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Researches has shown that climate change may spark global epidemics. The objectives of hospital design consistent with a high standard of sustainable architecture must not only be the tropicalization of buildings but also a system to confront the impact of infectious diseases which arise from climate change. Infection control is the discipline concerned with preventing nosocomial or healthcare-associated infection. Infection control addresses factors related to the spread of infections within the hospital building, including prevention, monitoring and management measures. As the application of new technologies such as the Heating, ventilation and air conditioning system (HVAC) with high-efficiency particulate arrestance (HEPA) has application range within stamina, the study suggests the need to adopt an integrated adaptive hospital design strategy to prevent infection.
Transactions of the VŠB – Technical University of Ostrava
Civil Engineering Series, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2016
paper #28
Researches has shown that climate change may spark global epidemics. The objectives of
hospital design consistent with a high standard of sustainable architecture must not only be the
tropicalization of buildings but also a system to confront the impact of infectious diseases which arise
from climate change. Infection control is the discipline concerned with preventing nosocomial or
healthcare-associated infection. Infection control addresses factors related to the spread of infections
within the hospital building, including prevention, monitoring and management measures. As the
application of new technologies such as the Heating, ventilation and air conditioning system (HVAC)
with high-efficiency particulate arrestance (HEPA) has application range within stamina, the study
suggests the need to adopt an integrated adaptive hospital design strategy to prevent infection.
Hospital, Infection, Transmission, Sustainability, Evolution, Ventilation.
In current times, some hospitals have been pioneers in the application of new technologies. If
unexpected factors appear in nature, that technological system may fail.
Review and analysis of the research on the impacts of climate changes on infectious diseases
and the advanced theories of sustainability architecture in a warm climate context are necessary to
form some of the effective architectural planning with appropriate design solutions of sustainable
models for hospital buildings today.
Furthermore, the application of planning with clear hospital functional zonings, incorporating
the flexibility and adaptive architecture design by modular solutions, simplified installation with
system integration could meet the change of functional demands and the innovations of hospital
facilities. Friendly environmental solutions provided alongside advanced technological systems will
help prevent airborne infections as natural light is also a good germicidal factor. Therefore the
application of adaptive transformable hospital architectural design appropriate to the context of each
country is an innovative attitude of the current times.
The spectrum of sustainable architecture consists of efficient use of energy and material
resource in the life-cycle of buildings, active involvement of the occupants into micro-climate control
within the building, and the natural environment as the physical context [6]. Sustainable architecture
may relate to or include the concepts of adaptive and evolutionary architecture
1 Assoc. Prof. , D. Arch. Tran Van Khai, Faculty of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Van Lang University,
45 Nguyen Khac Nhu, District No1, Ho Chi Minh City 70000, Vietnam e-mail:
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It was broadly understood on the general definition that the sustainable architectural design in
warm climate countries should focus on the efficient use of energy, material resource and micro-
climate control within the building, as well as in the physical context of the natural environment to
achieve the architectural tropicalization objectives of hospitals. But the current problem is many new
architectural hospital design projects are unaware of the serious relations between climate change and
emerging infectious diseases.
Adaptive modelling in entropy evolution is a design alternative for sustainable architecture.
[7] The aim of an evolutionary architecture is to achieve in the built environment the symbiotic
behaviour and metabolic balance found in the natural environment [1].
A hospital adaptive solution could be regarded as design that evolutes and develops based on
climatic and ecological elements, as well as advances in science and technology. The design is
approached as a living organism as if natural forces had shaped the architecture.
The most general definition of climate change: is a change in the statistical properties of the
climate system when considered over long periods of time. The term climate change has become
synonymous with anthropogenic global warming [8]. But the rise in temperature particularly in the
warm climate areas is related to infectious diseases.
Zoologist Daniel Brooks said: "There is an enormous possibility of diseases passing to new
hosts…It's going to intensify as climate change progresses." [4]. Climate change plays an important
role which affects infectious disease occurrence which leads to an apparent increase in many
infectious diseases, particularly some newly-circulating ones which vary greatly in their mode of
transmission and type including the viruses, bacteria, protozoa and multicellular parasites. Changes in
infectious disease transmission patterns are a likely major consequence of climate change.
A warming and unstable climate is playing an ever-increasing role in driving the global
emergence, resurgence and redistribution of infectious diseases [10], while climate temperature
affects their growth and survival. Other infectious diseases, such as salmonellosis cholera and
giardiasis, may show increased outbreaks due to elevated temperature and flooding [5]. Climate
change helps cholera and salmonella outbreaks. [6]
So climate change is a factor that in many cases, particularly global warming, could help
viruses expand their range and make a comeback. New scientific research has shown that climate
changes may spark a whole host of similar, global epidemics recently spread into unexpected places,
as climactic fluctuations have pushed species such as Ebola and the West Nile virus into new
environments. The dependence on technological measures only will have risks when the mechanical
ventilation systems of hospitals in some cases may be inept and increase the transport and
dissemination of infectious agents. The definition of Nosocomial infections are infections that have
been caught in a hospital.
Following are the modes of infection transmission which must be examined to find solutions
to minimize the risk of transmission of infectious disease to new hosts.
