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The organization of passenger transportations by intra-regional bus routes of common use at the present stage

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The current crisis of public passenger transport in the world and in Ukraine in particular, caused primarily by uncontrolled motorization that impairs the capacity of city transport network. In addition to uncontrolled motorization a question of imperfection of the legal framework, regulating passenger services (which primarily concerns the former socialist bloc) needs a special attention. Aim: The aim of the study is to analyze the current state of passenger transportation by routes of general use and shortcomings of the existing legislative framework which should ensure efficient and safe operation of public passenger transport as well as guidance for the solution of the city transport system problems. Materials and Methods: This paper analyzes the shortcomings of the existing legislative framework for the organization of public passenger transport. For the analysis in the article the transport system of Odessa is taken. It is shown that the main problems of implementation of existing laws and regulations that adversely affect to the efficiency of the city public transport are the lack of the concept and a comprehensive plan of public transport and road infrastructure in general, and unfulfilment by transportation organizers the key requirements for improving of transport services. Results: In the analysis of the current state of passenger transportation routes of general use and disadvantages of the existing legislative framework the ways to solve problems of the transport system of the city have been pointing, namely: improving of branch legislation framework and methods of state administration for motor transport system traffic organization; rational interaction between road transport sector and urban planning; operational organization of road construction and maximum preservation of the existing road network, and more. Particular attention should be paid to increasing of responsibility for violations of legislation on road transport, the resumption of regular checks on route network to detect illegal routs.
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ISSN 2076-2429 (print)
Odes’kyi Politechnichnyi Universytet. Pratsi, Issue 3(50), 2016
ISSN 2223-3814 (online)
MACHINE BUILDING. PROCESS METALLURGY. MATERIALS SCIENCE
35
DOI 10.15276/opu.3.50.2016.07
2016 The Authors. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
UDC 629.34
A.V. Witkowski
Odessa Association of Transport Workers, 7-G Transportna Str., 65017 Odessa, Ukraine; e-mail: mirserg@ukr.net
THE ORGANIZATION OF PASSENGER
TRANSPORTATIONS BY INTRA-REGIONAL BUS ROUTES
OF COMMON USE AT THE PRESENT STAGE
А.В. Вітковський. Організація пасажирських перевезень внутрішньообласними автобусними маршрутами загального
користування на сучасному етапі. Сучасна криза міського пасажирського транспорту в цілому у світі і в Україні зокрема викликана,
насамперед, неконтрольованою автомобілізацією, що погіршує пропускну здатність міської транспортної мережі. Крім неконтрольова-
ної автомобілізації особливої уваги потребує питання недосконалості нормативно-правової бази, регулюючої пасажирські перевезення,
що насамперед стосується країн колишнього соціалістичного блоку. Мета: Метою дослідження є аналіз сучасного стану організації
пасажирських перевезень маршрутами загального користування і недоліків існуючої законодавчої бази, що має забезпечувати ефек-
тивну й безпечну роботу міського пасажирського транспорту, а також визначення шляхів розв’язання проблем транспортної системи
міста. Матеріали і методи: Проведено аналіз недоліків існуючої законодавчої бази з організації роботи міського пасажирського
транспорту. Аналіз проводився на базі транспортної системи м. Одеси. Показано, що основними проблемами, які негативно впливають
на реалізацію чинних законів і нормативних актів, а також на ефективність роботи громадського транспорту міста, є відсутність
концепції й комплексного плану розвитку громадського транспорту й автодорожньої інфраструктури в цілому і невиконання організа-
тором перевезень основних вимог до організації транспортного обслуговування населення. Результати: В результаті аналізу сучас-
ного стану організації пасажирських перевезень маршрутами загального користування і недоліків існуючої законодавчої бази визначе-
но шляхи розв’язання проблем транспортної системи міста, а саме: удосконалення галузевої правової бази і методів державного управ-
ління автомобільним транспортом і системною організацією дорожнього руху, раціональна взаємодія дорожньо-транспортного
комплексу і містобудівного планування, оперативна організація дорожнього будівництва і максимальне збереження існуючої
дорожньої мережі тощо. Особливу увагу слід приділити підвищенню відповідальності за порушення законодавства з автомобільного
транспорту, поновленню регулярних рейдових перевірок на маршрутній мережі щодо виявлення нелегальних (незаконних) рейсів.
Ключові слова: перевізник, пасажир, нормативно-правова база, транспортне обслуговування.
A.V. Witkowski. The organization of passenger transportations by intra-regional bus routes of common use at the present stage.
