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Aluminum in Childhood Vaccines is Unsafe


Abstract and Figures

Aluminum is a neurotoxin, yet infants and young children are repeatedly injected with aluminum adjuvants from multiple vaccines during critical periods of brain development. Numerous studies provide credible evidence that aluminum adversely affects important biological functions and may contribute to neurodegenerative and autoimmune disorders. It is impossible to predetermine which vaccinated babies will succumb to aluminum poisoning. Aluminum-free health options are needed.
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109Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons Volume 21 Number 4 Winter 2016
Aluminum is a neurotoxin, yet infants and young children
are repeatedly injected with aluminum adjuvants from
multiple vaccines during critical periods of brain development.
Numerous studies provide credible evidence that aluminum
adversely affects important biological functions and may
contribute to neurodegenerative and autoimmune disorders.
It is impossible to predetermine which vaccinated babies
will succumb to aluminum poisoning. Aluminum-free health
options are needed.
From 1999 through 2002, several vaccines containing
mercury were phased out of the childhood immunization
schedule. Manufacturing of childhood vaccines with thimerosal
ceased in 2001, but those that were not past their expiration
date remained on the market for sale until January 2003.1 They
were replaced with low-mercury or “thimerosal-free” vaccines.
In the years that followed, autism rates continued to rise,
prompting health authorities to assert that autism is not linked
to mercury in vaccines and that vaccination policies are safe and
appropriate.2-4 (If mercury in vaccines contributed to autism,
then rates should have dropped after mercury was removed.)
However, in 2002, during this so-called phase-out period, the
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) actually
added two doses of mercury-containing influenza vaccines to
the list of inoculations urged for all babies 6 to 23 months of
age.5 Two years later, the CDC also added pregnant women in
their first trimester to the list of people officially recommended
and actively encouraged to receive influenza vaccines, even
though a majority of available doses contained mercury.6
In addition to these questionable actions during this highly
publicized “phase-out” of mercury, four doses of a new vaccine
with high aluminum content were added to the childhood
immunization schedule in February 2000 (for pneumococcus)
and two doses of another aluminum-containing vaccine (for
hepatitis A) were added in 2005.7,8 These changes to the vaccine
schedule resulted in a substantial increase of aluminum-
containing vaccine doses—from 10 to 16 injections—that
babies are still mandated to receive by 18 months of age.
Prior to the mercury phase-out (pre-2000), babies received
3,925 micrograms (mcg) of aluminum in their first year-and-a-
half of life. After pneumococcal and hepatitis A vaccines were
added to the immunization schedule, babies began receiving
4,925 mcg of aluminum during the same age period—a
25% increase (Figure 1).9,10 In 2011, CDC recommended that
pregnant women receive a pertussis vaccine (Tdap), which also
contains aluminum.11 Studies show that aluminum crosses the
placenta and accumulates in fetal tissue.12 Thus, millions of
Aluminum in Childhood Vaccines Is Unsafe
Neil Z. Miller
Figure 1. Aluminum Content from Childhood Vaccines
Vaccines containing aluminum were added to the childhood
immunization schedule when some vaccines containing mercury
were removed. Prior to the mercury phase-out (pre-2000), babies
received 3,925 mcg of aluminum by 18 months of age. After
pneumococcal and hepatitis A vaccines were added to the schedule,
babies began receiving 4,925 mcg of aluminum during the same
age period—a 25% increase.
Source: The vaccine manufacturers’ product inserts and the CDC’s
annual childhood vaccination schedules.
babies in utero, infants, and young children were injected
with, and continue to receive, unnaturally high doses of
neurotoxic substances—mercury and aluminum—long after
unsuspecting parents were led to believe that vaccines were
purified and made safe.
Aluminum adjuvants are added to several vaccines to
elicit a more robust immune response and increase vaccine
efficacy. In the United States, Canada, Europe, Australia,
and many other parts of the world, infants and young
children receive high quantities of aluminum from multiple
inoculations. For example, in the U.S. the hepatitis B, DTaP
(for diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis), pneumococcal (PCV),
Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), and hepatitis A vaccines
are all administered during early childhood. Each of these
Vaccines containing aluminum were added to the childhood
immunization schedule when some vaccines containing mercury
were removed. Prior to the mercury phase-out (pre-2000), babies
received 3,925 mcg of aluminum by 18 months of age. After
pneumococcalandhepatitisAvaccineswereadded totheschedule,
babiesbegan receiving 4,925 mcgofaluminumduringthesameage
Source:The vaccine manufacturers' product inserts and the CDC’s
annual childhood vaccination schedules.
3925 3925 3925 3925
4925 4925
1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2005 2016
110 Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons Volume 21 Number 4 Winter 2016
Babies are not the only age group exposed to high
quantities of aluminum from vaccines. The HPV vaccine
(indicated for the prevention of cervical cancer and genital
warts associated with some strains of human papillomavirus)
is marketed to pre-teens and adolescents. Each dose in the
three-dose series contains 500 mcg of aluminum. The Tdap
vaccine (for tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis) is given to
pre-teens as well, and contains 390 mcg of aluminum.13
Several adult vaccines also contain aluminum.
