezelo, moist meadows near little stream, +175m,
29T538.2-4542.6, 26.IV.2012, AvE leg & col; 2♂, Mindelo,
Reserva ornitológico, dunes, 29T522-4574, 27.IV.2012, AvE
leg & col; 1♂, Valongo, Campo, 29T543-4558, 31.V.2012,
RA leg, AvE col; 1♂ & 1♀, Estarreja, Canelas, 29T536-4507,
6.IV.2013, RA leg, AvE col; 1♂ & 1♀, Mindelo, Reserva
ornitológico, 29T522-4574, 21.IV.2013, AvE leg & col; 2♂
& 1♀, Viana do Castelo, Mosteiro, river floodplain forest,
+10m, 29T521.0-4615.5, 22.IV.2013, AvE leg & col; 1♂ &
2♀, Palmeira de Faro, Quinta da Seara, +60m, 29T521.5-
4598.8, 28.IV.2013, AvE leg & col.
NOTES: This is a widespread species in Portugal, at least in
the northern half of the country.
Cheilosia fraterna
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 2♂, Serra da Estrela, Nave de Santo
António, +1600m, UTM 29T621-4463, 10.V.2011, JA leg,
AvE col.; 1♀, Serra da Estrela, Penhas Douradas, +1420m,
UTM 29T619-4474, 13.V.2011, AvE leg & col; 4♂ & 3♀,
Serra da Estrela, Cabeça do Velho, +1200m, UTM 29T618-
4477, 13.V.2011, AvE leg & col.
NOTES: In Portugal this species may be restricted to some
higher altitudes, roughly from 800m and higher. A male from
Medas (Van Eck, 2011) at 40m was previously published
under this species but actually has now been identified as 'aff.
fraterna' by C. Claussen (Flensburg) and requires further
study.
Cheilosia frontalis
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1♀, Serra da Estrela, Penhas Doura-
das, +1420m, UTM 29T619.8-4474.7, 13.V.2011, AvE leg &
col; 1♂, Resende, Caldas de Aregos, +100m, 29T582.2-
4549.9, 23.III.2014, on Saxifraga, AvE leg & col; 1♂, Serra
de Montemuro, Cotelo, +970m, 29T590.7-4541.4, on female
Salix catkin, AvE leg & col.
Cheilosia hypena
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 2♀, Guimarães, 29T556-4584, 5.V.
2006, MW leg & col; 1♀, Estarreja, Canelas, 29T537-4507,
25.II.2011, RA leg, WvS col; 1♂, Estarreja, Salreu, 29T537-
4509, 10.V.2011, RA leg, AvE col; 3♂, Marco de Canaveses,
along Rio Tâmega, +160m, 29T569-4560, 18.V.2011, AvE
leg & col; 1♂ & 1♀, Estarreja, Canelas, in the wetlands west
of the railway, 29T536-4507, 17.IV.2012, AvE leg & col; 1♀,
Douro Litoral, Vilarinho, Freguesia de Macieira da Maia,
29T527-4576, +20m, 14.VIII.2011, CP leg & col; 1♂, Vila
Nova de Gaia, Avintes, 29T537-4550, 22.IV.2012, RA leg,
AvE col; 1♂ & 1♀, Aveiro, Argoncilhe, semi-ruderal, partly
moist meadows, bordered by Apiaceae, 29T538-4541,
16.IV.2012, AvE leg & col; 2♂ & 1♀, Vila Nova de Gaia,
Seixezelo, moist meadows near little stream, +175m, 29T538-
4542, 26.IV.2012, AvE leg & col; 1♀, Estarreja, Canelas,
29T536-4507, 6.IV.2013, RA leg, AvE col; 1♂ & 1♀, Min-
delo, Gândara Nova, meadow with little stream and bushes,
+25m, 29T523-4574, 21.IV.2013, AvE leg & col; 1♀, Min-
delo, Reserva ornitológico, +10m, 29T522-4574, 21.IV.2013,
AvE leg & col; 1♂ & 2♀, Viana do Castelo, Mosteiro, river
floodplain forest, +10m, 29T521-4615, 22.IV.2013, AvE leg &
col.
NOTES: Portuguese records of Ch. hypena are from altitudes as
high as 960m, but most records are from near sea level (Figure
20). All records so far are from the northwest of the country.
Van Eck (2011) found these flies fouraging on Saxifraga
granulata flowers at a road side. This flower is very common
in the northern half of Portugal and is most abundant at alti-
tudes up to about 530 m (www.flora-on.pt, accessed at 21 Nov.
2016). This may be an indication of where its unknown larvae
are to be found. Records from Portugal suggest that Ch.
hypena is bivoltine (Figure 15). The population level in au-
tumn seems to be quite low and probably will not show a peak
like in spring in the month of April (see also: Van Eck, 2011).
Verlinden (1999) describes the male for the first time,
and redescribes the female. The female is described based on
34 specimens collected in Switzerland, France and Italy. They
were collected at altitudes between 1000 and 2150 m, be-
tween the dates 18.V and 29.VII.
Portuguese females from autumn seem to differ slightly
from those found in spring time, by the pilosity on the scutum
(Table I). No male specimens have been collected from au-
tumn. Portuguese males from spring have been compared
with a male specimen from France collected in autumn (Val-
lée D'Eyne, 04.IX.2003), but showed no apparent differences.
Cheilosia iberica
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 3♂, Serra da Estrela, Gouveia, on white
Apiaceae, +680m, 29T620-4483, 12.V.2011, AvE leg & col;
1♀, Serra da Estrela, Cabeça do Velho, +1200m, 29T615-
4477, 13.V.2011, AvE leg & col; 2♀, Serra da Estrela, Fama-
licão, Carapita, +660m, 29T637-4476, 13.V.2011, AvE leg &
col; 1♂ & 1♀, Serra da Estrela, Guarda, Vila Soeiro, wet
meadows along Rio Mondego, on Rosa canina, 29T640-4488,
+520m, 14.V.2011, AvE leg; 1♂ & 1♀, Guarda, West of
town, +900m, 29T644-4488, 14.V.2011, AvE leg, GP col; 2♂
& 1♀, Guarda, West of town, +900m, 29T644-4488,
14.V.2011, AvE leg; 1♂, Viseu, Silgueiros, Póvoa Dão,
+190m, 29T589-4489, IV.2012 JA leg, WvS col; 1♀, Serra da
Estrela, Gouveia, roadside N232, +860m, 29T619-4480,
25.IV.2013, AvE leg & col; 1♀, Serra da Estrela, Gouveia,
+700m, 29T620-4482, 25.IV.2013, AvE leg & col; 1f & 4sp.,
Serra da Estrela, Guarda, Cube, on Spiraea sp. and white
Apiaceae, 29T644-4489, +850m, 14.V.2011, AvE leg; 1♂,
Viseu, Silgueiros, Póvoa Dão, 29T589-4489, IV.2012, JA leg,
WvS col.
195
Fig. 16. Records of Ch. iberica in Portugal (1961-2016). Fig. 17. Phenology of Ch. iberica in Portugal. Fig. 18. Records of Ch. paralobi in
Portugal (1961-2016). Fig. 19. Phenology of Ch. paralobi in Portugal.
Table I. Comparison of different specimens of Ch. hypena. Pt = Portuguese.