3.1 Contact transmissions
Contact is the most common mode of transmission of infection in hospitals which may be
subdivided into direct contact, indirect contact and contact with droplets.
Direct contact: Direct contact refers to person-to-person spread of microorganisms through
physical contact between the infectious agent including the contaminated hands or gloves of health
care worker with the skin or mucous membranes of the recipient. The installation of handwashing
basins in hospitals is one of the ways to prevent transmission by the contact route.
Indirect contact: Indirect contact occurs when a susceptible person comes in contact with a
contaminated object. Examples include door knobs, keyboards, fabrics where patients have open
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wounds, invasive devices contacted. Specific detailing design for easy cleaning, disinfection, and
sterilization of hospital objects are essential to prevent nosocomial infection acquired from
contaminated items and equipment.
Contact with droplet transmission: A person with a droplet-spread released infected secretions
that spread through the air to the oral or nasal mucous membranes of a person nearby. Microbes in
droplet nuclei (mucus droplets) can travel up to about 1 meter. The droplets don’t remain suspended
in the air but settle on surfaces. Surfaces of materials of architectural elements such as partitions must
be solid and smooth enough to be able to prevent the suspension of droplets.
3.2 Airborne transmission
Airborne transmission occurs when fine microbial particles or dust particles containing
pathogens remain suspended in the air for a prolonged period, and then are spread widely by air
currents and inhaled which may cause infection when a susceptible person inhaling the infectious air
flow and dusts. A variety of airborne infections in susceptible hosts can result from exposure to
clinically significant microorganisms released into the air when environmental reservoirs (i.e., soil,
water, dust, and decaying organic matter) are disturbed particularly in the demolishing of buildings
and brought indoors into a healthcare facility by people, air currents, water, construction materials,
and equipment. The attendant microorganisms can proliferate in various indoor ecological niches and,
if subsequently disbursed into the air, serve as a source for airborne healthcare–associated infections
[7]. The application of adaptive architecture can help reduce the demand for demolishing obsolete
hospital buildings.
The transmission of pathogens through the air has been noticed long ago, but it was not solved
effectively. The physical design of some hospitals have been pioneers in the application of new
technologies such as the service system of advanced techniques, especially the Heating, Ventilation
and Air Conditioning system (HVAC). Having sterile filtration is practical. However, placing
complete faith in this system is not only a fashionable mode but a bit less of enlightenment on the
trend of sustainable architecture era. Each technological system has application range within stamina.
If unexpected factors appear in nature, that technological system may become a double-edged sword.
Friendly environmental solutions should be provided alongside advanced technological systems as
natural light is also a good germicidal factor to help prevent airborne infections.
3.3 Waterborne transmission
Hospital water is a source of infectious microorganisms when hospital buildings draw the
infected water from the municipal water supply. Corrosion damaged distribution pipelines, storage
tank, poor water system design and water stagnation are also other transmission factors. Examples of
common waterborne pathogens bacteria found in potable water include Legionella pneu - mophila,
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Aeromonas spp., Acinetobacter spp., Enterobacter spp.,
Flavobacterium spp. [7] Which are amonst new environmental bacterias pathogens surviving in water
distribution systems, some have found an ecologic niche in drinking and hot water supplies.
A comprehensive planning and design solution will integrate multiple infrastructure systems,
accommodate appropriate and future technologies with regulatory changes including the infection
prevention measures to optimize building performance.
4.1 Achieve the flexibility of adaptive architecture by modular solutions, simplified
installation, and system integration
The flexibility by modular solutions, simplified installation, and system integration in
architecture design could easily meet the change in space and the innovations of hospital facilities.
Most hospital buildings are routinely used for 50 years or more but at the same time individual
rooms may be changed or replaced after as few as seven years, as clinical methods and equipment
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change to improves hospital performance [10]. In this way, the installation of new isolation rooms to
prevent the transmission of pathogens through the air can be more easily done. The flexibility of the
structural system must develop in many directions and many locations and create conditions for the
development of interior space: flexibility in allowance of use function, flexibility in disposal
flexibility, flexibility in the arrangement of space, shown in the ability of extending building blocks
or connecting with urban infrastructure systems. The interactions amongst all the parameters
compose a complex system of sustainable architecture design, of which the conventional linear and
fragmented design technologies are insufficient to indicate holistic and ongoing environmental
performance [9]. But special attention must be paid to the flexibility adaptation of the elements of the
surgery or the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) zone.
Hospitals are responding with an acceptance of more generic and modular space, much less
likely to be customized to the needs of a specific service. Modular solutions with simplified
installation, and system integration that improves hospital performance should be applied to secure
the flexibility and sustainability of the hospital building. R. Sprow [12] claimed that a frequently used
planning module that fits these criteria is a bay size of 9.2 m x 9.2 m which neatly fits a cluster of 6
exam rooms with a 1.6 m corridor, or two patient rooms with a nominal width of 4 m, or a group of 6
parking spaces, this size module also is within the capacity of a minimum depth flat slab concrete
structure or a simple steel structure, without long spans [12]. Experiments through practice in Viet
Nam identified that a bay size of 8.4 m x 8.4 m meeting the demands of load bearing was linked to
marketing responsiveness.