Aluminum is neurotoxic and has a long history of well-
documented hazards.14 For example, as early as 1921 The
Lancet described a 46-year-old metal worker in whom
“aluminium produced a rather slow intoxication. In this
case it caused memory loss, tremor, jerky movements
and incontinence of urine.15 In 1927, Dr. Victor Vaughn, a
toxicologist with the University of Michigan, testified before
the Federal Trade Commission that “all salts of aluminum are
poisonous when injected subcutaneously or intravenously.16
By 1951, Chusid et al. showed that chronic epilepsy could be
induced in monkeys through intra-cerebral administration of
aluminum hydroxide cream.17 In 1968, Driver et al. performed
a similar experiment by placing aluminum hydroxide cream
unilaterally on the posterior parietal cortex of six monkeys.18
From 3 to 8 weeks after surgery, electrical abnormalities
could be seen on an electroencephalogram and the monkeys
exhibited “episodic twitching of the limbs and face. The
animals were also impaired at learning new tasks and at re-
learning tasks first learned prior to the intervention.
According to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP),
“Aluminum is now being implicated as interfering with a
variety of cellular and metabolic processes in the nervous
system and in other tissues.1 9 Bishop et al. published data
showing that “aluminum accumulates in the body when
protective gastrointestinal mechanisms are bypassed, renal
function is impaired, and exposure is high.20 For example,
in premature infants, “prolonged intravenous feeding with
solutions containing aluminum is associated with impaired
neurologic development” by 18 months of age. More
recently, Kawahara et al. published research confirming that
“aluminum can cause severe health problems in particular
populations, including infants.21 The authors of this paper
also declared that “whilst being environmentally abundant,
aluminum is not essential for life. On the contrary, aluminum
is a widely recognized neurotoxin that inhibits more than
200 biologically important functions and causes various
adverse effects in plants, animals, and humans.
Neurologic and Autoimmune Disorders
Numerous studies provide compelling evidence that
injected aluminum is detrimental to health. For example,
a recent paper by Tomljenovic and Shaw affirmed that
aluminum is a neurotoxin and may be a co-factor in several
neurodegenerative disorders and diseases, including
Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral
sclerosis (ALS), autism, and epilepsy.22 According to the authors,
“The continued use of aluminum adjuvants in various vaccines
for children as well as the general public may be of significant
concern. In particular, aluminum presented in this form carries
a risk for autoimmunity, long-term brain inflammation and
associated neurological complications and may thus have
profound and widespread adverse health consequences.
Figure 2. Cumulative Aluminum Exposure from Recommended
Childhood Vaccines
Table 1. Aluminum Exposures in Early Childhood from
Recommended Vaccines
vaccines contains aluminum, and multiple doses (booster
shots) are required (Table 1). Babies are injected with 1,225
mcg of aluminum instantaneously at age 2 months, and
4,925 mcg of accumulated aluminum by age 18 months
(Figure 2).9,10
and the CDC’s 2016 childhood vaccination
Vaccine Aluminum Content Vaccine Schedule
Hep B 250mcgx3doses Birth,2,6months
DTaP 625mcgx4doses 2,4,6,15months
PCV 125mcgx4doses 2,4,6,12months
Hib 225mcgx3doses 2,4,12months
Hep A 250mcgx2doses 12,18months
Source: The vaccine manufacturers’ product inserts and the CDC’s 2016
childhood vaccination schedule.
Source: The vaccine manufacturers’ product inserts and the CDC’s 2016
childhood vaccination schedule.
months of age and 4,925 mcg of accumulated aluminum by 18
Source: The vaccine manufacturers’ product inserts and the
CDC’s 2016 childhood vaccination schedule.
0 500 1000 1500
4,925 mcg
aluminum by
18 months
Recent data by Perricone et al. showed that aluminum
adjuvants in vaccines have been linked to multiple sclerosis,
systemic lupus erythematosus, chronic fatigue syndrome,
Gulf War syndrome, macrophagic myofasciitis, arthritis, and
autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants
(ASIA syndrome), an autoimmune disease with neurological
and cognitive manifestations.23 Clinical symptoms associated
with vaccine-induced autoimmunity can take months or
years to manifest, much longer than the time intervals
utilized in most vaccine safety studies.
Although aluminum is a neurotoxin, pre-school
children are repeatedly injected with aluminum adjuvants
from multiple vaccines during critical periods of brain
development. A recent paper published in the journal
Lupus found that this may lead to neuro-developmental
and autoimmune disorders.24 During early development, the
child’s blood-brain barrier is more permeable to toxins, and
the kidneys are less able to eliminate them. Thus, children
have a greater risk than adults of adverse reactions to
aluminum adjuvants in vaccines. The authors of this paper
issued the following warning: “Because children may be
most at risk of vaccine-induced complications, a rigorous
evaluation of the vaccine-related adverse health impacts in
the pediatric population is urgently needed.