The current crisis of public passenger transport in the world and in Ukraine in particular, caused primarily by uncontrolled motorization that
impairs the capacity of city transport network. In addition to uncontrolled motorization a question of imperfection of the legal framework,
regulating passenger services (which primarily concerns the former socialist bloc) needs a special attention. Aim: The aim of the study is to
analyze the current state of passenger transportation by routes of general use and shortcomings of the existing legislative framework which
should ensure efficient and safe operation of public passenger transport as well as guidance for the solution of the city transport system
problems. Materials and Methods: This paper analyzes the shortcomings of the existing legislative framework for the organization of public
passenger transport. For the analysis in the article the transport system of Odessa is taken. It is shown that the main problems of implementa-
tion of existing laws and regulations that adversely affect to the efficiency of the city public transport are the lack of the concept and a
comprehensive plan of public transport and road infrastructure in general, and unfulfilment by transportation organizers the key requirements
for improving of transport services. Results: In the analysis of the current state of passenger transportation routes of general use and dis-
advantages of the existing legislative framework the ways to solve problems of the transport system of the city have been pointing, namely:
improving of branch legislation framework and methods of state administration for motor transport system traffic organization; rational
interaction between road transport sector and urban planning; operational organization of road construction and maximum preservation of the
existing road network, and more. Particular attention should be paid to increasing of responsibility for violations of legislation on road
transport, the resumption of regular checks on route network to detect illegal routs.
Keywords: carrier, passenger, regulatory framework, transport service.
Introduction. The current crisis of public passenger transport in the world and in Ukraine in particu-
lar primary caused by uncontrolled motorization that impairs the capacity of transport city network.
Today 600 cars per 1000 residents is quite normal for the average in European country. The level
of 250...300 cars in most European countries was reached in 1960...1970 of twentieth century, and in
the US in the first half of the twentieth century.
Thus, according to NationMaster.com [1] in 2014 on motorization the top in the world occupied
by San Marino with the index 1263 cars per 1000 residents, the second Monaco with 899, and the
third US with 797.
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In addition to the uncontrolled motorization a special attention requires a question of imperfec-
tion of the legal framework that regulates passenger services, which primarily relates to the former
socialist bloc.
The main problems of the transport system can be systematized and divided into objective and
subjective.
The objective problems include:
uncontrolled growth of motorization of the population and, consequently, increased intensity of
use of individual vehicles;
decrease in efficiency of public passenger transport;
growth needs of residents to move;
discrepancy between the level of motorization and pace of road construction;
urban problems of the city.
Subjective problems include:
imperfection of the legislative framework at the local level in the management of transport
system of the city;
insufficient system of organization and management of the development of road transport sector;
insufficient financing of road-transport infrastructure;
negative impact of the human factor.
To increase the efficiency of the existing transport system should take into account objective
problems, but special attention should be given to subjective issues in general and the legal framework
in particular.
There are many scientific works devoted to the improvement of transport services. Among them,
the work of such scientists as V.R. Vuchic [2], D.-H. Lee [3], G. Jönson and E. Tengström [4],
V. Gromule and I. Yatskiv [5], M. Attard and Y. Shiftan [6], etc.
For the carrier, who must provide reliable, safe and comfortable transportation of passengers and
to ensure the effective functioning of the transport system of the city, one of the main problems is the
inadequacy of existing laws and regulations.
The aim of the study is to analyze the current state of passenger transportation by routes of
general use and shortcomings of the existing legislative framework which should ensure efficient and
safe operation of public passenger transport as well as guidance for the solution of the city transport
system problems.
Materials and Methods. For the analysis in this paper is taken of the transport system of Odessa,
but the conclusions and recommendations can be adapted to other major cities in Ukraine. Currently,
one of the key problems of the transport system for Ukraine in general and for the Odessa are in
particular the regulatory framework which has to enforce the transport policy of large cities taking into
account their specific features.
Legislative acts have many shortcomings and omissions. There are also no clear and comprehen-
sive delimitation between the state and local levels of government.
Factors that depend on the regulatory framework and affect the efficiency of the transport system
of the city are shown in Fig. 1.
It is clear that the current laws and regulations need to perform all participants in the transport
process, transport organizers, carriers, passengers and supervisory authorities (Transport Safety
Authorities, Police).
Fig. 2 shows the problems of implementation of existing laws and regulations that affect the
efficiency of the public transportation of Odessa. Let us consider the following problems.
