BookPDF Available

Evaluation of the Outcomes of Entrepreneurship Education Revisited: Evidence from Estonia and Latvia

Authors:

Abstract

Full version of the PhD thesis: culmination of a five-year work (sweat and tears but also joy and excitement!)
A preview of the PDF is not available
... For training evaluation purposes, it interprets cognitive outcomes as a class of variables related to verbal knowledge (declarative, procedural, and tacit), knowledge organization (mental models), and cognitive strategies (self-insight); skill-based outcomes as comprising variables related to composition (e.g., generalization, strengthening), proceduralization, and automaticity (e.g., attention, tuning); while affective outcomes entail attitudinal (e.g., strength, awareness) and motivational/volitional variables (e.g., self-efficacy, goal-setting). The adapted model also deals with quite generic components applicable to any discipline (Kozlinska 2016). ...
... Following recommendations of Coltman et al. (2008) to assess research models, the proposed EE learning outcomes measurement model falls into a reflective type characterized by existing latent constructs independent of the used measures, items manifested by the constructs, causality from the construct to items, identifiable error term, amongst other features (cited in Kozlinska 2016). With this type of model, for instance, the ordinary least squares regression method does not seem appropriate, since, applied to a single equation from the proposed system, it would produce biased parameter estimates as a consequence of ignoring simultaneity (Asteriou and Hall 2011). ...
... To test the formulated hypotheses, this study employed structural equation modeling (SEM), using the analysis of moment structures (AMOS) add-on in the SPSS software (Kozlinska 2016). SEM allowed the estimation of a series of separate, though interconnected, equations for modeling the students' and graduates' learning outcomes, as well as considering complex links among them (Schreiber et al. 2006). ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper empirically substantiates a novel tripartite framework for measuring learning outcomes of entrepreneurship education (EE) by employing structural equation modeling. Three types of learning outcome are estimated—cognitive, skill-based, and affective—following Bloom’s (1956) taxonomy of educational objectives. The study is based on a sample of 249 imminent and recent Bachelor-level graduates from the leading universities of Estonia. The key fit, reliability, and validity indicators show statistically that the tested framework can serve as an instrument for measuring the learning outcomes of EE. This novel instrument may also serve as an alternative to entrepreneurial intention-based models very frequently used in EE to evaluate the learning outcomes. The studied interrelationships demonstrate that (1) the affective outcomes correlate significantly with the cognitive outcomes (r = 0.273, p < 0.001) and with the skill-based (r = 0.368, p < 0.001) outcomes; a correlation between the cognitive and skill-based outcomes is also significant and comparatively high (r = 0.602, p < 0.001); (2) the learning outcomes explain more variance in the cognitive and skill-based outcome constructs (44.7% and 81.0%, accordingly) than in the affective outcome construct (16.7%). Conclusions and implications for entrepreneurship educators and researchers are discussed.
... There is also widespread confusion around different, largely incommensurable pedagogical approaches being compared alongside each other (Fayolle, 2013). Traditional lecturing about entrepreneurship is often compared to highly experiential learning-by-doing approaches, without explicitly acknowledging the fundamental pedagogical differences (Kozlinska, 2016). This has led to contradictory and inconclusive findings (Nabi et al., 2017). ...
... This has led to contradictory and inconclusive findings (Nabi et al., 2017). In terms of effects, most assessment studies rely on a narrow view of entrepreneurship, assessing the resulting intention and perceived ability among students to start a new organisation (Kozlinska, 2016). The strongest effects are believed to emanate from experiential hands-on and learning-bydoing-orientated approaches (Barr et al., 2009;Gielnik et al., 2015;G€ unzel-Jensen et al., 2017;Nabi et al., 2017). ...