Verlinden 1999 Pt spring (N=11: 6-26.IV) Pt spring (N=1: 17.IV) Pt autumn (N=2: 10.VII, 21.X)
Thorax: mesonotum with
short and dense erect
whitish pile, with a
variable number of
longer black hairs
Pilosity on scutum and scutellum is
whitish to golden, approx. as long as the
distance between the hind ocelli, semi-
erect to erect, with a few to many longer
black hairs intermixed, in front as well as
posterior to the suture
Pilosity on scutum and scutellum is
whitish to golden, short (about two
times longer than diameter of an
ocellus), semi-erect, with only very
few longer yellowish hairs posterior
to the suture
Pilosity on scutum and scutellum is
whitish to golden, short (about two
times longer than diameter of an
ocellus), semi-erect, with no (1), or
only very few longer black hairs
posterior to the suture
scutellar bristles well-
developed (strong)
more than half the length of scutellum half the length of scutellum about half the length of scutellum
NOTES: Portuguese records of C. iberica are from altitudes
ranging from 190 to 1200m. All records so far are from the
mountain ranges Serra de Gerês and Serra da Estrela (Figure
16). The developmental stages for this species are unknown
(Speight, 2015). There is no doubt that Ch. iberica is uni-
voltine (Figure 17).
Cheilosia pagana
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1♂ & 1♀, Cabeceiras de Basto, Soal-
heira, Pena Torta, +200m, 29T586-4595, 24.IV.2012, AvE
leg & col; 1♂, Cabeceiras de Basto, Tarrado, Tomé, near Rio
de Ouro, +200m, 29T586-4594, 24.IV.2012, AvE leg & col;
1♂ & 1♀, Viana do Castelo, Mosteiro, river floodplain forest,
+10m, 29T521-4615, 22.IV.2013, AvE leg & col.
Cheilosia paralobi
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1♂, Coimbra, Penela (as Peneda),
29T554-4434, along roadside in a forest, regenerating after
forest fires, 7.V.2006, MW leg & col; 2♂ & 1♀, Serra da
Estrela, Guarda, Vila Soeiro, swampy meadow along Rio
Mondego, +520m, 29T640-4488, 14.V.2011, AvE leg & col;
2♀, Figueira de Castelo Rodrigo, East of town, +640m,
29T671-4529, 16.V.2011, AvE leg & col; 1♂ & 1♀, Marco
de Canaveses, along Rio Tâmega, +160m, 29T569-4560,
18.V.2011, AvE leg & col.
NOTES: The distribution of C. paralobi in Portugal (Figure
18) fits the records from adjacent Spanish regions (Dirickx,
1994). The species can probably be found throughout the
country. C. paralobi flies in two generations (Figure 19), with
the strongest generation in April and May.
Cheilosia proxima
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 2♀, Cabeceiras de Basto, Soalheira,
near Rio de Ouro, +250m, 29T585-4595, 21.IV.2012, AvE
leg & col; 1♂ & 3♀, Cabeceiras de Basto, Tarrado, Tomé,
near Rio de Ouro, +200m, 29T586-4594, 24.IV.2012, AvE
leg & col; 1♀, Porto, Valongo, Campo, 29T543-4558,
31.V.2012, RA leg, AvE col; 1♀, Porto, Valongo, Campo,
29T543-4558, 13.VI.2012, RA leg, AvE col; 1♂, Serra da
Peneda, Arcos de Valdevez, Cabana Maior, +470m, 29T554-
4635, 23.IV.2013, AvE leg & col; 1♀, Serra da Peneda, Lin-
doso, Ponte da Barca, roadside N304-1, +400, 29T567-4635,
23.IV.2013, AvE leg & col.
NOTES: Observed foraging on Euphorbia flowers on
24.IV.2012. All specimens have been examined using the
196
keys in Vujić et al. (2013a). Also, the specimens listed in Van
Eck (2011) have been re-examined.
Cheilosia scutellata
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 2♂, Famalição, Carapita, +660m,
29T637-4476, 13.V.2011, AvE leg & col; 1♀, Vila Nova de
Gaia, Avintes, 29T537-4550, 23.V.2011, RA leg, AvE col;
1♀, Vila Nova de Gaia, Avintes, 29T537-4550, 1.VII.2011,
RA leg, AvE col; 1♀, Douro Litoral, Vilarinho, 29T527-
4576, +20m, 26.VIII.2011, CP leg & col; 1♀, Vila Nova de
Gaia, Seixezelo, +175m, 29T538-4542, 26.IV.2012, AvE leg
& col; 1♀, Caldas da Rainha, Salir do Porto, 29S486-4369,
16.IX.2012, RA leg, AvE col; 1♂, Viana do Castelo,
Mosteiro, river floodplain forest +10m, 29T521-4615, 22.
IV.2013, AvE leg & col.
Cheilosia urbana
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1♀, Serra da Estrela, Nave de Santo
António, +1600m, 29T621.0-4463.9, 13.V.2011, AvE leg &
col; 3♀, Serra da Estrela, Penhas Douradas, +1420m, 29T
619.8-4474.7, 13.V.2011, AvE leg & col; 1♂ & 1♀, Serra da
Estrela, Penhas Douradas, +1400m, 29T619.8-4474.7, 25.IV.
2013, AvE leg & col; 1♀, Serra da Estrela, Nave de Santo
António, +1600m, 29T621-4463, 25.IV.2013, AvE leg & col.
NOTES: The male specimen collected in 25.IV.2013 has
many long black hairs on both the mesonotum and scutel-
lum. Also the tubercle and mouth edge are much more
prominent than average. The antennae are black, with a
round third segment. Genitalia, however, look identical to
C. urbana. The female from the same date also has black
antennae with a round third segment but with longer hairs
than is usual on the arista.
Cheilosia variabilis
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1♂, Vila Nova de Gaia, Avintes,
29T537-4550, 5.IV.2011, RA leg, AvE col; 1♂, Vila Nova de
Gaia, Oliveira do Douro, 29T534-4552, 14.IV.2011, RA leg,
AvE col; 1♂ & 1♀, Vila Nova de Gaia, Seixezelo, humid
meadows near little stream, 29T538-4542, +175m, 26.IV.
2012, AvE leg & col.
Cheilosia vernalis
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1♀, Barcelos, Gilmonde, 29T529-
4595, 10.X.2012, RA leg, AvE col; 1♂, Gândara Nova, Min-
delo, humid meadow with brooklet and bushes alongside,
29T523.2-4574.1, +25m, 21.IV.2013, AvE leg & col; 1♂, P.
N. Peneda-Gerês, Portela do Homem, near N308-1, little
meadow, with little streams, surrounded by big oak trees and
deciduous forests, 29T571.7-4627.0, +680m, 24.IV.2013,
AvE leg & col.
Chrysogaster basalis
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 2♂, Serra da Estrela, Gouveia, +680m,
29T620-4483, 12.V.2011, AvE leg & col; 1♂, Serra da Es-
trela, Guarda, Vila Soeiro, wet meadows along Rio Mondego,
29T640-4488, +520m, 14.V.2011, AvE leg; 1♀, Valongo,
Campo, 29T543-4558, 31.V.2012, RA leg, AvE col; 1♀,
Valongo, Campo, 29T543-4558, 13.VI.2012, RA leg, AvE col.
Chrysogaster solstitialis
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 2♂ & 1♀, Marco de Canaveses, along
Rio Tâmega, 29T569-4560, +160m, 18.V.2011, AvE leg &
col; 1♂, Benfeita, 29T589-4455 , +240m, 3.VII.2011, photo
by José Costa (http://portugal2.observado.org); 1♀, Lousã,
Cerdeira, 29T568-4430, +700m, 20.VII.2011, RA leg, AvE
col.
