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Teaching Situation and Future Viewing of Introduction to Vacuum Tube Transportation

Authors:
  • Yang-En University
Teaching Situation and Future Viewing of
Introduction to Vacuum Tube Transportation
Zhang Yaoping
Institute of Vacuum Tube Transport
Xijing University, Xi’an 710123, China
tubetrans@hotmail.com
Abstract--Vacuum Tube Transportation is a new coming
hyper-speed transportation mode. The relating research and
development is being progressed and its construction would be
started in the near future. As a promising important industry,
relating student education, subject building, specialty branch
and course system would certainly come forth. The course
Introduction to Vacuum Tube Transportation had been opened
as the first time all over the world since spring term of 2005 and
has been taught in 4 school terms. More than 500 students have
studied the course. A set of course system, teaching outline and
education plan has been constructed. Being ready to publish
textbooks, finished making PPT teaching plan, and opened the
internet course. With the coming construction and operation, as
well as confirmation of relating specialty, the course
Introduction to Vacuum Tube Transportation would be taught
in more and more universities all over the world. It is a
multi-subject course, so as to be convenient for students to study
and understand the current science and technology frontier,
comprehensive knowledge. Especially, it is right for being as a
public course in some relating universities. Besides teaching
knowledge and educating students, the course also could boost
Vacuum Tube Transportation to come to reality as soon as
possible and future development.
Keywords--vacuum tube transportation; introduction; teaching
situation; course; multi-subject; high-speed
I. INTRODUCTION
Human beings never stop pursuing a faster travelling
speed. Vacuum Tube Transportation (VTT) is a coming new
transportation mode which would be faster than autos,
highs-peed trains and planes [1][2][3]. The feasibility and the
development foreground of VTT have been recognized. Some
institutes and companies in China and America are engaged in
VTT research and developing [4]. The first man-loading VTT
testing line is coming soon [5]. Furthermore, a new industry on
VTT would be brought out.
Accordingly, a new education subject on VTT would come
out and some courses such as Introduction to Vacuum Tube
Transportation would be certainly taught in some universities.
In order to plan, design, operate and manage VTT, the new
industry needs a large number of engineers, technicians and
administrators. Anyway, a new specialty on VTT will
certainly be created.
According to the university education system and course
rule, generally an introduction course is scheduled for a
relative specialty so as to introducing the character,
background and key technical point of it. However, VTT
hasn’t been built and the specialty subject on VTT hasn’t been
decided at present. In the case, it is reasonable to arrange VTT
introduction course for students to introduce the basic concept,
structure and technical principal of VTT. In a hand, the course
could introduce and spread VTT knowledge and boost VTT to
come to reality as early as possible; in another hand, it is
useful for finding, training and storing persons with ability.
II. ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF VTT
VTT thoughts could be traced back to the America patent
“Vacuum Railway” applied by Mr. Robert Ballard Davy
(US1336732, May 23, 1919) [6]. At the same time, Robert
Hutchings Goddard (1882.10.5-1945.8.10), the father of
modern rocket, also put up VTT idea. After Robert Goddard
went over, his wife Mrs. Esther Christine Kisk applied the
patent “Vacuum Tube Transportation System” (US2511979,
May 21, 1945) [7] and another patent “Apparatus for Vacuum
Tube Transportation” (US2488287, Oct. 6, 1945) on behalf of
Mr. Robert Goddard [8].
In 1965, Edwards. LK. published paper “High-speed Tube
Transportation” on the journal Scientific American. In 1975,
Forgacs. RL. published paper “Evacuated Tube Transportation,
Energy and The Environment on the journal High Speed
Ground Transportation. These two papers primarily stated the
basic principal of VTT [9][10].
In 1999, American engineer Mr. Daryl Oster, applied the
patent Evacuated Tube Transport [11] and was engaged in ETT
work since then.
Swissmetro is also a kind of VTT and its team ever
finished the early plan and tentative project scheme in 1990s.