... When students get to create real-life value for external stakeholders, in a full-fledged business startup process embedded in a supportive and sharing environment, it triggers a powerful, emotional roller-coaster that develops entrepreneurial self-efficacy, passion, identity and a personal career vision (Haneberg and Aadland, 2019;Lack eus, 2014). Alongside individual studies showing that some VeCP programmes do seem to produce strong effects on students, there is an ongoing discussion (mainly among quantitative research methodology scholars) around whether or not entrepreneurship education "works" (Kozlinska, 2016;Longva and Foss, 2018;Martin et al., 2013). To summarise the assessment situation for VeCP, there is an abundance of qualitative accounts of strong effects on students in selected programmes, but a paucity of rigorous quantitative and longitudinal impact studies based on randomisation and control groups (an exception is Gielnik et al., 2015). ...
Article
Purpose Three different pedagogical approaches grounded in three different definitional foundations of entrepreneurship have been compared in relation to their effects on students. They are: (1) “Idea and Artefact-Creation Pedagogy” (IACP), grounded in opportunity identification and creation, (2) “Value-Creation Pedagogy” (VaCP), grounded in value creation and (3) “Venture-Creation Pedagogy” (VeCP), grounded in organisation creation. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected at 35 different sites where education was deemed to be entrepreneurial and experiential. A quantitative, smartphone app-based data collection method was used alongside a qualitative interview approach. 10,953 short-survey responses were received from 1,048 participants. Responses were used to inform respondent selection and discussion topics, in 291 student and teacher interviews. Comparative analysis was then conducted. Findings The three approaches resulted in very different outcomes, both in magnitude and in kind. VaCP had strong effects on entrepreneurial competencies, on student motivation and on knowledge and skills acquisition. VeCP had weaker effects on knowledge and skills acquisition. IACP had weak effects on all outcomes probed for. Differences were attributed to variation in prevalence of certain emotional learning events and to variation in purpose as perceived by students. Research limitations/implications VaCP could serve as an escape from the potential dilemma faced by many teachers in entrepreneurial education, of being caught between two limiting courses of action; a marginal VeCP approach and a fuzzy IACP one. This could prompt policymakers to reconsider established policies. However, further research in other contexts is needed, to corroborate the extent of differences between these three approaches. Originality/value Most impact studies in experiential entrepreneurial education focus only on organisation-creation-based education. This study contributes by investigating entrepreneurial education that is also grounded in two other definitional foundations. Allowance has been made for novel comparative conclusions.
... In this connection, Wright (2013) has highlighted the importance of a teacher's ability to adapt the course to the students' needs, containing the objective of generating more value for students. In addition, students learn how they can become an entrepreneur, as they receive knowledge about concrete tasks related to entrepreneurial action (Johansen & Schanke, 2013), and their entrepreneurial inspiration and personality can be awakened through the demand model (Kozlinska, 2016). Students adopt a third-person perspective . ...
... When it comes to the implementation of experiential EE in HEIs, several approaches are imaginable, such as projects and problem-based learning (Nab et al., 2010;Kozlinska, 2016). On the one hand, universality is highly desirable; if one specific EE intervention generates positive learning outcomes (such as EI, know-how, or employability) for every student group considered, resources could be saved. ...
... Pittaway and Cope (2007) as well as Harms (2015) have studied how a learning situation that has uncertainty and scarce resources can boost entrepreneurial learning and outcomes among students. Therefore, entrepreneurship as a method may help advance new venture creation and result in new firms (Fayolle and Gailly, 2008;Kozlinska, 2016) as well as other important learning outcomes beyond new venture creation (Yamakawa et al., 2016). Based on this study, it can be argued that, even if no new venture is launched, entrepreneurship education (EE) can still generate learning outcomes that improve students' understanding of entrepreneurship and of themselves as entrepreneurial individuals as well as other important learning outcomes such as language and social skills not necessarily related to entrepreneurship. ...
... These tend to affect the effort and decision-making logics of individuals during the programme as well as their learning and team performance in venturing, and it is consequently important to acknowledge the individual learning paths of the students (see Thrane et al., 2016) and to take this into account when designing new EE programmes and interpreting the research findings. Investigating the role and influence of facilitators on EE outcomes is therefore another promising future research direction (Kozlinska, 2016). ...