Chrysotoxum octomaculatum
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1♂, Campo do Gerez (on label
'Campode Geres'), 29T566-4622, 29.V.2006, MW leg & col;
1♂, Serra da Estrela, Gouveia, 29T620-4483, +680m, 12.V.
2011, AvE leg & col; 1♀, Guarda, West of town, +900m,
29T644-4488, 14.V.2011, AvE leg & col; 2♂, Serra da Es-
trela, Guarda, Aldeia Viçosa, Quinta Santo António, on Thap-
sia villosa, 29T642-4491, +500m, 14.V.2011, AvE leg & col;
2♂ & 3♀, Figueira de Castelo Rodrigo, on Thapsia villosa,
29T671-4529, +640m, 16.V.2011, AvE leg & col; 1♀, Serra
da Estrela, Guarda, Chãos, 29T642-4489, +800m, 14.V.2011,
AvE leg & col.
Criorhina berberina
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1♀, Cabeceiras de Basto, Tarrado,
Tomé, near Rio de Ouro, on Crataegus flowers, 29T586.2-
4594.4, +200m, 24.IV.2012, AvE leg & col; 1♀, Vila Nova
de Gaia, Seixezelo, moist meadows near little stream, on
flowers of Apiaceae, 29T538.2-4542.6, +175m, 26.IV.2012,
AvE leg & col.
NOTES: The colour variety of the specimens caught in Portu-
gal differ from known varieties in Europe north of the Pyre-
nees. It very much resembles the female of the bumblebee
Bombus muscorum (L.) (Hymenoptera, Apidae).
Epistrophe eligans
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1♀, Algarve, Portimão, Carvoeiro,
29S544-4106, 01.IV.1994, CP leg & col; 1♀, Algarve, Porti-
mão, Rasmalho, 29S540-4120, 04.IV.1994, CP leg & col; 1♂,
Campo do Gerez (on label 'Campode Geres'), 29T566-4622,
29.V.2006, MW leg & col; 1♀, Guarda, city, 29T646-4489,
+900m, 14.V.2011, AvE leg & col; 1, Serra da Estrela,
Guarda, Vila Soeiro, wet meadows along Rio Mondego,
29T640-4488, +520m, 14.V.2011, AvE leg & col; 3♀, Serra
da Estrela, Guarda, Aldeia Viçosa, Quinta Santo António, on
Thapsia villosa, 29T642-4491, +500m, 14.V.2011, AvE leg;
1♂, Aveiro, São Jacinto, 29T532-4502, +5m, 19.IV.2012,
AvE leg; 1♂ & 1♀, Cabeceiras de Basto, Soalheira, near Rio
de Ouro, 29T585-4595, +250m, 21.IV.2012, AvE leg; 1♀,
Santarém, Amiais de Cima, Quinta do Arrife, +290m,
29S521-4368, 5-16.IV.2013, Almeida & Barros leg (Malaise
trap); 1♀, Mindelo, Reserva ornitológico, 29T522-4574,
+10m, 21.IV.2013, AvE leg; 4♂ & 3♀, Santarém, Rio Maior,
Chãos, +240m, 29S507-4364, 26.IV.-15.V.2013, Almeida &
Barros leg (Malaise trap); 1♀, Viana do Castelo, Mosteiro,
river floodplain forests, 29T521-4615, +10m, 22.IV.2013,
AvE leg; 1♀, Serra da Peneda, Arcos de Valdevez, Cabana
Maior, 29T554-4635, +470m, 23.IV.2013, AvE leg; 1♀,
Serra da Peneda, Lindoso, Ponte da Barca, roadside N304-1,
29T567-4635, +400m, 23.IV.2013, AvE leg; 1♂, Serra da
Estrela, Gouveia, southeast of town, 29T620-4482, +700m,
25.IV.2013, AvE leg; 1♀, Palmeira de Faro, Quinta da Seara,
29T521-4598, +60m, 28.IV.2013, AvE leg; 5♂ & 7♀,
Abrantes, Rio de Moinhes, 29S565-4369, +50m, 22.III.2014,
1 ex. on Prunus spinosa, others on yellow Apiaceae, AvE &
MO leg & col; 1♂ & 1♀, Santiago do Cacém, Monte Hori-
zonte, 29S527-4202, +210m, 30.IV.2016, WvS leg & col;
1♂, Santiago do Cacém, Monte Horizonte, 29S527-4202,
+210m, 1.V.2016, WvS leg & col.
NOTES: A common species which can be found practically
anywhere. All new records concern the colour variety 'trifas-
ciatus'.
197
Eristalinus megacephalus
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 2♂ & 3♀, Estarreja, Salreu, 29T537-
4509, 26.VI.2010, RA leg, AvE col; 1♀, Douro Litoral, Vi-
larinho, 29T527-4576, +20m, 21.VIII.2011, CP leg & col;
20♂ & 21♀, Algarve, Tavira, 29S622-4109, 17/18.IX.2011,
GP leg & col.
Eumerus argyropus
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1♂ & 1♀, Santarém, Amiais de Cima,
Quinta do Arrife, +290m, 29S521-4368, 13.VI-2.VII.2013,
Almeida & Barros leg (Malaise trap), AvE col.
Eumerus consimilis
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1♂, Estarreja, Canelas, 29T537-4507,
12.VIII.2010, RA leg, AvE col; 1♂, Estarreja, Canelas,
29T537-4507, 14.IX.2011, RA leg, AvE col; 2♂, Estarreja,
Salreu, in the wetlands West of the village, 29T536.5-4509.2,
17.IV.2012, AvE leg & col.
Eumerus etnensis
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1♀, Algarve, Manta Rota, dunes at
beach, 29S631-4114, 19.IX.2011, GP leg & col.
Eumerus pusillus
NOTES: E. pusillus may be an example of a Eumerus species
whose larvae utilise the excavated tunnels created by the
larvae of Merodon. Ricarte et al. (2008) reared E. pusillus and
M. luteihumerus from Drimia maritima bulbs and they men-
tion that Eumerus larvae were 'sometimes' found in the tun-
nels made by Merodon larvae. However, they do not mention
exactly which Eumerus species is involved but it seems logi-
cal that they mean E. pusillus.
Some E. pusillus have also been reared from D. mariti-
ma bulbs collected in Portugal.
One male specimen was reared from bulbs of D. mari-
tima collected 14.II.2012 in Serra de Montejunto, near Pra-
gança (UTM: 29S495-4338, +360m). Date of emergence is
unknown, but before 10.VI.2012. Merodon luteihumerus was
also reared from the same locality but not from that same D.
maritima bulb.
Three males and one female E. pusillus were reared
from one large D. maritima bulb, collected 23 January 2015
in Park Lourel near Sintra (UTM: 29S467-4296). From the
same bulb also three Merodon luteihumerus were reared. E.
pusillus emerged a lot earlier, 29.IV-12.V as opposed to 2-
5.VIII.2015 for M. luteihumerus. Two other bulbs from the
same location contained no Merodon larvae and no Eumerus
were reared from these bulbs.
Eumerus sogdianus
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1♂, Estarreja, Salreu, in the wetlands
West of the village, 29T536-4509, 17.IV.2012, AvE leg &
col; 1♂, Esposende, Rio Tinto, Praia fluvial do Marachão,
29T523-4594, 16.VI.2013, RA leg, AvE col; 3♂, Torres
Vedras, A dos Cunhados, 29S476-4332, 22.VIII.2013, RA
leg, yellow pan trap, AvE col.