4.2 Planning with clear hospital functional zonings
Planning that is clear and modular can help the replacement of functions of whole architecture
blocks. This planning solution enables the flexibility in changes of technological system, whether
advanced or appropriate to meet the demands of infection prevention.
Clear functional zonings or composition of spaces must be done so that the traffic flow can be
easily modified in accordance with the new selected technological system. Old systems are being
replaced by electronic kiosks, computerized direction systems with more interactive systems.
Therefore the traffic flow of all kinds of different patients and staff does not overlap and reduce the
intensity of travelling, thus minimizing the possibilities of infection contact transmission. The choice
of proper entry to connect from the urban infrastructure system is also important, particularly the
main entrance, the entrance to the outpatient clinic and the emergency department must be visible for
all, particularly patients.
Special attention must be paid to zones such as the ICU and the surgical zone that must be
isolated from the main traffic routes, in particular the axis vertical traffic such as elevators shafts and
staircases in order to reduce travelling intensity and avoid infected airflow from stack effect to
minimize the effect of airborne transmission. A good example is the surgery zone in Cho Ray
hospital which was located a distance from the main elevator lobby.
4.3 Adaptive and evolutionary architecture must give priority to the application of
natural factors as environmental control measures for airborne infectious
Long ago, Florence Nightingale, the first person to launch the hospital ward model, stated that
natural daylight and fresh air are effective elements to sterilize and reduce the infection phenomenon
in hospitals. Advanced research and experiments have shown the effective solutions:
4.3.1 Enhance natural ventilation to reduce the intensity of airborne infection sources.
Many reality cases occurred in the past and recent years had shown that the risk of
transmission of airborne diseases can be lower in naturally ventilated spaces than in mechanically
ventilated ones.
In the SARS outbreak of 2003 in Vietnam, the lives of several patients and healthcare workers
in an international hospital relying on mechanical ventilation were lost, but no lives was lost in a local
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hospital that is the the Tropical Medicine Institute at Bach Mai Hospita, Hanoi which used natural
ventilation. The effect of natural ventilation to is to reduce the intensity of airborne infection sources
to optimize hospital infection prevention possibilities
Case studies from China following the SARS outbreak indicate cross-ventilation is one of the
most effective ways of controlling the SARS infection in hospitals, with high ventilation rates [15].
Another study of isolation wards in Chinese hospitals showed those with a high proportion of
openable windows were more effective in preventing outbreak of SARS among health workers than
other design [14]. So investigations go to a conclusion that:
1. To help prevent airborne infections, adequate ventilation in healthcare facilities in main
hospital spaces are necessary.
2. For natural ventilation, the following minimum hourly averaged ventilation rates should be
160 l/s/patient (hourly average ventilation rate) for airborne precaution rooms (with a
minimum of 80 l/s/patient) (note that this only applies to new health-care facilities and
major renovations);
60 l/s/patient for general wards and outpatient departments;
2.5 l/s/m for corridors and other transient spaces without a fixed number of patients.
Tab. 1: Estimated air changes per hour and ventilation rate for a 7 m x 6 m x 3 m ward [2].
When natural ventilation alone cannot satisfy the recommended ventilation requirements, alternative
ventilation systems, such as hybrid (mixed-mode) natural ventilation should be considered, and then
if that is not enough, mechanical ventilation should be used [2].
4.3.2 Enhance the Sunlight – nature’s disinfectant by flexible building envelope
elements of rooms and corridors
From the ancient times, it was understood that rooms full of daylight are healthier than those
in shadow and darkness. In the 19th century, investigations proved that sunlight inhibited the
development of bacteria in laboratory test equipments and has a bactericidal effect. Rober Koch the
famous German physicist and bacteriologist announced at the Berlin International Medical Congress
in 1890 that sunlight was lethal to the tubercle bacilus. Experiments undertaken in the USA and the
UK between 1941 and 1944 demonstrated the extraordinary and remarkable effectiveness of daylight
in killing the bacteria streptococci [3]. The blue light in skylight was found to be particularly
effective. Trials also examined the bactericidal effects of artificial light, which was found to have
little value as a disinfecting agent. Even diffused daylight passing through two layers of glass from a
north window was found to be highly effective in killing hemolytic streptococci within 13 days, with
the same strain surviving in the dark, at room temperature, for 195 days [13]. Furthermore, patients
assigned to rooms with an open view of a natural setting had shorter postoperative stays than rooms
looked onto a solid wall.
As natural ventilation and lighting are also good germicidal factors and prevent infection.
There should be open space so that the natural air and light enters the rooms and corridors. Therefore,
the solution of wards, middle corridors, loop corridors (square or round) or closed U-shaped wards
that the foreign architects often design based entirely on the air conditioning system with disinfectant
filtration systems cannot be completely trusted. The pathogen usually is transmitted by air focus
significantly at middle corridors of inpatient wards. Therefore layout of wards with side corridors are
favourable. If this cannot be applied due to economic considerations, then some parts of the corridor
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should be openable. Wards with pavilion types should not be closed at the ends to ease ventilation or
space extension when necessary.
The diagnosis and treatment divisions with high requirements of sterilization should have an
isolation room at the entrance. Therefore isolation rooms before the entrance to the areas requiring
high sterilization using high air pressure in order to avoid infected air coming in must be flexible in
the addition installation. The substitution of automatic door handles at any places must be considered.