Article
Purpose It is unclear how nascent entrepreneurs make decisions during the venture creation process. The purpose of this paper is to investigate decision-making logics and their transformation over time among student entrepreneurs who aim to create new business ventures in the higher education setting. Design/methodology/approach The study employs the mixed methods approach through the use of survey and observation data. The longitudinal survey data comprise three surveys collected via an internet-aided tool. The constructs of causation and effectuation are measured using previously tested scales (Chandler et al. , 2011). Non-participant observation data were collected during the course, focussing on the venture creation processes of four different start-ups, and were analysed thematically. Findings The findings show three transformation patterns – doubts in how to proceed, unwillingness to proceed, and unsatisfactory team dynamics – that led individuals towards a coping decision-making logic in which no causation or effectuation is emphasised. The findings illustrate that, despite this stage of decision-making logic, the learning process continues: Even if no new business venture is launched, entrepreneurship education can still generate learning outcomes that improve students’ understanding of entrepreneurship as well as understanding of themselves as entrepreneurs. Originality/value This study brings the theories of causation and effectuation into the teaching of entrepreneurship. Of particular value to scholars is the fact that the study generates new understanding of the decision-making logics during new venture creation. Accordingly, this study sheds new light on the transformation and complementarity of the decision-making logic of an individual as new ventures emerge in an educational context reflecting the real-life start-up context.
... Bikse, Riemere, Rivza (2014) concluded in their study that there is a need to improve the teaching and training of entrepreneurship in Latvia and to implement targeted career education measures. Kozlinska (2016) believes that Latvia is slightly lagging behind Estonia in entrepreneurship education as it has not been actively lobbied in Latvian political circles and is still sometimes treated as part of management education. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study seeks to investigate the entrepreneurial perceptions among the students regarding their professional careers analyzing macro, micro and entrepreneurial education factors in Latvia, including the analysis of gender differences. The research is based on the analysis of data collected through a survey. The paper uses statistical analysis involving the measures of descriptive statistics (absolute and relative frequencies, means and respective standard deviations) and inferential statistics to examine the differences within an original dataset of 360 young people in Latvia. The results reveal several statistically significant gender differences. This research contributes to enriching literature and also adds value to studies on entrepreneurial perceptions divided by gender. Understanding the factors which shape entrepreneurship education, macrofactors and microfactors affecting young people's decisions and perceptions, education systems and public policies would allow adjusting and designing policies aiming to boost entrepreneurship education and enhance entrepreneurship as a career choice and balance it in a gender context. JEL Classification: A230, I230
... For instance, teachers in different business subjects, such as marketing and accounting, already use methods like business planning, case work or experience-based learning that may support entrepreneurial competences (Pardede and Lyons, 2012;Turner and Gianiodis, 2018). Moreover, many of the generic skills that HEIs emphasize in their curricula (see Voogt and Roblin, 2012) are similar to entrepreneurial competences-for example, creativity and problem-solving (Bacigalupo et al., 2016;Kozlinska, 2016). Together, the use of novel teaching methods and the emphasis on generic skills imply that non-entrepreneurship teachers can unintentionally employ pedagogical choices and methods that support the development of students' entrepreneurial competences. ...
Article
Full-text available
Research on entrepreneurship education (EE) emphasizes the role of learning environments, contexts and pedagogical choices in developing students’ entrepreneurial competences. EE has assumed that it solely carries the task of improving entrepreneurial competences. Yet, the objectives, content and methods of teaching vary, and hence non-entrepreneurship teachers’ classrooms can also provide a learning environment for entrepreneurial competences. However, whether or not this kind of unintentional teaching of entrepreneurial competences takes place has not been widely addressed. In this study, the authors investigate how business school non-entrepreneurship teachers’ teaching methods unintentionally match the known framework of entrepreneurial competences. The findings indicate that non-entrepreneurship teachers do unintentionally expose their students to entrepreneurial competences such as creativity, learning from experience and financial literacy. However, competences such as opportunity recognition, perseverance and mobilizing resources do not receive similar attention. The findings indicate that some entrepreneurial competences are not solely owned by EE, but can be embedded in non-entrepreneurship education. Accordingly, the study extends the current understanding of EE and which “niche” competences should be emphasized in it, but also demonstrates how non-entrepreneurship teachers can expose students to entrepreneurial competences while teaching in their own subject areas.