The first problem the lack of the concept and a comprehensive plan for public transportation
(taxi, bus, electric) and road infrastructure as a whole. The growing number of individual transport,
lack of quality roads and road junctions in Odessa, the problem is exacerbated with each passing year.
It is, accordingly, affects the quality of service and traffic safety population.
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37
Development
of road
infrastructure
Motorization
of the
population
Planning for
parking sites
The
improvement
of the
existing road
network
The
improvement
of operation
of urban
transport
The
organization
and traffic
management
Improving of
transport and
distribution
system of the
city
The
efficiency
of the
transport
system of
the city
The
efficiency
of public
transport
of Odessa
The lack of the concept and a comprehensive plan
for the development of public transport
The organizer does not fulfill the basic requirements
for improved public transport service
Competition, as a tool for improvement of traffic
not used
Rates, benefits, compensation for loss of carriers
income do not provide profitability
Bus stations not participate in the control and
organization of transport
Advanced training of personnel is formal
Illegal transportation
Fig. 1. Factors of regulatory framework affecting
the efficiency of the transport system of the city
Fig. 2. The main problems of public transport
in Odessa
The second problem organizer does not fulfill the basic requirements for public transport
services improving, i.e.:
not developed an optimal route network with all modes of transport;
not solved the problem of transport service of the population in the city and suburban routes
(introduction taxi yielded no significant results; route network was formed by carriers and continues to
be served by remodeled “minibuses);
the requirement for obligatory route bus fleet structure is not the competition;
did not provide conditions for job growth and business profitability of the carrier;
no traffic organization of public transport in order to provide certain advantages over other
members of the movement.
One of the effective tools for improving the organization of transport is a competition which is
currently not used, that is:
formal competitions are held;
the interests of passengers in terms of competition is not considered, that virtually no standards
of social security of the population in transport services and quality services;
competitions are not considered the tariffs, traffic intervals and bus schedules;
no competition of investment projects. The economic, tax, social conditions of business opera-
tion do not create for them;
carriers use different forms of business organizations which are taxed at different rates. That is
leading to unfair competition between private firms, small and large enterprises (competitive condi-
tions give preference to large enterprises).
Another important issue is that the rates, benefits, compensation for loss of income of carriers do
not provide profitability of the business, namely:
tariffs and benefits ensure profitability of 10% (the desired return of 15%), which does not
allow the renewal of the rolling stock and the quality of services;
payment ability of passengers does not ensure profitable activity of carriers in terms of
European price of rolling stock, fuel, oil. It should be understood that the passengers as consumers of
transport services, want a comfortable and safe transport with low fares. Meanwhile, the price for
travel anytime and anywhere directly related to the cost of gasoline (for Ukraine the price liter of
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gasoline reaches 1...1.2 USD). Thus, the price of travel in the 20...25 cents will always be a way for
carrier and authorities to justify the inability to provide quality and safe passenger transport services
regulated tariffs for passenger on suburban and urban routes and compensation for their use in
law are not defined;
the introduction of electronic tickets in law not approved.
Autostations do not participate in the control and organization of traffic on suburban and long-
distance routes. According to Article 44 of the Law of Ukraine "On Automobile Transport" organiza-
tion of the contest and determine the conditions of transportations rely on the executive authorities and
local authorities [7].
According to the author, in a contest it is necessary to involve representatives of autostation for
more productive work with the carrier in the future in the public service.
Equally important condition for the successful development of the transport business is staff.
Staff training at the present time is formal, namely:
training of drivers providing licensed transportation services is not defined by legislation;
no system of state order, training, retraining of executives, managers, professionals and skilled
workers in licensed educational institutions;
training of skilled workers in educational institutions of Odessa and Odessa region is not
carried out;
qualification requirements for education specialties do not match the qualification requirements
of professions.
The implementation of illegal traffic not improve the situation. Carriers who are engaged in illegal
routes of transportation of passengers, providing transportation services with the following violations:
violation of bus schedules;
violation of bus speed in the city;
lack of data on passengers;
failure to comply with basic safety rules for the carriage of passengers.
Results. To solve these problems the author suggested the following steps.
In the development plan of public transport and active transport system it is necessary to pay
attention to the following issues:
improving sectoral framework and methods of state administration of motor transport and
system organization of traffic;
rational interaction between road transport sector and urban planning;
operational organization of road construction and maximum preservation of the existing
road network.