Eumerus subornatus
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1♂, Santarém, Amiais de Cima, Quin-
ta do Arrife, +290m, 29S521-4368, 13.VI-2.VII.2013, Al-
meida & Barros leg (Malaise trap), AvE col; 1♂ & 1♀, Santa-
rém, Amiais de Cima, Quinta do Arrife, +290m, 29S521-
4368, 2-17.VII.2013, Almeida & Barros leg (Malaise trap),
AvE col; 1♂, Santarém, Amiais de Cima, Quinta do Arrife,
+290m, 29S521-4368, 17.VII-8.VIII.2013, Almeida & Barros
leg (Malaise trap), ZFMK col.
Fig. 20. Mallota dusmeti fouraging on Foeniculum vulgare
(photo: A. van Eck).
NOTES: These new records are all from the limestone massif
of Serra de Candeeiros.
Eupeodes bucculatus
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1♀, Figueira de Castelo Rodrigo, east
of town, 29T671-4529, +640m, 16.V.2011, AvE leg & col.
Eupeodes luniger
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1♂ & 2♀, Serra da Estrela, Gouveia,
29T619-4483, +680m, 12.V.2011, AvE leg & col; 1♂ & 3♀,
Serra da Estrela, Guarda, 29T646-4489, +900m, 14.V.2011,
AvE leg & col; 1♂, Figueira de Castelo Rodrigo, 29T671-
4529, +640m, 16.V.2011, AvE leg & col; 1♀, Santiago do
Cacém, Monte Horizonte, 29S527-4202, +210m, 30.IV.2016,
WvS leg & col.
Eupeodes nuba
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1♀, Algarve, Tavira, 29S622-4109,
18.IX.2011, GP leg & col; 1♀, Castro Marim, Foz de
Odeleite, near river, 29S637-4135, 20.IX.2011, GP leg & col.
Ferdinandea cuprea
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1♀, Vila do Conde, Malta, 29T528-
4572, 14.VI.2013, RA leg, AvE col; 4♂ & 2♀, Arganil,
29T582-4451, collected as larvae 26.I.2015, PL leg, AvE col.
NOTES: The larvae collected in Arganil were found in a sap
run behind the bark of a common oak (Quercus robur).
Heringia heringi
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1♂, Vilar Formoso, along Ribeira de
Tourões, 29T683-4498, +760m, 15.V.2011, AvE leg & col;
1♀, Vila Nova de Gaia, Oliveira do Douro, 29T534-4552,
23.VI.2011, RA leg, AvE col; 1♂, Maia, Folgosa, 29T538-
4567, 19.VIII.2012, RA leg, AvE col; 1♂, Torres Vedras, A
dos Cunhados, 29S476-4332, yellow pan trap, RA leg, AvE
col.
Lejogaster tarsata
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1♀, Estarreja, Salreu, in the wetlands,
29T536-4509, 17.IV.2012, AvE leg & col; 1♀, Vila Nova de
Famalicão, Mouquim, 29T539-4587, 23.VII.2013, RA leg,
AvE col.
Mallota dusmeti
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 2♂, Vilar Formoso, near the river
Ribeira de Tourões, on Foeniculum vulgare (Figure 20),
198
29T683-4498, +760m, 15.V.2011, AvE leg & AvE & GP col;
1♂, Abrantes, Rio de Moinhes, 29S565.4-4369.6, +50m,
22.III.2014, on Prunus spinosa, AvE leg & col.
Melanogaster hirtella
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1♀, Estarreja, Salreu, 29T537-4509,
10.V.2011, RA leg, AvE col; 1♂, Serra da Estrela, Gouveia,
29T620-4483, 680m, 12.V.2011, AvE leg & col; 1♀, Valon-
go, Campo, 29T543-4558, 9.IV.2012, RA leg, AvE col; 1♂,
Estarreja, Canelas, wetlands, 29T536-4507, 17.IV.2012, AvE
leg & col; 1♂, Estarreja, Salreu, wetlands, 29T535-4508,
17.IV.2012, AvE leg & col; 9♂ & 1♀, Estarreja, Salreu,
wetlands, 29T536-4509, 17.IV.2012, AvE leg & col; 1♂, Vila
Nova de Gaia, Seixezelo, humid meadows near little stream,
29T538-4542, +175m, 26.IV.2012, AvE leg & col; 1♀, Lagoa
de Santo André, 29S517-4216, 4.V.2016, WvS leg & col.
Meligramma euchroma
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1♂ & 1♀, Serra da Estrela, Penhas
Douradas, 29T619-4474, +1420m, 13.V.2011, AvE leg & col.
Merodon chalybeus
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1♀, Faro, 12.III.2008, photo by V.
Jacinto, ID by Ángeles Marcos-García & Antonio Ricarte
(http://www.biodiversidadvirtual.org/insectarium/Merodon-
chalybeus-Wiedemann-in-Meigen-1822-img31532.search.
html); 2♂ & 7♀, Figueira de Castelo Rodrigo, 29T671-4529,
+640m, 16.V.2011, AvE leg & col; 1♂, Santarém, Amiais de
Cima, Quinta do Arrife, +290m, 29S521-4368, 13.VI-
2.VII.2013, Almeida & Barros leg (Malaise trap), AvE col;
1♂, Algarve, Loulé, 29S586-4099, 4.X.2016, resting on the
sand, VJ leg, AvE col; 2♂, Algarve, Faro, 29S590-4098,
13.X.2016, VJ leg, AvE col.
Merodon crypticus
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1♂ & 2♀, Serra da Estrela, Nave de
Santo António, 29T621-4463, +1600m, 28.VII.2009, JA leg,
GP & AvE col.
NOTES: These flies were collected in a former glacier valley,
with little streams and grazed by sheep. The vegetation rich in
grasses and herbacious perennial plant species stays relatively
short.
Merodon equestris
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 2♂ (var. flavicans), Serra do Caram-
ulo, Caramulo, 29T567-4488, 9.V.2011, +990m, JA leg,
AvE col; 3♂ (var. flavicans), Serra da Estrela, Gouveia, on
blue composites in ruderal area, 29T619-4483, +680m,
12.V.2011, AvE leg & col; 3♂ (one M. equestris equestris
and two var. flavicans), Mindelo, dune area, near rosettes of
Pancratium maritimum, 29T522-4574, 27.IV.2012, AvE leg
& col.
NOTES: On 27.I.2015 bulbs of Pancratium maritimum (Am-
aryllidaceae) were collected in the dunes near Mindelo
(29T522-4574). The reason for searching for bulbs here was
that on 19 April 2006 (Van Eck, 2011) one female M.
equestris was collected here. On 27.IV.2012 three males
were seen, flying in the dune area near many rosettes of sea
daffodil (P. maritimum). In order to find larvae ten bulbs
were collected within an area of 100m2 and taken home for
rearing. In the field, the bulbs were covered by at least ten
to fifteen centimeters of dune sand. Externally there was no
sign of the presense of larvae inside the bulbs. Three fe-
males of Merodon emerged, one in each of the smallest
bulbs only. The puparia were found near or in the decayed
stem of the plant (Figure 21). Each of the flies was of a
different colour variety: flavicans (yellowish hairs all over
the body) emerged 25.III.15, transversalis (like flavicans,
but with narrow band of black hairs on parts of T3) emerged
27/28.III and transversalis (like the previous, but with T3
and T4 covered all over with mostly black hairs) on 31.III.