In order to minimize the direct transmission phenomenon, it is necessary to install sinks at
many places which are easily identifiable and accessible. Nowadays, it is possible to reach the criteria
of 1 washbasin/4 patients. A nurse can come into contact with patients more than 100 times per day,
if there is not an accessible hand basin, this would facilitate for disease transmission. These sinks do
not coincide with the sinks in the restroom of the patient rooms in the previous plans or arranged in
front of the bathroom doors. The partitions or walls on the ward corridors must be designed to be
strong and solid enough to have separate sinks fixed on when necessary, outside any expected patient
rooms. The arrangement of sinks with hand sanitizer in front of the doors of every patient room also
contributes to prevent the indirect transmission modes such as via keyboard, doorknobs and so on.
Fig. 2. Grall Hospital, built in 1879 with open side Fig. 3. Health workers on an open side corridor
corridors. (Source: Author). of Grall Hospital in 1947. (Source: Tim Doling)
4.3.3 Application of adaptive finishing materials and construction technologies
It was also Florence Nightingale who stated that the plaster used in construction, which has
many tiny voids, was thought to be the locality and transmission of pathogenic factors. So it is
necessary to choose the type of plaster with high solidity or to use covering material such as special
paints. The ceilings mostly should be the type of large plate, but do not use the removable type to
every cell. In particular, the ceiling of the operating room and some other areas must be made by
concrete placed monolithically, fixed by hidden light bulbs so that the workers replacing broken light
bulbs shall come above to the ceiling instead of entering the operation room to change the bulbs.
In the case of designing the flexibility of a hospital building, the building components such as
the structural columns and beams, floor slabs, roof and foundations are fixed, but the partitions could
be movable. Even part of the building structure may be designed to change its characteristics or
expand, particularly the components on the external envelop which are in accordance with the
changes of operating functions and facilities of the hospital.
In reality, there are some successful hospital design works in Vietnam such as Grall Hospital,
(fig. 2, fig. 3) originally built as an army baracks in 1879 and Cho Ray Hospital (fig 3) although built
more than 30 years ago still has many advantages: the inpatient zones are flooded with natural day
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light and ventilation through a wide side corridor, it saves energy efficiently and serves well for the
recovery of patients’ health. The operation zone is far from the elevator blocks and shafts. The walls
are in metal panels which can be removed. Aluminum louvers are used instead of concrete solid types
which can absorb heat and pathogens. . It was no surprise when the Architect of Cho Ray hospital
was Takeo Sato, one of the masters of Japanese modern architecture.
Fig. 3. Cho Ray Hospital 1974 with wide side open Fig. 4. Vietnam Sweden Uông bi hospital inpatient
corridors. (Source: Author) room with openable window. [Source: Luu Quoc Hoa]
4.3.4 Create a healthy, friendly environment to achieve the sustainability features
Lastly, although not directy concerned with the infection prevention requirements, it is
necessary to enhance natural day light and natural ventilation to create a healthy, friendly
environment for people and nature by adaptive expandable architecture measures.In addition, create
safe psychology for patients on vision and sound, clearly show the entrance, avoid corridors that are
too long and avoid seeing unfavorable views.
Create spaces to install facilities as beds for relatives of patients in the patient rooms under the
direction of doctors, do not misunderstand that modern hospitals are intolerant to the presence or care
of relatives. Enhance the ability to facilitate for the treatment medical staff such as: select good places
contacted directly with nature for station of nurses on duty, and have an internal communication
system. Integrating large monitor screens into the hospital spaces makes it easy to put vital
information into contextually appropriate locations as integrating information technology in the
hospital now is an ultimate measure of this operational point of view.
When developing the quote: "A house is a machine for living in" of Le Corbusier, we can
accept the dominance of the perspective: A hospital is not only a house but also a machine.
A hospital sustainable design project of our era in Vietnam should be an adaptive solution
carried out by a unit of multidisciplinary professional including architects, electrical engineers,
equipment engineers, interior designers, construction contractors, equipment suppliers, project
managers, financial managers, board of directors with hospital medical staff and not missing
infection prevention experts .
These experts in the above mentioned multidisciplinary unit must coordinate synchronously
together in introducing and reviewing the most advanced technology solutions but flexible and
appropriate with the Vietnam natural climate context, in line with requirements of infection
prevention capacity to achieve a most sustainable hospital project.
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[1] Arora, Sandeep of MSKTD & Associates Inc., Fort Wayne, Inc, USA and Saxena, Shweta
from Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, Uttaranchal, India. An Evolutionary
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[2] Atkinson James, Chartier Yves, Carmen Lúcia, Pessoa-Silva, Jensen Paul, Yuguo Li and
Wing-Hong Seto (Editors) /Guidelines Natural Ventilation for Infection Control in Health-
Care Settings .WHO Publication. 2009.