Macrophagic Myofasciitis (MMF)
Some people develop macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF)
after receiving an aluminum-containing vaccine.25 -39 MMF
is characterized by an aluminum-filled lesion (wound) at
the site of an earlier vaccination. MMF lesions occur when
the aluminum adjuvant from a vaccine remains embedded
in the muscle tissue and causes a continuous immune
reaction. The lesions are persistent, long-term granulomas
(or inflammatory tumors) found in the quadriceps in children
and deltoid muscles of adults, common vaccination sites.
Several vaccines contain aluminum hydroxide, which has
been identified as the causal factor of MMF lesions.25
Although MMF is associated with a macrophagic lesion
at the site of vaccination, it is a systemic ailment. Symptoms
include chronic fatigue, chronic diffuse myalgia (muscle
weakness), arthralgia (joint pain), and disabling headaches.
Aluminum’s toxic effects can also manifest as impaired
psychomotor control, repetitive behavior, speech disorders,
sleep disturbances, seizures, confusion, and anxiety, as
well as deficits of concentration, learning, and memory.
Nearly 20% of patients with MMF develop an autoimmune
disease, including neuromuscular and multiple sclerosis-like
demyelinating disorders.26-28
Several descriptive studies document MMF in pediatric
populations. For example, Spanish scientists presented data
on seven children younger than 3 years of age with lesions of
macrophages on muscle biopsies at the site of vaccination.29
In three of four cases tested, elevated levels of aluminum in
muscle were detected (indicative of a reaction to aluminum
Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons Volume 21 Number 4 Winter 2016
adjuvants in vaccines). All of the children developed
hypotonia (a lack of normal muscle tone) and motor or
psychomotor delay. Six of the children also had abnormal
neuro-imaging, associated with neurological anomalies,
including atrophy and abnormal myelination.
In the U.S., Gruis et al. evaluated four cases of MMF in
young children with hypotonia, motor delay and failure to
thrive, likely due to intramuscular injections of aluminum-
containing vaccines.30 Another team of American physicians
evaluated MMF in two fully vaccinated children. Both
showed typical aluminum-filled macrophages at muscle
biopsies.31 One child had abnormal pupillary reflexes and
urinary retention suggesting dysautonomia while the other
child had developmental delay and hypotonia.
Israeli researchers documented MMF in six Arab
children.32 Reactions included hypotonia, seizures, motor
delay, and developmental delay. The authors of this paper
believe that genetic predisposition is a factor in determining
the prevalence of MMF in different populations.
German researchers documented MMF in a 3-month-
old East Indian child following his hepatitis B vaccine at
birth, “after which he developed generalized hypotonia,
and central nervous system and peripheral nervous system
manifestations at one month of age.”33 The child also had
respiratory failure, decreased spontaneous movements,
apnea spells, and generalized seizures. Aluminum was
detected in the muscle biopsy macrophages. The authors
recommend that “after vaccination, children should be
closely followed to detect these complications at early
Italian researchers believe that MMF in children “is
probably more common than reported. Diagnosis requires
a high index of suspicion and can be missed if biopsy
is performed outside the vaccination site.34 According
to Canadian MMF researchers, “aluminum has been
demonstrated to impact the central nervous system at
every level, including by changing gene expression. These
outcomes should raise concerns about the increasing use of
aluminum salts as vaccine adjuvants.Moreover, “based on
the current and emerging literature, it seems unlikely that in
the future aluminum will be considered safe for human use
in any of the current medicinal applications.28
Animal Studies
A recent paper by Luján et al. found that sheep developed
a new type of autoimmune and inflammatory disorder—
ovine autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by
adjuvants (ASIA)—after receiving vaccines containing
aluminum adjuvants.40 The condition appears in some
sheep two to six days after they are vaccinated. Symptoms
of the acute phase include poor response to external stimuli
and acute meningoencephalitis. The chronic phase causes
muscular atrophy, neurodegeneration of the gray matter of
the spinal cord, and death.
112 Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons Volume 21 Number 4 Winter 2016
Khan et al. conducted several mouse experiments to
determine the long-term biological distribution of vaccine-
related aluminum nanoparticles.41 They discovered that
aluminum travels from the injection site to distant organs
such as the spleen and brain, where aluminum deposits
could still be detected one year later. Aluminum remains
in monocyte-lineage cells long after vaccination and may
cause neurologic and autoimmune disorders. According to
these scientists, “Alum has high neurotoxic potential, and
administration of continuously escalating doses of this
poorly biodegradable adjuvant in the population should
be carefully evaluated by regulatory agencies since the
compound may be insidiously unsafe.