To improve and streamline the public transport in order to ensure comfortable and safe conditions
for direct passengers from one vehicle to another and efficiency of the rolling stock is necessary to
optimize the route network with the use of transport logistics principles, namely:
avoid duplication of routes of public transport;
reduce transit routes of public transport that pass through the city center;
Allocate public transport routes, taking into account the capacity of roads, permissible speed and
according to the passenger traffic on the route;
Open new public transport routes to meeting the needs of the population.
To implement new projects: construction of road junctions, the introduction of light rail and
bicycle infrastructure, and so on.
It is also necessary to improve the situation within the competition system, thus achieving more
effective and higher performance of transport services. To do this:
to create thoughtful and well-balanced system of competition on the base of objective
assessments of the candidates and formation of items that combine low-profit and unprofitable socially
important routes with profitable;
to conclude contracts with carriers for a long period of time (3 to 5 years), which may serve as
an incentive for investment in the field of passenger transportation funding and attract new carriers;
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MACHINE BUILDING. PROCESS METALLURGY. MATERIALS SCIENCE
39
to provide subsidies for population on transport services in order to compensate the carrier for
losses arising from rate regulation and transportation of privileged categories of citizens.
To meeting the requirements of population for transport services in quantitative, qualitative and
economic parameters and to simultaneously ensure profitability of public transport should be used
complex measures:
the use of instruments of regulation of tariff policy;
increasing population salaries;
monitoring tariff to limit the impact of inflation;
limiting tariffs to ensure the availability of transport services and avoid providing services
below cost (dumping) or long-term use of depressed prices;
the introduction of electronic ticket (in the West countries a long time already used similar
payment mechanisms and accounting system of passengers, the introduction of an electronic ticket can
provide an opportunity to improve service level of the population and will keep records of passengers).
To conduct consultations and promote laying agreements between the owners of bus stations and
state administration. To work out proposals for amending existing agreements with Ukrainian
Transport Inspection to ensure service provision to residents to obtain information on services before
the trip and during it, and joint action to eliminate the illegal traffic of nearby area bus stations.
Also appropriate is the introduction of modern traffic management systems of public transport
that will ensure equal access to the information of participants of road traffic.
Given the fact that the object of attention is a motor transport enterprise, it is worth noting a
number of specific measures to improve vocational training of workers. These measures could
improve the system of training and retraining of personnel of the enterprise and the enterprise work as
a whole. In particular, it is useful to the following:
review the content of training programs for compliance of their contents with needs of the
workplace for drivers, maintenance personnel, managers, administrative personnel;
make a gradual transition to active learning methods (training, programmed instruction, group
discussions, business and role-playing games); thus, together with the active mastering by educational
institutions of new forms of the educational process (design of work situations, organizing discussions);
prepare educational videos and presentations;
increase the number of seminars for executives and specialists of the course “Ethics and
psychology of behavior”. In general, for these categories of workers in the learning process will useful
the block economics and management.
To achieve this goal it is necessary to apply network expansion of intra regional routes of public
use, offering illegal licensed carriers on the competitive conditions of carriages to the settlements that
not provided with bus service, on routes that are currently not working as well as new regular flights
(routes) that they are now serving illegally.
The output from the shadows of illegal carriers an important step to improve the transport
situation. It should provide all possible assistance and support to illegal carriers that would like to
operate in the legal field.
Particular attention should be paid to increasing accountability for violations of legislation on
road transport, the resumption of regular checks on route network to detect illegal (illegal) flights.
Also it is necessary take the political decision to eliminate illegal traffic and to establish personal
responsibility of officials from regulatory authorities, which are responsible for the failure of regular
passenger transportation.
It makes sense to maximize distribute information and communicate to the passenger in the pub-
lic bus, at the bus station and in the media about the risks that may occur while using illegal services.
To stop illegal traffic on the public use regional routes necessary to provide adequate level of
regular transportation services for which every month should be monitored, firstly, the population's
needs in passenger traffic, and secondly, violations of transport legislation and refuse to residents in
transportation in reason of the lack of scheduled flights or available seats in the buses.
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Conclusions. This paper analyzes the impact of imperfections in the existing laws and regu-
lations to ensure efficient and safe operation of public passenger transport of Odessa.
There are ways for possible activities of the transport traffic organizers, regulatory authorities,
together with the legal carriers, autostation and public organizations that are required to effectively
solve the problems of the transport system of the city of Odessa.
Література
1. Motor vehicles per 1000 people: Countries Compared [Електронний ресурс] / NationMaster.
Режим доступу: http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/stats/Transport/Road/Motor-vehicles-per-
1000-people (Дата звернення: 11.08.2016).