[3] Buchbinder, L. et al. The Survival rates of streptococci in the presence of natural daylight
and artificial illumination. J Bacteriol 1942;42(5):545-555
[4] Center for Health and the Global Environment, Harvard Medical School, 260 Longwood
Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA . Climate change and emerging infectious diseases. Review
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Linthicum K.J. Global climate anomalies and potential infectious disease risks: PLoS Curr., 7
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Control in Health-Care Facilities. June, 2003
[12] Sprow, Richard ,AIA . Planning Hospitals of the Future . August 1. 2012
[13] Strong, Prof. DTG. FCIBSE, FEI. Daylight benefits in healthcare buildings. Nov. 2012
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Z. Ventilation of Wards and noscomial outbreak of severe acute repiratory syndrome among
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... The last task is critical, as it has to mitigate transmission of all types. However, one of the most difficult disease transmission modes to be controlled is the indirect contact by airborne transmission [4] that occurs when the particulates of microbes from the infection source remain suspended in the air carrying these pathogens to other persons who become infected upon inhaling them if they are susceptible [5]. ...
... Hospital design integrates a multitude of infrastructure systems. Also, there is a need to consider future improvements to the different systems to accommodate technological advances and future extensions, thus, putting modular design as a viable solution leading to adaptive hospital architecture with better performance [5]. Also, functions of certain zones or spaces within zones are changed to accommodate arousing circumstances such as viral outbreaks or activities expansion [8], hence, the design should allow this kind of flexibility, such as changing certain zones to isolation rooms upon need [7]. ...
... Physical mobility between different spaces was the only means of communication previously; however, with technological advances in different installations for interactive communication and monitoring systems, traffic flow intensity is minimized eliminating 3 infection by transmission. Different circulation routes start by a good study of the quantity of entrances' types and locations, and visibility of certain entrances in a hospital is important such as the main entrance, the entrance to the emergency department and the outpatient clinic [5]. Stairways present a potential of infections transmission via stack effect, hence, they are located far from the operation theatres and the ICU preferably [5]. ...
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Our world is resisting the new pandemic “severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2” (SARS-CoV-2) causing the disease known as COVID-19. To date, more than two hundred and three million cases were confirmed out of who more than four million died. Sharing data that will help the community to intervene with measures that will decrease the spread of the virus and protect the population is an obligation. This will help the world cope with this pandemic. This research aims to highlight the different criteria that will determine that the building of a health facility is ready to control the infection of this virus and similar airborne viruses. The research developed an evaluation tool that can be used by hospital administration to assess the hospital building readiness to prevent and control airborne infection from the viewpoint of architecture if it is an existing one or alternatively it can assess the design in case of a new hospital building, determining required roles and responsibilities.
... The literature reports that transmission of diseases can occur through a variety of vectors, including aerosols (Fernstrom Michael, 2013;Khai, 2016;Kang et al., 2020). Interestingly, some research explores the correlation between levels of CO 2 in an indoor environment with the risk of transmission for an airborne pathogen (Fernstrom Michael, 2013;Khai, 2016;Kang et al., 2020). ...
... The literature reports that transmission of diseases can occur through a variety of vectors, including aerosols (Fernstrom Michael, 2013;Khai, 2016;Kang et al., 2020). Interestingly, some research explores the correlation between levels of CO 2 in an indoor environment with the risk of transmission for an airborne pathogen (Fernstrom Michael, 2013;Khai, 2016;Kang et al., 2020). This can be calculated using the rebreathed rate of air, as it is assumed that the same air an infected person has breathed out must be breathed in by a susceptible person for contamination to take place. ...
... The main vectors for indoor disease transmission are aerosol, droplet and contact (Fernstrom Michael, 2013;Khai, 2016;Kang et al., 2020). Guzman (2021) states that in terms of aerosols, the size (i.e., aerodynamic diameter) of bioaerosol particles carrying SARS-CoV-2 plays a determinant role in the propagation of the virus (Guzman, 2021). ...
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... A situation where occupants undergo severe health and comfort disorders that is connected to the moment spent in the building is referred to as Sick Building Syndrome (SBS). Although earlier studies could not pinpoint an explicit illness, a link between significant public health worries of dwellers, such as cancer, obesity, asthma, but indoor building conditions and the coronavirus has been documented [17,6]. According to Dietz, Horve, Fretz & Eisen [18], extensive investigation into the occurrence, multiplicity, purpose, and spread of microbes in the IOP Publishing doi:10.1088/1755-1315/1054/1/012015 ...
... i) Direct transmission -This relates to the transmission of microbes to human skin or mucous membranes via direct contact. Communicable diseases can be spread from person to person through bodily contact between a disease-ridden person or transmittable agents as well as mucous membranes, contaminated hands, gloves of the recipient [17]. ii) Indirect transmission -This comprises an indeterminate phase between the cause of infection and the person. ...
Conference Paper
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Abstract. Sustainable design strategies focus on architectural design considerations which assures the welfare, in addition to cohabitation of inanimate elements, and existing creatures that constitute the ecosystem. Sustainable architecture for public spaces, in addition to energy efficiency and zero greenhouse gas emission, needs to adopt approaches that lessen the effect of communicable diseases. Often, the primarily focus of architects is the aesthetics of buildings, there is no cognizant method for sustainable infection prevention and control mostly in the planning/production phase of public buildings. The paper aims to assess and identify how the public space can be safer in a pandemic from the vantage point of built environment professionals with the view of evolving strategies for policymakers with emphasis on the duties of the architect in mitigating the spread of viruses. The steps taken were to assess the relationship amongst environmental space and infectious diseases and propose practical steps to limit infection prevention and control (IPC) in public buildings. The paper is based on works of literature and consultations. The paper concluded that design approaches perform a substantial part in prevention and control of infections in public spaces, as well as healthcare facilities. Hence, sustainable design strategies may well be a remedy for mitigating the spread of coronavirus in public buildings.