Scientists also looked at whether Gulf War Syndrome,
which afflicted many veterans of Western militaries with
cognitive and behavioral deficits similar to ALS (a progressive
neurodegenerative disease that destroys nerve cells), could
be related to the aluminum-containing anthrax vaccines
they received. In a series of studies, mice were injected with
adjuvants at doses equivalent to those given to vaccinated U.S.
Gulf War veterans.42,43 The aluminum-injected mice exhibited
significant deficits in memory and motor functions. Testing
showed motor neuron loss and progressive deficiencies in
strength. The mice also had pathological abnormalities that
are characteristic of neurological diseases such as Alzheimer’s
and dementia. According to the authors of these studies,
“The demonstrated neurotoxicity of aluminum hydroxide
and its relative ubiquity as an adjuvant suggest that greater
scrutiny by the scientific community is warranted.43
Israeli scientists recently evaluated an aluminum adjuvant
and the HPV vaccine Gardasil to determine behavioral and
inflammatory effects.44 Female mice were injected with
either aluminum or Gardasil in amounts equivalent to
human exposure, or they received a true placebo. (Vaccine
safety trials for the HPV vaccine did not provide the
control group with an inert substance or true placebo; the
“control” group was injected with aluminum.) The Gardasil
and aluminum-injected mice spent significantly more time
exhibiting depressive behavior when compared to the
placebo-injected mice. In addition, anti-HPV antibodies from
the sera of Gardasil-injected mice showed cross-reactivity
with the mouse brain protein extract. Analysis revealed
microglial activation in the hippocampi of Gardasil-injected
mice. According to the authors, “It appears that Gardasil via
its aluminum adjuvant and HPV antigens has the ability to
trigger neuroinflammation and autoimmune reactions,
further leading to behavioral changes.
There is evidence that aluminum in vaccines may be
linked to autism. For example, the Journal of Inorganic
Biochemistry published data showing a highly significant
positive linear correlation between the amount of aluminum
infants receive from their vaccines and the rates of autism
in several developed nations (Pearson r = 0.89-0.94).45
The authors of this ecological study commented on their
findings: “Our results...suggest that a causal relationship may
exist between the amount of aluminum administered to
preschool children at various ages through vaccination and
the rising prevalence of autism spectrum disorders.
In another recently published paper, Shaw et al. found
that genetic predispositions may sensitize some children
to central nervous system damage induced by aluminum-
containing pediatric vaccines.46 Moreover, vaccines with
aluminum adjuvants are injected into the body, bypassing
protective barriers of the gastrointestinal tract and skin.
Absorption of aluminum by this mode is more efficient
than through ingestion, increasing the likelihood of a toxic
outcome. The authors summarized their findings: “Evidence
has now emerged showing that autism may in part result
from early-life immune insults induced by environmental
xenobiotics. One of the most common xenobiotic with
immuno-stimulating as well as neurotoxic properties to
which infants under two years of age are routinely exposed
worldwide is the aluminum vaccine adjuvant.
Recent research published in the Journal of Toxicology
found that aluminum exposure produces adverse effects in
living organisms and is especially damaging to the central
nervous system.47 Aluminum from vaccine adjuvants crosses
the blood-brain and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barriers,
provoking harmful immuno-inflammatory responses in
neural tissues. Yet, clinical studies on vaccine safety often
give aluminum-containing injections to a “control” group as
a harmless “placebo” despite evidence that aluminum is toxic
to humans and animals. The use of aluminum as a placebo
cannot be justified. According to the authors of this paper,
“Studies on animal models and humans have shown that
aluminum adjuvants by themselves cause autoimmune and
inflammatory conditions. These findings plausibly implicate
aluminum adjuvants in pediatric vaccines as causal factors
contributing to increased rates of autism spectrum disorders
in countries where multiple doses are almost universally
In another recent animal study, young mice were injected
with either high or low levels of aluminum adjuvants
(designed to correlate with U.S. or Scandinavian childhood
vaccine schedules).48 Significant changes in the mice were
observed, affirming the role of aluminum adjuvants in
adversely altering the central nervous system. The authors
commented on their findings: “These current data implicate
aluminum injected in early postnatal life in some central
nervous system alterations that may be relevant for a better
understanding of the etiology of autism spectrum disorders.
Vaccine Industry Conferences and Concerns
In May 2000—3 months after the CDC added the
aluminum-containing pneumococcal vaccine to the
recommended immunization schedule for children—the U.S.
113Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons Volume 21 Number 4 Winter 2016
Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) sponsored
a Workshop on Aluminum in Vaccines.49,50 The workshop,
given in San Juan, Puerto Rico, was attended by members
of the vaccine industry, including government officials,
immunologists, pathologists, vaccine manufacturers, metal
ion specialists, and other interested people. It was organized
to increase knowledge about aluminum as an adjuvant in
vaccines, investigate potential adverse reactions associated
with aluminum in vaccines, and develop a research agenda
on the effect of aluminum in the human body. Experts from
around the world were invited to give their presentations on
vaccines and aluminum.