2. Vuchic, V.R. Urban transit systems and technology / V.R. Vuchic. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons,
2007. 602 p.
3. Urban and regional transportation modeling: essays in honor of David Boyce / ed. by D.-H. Lee.
Cheltenham: Elgar, 2004. 398 p.
4. Jönson, G. Urban transport development: a complex issue / G. nson, E. Tengström. Berlin: Spring-
er, 2005. 301 p.
5. Gromule, V. Coach terminal as important element of transport infrastructure / V. Gromule, I. Yatskiv //
Transport. 2007. Vol. 22, Issue 3. PP. 200 206.
6. Attard, M. Sustainable urban transport / M. Attard, Y. Shiftan. Bingley: Emerald, 2015. 271 p.
7. Про автомобільний транспорт: закон України від 05.04.2001 № 2344-III, редакція від 28.12.2015 //
Відомості Верховної Ради України. — 2016. 4. С. 44.
References
1. NationMaster. (n.d.). Motor vehicles per 1000 people: Countries compared. Retrieved from
http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/stats/Transport/Road/Motor-vehicles-per-1000-people
2. Vuchic, V.R. (2007). Urban Transit Systems and Technology. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.
3. Lee, D.H. (Ed.) (2004). Urban and Regional Transportation Modeling: Essays in Honor of David
Boyce. Cheltenham: Elgar.
4. Jönson, G., & Tengström, E. (2005). Urban Transport Development: A Complex Issue. Berlin:
Springer.
5. Gromule, V., & Yatskiv, I. (2007). Coach terminal as important element of transport infrastructure.
Transport, 22(3), 200206.
6. Attard, M., & Shiftan, Y. (2015). Sustainable Urban Transport. Bingley: Emerald.
7. Law of Ukraine “On Automobile Transport” (Vidomosti Verkhovnoi Rady Ukrainy, 2016, No. 4, p. 44).
Received September 10, 2016
Accepted October 15, 2016
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
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The determination of the coach terminal as passenger logistics hub is described. The factors responsible for successful functioning of this hub are discussed. The location of the coach terminal is one of the important factors. The present coach terminal is located in the heart of the city where land availability is critical. The simulation model of the terminal was developed to complement the design and construction of a new one. The used simulation package VISSIM has visual reference to assist in explaining the complexity of transport node's job and analysis of possible congestions. During the development of the modelling the critical bottlenecks are identified and decisions are taken to reduce the risk of their occurrence, the solution being immediately incorporated into the final design of the coach terminal under development.
Article
Full-text available
The determination of the coach terminal as passenger logistics hub is described. The factors responsible for successful functioning of this hub are discussed. The location of the coach terminal is one of the important factors. The present coach terminal is located in the heart of the city where land availability is critical. The simulation model of the terminal was developed to complement the design and construction of a new one. The used simulation package VISSIM has visual reference to assist in explaining the complexity of transport node’s job and analysis of possible congestions. During the development of the modelling the critical bottlenecks are identified and decisions are taken to reduce the risk of their occurrence, the solution being immediately incorporated into the final design of the coach terminal under development.
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'This collection in honor of David Boyce contains genuinely interesting and quality papers that reflect the diversity of interests of the honoree. David Boyce has made a number of significant contributions at the interface of transportation and regional science. He has been a pioneer of injecting rigor and consistency into spatial analysis. The papers here both reflect the ethos of this copious body of analysis and take it further in extensions and applications. It will prove to be an enduring source of ideas and insight.' - Kenneth Button, George Mason University, US.
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Urban Transport Development is a contribution to the ongoing global discussion on the future of urban transport. The main themes are how to cope with the complexity of urban transport development and the process of change including its determining factors. The role of leadership in the development process is the key issue. Main are as of discussion are the historical background, the diversity and complexity of present problems, and the outcome of attempts to promote positive future development in urban environments around the world.
№ 2344-III, редакція від 28.12.2015 // Відомості Верховної Ради України
  • Транспорт Про Автомобільний
Про автомобільний транспорт: закон України від 05.04.2001 № 2344-III, редакція від 28.12.2015 // Відомості Верховної Ради України.-2016.-№ 4.-С. 44.
Motor vehicles per 1000 people: Countries compared
  • Nationmaster
NationMaster. (n.d.). Motor vehicles per 1000 people: Countries compared. Retrieved from http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/stats/Transport/Road/Motor-vehicles-per-1000-people
Urban Transit Systems and Technology
  • V R Vuchic
Vuchic, V.R. (2007). Urban Transit Systems and Technology. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.