So it seems the later the flies emerged, the darker the hairs
on the abdominal tergites 3 and 4 became, but this could be
purely coincidential.
Merodon escorialensis
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1♂, Serra da Estrela, Nave de Santo
António, 29T621-4463, +1600m, 28.VII.2009, JA leg, GP
col; 1♀, Santarém, Amiais de Cima, Quinta do Arrife,
+290m, 29S521.239-4368.139, 5-16.IV.2013, Almeida &
Barros leg (Malaise trap), AvE col; 1♀, Viseu, Silgueiros,
Póvoa Dão, 29T589-4489, 16.V.2015, JA leg, NHM col.
Merodon funestus
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1♂ & 1♀, Estarreja, Salreu, wetlands,
29T535-4508, 17.IV.2012, AvE leg & col; 2♂ & 1♀, Valon-
go, Campo, 29T545-4559, 17.V.2010, RA leg, AvE col.
Merodon geniculatus
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1♂, Serra da Estrela, Nave de Santo
António, 29T621-4463, +1600m, 10.V.2011, JA leg, AvE
col; 4♂ & 1♀, Serra da Estrela, Nave de Santo António,
29T621-4463, +1600m, 13.V.2011, AvE leg & col; 2♂ & 1♀,
Sintra, Lourel, Park Lourel, 29S467-4295, +140m, 10 &
12.IX.2011, GP leg & col.
NOTES: The flies from the Serra da Estrela were collected in a
former glacier valley, with little streams and grazed by sheep.
The vegetation rich in grasses and herbacious perennial plant
species stays relatively short. On 13.V.2011 males were ob-
served flying around near patches of ground with Narcissus
bulbocodium (Figure 22). One female was seen ovipositing at
the base of one of these plants.
Merodon ibericus
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1♂, Figueira de Castelo Rodrigo,
29T671-4529, +640m, 16.V.2011, AvE leg & col.
NOTES: In Van Eck (2011) listed as M. bicolor.
Merodon luteihumerus
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1♂ & 1♀, collected as larvae, Batalha,
Casal do Jorge, 29S515-4389, +130m, 14.II.2012, AvE leg &
col; 1♀, collected as larva, Serra de Montejunto, Pragança,
29S495-4338, +360m, AvE leg & col; 1♂, Marvão, Quinta da
Abegoa, 25.VIII.2014, JA leg, AvE col; 1♂ & 2♀, collected
as larvae, Sintra, Lourel, 29S467-4296, 23.I.2015, AvE leg &
col; 1♀, Algarve, Loulé, Quinta das Salinas, 29S586-4099,
5.X.2016, VJ leg, AvE col.
NOTES: This species has been reared again from two different
locations of which one is new. In all cases the food source is
the bulb of Drimia maritima (Asparagaceae). On 14 February
2012 bulbs were collected near Batalha and Pragança, both
highly calcarious areas with many stands of D. maritima.
From Batalha a female emerged on 17.VIII.2012 and a male
on 27.VIII.2012. From Pragança a female emerged on
16.VIII.2012. On 23 January 2015 three bulbs were collected
near Sintra, in an effort to find the larvae of Merodon eques.
From these bulbs seven flies emerged from a single bulb:
three M. luteihumerus between 2-5.VIII.2015 and four
Eumerus pusillus between 29.IV and 12.V.2015. Two other
bulbs were not occupied.
199
Fig. 21. Puparium of M. equestris approx. two weeks before emerging. Fig. 22. Narcissus bulbocodium, Serra da Estrela 14.IV.2007.
Fig. 23. Biotope in Serra da Peneda, where M. parietum was found hovering low above the ground. Fig. 24. Habitat at the same spot in
Serra da Peneda, where M. parietum was visiting the little blue flowers of Scilla monophyllos (photos: A. van Eck).
Merodon obscuritarsis
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1♂, Algarve, Monchique, 20.IV.1955,
I.H.H. Yarrow leg, NHM col (identification A. Vujić); 1♂,
Serra da Estrela, Cabeça do Velho, +1200m, 29T615-4477,
13.V.2011, AvE leg & col; 1♂, Vila Real, Pitões das Junias,
29T587-4632, +1100m, 10.IX.2012, RA leg, AvE col; 1♂,
Algarve, Faro, sandy area with Pinus pinea, 29S590-4098,
13.X.2016, VJ leg, AvE col.
Merodon parietum
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 4♂ & 1♀ , Serra do Caram ulo, C aram-
ulo, 29T567-4488, 1.V.2011, JA leg, AvE col; 1♂, Valongo,
Campo, 29T543-4558, 13.III.2013, RA leg, AvE col; 1♂ &
2♀, Serra da Peneda, Arcos de Valdevez, Grade, roadside
N202, 29T553-4634, +400m, 23.IV.2013, AvE leg & col; 1♂,
Serra do Caramulo, Caramulo, 29T567-4488, 11.V.2013, JA
leg, AvE col.
NOTES: Figure 23 and 24 give an impression of the biotope
and habitat where M. parietum was seen in numbers near
Grade, Serra da Peneda. They were patrolling low between
the bushes, and visiting the flowers of Scilla monophyllos.
Merodon unicolor
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1♂, Figueira de Castelo Rodrigo,
29T671-4529, +640m, 16.V.2011, AvE leg & col; 1♂, Vila
Real, Lamas de Olo, Fisgas, 29T601-4578, +1100m, 17.V.
2006, MW leg & col; 10m & 2♀, Santiago do Cacém, Monte
Horizonte, 29S527-4202, +210m, 30.IV.-4.V.2016, WvS leg
& col.
Milesia semiluctifera
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1♂, Algarve, Marmelete, 29S525-
4121, 17.VIII.2016, photo by Pedro Henriques (http://portu
gal2.observado.org).
Myolepta difformis
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1♂, Cuba, Vila Ruiva, 29S591-4233,
+225m, 17.iv.2011, JA leg, AvE col; 2♀, Santiago do Cacém,
Monte Horizonte, 29S527-4202, +210m, 1.V.2016, WvS leg
& col.
NOTES: The male specimen mentioned here was collected at a
road side, surrounded by cork oak plantations, feeding on
Daucus carota.
Neoascia interrupta
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1♂, Estarreja, Canelas, 29T537-4507,
25.II.2011, RA leg, AvE col; 2♂, Coimbra, Arzila, 29T537-
4447, 5.VI.2013, ARG & RA leg, AvE col.
Neocnemodon vitripennis
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1♂, Esposende, Rio Tinto, Praia fluvi-
al do Marachão, 29T523-4594, 16.VI.2013, AvE leg & col.
Paragus strigatus
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 2♂, Algarve, Tavira, 29S622-4109,
18.IX.2011, GP leg & col; 1♂, Gilmonde, Barcelos, 29T519-
200
4592, 21.V-4VI.2012, RA leg (Malaise Trap), AvE col; 1♀,
Santarém, Rio Maior, Chãos, +240m, 29S507-4364, 13.VI.-
2.VII.2013, Almeida & Barros leg (Malaise trap), AvE coll;
1♀, Caldas da Rainha, Salir do Porto, 29S486-4369,
23.VIII.2013, RA leg.
Parhelophilus crococoronatus
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 3♂, V.N. de Santo André, Lagoa de
Santo André, 29S519-4217, 1.V.2016, WvS leg, WvS & AvE
col.