Dr. Romain Gherardi, a specialist in neuromuscular
disease and professor at the Mondor Institute of Biomedical
Research, showed that MMF without vaccination does not
occur. In fact, it often begins after receiving a hepatitis B
vaccine. Myalgia was present in 94% of patients with MMF,
and 85% of these people were disabled. Although 30% of
patients had their first myalgias within 3 months after their
last vaccination, 20% of patients’ symptoms took longer than
2 years to manifest. These myalgias begin in the calves and
legs, then progress to diffuse myalgia. Fatigue was present
in 93% of patients with MMF, and 87% of these people were
disabled. In addition, 34% of MMF patients had autoimmune
disease, including multiple sclerosis and arthritis.50, pp 48-74
In June 2000, the CDC sponsored a conference on
thimerosal (mercury) in vaccines, although aluminum was
discussed as well.51 CDC scientists analyzed the agency’s
Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) database containing
thousands of medical records of vaccinated children and
found statistically significant relationships between mercury
in vaccines and developmental delay, tics, and attention
deficit disorder.51, pp 40-41 However, Dr. Tom Verstraeten,
CDC epidemiologist, analyzed the data and determined
that the injuries could have been caused by aluminum in
the vaccines.51, p 77 It is also possible that the neurological
damage was due to the synergistic effects of both aluminum
and mercury in the vaccines given to the affected children.
Although millions of children every year are required
to receive vaccines containing aluminum and mercury,
evidence supporting the safety of this practice is lacking. For
example, according to Dr. Richard Johnston, immunologist
and professor of pediatrics at the University of Colorado
School of Medicine, “Aluminum and mercury are often
simultaneously administered to infants, both at the same
site and at different sites. However...there is absolutely no
data, including animal data, about the potential for synergy,
additivity or antagonism, all of which can occur in binary
metal mixtures.51, p 20 Dr. Alison Maule, who attended the
Workshop on Aluminum in Vaccines, voiced similar concerns:
“We need to bear in mind that we are not only putting
aluminum in here, we are putting in mercury.... Often these
effects are additive but there is always the possibility of
synergy. We know nothing about that.50, p 106 Dr. Vito Caserta,
chief medical officer for the Vaccine Injury Compensation
Program, had this to say: “One of the things I learned at the
aluminum conference in Puerto Rico…that I never really
understood before, is the interactive effect of different metals
when they are together in the same organism. It is not the
same as when they are alone, and I think it would be foolish
for us not to include aluminum as part of our thinking with
this.”51, p 234 Dr. William Weil, pediatrician, former member of
the National Institutes of Health, and representative for the
AAP Committee on Environmental Health, was also present
at the CDC conference and made his concerns known: “In
relationship to aluminum, being a nephrologist for a long
time, the potential for aluminum and central nervous system
toxicity was well established by dialysis data. To think there
isn’t some possible problem here is unreal.51, pp 24-25
Some health authorities who oversee federal vaccine
initiatives candidly acknowledge their limited understanding
of metals—aluminum and mercury—that are added to
several vaccines. For example, Dr. Martin Myers, director of
the National Vaccine Program Office and host of the HHS-
sponsored Workshop on Aluminum in Vaccines, made a frank
admission: “Perhaps the most important thing that I took
away from the last meeting was that those of us who deal
with vaccines have really very little applicable background
with metals and toxicological research.49, pp 1-2 Dr. Neal Halsey,
director of the Institute for Vaccine Safety, Johns Hopkins
Bloomberg School of Public Health, and former member of
the CDC’s Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices
(ACIP), was also present at the workshop on aluminum. He
had concerns regarding missing data: “We do not seem to
have information on the age-related toxicity of aluminum,
especially when we are dealing with very young infants….
We do not know whether or not there is a difference in
susceptibility by age, as there [is] with other metals.50, pp 83-84
Some health authorities seemed to admit that even if
aluminum is dangerous, it would be burdensome to remove
it. For example, according to Dr. John Clements with the World
Health Organizations Expanded Programme on Immunization,
“There are not easy and obvious substitutes to aluminum
adjuvants…. The existing vaccines, if they change the adjuvant
for any reason, would need to be resubmitted for clinical trials
for safety and efficacy and it would take a great deal of time
to do that.50, p 75 Furthermore, “Aluminum is not perceived, I
believe, by the public as a dangerous metal. Therefore, we are
in a much more comfortable wicket in terms of defending its
presence in vaccines.49, p 64
Note: In 2005, 5 years after conference attendees
spoke out about a lack of data on the effects of mixing
different metals in childhood vaccines, Dr. Boyd Haley,
former professor of medicinal chemistry and chairman of
the chemistry department at the University of Kentucky,
published a study in which he investigated the effect of
combining aluminum hydroxide with thimerosal.52 In this
study, cultured neurons showed no significant cell death six
hours after they were exposed to just aluminum; more than
90% survived. Thimerosal alone also caused few neurons
114 Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons Volume 21 Number 4 Winter 2016
to die after six hours of exposure. Again, more than 90%
survived. However, when cultured neurons were exposed to
aluminum and thimerosal, only about 40% survived after six
hours, clearly demonstrating synergistic toxicity (Figure 3).
exhibit symptoms for several weeks, months, or years, so
it’s very difficult for vaccine recipients to recognize that the
vaccines they received some time ago may be related to
their current disabling autoimmune ailments.