With the invitation from Dr. Zhang Yaoping and Prof.
Wang Jiasu, Daryl Oster and his wife tripped to China and
Southwest Jiaotong University in Dec. 2002, working there
for 3 months. Since that time, VTT research work was started
in China. In Sep. 2004, the book A New Industrial Era
Coming----Initial Dialogue on Evacuated Tube Transportation
written by Zhang Yaoping and Daryl Oster was published by
Tsinghua University Press. The book primarily discussed
about the concept and basic principal of VTT [ 12].
In 2006, the research project “Basic Study on Evacuated
Tube Maglev High-speed Transportation” was funded by
China National Natural Science Foundation and Zhang
Yaoping was the sponsor (No. 50678152). In 2009, the
335
2016 International Conference on Education, Management Science and Economics (ICEMSE-16)
Copyright © 2016, the Authors. Published by Atlantis Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/).
Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research (ASSEHR), volume 65
research project “Technology Study on Evacuated Tube
Maglev High-speed Transportation” was funded by Shaanxi
Science and Technology Department (No.2009K09-24) and
Zhang Yaoping was responsible for it. In 2014, the research
project “Study on the Reasonable Vacuum in Evacuated Tube
Transportation Based on Rarefied Aerodynamics” sponsored
by Zhang Yaoping was funded by Shaanxi Educational
Department (No. 14JK2167).
III. COURSE TEACHING SITUATION OF INTRODUCTION TO VTT
In the spring term of 2005, as the first time all over the
world, Southwest Jiaotong University started the course
Introduction to VTT. More than 20 students from different
specialties studied this course. Fig. 1 shows the classroom
where Zhang Yaoping is having the lecture to students.
Fig. 1. 2005 spring term classroom on VTT in Southwest Jiaotong
University
Since it was taught as the first time in Southwest Jitong
University in 2005 spring term, the course Introduction to
VTT had experienced a 10 years of dreariness. Luckily, with
support from Xijing University, the public course Introduction
to VTT was opened again in 2015 spring term. More than 200
students from different specialties selected this course. All
these students were assigned into 3 classes in 3 different times
weekly (Fig. 2), and they were involved in more than 20
specialties of Xijing University as shown in TABLE 1.

a. Students listening to the lecture
b. Zhang Yaoping having the lecture to students
Fig. 2. 2015 spring term classroom of Introduction to VTT
336
Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research (ASSEHR), volume 65
TABLE I. STUDENT SPECIALTY DISTRIBUTION WHO STUDIED THE PUBLIC COURSE INTRODUCTION TO VTT
No. Specialty
2015 Spring Term 2016 Spring Term 2016 Fall Term
Number of
Stud ent % Number of Student % Number of Student %
1 Financial Management 8 3.7 9 6.5 8 5.4
2 Control Technology and Instrument 1 0.5 0 0 2 1.3
3 Electronic Commerce 1 0.5 5 3.6 13 8.7
4 Electronic Information Engineering 1 0.5 0 0 1 0.7
5 Animation 1 0.5 5 3.6 2 1.3
6 Engineering Management 3 1.4 5 3.6 4 2.7
7 Engineering Cost 7 3.2 9 6.5 2 1.3
8 Industrial Design 0 0 1 0.7 3 2.0
9 International Economy and Trade 12 5.5 13 9.4 10 6.7
10 Chinese International Education 2 0.9 0 0 2 1.3
11 Environmental Design 7 3.2 10 7.2 14 9.4
12 Accounting 58 26.6 38 27.5 20 13.4
13 Machine Design 9 4.1 5 3.6 13 8.7
14 Tourism Management 2 0.9 4 2.9 3 2.0
15 Fine Arts 4 1.8 3 2.2 4 2.7
16 Automotive Services and Engineering 3 1.4 3 2.2 4 2.7
17 Visual Communication Design 7 3.2 3 2.2 7 4.7
18 Marketing Management 6 2.8 5 3.6 6 4.0
19 Civil Engineering 24 11.0 6 4.3 19 12.8
20 Logistics Management 14 6.4 4 2.9 7 4.7
21 Journalism 11 5.0 4 2.9 4 2.7
22 Art Design 10 4.6 0 0 0 0
23 English 27 12.4 1 0.7 0 0
24 Applied Chemistry 0 0 2 1.4 1 0.7
25 Applied Statistics 0 0 3 2.2 0 0
Total 218 100 138 100 149 100
As shown in TABLE 1, 218 students selected this course
in the 2015 spring term. By the attendance and assessment,
finally 199 students got qualified results and other 19 students
got unqualified results or 0 score. These students from 22
specialties and the specialty distribution covered 80% of the
total specialty number in Xijing University. Thereinto, 1
student belongs to the class of 2011 (graduating class), 74
students belong to the class of 2012, 132 students belong to
the class of 2013, 11 students belong to the class of 2014
(freshmen). The specialty with the most student number who
selected this course is accounting, occupying for 26.6% of the
total student number. The probable reason is that the student
number in the accounting specialty is accounting for the most
proportion in the total student number of Xijing University.