... An integral portion of infection inhibition and management mechanisms should be the hospital's architectural design process. Apart from low carbon emissions and low energy, Van-Khai [9] supported the idea that the sustainable architecture purpose for health facility designs should incorporate design methods for the prevention and control of communicable infections. The World Health Organization (WHO) emphasizes that combating infectious diseases and protecting population centers from their spread is a scientific strategy, based on well-studied solutions aimed at preventing the health risks and harms caused by the infection of people and health workers [10]. ...
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Sustainable design methods aim to obtain architectural solutions that assure the coexistence and welfare of human beings, inorganic structures, and living things that constitute ecosystems. The novel coronavirus emergence, inadequate vaccines against the present severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-(SARS-CoV-2), and increases in microbial resistance have made it essential to review the preventative approaches used during pre-antibiotic periods. Apart from low carbon emissions and energy, sustainable architecture for facilities, building designs, and digital modeling should incorporate design approaches to confront the impacts of communicable infections. This review aims to determine how architectural design can protect people and employees from harm; it models viewpoints to highlight the architects’ roles in combating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and designing guidelines as a biomedical system for policymakers. The goals include exploring the hospital architecture evolution and the connection between architectural space and communicable infections and recommending design and digital modeling strategies to improve infection prevention and controls. Based on a wide-ranging literature review, it was found that design methods have often played important roles in the prevention and control of infectious diseases and could be a solution for combating the wide spread of the novel coronavirus or coronavirus variants or delta.
... Las superficies lisas y sin elementos porosos, y la unión de revestimientos sin grietas ni protuberancias contribuyen a mantener la asepsia de los ambientes. Se observó que la UCI General del hospital docente analizado presentó varios elementos arquitectónicos por debajo de los estándares de calidad establecidos por la legislación brasileña, y puede ser catalogado, según el análisis presentado, como un lugar de alto potencial para el crecimiento de microorganismos, compatible con la literatura (LATEEF, 2009; VAN KHAI, 2016). Las grietas encontradas en pisos y paredes dificultan la correcta limpieza del ambiente, lo que puede contribuir al crecimiento de microorganismos, como Enterococcus spp., como describen Oliveira y Damasceno (2012). ...
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En Brasil, existe preocupación y cuidado por el entorno hospitalario y su planificación para la preservación y prevención de enfermedades se expresa en los elementos arquitectónicos espaciales y formales del hospital. En este estudio, el objetivo fue comprender y discutir la funcionalidad del entorno hospitalario en el control de infecciones y la propagación de enfermedades. Se trata de un estudio cuantitativo-cualitativo que utiliza el aspecto técnico y funcional de una Evaluación Post-Ocupación (POE), a través de visitas in situ, levantamientos físicos y ambientales y evaluación de los ambientes hospitalarios docentes. La aplicación del instrumento permitió identificar ambientes con alto, medio y bajo potencial de crecimiento de microorganismos. El resultado de la investigación permitió verificar que las características arquitectónicas asociadas a las condiciones ambientales pueden favorecer el crecimiento de microorganismos, a pesar de que la principal forma de transmisión es a través de la microbiota del paciente y comprender su dinámica es fundamental para ayudar al diseñador del entorno hospitalario. El instrumento tiene el potencial de evaluar e identificar ambientes favorables para el desarrollo de microorganismos, ayudando a planificar medidas de control, además de ser utilizado como una forma de prevenir interferencias arquitectónicas en la proliferación y crecimiento de microorganismos.
... Sunlight design: nature's disinfectant by flexible building envelope elements of rooms and corridors, investigations proved that sunlight inhibited the development of bacteria and has a bactericidal effect. Furthermore, patients assigned to rooms with an open view of a natural setting had shorter postoperative stays than rooms looked onto a solid wall[6]. ...
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The research deals with the concept of sustainable architecture beyond pandemic diseases. As there is a motivation to reduce the number of occupants of buildings and reconsider the space arrangement at the level of corridors and internal and external spaces as well as focus on natural factors such as ventilation and insolation. Also, the death of a group of architects due to Corona virus will motivate them to form an architectural product that is friendly to the natural environment. Thus, the aim of the research was to uncover the interrelationship between flexibility and epidemics and the role of each one to shape a sustainable architectural output. Accordingly, the research problem was to explore the role of Flexibility in Sustainable epidemic-resistant design. The research approach is to clarify the foundations of epidemic-resistant architecture as well as its characteristics and standards by building a knowledge framework, then a comprehensive theoretical framework from architectural literaturetos to be embodied in its final form in three main vocabulary, namely: foundations of epidemic-resistant architecture, characteristics of sustainable flexible architecture, and the standard for social spacing architecture. It has been applied to elected projects to clarify the extent to which these indicators have been achieved and to reach the conclusions, which made clear that flexibility and resisting architectural output is the extent of its ability to survive in the face of disasters and epidemics, and this is an ideal time to rethink how to develop new design standards and address existing structures to achieve the sustainability.