... Por sua vez, a Estónia, que é atualmente um dos países mais avançados na proporção entre população e universo digital, evidencia como as tecnologias influenciam a inovação do país, bem como uma cultura de persistência e resiliência (Cvijanović et al., 2020;Kozlinska, 2016;Rõuk et al., 2018). Disso, alguns fatores interessantes surgiram: em 2000, foi instaurada uma lei que constitui a internet como um direito básico humano no país -o acesso Wi-fi, que é uma das mais rápidas do mundo, desde então é norma; foi o primeiro país a ter votos online nas eleições, e os impostos são todos declarados via app mobile, além disso, o registo de saúde de todo o cidadão é registado na nuvem e pode ter acesso a qualquer momento, a partir de qualquer lugar. ...
Article
Full-text available
Entrepreneurial regions are those “places” that, by concentrating a series of resources and characteristics become real “granaries” of new, sustainable and profitable businesses. And there is a growing interest in studying the interdependent factors that shape these regions. However, although the interest grows, the concept remains vaguely defined which prevents removing the consequent implications. Therefore, this article aims to describe and analyze what the entrepreneurial regions have done to increase their entrepreneurial potential. To this end, a review of the literature was made on this issue and a subsequent critical reflection on the data collected, resulting in the presentation of case studies as significant examples of favorable strategies to the sustainable creation of this type of ecosystem. The results point to the fact that successful regional contexts have a set of determinants that drove and guaranteed this progressive and sustainable transformation, such as the promotion of entrepreneurial behaviours through the creation of institutions, projects and programs, government intervention when necessary, but also decentralized decision-making processes, involving different entities, with their specific performance. As a continuation of this study, it is suggested that an investigation be carried out with an international sample more representative of these regions and that the impact of educational policies in entrepreneurial regions be evaluated through empirical studies.
... In this regard, a quite common recognition of the superiority of EE interventions using the experiential method in contrast to EE interventions using the traditional one for developing learning outcomes exists Thrane et al., 2016;Kozlinska, Mets & Rõigas, 2017). However, a lack of empirical evidence is observable Kozlinska, 2016;Nabi et al., 2017). Therefore, open questions remain with regard to the chosen teaching format. ...
Article
Full-text available
Entrepreneurial education (EE) has proliferated in recent years, however, while previous research has extensively analyzed the impact of EE on students’ entrepreneurial intentions (EI), studies tend to analyze EE as a monolithic concept without distinguishing between different types of academic activities and hence under examining how EE achieves its goals. To fill this gap in the literature, drawing on Ajzen’s (1991) Theory of Planned Behavior and EE theory, we examine the relative effectiveness of different teaching models (supply, demand, and competence models) and specific academic activities in developing entrepreneurial intentions (EI). In particular, we focus on interdisciplinary activities (i.e., activities involving students from varying profiles and career fields), a type of academic activity that has been neglected by previous literature. We also explore potential differences in the effectiveness of these models depending on students’ educational stage and gender, factors which have also been overlooked by the literature. Using survey data from 859 business school students, a structural model, and partial least squares technique, we found differences in the impact of teaching models on students’ EI depending on activity characteristics, as well as student educational stage and gender. The results have important implications for educational practice and for public and private organizations interested in promoting entrepreneurship: i) the importance of autonomy, experiential learning, and exploratory learning in entrepreneurship-promotion activities, and ii) the convenience of tailoring these activities according to the gender, year of education, and academic field of the students.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.