Another probable reason is that the teaching administration
department of Xijing University requests that all students in
economic and management subjects must get some public
course scores in science and technology area, and the
Introduction to VTT could cover the most comprehensive
knowledge in science and technology.
In the 2016 spring term, the public course Introduction to
VTT was opened as the second time in Xijing University. 138
students selected it (as shown in Fig. 3) and the specialty
distribution on students is shown in TABLE 1. By the
attendance and assessment, finally 104 students got qualified
results and other 34 students got unqualified results or 0 score.
These students from 21 specialties and the specialty
distribution covered 80% of the total specialty number in
Xijing University. Thereinto, 1 student belongs to the class of
2012 (graduating class), 14 students belong to the class of
2013, 122 students belong to the class of 20143, 1 student
belongs to the class of 2015 (freshmen). The specialty with
the most student number who selected this course is also
accounting, occupying for 27.5% of the total student number
who selected this course.
a. Students listening to the lecture
b. Zhang Yaoping having lecture to students
Fig. 3. 2016 spring term classroom of Introduction to VTT
In the 2016 fall term, the public course Introduction to
VTT was opened to students as the third time in Xijing
University. 149 students selected it and the specialty
distribution on students is shown in TABLE 1. All 149
students were arranged in a classroom so that the teacher
couldn’t guide students efficiently.
IV. COURSE CONTENTS OF INTRODUCTION TO VTT
VTT belongs to the new advanced technology scopes, and
is a comprehensive system engineering which refers to the
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Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research (ASSEHR), volume 65
broad specialties and needs to be highly integrated. As an
introduction course, its goal is to have students recognize the
thoughts origin, research background and recent progressing
of VTT, leading students to love science, yearn for science,
encouraging science spirit, cultivating science thinking. In
addition, this course could offer the direction guidance and
specific topics for students who want to innovate and explore
science and new technology.
Currently, this course is scheduled in 32 teaching hour
units, namely 16 times of lecture or in 16 teaching weeks. The
main content includes the thoughts origin, research history,
current technical groups, human beings high-speed dream and
stage aim speed of VTT, tube cross-section and structure
choice, maglev technology select, risk factor and safety
measure, VTT vehicles, station designing, route planning and
layout, vacuum, airlock, insulation door and exhausting
system, VTT aerodynamics and thermodynamics problems,
VTT economics, etc. The course system is shown in TABLE 2.