NOTES: These three males perfectly fit Reemer's descriptions.
The flies were collected in the brackish lagune of Lagoa de
Santo André. Van Eck (2011) mentions a female of uncertain
status, possibly belonging to this species. That female was
collected very close to this locality, namely at V.N. de Mil-
fontes on 8.IV.2007 within the estuarine system. All con-
firmed Portuguese records were collected between April 19
and May 1, two from coastal (brackish) areas in the south and
southwest of the country and one inland along the river Tejo
(Tagus) near Santarém.
Pipizella annulata
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 3♂ & 2♀, Vilar Formoso, near the
river Ribeira de Tourões, 29T683-4498, +760m, 15.V.2011,
AvE leg & col; 2♀, Figueira de Castelo Rodrigo, 29T671-
4529, +640m, 16.V.2011, AvE leg & col.
Pipizella thapsiana
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1♂, Santarém, Rio Maior, Chãos,
+240m, 29S507-4364, 26.IV.-15.V.2013, Almeida & Barros
leg (Malaise trap), AvE col.
NOTES: The Malaise trap was located in the limestone area of
the Serra de Candeeiros.
Platycheirus fulviventris
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1♂, Sintra, Praia das Maçãs, 29S459-
4298, 8.IX.2011, GP leg & col; 1♂, Estarreja, Canelas,
29T537-4507, 21.X.2011, RA leg, AvE col; 1♂, Caldas da
Rainha, Tornada, 29S488-4366, 19.IX.2012, RA leg, AvE
col; 4♂, Santiago do Cacém, Monte Horizonte, 29S527-4202,
+210m, 3.V.2016, WvS leg & col.
Platycheirus rosarum
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1♂, Valongo, Campo, 29T545-4559,
4.VIII.2011, RA leg, AvE col; 1♂, Estarreja, Salreu, wet-
lands, 29T536-4509, 17.IV,2012, AvE leg & col; 1♀, Valon-
go, Campo, 29T545-4559, 13.VI.2012, RA leg, AvE col; 1♀,
Viana do Castelo, Mosteiro, river floodplain forest, 29T521-
4615, 22.IV.2013, AvE leg & col.
Platynochaetus setosus
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 2♂, Algarve, Albufeira, 1.III.1988,
A.E. Stubbs leg, NHM col (identification A.E. Stubbs); 1♀,
Algarve, Portimão, Carvoeiro, 29S544-4106, 01.IV.1994, CP
leg & col; 1♂, Algarve, Portimão, Carvoeiro, 29S544-4106,
04.IV.1994, CP leg & col; 1♂ & 1♀, Santarém, Rio Maior,
Chãos, +240m, 29S507-4364, 26.IV.-15.V.2013, Almeida &
Barros leg (Malaise trap), AvE col; 1♂ & 1♀, Santiago do
Cacém, Monte Horizonte, 29S527-4202, +210m, 30.IV.2016,
WvS leg & col; 2♂ & 1♀, Santiago do Cacém, Monte Hori-
zonte, 29S527-4202, +210m, 1.V.2016, WvS leg & col; 1♂,
Santiago do Cacém, Monte Horizonte, 29S527-4202, +210m,
4.V.2016, WvS leg & col.
Psilota atra
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1♂, Barcelos, Gilmonde, 29T529-
4595, 16.IV.2012, RA leg, AvE col; 1♀, Viseu, Silgueiros,
Póvoa Dão, 29T589-4489, 20.IV.2013, JA leg & col; 6♂ &
1♀, Abrantes, Rio de Moinhes, 29S565.4-4369.6, +50m,
22.III.2014, 1 ex. on Prunus spinosa, others on yellow
Apiaceae, AvE leg & col; 1♂ & 1♀, Santiago do Cacém,
Monte Horizonte, 29S527-4202, +210m, 30.IV.2016, WvS
leg & col; 2♂ & 2♀, Santiago do Cacém, Monte Horizonte,
29S527-4202, +210m, 4.V.2016, WvS leg & col.
Sphegina limbipennis
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1♂ & 3♀, Valongo, Campo, 29T545-
4559, 26.IX.2011, RA leg, AvE col; 1♀, Valongo, Campo,
29T543-4558, 23.V.2013, RA leg, AvE col.
Spilomyia digitata
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1♀, Serra da Estrela, Trinta, near
Mondego river, with many Quercus and Fraxinus trees,
fouraging on Hypericum sp, 17.VIII.2014, JA leg & col.
Spilomyia saltuum
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1♂, Parque Nacional da Peneda-Gerês,
Portela do Homem, 3.VIII.2012, photographed by A. Caldas
(url: https://www.flickr.com/photos/8793530@N03/78458631
70/in/album-72157631210905666/).
Triglyphus escalerai
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1♀, Serra da Estrela, Guarda, Vila
Soeiro, wet meadows along Rio Mondego, 29T640-4488,
+520m, 14.V.2011, AvE leg & col.
NOTES: Van Eck (2011) published the first male and Jentzsch
& Claussen (2014) published details of a further two males.
The latter publication repeats the suggestion by Vujić (1994)
that we might be dealing with a cryptic species, since there
seem some differences visible in the genital structures between
the species as described by Vujić and the Portuguese males.
Van Eck (2011), however, could not find any clear differences.
Further study may be needed to clear up this matter.
Volucella bombylans
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1♀, Benfeita, 29T589-4455, +240m, 14.
V.2011, photo by José Costa (http://portugal2.observado.org).
Volucella elegans
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1♀, Guarda, West of town, +900m,
29T644-4488, 14.V.2011, AvE leg; 3♂ & 1♀, Figueira de
Castelo Rodrigo, east of town, 29T671-4529, +640m, 16.V.
2011, AvE leg, GP col; 1ex, Marco de Canaveses, along Rio
Tâmega, 29T569-4560, +160m, 18.V.2011, AvE leg; 1♀,
Santiago do Cacém, Monte Horizonte, 29S527-4202, +210m,
1.V.2016, WvS leg & col.
NOTES: This is a widespread species in Portugal, which has
been observed in various regions all over the country
(http://portugal2.observado.org).
Xanthogramma pedissequum
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 1♀, Douro Litoral, Vilarinho, Freguesia
de Macieira da Maia, 29T527-4576, +20m, 15.VIII.2011, CP
leg & col; 1♂, Douro Litoral, Vilarinho, Freguesia de Macieira
da Maia, 29T527-4576, +20m, 21.VIII.2011, CP leg & col.
Xylota sylvarum
EXAMINED MATERIAL: 2♂, Vila do Conde, Mindelo, 29T522-
4574, 13.V.2013, RA leg, AvE col.
Addenda
Corrections to Van Eck (2011):
Page 130: table 1: scalare accidentally flipped to the genus
Meligramma. Of course this taxon must be placed under the
genus Melanostoma, on the bottom of page 129.
201
Fig. 25. Ceriana conopsoides d.d. 17.VIII.2010 (photo: J.M. Almeida).
Page 130: Ceriana conopsoides, the correct date is:
17.VIII.2010 (Figure 25)
Page 138: Neoacia, wrong spelling, should be: Neoascia.