A few years later, the FDA published a study, Mitkus et
al., in which the authors concluded that “the benefits of
using vaccines containing aluminum adjuvant outweigh
any theoretical concerns.54 This study is often cited as a
confirmation that injecting babies with multiple doses of
aluminum-containing vaccines is safe. However, there are
major flaws in the FDA’s analysis:
1. To determine an aluminum intake “minimal risk level”
(MRL) for humans, a single animal study was used.55 This study
found that mice could receive up to 26 milligrams of aluminum
per kilogram of body weight per day (26 mg/kg/day) with no
adverse effects. After considering differences between mice
and humans (and other factors), this number was reduced
to create a margin of safety, and an MRL of 1 mg/kg/day was
established for humans, including infants.56 But there is a
problem: 26 mg/kg/day is not a safe amount of aluminum
for animals. Several studies confirm that animals are harmed
by much lower quantities of aluminum—3.4 to 6.1 mg/kg/
day—and at least three of these studies were published
before the FDA paper in 2011, so the FDA study was fallacious
at its inception.57-60 Rats that were given just 6.1 mg/kg/day
aluminum (30 mg/kg/day AlCl3) needed significantly more
repetitions to learn a maze when compared to a control
group.57 Rats that were given just 5.6 mg/kg/day aluminum
(50 mg/kg/day AlCl3-6H2O) had significantly impaired spatial
learning and memory abilities when compared to a control
group. They also had cellular shrinking, plus behavioral,
biochemical, and histological alterations.58 Rats that were
given just 3.4 mg/kg/day aluminum (17 mg/kg/day AlCl3)
“showed behavioral, biochemical, and histological changes
similar to those associated with Alzheimer’s disease. 60
2. The MRL for humans is derived from dietary aluminum
fed to mice. But infants are injected with aluminum. Injected
aluminum bypasses the gastrointestinal tract and has unique
toxic properties compared to aluminum that is ingested.
To determine the safety of injected aluminum, scientists
must conduct experiments with injected—not ingested—
3. After vaccines containing aluminum adjuvants are
injected into the body, aluminum nanoparticles can be
transported by monocyte-lineage cells to draining lymph
nodes, blood and spleen—and may also penetrate the brain.41
Aluminum is unsafe even in trace quantities. For example,
just 50 nanomolars of aluminum are sufficient to generate
reactive oxygen species (ROS), or oxidative stress, in human
primary neuronal-glial cell cultures and induce inflammatory
gene expression.61 In another study, just 10 nanomolars of
aluminum increased C-reactive protein (CRP) levels four-
fold, causing inflammation in human brain microvessel
endothelial cells.62 But the FDA assumes, without evidence,
that these poorly biodegradable aluminum nanoparticles,
Figure 3. Survival of Neurons Exposed to Aluminum, Thimerosal,
or Both
Unconvincing Evidence of Adjuvant Safety
Although several high-level representatives of the CDC,
World Health Organization (WHO), American Academy of
Pediatrics, Institute for Vaccine Safety, National Vaccine
Program Office, and Vaccine Injury Compensation Program
who attended the conferences on aluminum and thimerosal
had serious concerns about the potential hazards associated
with aluminum in vaccines, a conference report and
workshop summary published in the journal Vaccine 2 years
later declared that “the message from this conference for the
global public should stress the safety of both these adjuvants
and these vaccines,” despite acknowledging that “we don’t
know” how aluminum adjuvants interact with the immune
system and how it is processed by infants and children.53 The
conference report minimized risks by claiming that aluminum
has been used as a vaccine adjuvant for more than 70 years
and “has an established safety record with low incidence
of reported adverse events. However, no one is warning
vaccine recipients to consider the possibility that their
adverse event could be related to aluminum in their vaccines
nor encouraging them to report it to health authorities.
Furthermore, research indicates that many people who have
adverse reactions to aluminum-containing vaccines won’t
Cultured neurons showed no significant cell death 6 hours after
they were exposed to just aluminum; more than 90% survived.