TABLE II. COURSE SYSTEM OF INTRODUCTION TO VTT
Introduction
To
VTT
1Prolegomena
Course background
VTT thoughts origin
VTT research and development
2Current Main
Technology Groups
American ETT
China VTT
Swiss metro
Hyperloop
3Human Beings
High-speed Dream and
VTT Aim Speed
Human beings high-speed dream
Speed competition based on human physique
Speed of animals
Speed of modern transport tools
Speed of aeronautics and missiles
VTT speed
4VTT Tube Cross-section and Structure Selection
Tube cross-section and figur e
Tube section diameter selection
Tube engineering
Tube materials and tube wall structure
5VTT Maglev
Technology Selection
Maglev development introduction
EMS maglev
Superconductivity maglev
HTSM maglev
Other types of maglev
Comparing to performance of some maglev technologies
6VTT Risk Factor
Analysis and
Safety Measures
Vehicle risk factors and safety measures
Tube safety issues
Dangerous in running and controlling, and risk prevent
Safety problems caused by natural disaster
Safety problems from witting destroying
7VTT Vehicle
Designing
Some possible car door layout
Vehicle section and size
Vehicle aerodynamics outline
Vehicle inside structure and seat installing
Maglev system layout
Logistics carriage
Vehicle inside environment and life support system
8VTT Station
Station sort
Passenger station design
Cargo station design
Station running and organiz ation
9VTT Route
and Layout
VTT route: underground, ground or overhead?
Route planning on cont inent
Route planning when sp anning river and lake
Route planning when go ing through ocean
Line network consistence forecast
10Vacuum, Airlock, Insulation Door and Exhausting System
Airlock
Insulation door
Gas pumping system
Vacuum airproof check a nd maintain
11VTT Aerodynamics
Rarefied aerodynamics application and research situation
Reasonable vacuum in VTT tube based on aerodynamics
Rarefied aerodynamics simulation and calculation on VTT
Consideration on using VTT tube into wind tunnel experiment
12VTT Thermodynamics Problems
Vehicle running pneumatic heat
Vehicle inside heat source
Heat increasing in tube
Measure exhausting heat from VTT tube
13VTT Maglev
Spaceflight Launch
Basic principle and significance
Reasonable line length and route figure
Elevation calculation and route layout
Key technical issues
Important technology for big countries game to control space
14VTT Economics
VTT basic establishment cost
Cost of Vehicle and running equipment
VTT operation cost
Impact of tube section on VTT cost
VTT transit ability
15VTT and Social Development The decision factor for realizing China dream
VTT will promote peace all over the world
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Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research (ASSEHR), volume 65
V. FUTURE VIEWING FOR THE COURSE INTRODUCTION TO
VTT
Introduction to VTT is a new course with innovation and
exploring character. It is opened for students in Xijing
University where this course was never offered before 2015,
and Xijing University is the sole one which is offering the
course Introduction to VTT all over the world at present. In
the case without much reference materials and existing
template, the course system has been created, and the lecture
plan has been finished. In addition, the author made the
electronic teaching plan in PowerPoint format. In teaching,
Zhang Yaoping asks students to submit their VTT works onto
internet, so that all global people could browse and appraise
that. Such teaching method has inspired students to study on
VTT actively and the excellent works could be saved on
internet enduringly. Of course, the works on internet are also
spreading abroad VTT concept to more people.
VTT possesses the distinct character spanning over multi
specialties and multi subjects. For example, VTT route, road
basement and bridges are relating to civil engineering; Tube,
airlock, rail track and vehicles are relating to mechanics
engineering; Maglev, running controlling, accelerating and
braking are relating to automatization; Gas pumping, vacuum
maintaining and airproof are relating to the vacuum physics;
Atmosphere, vehicle life support system, oxygen supplying
and emergence succor are relating to life medicine;
Construction cost, running and operation are relating to
economic and management.
Based on the characters of VTT that spans multi subjects,
the purpose of this course is to have students from different
specialties roundly recognize the advanced science
progressing and technology innovation method by studying
this course. It could have students in social science subject
hold the advanced science and technical knowledge, as well
as have students in science and technical subject recognize
and hold the link, intercross and crasis phenomena of their
subjects. Furthermore, this course would have students deeply
comprehend the value and significance of “Systematism
Know” and “Comprehensive Episteme”. The primary
teaching practice has indicated that the course Introduction to
VTT is right and feasible for being as common public course
in universities, and the teaching value and sense is obvious.