Acknowledgements
A special thanks go to all the people who have contributed to this
paper by sharing their records of hoverflies collected in Portugal
with me, including all colleagues who kindly loaned me specimens
from their private collections. Claus Claussen helped greatly by
sharing a lot of information with me on some difficult taxa and by
checking the identification of some Cheilosia species. Martin
Speight deserves my particular gratitude for being an inspiration to
me and for encouraging me to write and write and write. Israel Silva,
Ana Rita Gonçalves and Piluca Alvarez Hidalgo, thank you very
much for translating the English summary to Portuguese and Span-
ish. Chris Palmer has checked the final version of the manuscript
both for English and content, for which I am especially grateful.
Resources and references
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RADENKOVIĆ, C. PÉREZ-BAÑÓN & A. VUJIĆ 2014. DNA barcod-
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Appendix 1. Checklist of the Syrphidae of mainland Portugal.
N = new to the fauna of the Portuguese mainland. ● = see: Species accounts
MICRODONTINAE
Microdon Meigen, 1803
analis / major (Macquart, 1842) / Andries, 1912
N mutabilis / myrmicae (Linnaeus, 1758) / Schönrogge et al., 2002
ERISTALINAE
Anasimyia Schiner, 1964
contracta Claussen & Torp, 1980
N Brachyopa Meigen, 1822
N scutellaris Robineau-Desvoidy, 1844
N Brachypalpoides Hippa, 1978
N lentus (Meigen, 1822)
Callicera Panzer, 1809
N fagesii Guérin-Méneville, 1844
rufa Schummel, 1842
N spinolae Rondani, 1844
Ceriana Rafinesque, 1815
conopsoides (Linnaeus, 1758)
vespiformis (Latreille, 1809)
Chalcosyrphus Curran, 1925
nemorum (Fabricius, 1805)
Cheilosia Meigen, 1822
albitarsis (Meigen, 1822)
N bracusi Vujić & Claussen, 1994
N chrysocoma (Meigen, 1822)
fraterna (Meigen, 1822)
frontalis Loew, 1857
hypena Becker, 1894
ibérica Marcos-García & Claussen, 1989
N impressa Loew, 1840
laticornis (Rondani, 1857)
latifrons (Zetterstedt, 1843)
pagana (Meigen, 1822)
paralobi Malski, 1962
próxima (Zetterstedt, 1843)
rodgersi Wainwright, 1911
scutellata (Fallén, 1817)
soror (Zetterstedt, 1843)
urbana (Meigen, 1822)
variabilis (Panzer, 1798)
vernalis (Fallén, 1817)
Chrysogaster Meigen, 1803
basalis Loew, 1857
solstitialis (Fallén, 1817)
Criorhina Meigen, 1822
berberina (Fabricius, 1805)
ranunculi (Panzer, 1805)
Eristalinus Rondani, 1845
aeneus (Scopoli, 1763)
megacephalus (Rossi, 1794)
sepulchralis (Linnaeus, 1758)
taeniops (Wiedemann, 1818)
Eristalis Latreille, 1804
arbustorum (Linnaeus, 1758)
hortícola (DeGeer, 1776)
nemorum (Linnaeus, 1758)
pertinax (Scopoli, 1763)
similis (Fallén, 1817)
tenax (Linnaeus, 1758)
Eumerus Meigen, 1822
amoenus Loew, 1848
argyropus Loew, 1848
barbarus (Coquebert, 1804)
bayardi Séguy, 1961
consimilis Simic & Vujić, 1996
etnensis Van der Goot, 1964
pulchellus Loew, 1848
pusillus Loew, 1848
●N sabulonum (Fallén, 1817)
sogdianus Stackelberg, 1952
strigatus (Fallén, 1817)
subornatus Claussen, 1989
sulcitibius Rondani, 1868
Ferdinandea Rondani, 1844
●N aurea Rondani, 1844
cuprea (Scopoli, 1763)
fumipennis Kassebeer, 1999
●N ruficornis (Fabricius, 1775)
Helophilus Meigen, 1822
pendulus (Linnaeus, 1758)
trivittatus (Fabricius, 1805)
Lejogaster Rondani, 1857
metallina (Fabricius, 1781)
tarsata (Meigen, 1822)
Mallota Meigen, 1822
dusmeti Andréu, 1926
●N fuciformis (Fabricius, 1794)
Melanogaster Rondani, 1857
hirtella Loew, 1843
Merodon Meigen, 1803
aberrans Egger, 1860
203
albifrons Meigen, 1822
N antonioi Marcos-García, Vujić & Mengual, 2007
avidus (Rossi, 1790)
N calcaratus (Fabricius, 1794)
chalybeus Wiedemann, 1822
clavipes (Fabricius, 1781)
N confusus Marcos-García, Vujić, Ricarte & Ståhls, 2011
crypticus Marcos-García, Vujić & Mengual, 2007
N elegans Hurkmans, 1993
N eques (Fabricius, 1805)
equestris Fabricius, 1794
escorialensis Strobl in Czerny & Strobl, 1909
flavus Sack, 1913
funestus (Fabricius, 1794)
geniculatus Strobl, 1909
ibericus Vujić, 2015
italicus Rondani, 1845
N legionensis Marcos-García, Vujić & Mengual, 2007
luteihumerus Marcos-García, Vujić & Mengual, 2007
N natans (Fabricius, 1794)
obscuritarsis Strobl in Czerny & Strobl, 1909
parietum Wiedemann in Meigen, 1822
pumilus Macquart in Lucas, 1849
serrulatus Wiedemann, 1822
unguicornis Strobl in Czerny & Strobl, 1909
unicolor Strobl in Czerny & Strobl, 1909
Milesia Latreille, 1804
crabroniformis (Fabricius, 1775)
semiluctifera (Villers, 1798)
Myathropa Rondani, 1845
florea (Linnaeus, 1758)
Myolepta Newman, 1838
difformis (Strobl, 1909)
Neoascia Williston, 1886
geniculata (Meigen, 1822)
interrupta (Meigen, 1822)
podagrica (Fabricius, 1775)
tenur (Harris, 1780)
N Orthonevra Macquart, 1829
N nobilis (Fallén, 1817)
Parhelophilus Girschner, 1897
crococoronatus Reemer, 2000
versicolor (Fabricius, 1794)
Pelecocera Meigen, 1822
N caledonica (Collin, 1940)
lusitanica Mik, 1898
tricincta Meigen, 1822
Platynochaetus Wiedemann, 1830
setosus (Fabricius, 1794)
Psilota Meigen, 1822
atra (Fallén, 1817)
innupta Rondani, 1857
Riponnensia Maibach, 1994
longicornis (Loew, 1843)
splendens (Meigen, 1822)
Sericomyia Meigen, 1803
hispanica Peris, 1962
Sphegina Meigen, 1822
N elegans Schummel, 1843
limbipennis Strobl, 1909
Spilomyia Meigen, 1803
digitata (Rondani, 1865)
saltuum (Fabricius, 1794)
Syritta Lepeletier & Serville, 1828
flaviventris Macquart, 1842
pipiens (Linnaeus, 1758)
Volucella Geoffroy, 1762
bombylans (Linnaeus, 1758)
elegans Loew, 1862
inanis (Linnaeus, 1758)
pellucens (Linnaeus, 1758)
zonaria (Poda, 1761)
Xylota Meigen, 1822
segnis (Linnaeus, 1758)
sylvarum (Linnaeus, 1758)
SYRPHINAE
Baccha Fabricius, 1805
elongata (Fabricius, 1775)
Chrysotoxum Meigen, 1803
bicinctum (Linnaeus, 1758)
elegans Loew, 1841
fasciolatum (De Geer, 1776)
intermedium (Meigen, 1822)
latifasciatum Becker, 1921
octomaculatum Curtis, 1837
vernale Loew, 1841
Dasysyrphus Enderlein, 1937
albostriatus (Fallén, 1817)
Didea Macquart, 1834
fasciata Macquart, 1834
Epistrophe Walker, 1852
eligans (Harris, 1780)
●N nitidicollis (Meigen, 1822)
Episyrphus Matsumura & Adachi, 1917
balteatus (De Geer, 1776)
Eupeodes Osten Sacken, 1877
bucculatus (Rondani, 1857)
corollae (Fabricius, 1794)
latifasciatus (Macquart, 1829)
lucasi (Marcos-García & Láska, 1983)
luniger (Meigen, 1822)
nielseni Dušek & Láska, 1976