Thimerosalalone also caused few neuronstodieafter6hoursof
exposure. Again, more than 90% survived. However, when
about 40% survived after 6 hours, clearly demonstrating
90% 90%
Aluminum Thimerosal Alum&Thim
115Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons Volume 21 Number 4 Winter 2016
which have been detected in body organs up to a year after
vaccination, are harmless, and they are not calculated by
the FDA as part of the aluminum “body burden” until they
4. The “retention function for aluminum,” a mathematical
equation that the FDA used to help estimate levels of
aluminum in infants, was derived from data on only one
person, an adult (rather than from numerous infants), and an
estimate on the rate of absorption of aluminum hydroxide
following injection was based on data from just two rabbits.
The FDA paper also falsely claimed that “occasional
irritation (dermal) at the site of injection is the only adverse
effect that has been reported in the published literature”
following injections of aluminum-containing vaccines. And
the clinical symptoms in patients diagnosed with MMF “are
considered to be due to separate, coincidental immune or
neurological disorders that are unrelated to the presence
of aluminum in vaccines.5 4 The Global Advisory Committee
on Vaccine Safety, established by WHO, welcomed the FDA’s
analysis endorsing the safety of aluminum in vaccines.63 The
CDC vigorously defends the presence of aluminum in vaccines
as well.64 Clearly, FDA, CDC, and WHO agree on continuing
indefinitely with their current policies of injecting babies
with multiple doses of aluminum-containing vaccines.
Aluminum Toxicity Acknowledged for Parenteral Nutrition
Although the FDA’s recent paper advocates the continued
use of aluminum in childhood vaccines, FDA has known for
many years that aluminum can be dangerous. For example,
some infants require parenteral nourishment (administered
by intravenous injection). All parenteral nutritional formulas
contain aluminum. According to the FDA, “when medication
and nutrition are administered orally, the gastrointestinal
tract acts as an efficient barrier to the absorption of
aluminum, and relatively little ingested aluminum actually
reaches body tissues. However, parenterally administered
drug products containing aluminum bypass the protective
mechanism of the gastrointestinal tract and aluminum
circulates and is deposited in human tissues.65
In a 1997 study published in the New England Journal
of Medicine, scientists assessed 182 infants who received
intravenous injections of nutritional formula that contained
differing quantities of aluminum.20 They calculated that
infants who received aluminum at greater than 4 to 5 mcg/
kg/day would lose 1 point per day on the Bayley Mental
Development Index (p = 0.03). Babies who score low on
this test are at risk for subsequent developmental and
educational problems. This study contributed to FDA’s
decision to set limits on aluminum content in parenteral
drug products and require warning labels on the package
inserts—safety measures that were never required with
aluminum-containing vaccines. In the Code of Federal
Regulations, Title 21, published in the Federal Register,
aluminum toxicity levels are revealed:
WARNING: This product contains aluminum that
may be toxic.... Research indicates that patients
with impaired kidney function, including premature
neonates, who receive [injections] of aluminum at
greater than 4 to 5 mcg per kilogram of body weight
per day, accumulate aluminum at levels associated
with central nervous system and bone toxicity. Tissue
loading may occur at even lower rates.66
This means that for a 6-pound baby with impaired kidney
function, 11-14 mcg of injected aluminum would be toxic.
The hepatitis B vaccine given at birth contains 250 mcg of
aluminum—20 times higher than safety levels indicated for
preemies. Babies weigh about 12 pounds at two months of
age when they are injected with 1,225 mcg of aluminum
from their CDC-recommended vaccines—50 times higher
than safety levels for preemies.
Healthy babies may be able to handle quantities of
aluminum above FDA toxicity levels indicated for patients
with impaired kidney function. However, no one knows how
much more aluminum is safe because adequate studies were
never conducted. In addition, babies are not screened for
renal function prior to vaccination. Therefore, it is impossible
to know ahead of time which babies will succumb to
aluminum poisoning. Instead, parents are expected to play
Russian roulette with their children.
Aluminum adjuvants are added to several vaccines
to elicit a more robust immune response and increase
vaccine efficacy. Infants and young children throughout the
world receive high quantities of aluminum from multiple
inoculations. Incremental changes to the vaccination
schedule during the past several years significantly
increased the quantity of aluminum in childhood shots.
Numerous studies provide compelling evidence that
injected aluminum can be detrimental to health. Aluminum
is capable of remaining in cells long after vaccination and
may cause neurologic and autoimmune disorders. During
early development, the child’s brain is more susceptible to
toxins and the kidneys are less able to eliminate them. Thus,
children have a greater risk than adults of adverse reactions
to aluminum in vaccines.
Millions of children every year are injected with vaccines
containing mercury and aluminum despite well-established
experimental evidence of the potential for additive or
synergistic toxicity when an organism is exposed to two
or more toxic metals. Dr. Haley’s study in which cultured
neurons died at an accelerated rate following concurrent
exposure to aluminum and thimerosal provides evidence
of an enhanced detrimental effect. In addition, aluminum
toxicity levels published by FDA indicate that two-month-old
babies who are vaccinated according to CDC guidelines may
116 Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons Volume 21 Number 4 Winter 2016
be receiving quantities of aluminum that are significantly
higher than safety levels.