VTT would be important industry in the future and the
construction is being started. With building and running, VTT
specialty and subject would certainly come out. In that time,
the course Introduction to VTT would be opened in more and
more universities in the world. Anyway, not only this course
will have students understand the advanced science and
technology, study relative knowledge, but also would it boost
VTT to be realized as soon as possible, and play an important
role in training people with ability for VTT. The milestone
sense of this course would be confirmed in the future.
VI. SUMMARY
VTT will be a new transportation mode and an important
industry field. Its construction would be started in the near
future. The course Introduction to VTT was ever taught in
Southwest University in the spring term of 2005. After 10
years, this course is opened in Xijing University. The teaching
plan and content of Introduction to VTT has been created.
Although only one university has this course at present, it
would certainly be opened for students in more and more
universities all over the world in the future.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The work is supported by Teaching Reform Project 2016
of Xijing University (No. JGGH1608).
REFERENCES
[1] ZHANG Yaoping. Vacuum Tube Transport- An Effective Solution to
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[2] ZHANG Yaoping. Evacuated Tube Transportation and Vacuum
Industry Development. Vacuum, Vol.43,No.2,2006(3):56-59 (in
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[3] ZHANG Yaoping. Parameter and physiology basis of life support
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[4] ZHANG Yaoping. Terminology Standardization of Vacuum Tube
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[5] ET3 Global Inc. Space Travel on Earth [OL]. http://www.et3.com, Sep.
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[6] Robert Ballard Davy. Vacuum Railway [P], US1336732, May 23, 1919,
Patented Apr.13, 1920
[7] Robert Hutchings Goddard. Vacuum Tube Transportation System [P].
US2511979, filed May 21, 1945. Patented June 20, 1950
[8] Robert Hutchings Goddard. Apparatus for Vacuum Tube Transportation
[P]. US2488287filed Oct. 6, 1945. Patented Nov.15, 1949
[9] Edwards. LK. High-speed Tube Transportation [J]. Scientific American,
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[10] Forgacs. RL. Evacuated Tube Transportation [J], Energy And The
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[11] Daryl Oster. Evacuated Tube Transport [P]. US5950543, Filed Oct.10,
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Dialogue on Evacuated Tube Transportation. Tsinghua University Press,
Sep. 2004.
339
Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research (ASSEHR), volume 65
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Vacuum Tube Transport-An Effective Solution to Global Transport Dilema
  • Zhang Yaoping
ZHANG Yaoping. Vacuum Tube Transport-An Effective Solution to Global Transport Dilema. Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research, Vol.2, Issue 12, 2016: 921-930.
  • Robert Ballard
Robert Ballard Davy. Vacuum Railway [P], US1336732, May 23, 1919, Patented Apr.13, 1920
Evacuated Tube Transportation
  • Forgacs
  • Rl
Forgacs. RL. Evacuated Tube Transportation [J], Energy And The Environment. High Speed Ground Transportation Journal, Vol. 9, No.1, 03/00/1975
Evacuated Tube Transport
  • Daryl Oster
Daryl Oster. Evacuated Tube Transport [P].
Vacuum Tube Transportation System
  • Robert Hutchings
Robert Hutchings Goddard. Vacuum Tube Transportation System [P].
A New Industrial Era Coming-Initial Dialogue on Evacuated Tube Transportation
  • Daryl Zhang Yaoping
  • Oster
ZHANG Yaoping, Daryl Oster. A New Industrial Era Coming-Initial Dialogue on Evacuated Tube Transportation. Tsinghua University Press, Sep. 2004.
Terminology Standardization of Vacuum Tube Transport
  • Zhang Yaoping
ZHANG Yaoping. Terminology Standardization of Vacuum Tube Transport. China Terminology, Vol.17, No.3, 2015(6):23-27 (in Chinese)