nuba (Wiedemann, 1830)
Heringia Rondani, 1856
heringi (Zetterstedt, 1843)
N Lapposyrphus Dušek & Láska, 1967
lapponicus (Zetterstedt, 1838)
Melanostoma Schiner, 1860
mellinum (Linnaeus, 1758)
scalare (Fabricius, 1794)
Meligramma Frey, 1946
●N cincta (Fallén, 1817)
cingulata (Egger, 1860)
euchroma (Kowarz, 1885)
Meliscaeva Frey, 1946
auricollis (Meigen, 1822)
N Neocnemodon Goffe, 1944
latitarsis (Egger, 1865)
vitripennis (Meigen, 1822)
Paragus Latreille, 1804
albifrons (Fallén, 1817)
bicolor (Fabricius, 1794)
bradescui Stanescu, 1981
haemorrhous Meigen, 1822
pecchiolii Rondani, 1857
quadrifasciatus Meigen, 1822
strigatus Meigen, 1822
tibialis (Fallén, 1817)
vandergooti Marcos-García, 1986
Pipizella Rondani, 1856
annulata (Macquart, 1829)
lyneborgi Torp Pedersen, 1971
thapsiana Kassebeer, 1995
●N zeneggenensis (Goeldlin, 1974)
Platycheirus Lepeletier & Serville, 1828
albimanus (Fabricius, 1781)
ambiguus (Fallén, 1817)
●N brunnifrons Nielsen, 2004
clypeatus (Meigen, 1822)
fulviventris (Macquart, 1829)
●N marokkanus Kassebeer, 1998
rosarum (Fabricius, 1787)
scutatus (Meigen, 1822)
Scaeva Fabricius, 1805
albomaculata (Macquart, 1842)
dignota (Rondani, 1857)
mecogramma (Bigot, 1860)
pyrastri (Linnaeus, 1758)
selenitica (Meigen, 1822)
Sphaerophoria Lepeletier & Serville, 1828
●N infuscata Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1989
rueppelli (Wiedemann, 1830)
scripta (Linnaeus, 1758)
taeniata (Meigen, 1822)
Syrphus Fabricius, 1775
ribesii (Linnaeus, 1758)
vitripennis Meigen, 1822
Triglyphus Loew, 1840
escalerai Gil Collado, 1929
Xanthandrus Verrall, 1901
comtus (Harris, 1780)
Xanthogramma Schiner, 1860
dives (Rondani, 1857)
marginale (Loew, 1854)
pedissequum (Harris, 1776)
... The hoverfly genus Parhelophilus Girschner, 1897 in Europe consists of three widespread species, Parhelophilus consimilis (Malm, 1863), Parhelophilus frutetorum (Fabricius, 1775) and Parhelophilus versicolor (Fabricius, 1794), and a fourth species of more restricted range, Parhelophilus crococoronatus Reemer, 2000(Speight 2020). This latter species has only been found in some localities of South-Western Europe, specifically in France and Portugal (Reemer, 2000;van Eck, 2016). Three Parhelophilus species are reported from Spain. ...
... Adults visit flowers of Cistus spp. Collected from the 8 th April to the 25 th June (Reemer, 2000;Van Eck, 2016;Speight, 2020;present study). Males fly fast on the outer site of the foliage of trees and shrubs, repeatedly resting on leaves for short periods, showing the same behaviour as in P. frutetorum. ...
... black on medial 1 /3, metatibia only vaguely darkened basally; tergum III with three yellowish-white tomentose maculae, narrowly connected or at most very slightly separated from each other (Fig. 5) (Fig. 3). Known from 9 localities in total, namely the type localities in Portugal and France; 3 additional localities from Portugal (Reemer 2000;Van Eck, 2016) decaying shrubs and trees formerly found in the river valley. The low water level with plenty of decaying vegetation formed a very suitable habitat for this species larvae. ...
Article
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El sírfido Parhelophilus crococoronatus Reemer, 2000 (Syrphidae: Eristalinae) estaba registrado de Francia y Portugal. En este trabajo, se documenta, por primera vez, de España. En la provincia de Murcia, el hábitat donde esta especie se ha capturado es el Embalse de la Risca, constituido por valles forestales arbolados recientemente inundados, con matorrales en descomposición y árboles muertos, donde viven las larvas acuáticas de Parhelophilus. Este hábitat ha desaparecido por inundación, por lo que la presencia actual en esta ubicación de P. crococoronatus requiere de confirmación. En la provincia de Granada, P. crococoronatus se recolectó en un humedal natural dominado por Phragmites, mientras que, en Huelva, fue recolectado en un área de marismas con árboles y vegetación baja. Los presentes hallazgos muestran que, aunque el hábitat de P. crococoronatus haya desaparecido en Murcia, la especie está más extendida en España. Se proporcionan registros adicionales de Parhelophilus versicolor (Fabricius, 1794) y Parhelophilus frutetorum (Fabricius, 1775).
... Adults feed on flowers, ingesting pollen and nectar, whereas their larvae feed on bulbs and other underground storage organs of geophytes (i.e., Asparagaceae, Amaryllidaceae and Iridaceae). Several species-specific associations between Merodon species and geophyte hostplants have been confirmed; e.g., through records of oviposition behavior (Reemer and Goudsmits 2004), direct bulb-feeding (Popov 2010;Djan et al. 2020), and captive rearing of larvae (Pehlivan and Akbulut 1991;Stepanenko and Popov 1997;van Eck 2016). However, the larval food-plants and natural history remain unknown for the great majority of Merodon species and the immature stages have been described for only nine species within this genus so far (Heiss 1938;Stuckenberg 1956;Ricarte et al. 2008Andrić et al. 2014;Preradović et al. 2018;Vujić et al. 2020a). ...
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Merodon natans group (Diptera, Syrphidae) taxa are reviewed using an integrative taxonomic approach combining morphological, morphometric and molecular techniques. The approach substantiates recognition of the three species: M. calcaratus (Fabricius, 1794), M. natans (Fabricius, 1794) and M. pulveris Vujić & Radenković in Radenković et al. 2011, and reveals the existence of a new species, M. makrisi Vujić, Radenković & Tot sp. nov. , which is described. It also highlights the existence of a series of natans group populations, especially on some of the Mediterranean islands, in the Levant and in the Afrotropical Region, for which more comprehensive data are required to clarify their status. A key is provided to the natans lineage species currently recognised, and preimaginal stages of some natans -group species are described for the first time. Redescriptions for M. calcaratus and M. natans are provided. A neotype is selected for M. natans . Lectotypes are designated for M. annulatus (Fabricius, 1794) and M. melancholicus (Fabricius, 1794). Merodon annulatus is recognised as a synonym of M. natans .
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