... The architectural design process of a healthca re facility should be an integral part of infection prevention and control mechanism. Van-Khai [2] added that the goal of sustainable architecture for hospital design apart from low energy and low carbon emission, it must integrate design strategies for infectious disease prevention and control (IPC). According to World Health Organization (WHO), infection disease prevention and control (IPC) is a scientific method and hands-on solution intended to avert harm or health dangers initiated by infection to patients and health workers [3]. ...
Background Sustainable design strategies are targeted at finding architectural solutions that reassure the well-being and coexistence of inorganic features, living organisms, and humans that make up the ecosystem. The emergence of the novel coronavirus, an increase in microbial resistance, and lack of a vaccine for the present pandemic have made it imperative to appraise the preventive strategies employed during the pre-antibiotic period. Sustainable architecture for children's hospital design and childcare facilities, apart from low energy and carbon emission, must integrate design strategies to confront the impact of infectious diseases.AimThe aim of the paper is to identify how the space patients and health-care workers0 occupy can be made safer from an architectural design perspective with the view of developing guidelines for policymakers and highlighting the architect’s role in combating the pandemic.Objectives The objectives include; to examine the evolution of medical architecture and the nexus between infectious diseases and architectural space and suggest a design approach that enhances infection prevention and control (IPC).Method The paper relied on existing literature, interviews, and interactions with healthcare workers.Results/Conclusion The findings showed that design strategies have always played a significant role in infection prevention and control (IPC) and could as well be a panacea for curbing the spread of Covid -19.
... As superfícies lisas e sem elementos porosos, e junção de revestimentos sem fissuras ou ressaltos contribuem para manter a assepsia dos ambientes. Observou-se que a UTI Geral do hospital de ensino analisado apresentou vários elementos arquitetônicos abaixo dos padrões de qualidade estabelecidos pela legislação brasileira, podendo ser classificada, segundo a análise apresentada, como local de alto potencial para o crescimento de microrganismos, compatível com a literatura (LATEEF, 2009;VAN KHAI, 2016). As fissuras encontradas nos pisos e nas paredes dificultam a limpeza correta do ambiente, o que pode contribuir para o crescimento de microrganismos, como a Enterococcus spp., conforme descrito por Oliveira e Damasceno (2012). ...
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O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a prevalência de colonização e infecção por Candida spp. de mucosas e próteses de pacientes atendidos na clínica odontológica da Universidade do Oeste Paulista. Foram utilizados métodos morfológicos e bioquímicos para a identificação das espécies de Candida spp, tais como, CHROMagar Candida, o microcultivo em Cornmeal Agar, e o auxonograma. A prevalência de colonização por Candida spp. em usuários de próteses foi de 70,6%. Foram isoladas 101 amostras de Candida de 68 pacientes, das quais 69,31% foram identificadas como C. albicans e 30,69% como Candida não-albicans. A avaliação da prevalência de colonização da cavidade oral foi realizada em função do método de higienização da prótese e apresentou menor prevalência em pacientes que utilizavam a associação da escovação e molho no hipoclorito. A prevalência de Candida albicans foi maior que Candida não-albicans, e a higienização adequada da prótese reduziu a prevalência de colonização da cavidade oral.
Preparation to fight the spread of infectious diseases is one of the United Nations’ sustainable development goals, which have never been as relevant as it is now, where the COVID-19 pandemic is a global emergency impacting lives and jobs. Most infections of such diseases occur indoors, while outdoor infections have been much fewer. Therefore, the built environment plays a fundamental role in the control of infectious diseases, and the impact on human health and the economy can be minimized by engaging intelligence approaches. This chapter reflects on history by showing how engineering should help in mitigating the spread of infectious diseases with a specific focus on hygiene and prevention. Good hygiene practices are considered an effective prevention approach against infectious diseases at the community level. The chapter aims to present the evolution of hygiene engineering practices in preparedness for infectious diseases. The core for hygiene practice is a simple range model of the short- and long-range airborne transmission of respiratory infection to prevent viral diseases, especially COVID-19. Emergency efforts that are rightly focused on dealing with the immediate impacts to slow the spread of the disease and ensure strong hygiene control strategies to respond and recover from the disease are investigated. This involves engineering infection control strategies for indoor air quality including ventilation, air circulation, filtration, humidity as well as various environmental electromagnetic disinfection techniques. Several intelligent solutions that may contribute to the management of pandemic crisis have been discussed.
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The El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a global climate phenomenon that impacts human infectious disease risk worldwide through droughts, floods, and other climate extremes. Throughout summer and fall 2014 and winter 2015, El Niño Watch, issued by the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, assessed likely El Niño development during the Northern Hemisphere fall and winter, persisting into spring 2015. We identified geographic regions where environmental conditions may increase infectious disease transmission if the predicted El Niño occurs using El Niño indicators (Sea Surface Temperature [SST], Outgoing Longwave Radiation [OLR], and rainfall anomalies) and literature review of El Niño-infectious disease associations. SSTs in the equatorial Pacific and western Indian Oceans were anomalously elevated during August-October 2014, consistent with a developing weak El Niño event. Teleconnections with local climate is evident in global precipitation patterns, with positive OLR anomalies (drier than average conditions) across Indonesia and coastal southeast Asia, and negative anomalies across northern China, the western Indian Ocean, central Asia, north-central and northeast Africa, Mexico/Central America, the southwestern United States, and the northeastern and southwestern tropical Pacific. Persistence of these conditions could produce environmental settings conducive to increased transmission of cholera, dengue, malaria, Rift Valley fever, and other infectious diseases in regional hotspots as during previous El Niño events. The current development of weak El Niño conditions may have significant potential implications for global public health in winter 2014-spring 2015. Enhanced surveillance and other preparedness measures in predicted infectious disease hotspots could mitigate health impacts.
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This paper identifies the “safe ventilation rate” for eliminating airborne viral infection and preventing cross-infection of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in a hospital-based setting. We used simulation approaches to reproduce three actual cases where groups of hospital occupants reported to be either infected or not infected when SARS patients were hospitalized in nearby rooms. Simulations using both computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and multi-zone models were carried out to understand the dilution level of SARS virus-laden aerosols during these scenarios. We also conducted a series of measurements to validate the simulations. The ventilation rates (dilution level) for infection and non-infection were determined based on these scenarios. The safe ventilation rate for eliminating airborne viral infection is to dilute the air emitted from a SARS patient by 10000 times with clean air. Dilution at lower volumes, specifically 1000 times, is insufficient for protecting non-infected people from SARS exposure and the risk of infection is very high. This study provides a methodology for investigating the necessary ventilation rate from an engineering viewpoint. KeywordsSARS-ventilation rate-simulation-infection
The sustained health of human populations requires the continued integrity of Earths natural systems. These systems are now threatened by global climate change and other environmental changes such as those resulting from unsustainable use of natural resources from air water and soil pollution and from overcrowding. Divided into 10 chapters this book examines the potential health hazards of human population from global climate change--defined as a complex of meteorological processes driven by the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Climate change consequences considered in this text include changes in temperature and precipitation changes in the frequency of extreme weather events and sea level rise. Chapter 1 describes the historical and economic context within which the climate change issue has arisen and discusses the scale complexity and fundamental “newness” of the problem. Chapter 2 reviews the science of greenhouse gas accumulation and its effects upon the climate system. Moreover it discusses the associated problem of stratospheric ozone depletion. The various possible impacts of climate change and stratospheric ozone depletion upon human health are examined in chapters 3 to 8. Chapters 9 and 10 address the implications of global climate change for research monitoring and social-policy response.
This paper presents exploration of the principles that nature uses in the design of bio-climatic expressions and suggests how those principles can help architects to develop a better understanding for creating climate-conscious architecture. Instead of trying to make a complete set of design guidelines within this field, objective was to find some common design principles. Observed design principles were categorized under the rubrics Adapted design, Interactive Design and Effectively Integrated Design.
To identify valid measures for preventing outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) among protected healthcare workers in isolation units. Architectural factors, admitted SARS cases and infection of healthcare workers in different isolation wards between January 30 and March 30, 2003 were analyzed. Four types of isolation wards were analyzed, including the ward where the thirty-first bed was located on the twelfth floor, the laminar flow ward in the Intensive Care Unit where the tenth bed was located on the fifteenth floor, the ward where the twenty-seventh bed was located on the thirteenth floor of the Lingnan Building, and thirty wards on the fourteenth to eighteenth floors of the Zhongshan Building. The ratios (m(2)/m(3)) of the area of the ventilation windows to the volume of the rooms were 0, 0, 1:95 and 1:40, respectively. Numbers of SARS cases in the wards mentioned above were 1, 1, 1 and 96, respectively. Total times of hospitalization were 43, 168, 110 and 1272 hours, respectively. The infection rates of the healthcare workers in the areas mentioned above were 73.2%, 32.1%, 27.5% and 1.7%, respectively. The difference in the infection rates was of statistical significance. Isolating SARS cases in wards with good ventilation could reduce the viral load of the ward and might be the key to preventing outbreaks of SARS among healthcare workers along with strict personal protection measures in isolation units.
Guidelines Natural Ventilation for Infection Control in Health- Care Settings .WHO Publication The Survival rates of streptococci in the presence of natural daylight and artificial illumination
  • Atkinson James
  • Chartier Yves
  • Carmen Lúcia
  • Jensen Pessoa-Silva
  • Yuguo Paul
  • Wing-Hong Li
  • L Seto Buchbinder
Atkinson James, Chartier Yves, Carmen Lúcia, Pessoa-Silva, Jensen Paul, Yuguo Li and Wing-Hong Seto (Editors) /Guidelines Natural Ventilation for Infection Control in Health- Care Settings.WHO Publication. 2009. [3] Buchbinder, L. et al. The Survival rates of streptococci in the presence of natural daylight and artificial illumination. J Bacteriol 1942;42(5):545-555 [4] Center for Health and the Global Environment, Harvard Medical School, 260 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Climate change and emerging infectious diseases. Review of theories on infection control in hospital buildings. [5]
Planning Hospitals of the Future
  • Richard Sprow
Sprow, Richard,AIA. Planning Hospitals of the Future. August 1. 2012