Toxic metals such as aluminum do not belong in
prophylactic medications administered to children,
teenagers, or adults. Vaccines are normally recommended
for healthy people, so safety (and efficacy) standards must be
impeccable. Parents, especially, should not be compelled to
permit their loved ones to receive multiple injections of toxic
metals that could increase their risk of neurodevelopmental
and autoimmune ailments. Safe alternatives to current
disease prevention technologies are urgently needed.
Neil Z. Miller is a medical research journalist. Contact:
Disclosures: No conflicts of interest were disclosed.
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... 238,258 Physicians critical of some individual vaccines and the current vaccination schedule are concerned about potential acute and chronic safety and effectiveness issues. 106,220,[259][260][261][262][263][264][265][266][267][268][269] In this context, informed consent becomes ethically important. Mandatory vaccinations infringe on this fundamental right of a patient, parent or legal guardian, and ignore safety concerns and the inadequate science to support long-term safety and effectiveness. ...
... Current FDA policy allows "biologics" to be tested without a true placebo-controlled RCT because of the assumption that the vaccine adjuvant components are believed to be inherently safe but without any rigorous demonstration of the evidence for this belief. 106,220,254,[259][260][261][262][263][264][265] Second, many of the of RCTs and epidemiological studies showing no significant adverse event rates between the vaccines and non-inert placebo arm use very short observations periods of between 3,7, 30 or 60 days. 220 In addition, the judgment of what constitutes a vaccine-related adverse event is often left to be done by biased researchers and not to an independent team or committee. ...
... 220,287 Fourth, modern toxicological studies have shown the potential neurotoxic effects of aluminum adjuvants and ethyl mercury preservative in vaccines at current parenteral doses, and that FDA and CDC's statements on the safety of current aluminum adjuvants and ethyl mercury doses does not correspond to current knowledge. [259][260][261][262][263][264]267,286,288 There is evidence that an altered vaccination schedule with less burden of aluminum-containing vaccines will considerably lower toxic levels of aluminum in chidren. 289 Fifth, it is currently reported that vaccine failure (primary or secondary) for pertussis (DTaP, TdaP) vaccines, influenza vaccines and the MMR vaccine is a real problem, leading to infections of these vaccinated diseases, even when fully vaccinated and documented to be immunized. ...
Full-text available
Introduction: Anthroposophic medicine is a form of integrative medicine that originated in Europe but is not well known in the US. It is comprehensive and heterogenous in scope and remains provocative and controversial in many academic circles. Assessment of the nature and potential contribution of anthroposophic medicine to whole person care and global health seems appropriate. Methods: Because of the heterogenous and multifaceted character of anthroposophic medicine, a narrative review format was chosen. A Health Technology Assessment of anthroposophic medicine in 2006 was reviewed and used as a starting point. A Medline search from 2006 to July 2020 was performed using various search terms and restricted to English. Books, articles, reviews and websites were assessed for clinical relevance and interest to the general reader. Abstracts of German language articles were reviewed when available. Reference lists of articles and the author's personal references were also consulted. Results: The literature on anthroposophic medicine is vast, providing new ways of thinking, a holistic view of the world, and many integrating concepts useful in medicine. In the last 20 years there has been a growing research base and implementation of many anthroposophical concepts in the integrated care of patients. Books and articles relevant to describing the foundations, scientific status, safety, effectiveness and criticisms of anthroposophic medicine are discussed. Discussion: An objective and comprehensive analysis of anthroposophic medicine finds it provocative, stimulating and potentially fruitful as an integrative system for whole person care, including under-recognized life processes and psycho-spiritual aspects of human beings. It has a legitimate, new type of scientific status as well as documented safety and effectiveness in some areas of its multimodal approach. Criticisms and controversies of anthroposophic medicine are often a result of lack of familiarity with its methods and approach and/or come from historically fixed ideas of what constitutes legitimate science.
... Besides, concerns about the high level of aluminum in milk formulas have questioned the safety of feeding infants with formulas (Chuchu et al. 2013;Igweze et al. 2020;Redgrove et al. 2019). Also, some vaccines contain high concentration of aluminum (Gołoś and Lutynska 2015;Miller 2016aMiller , 2016b. Furthermore, the use of antiperspirants is dermally exposing humans to toxic aluminum (Crisponi et al. 2013). ...
... On the 6 th of July 1988, in Camelford, UK, it was reported that 20 tons of aluminum sulfate were discharged into the water supply by mistake (Miller 2016b). The aluminum sulfate was destined to a tank at Lowermoor Water Treatment Works. ...
... However, aluminum formulations can cause allergic responses such as redness, pain, and itchiness at the injection site, but usually, they are mild (Gołoś and Lutyńska 2015). Currently, some studies are raising the concern of vaccination containing too much of the neurotoxic substance, aluminum (Miller 2016b). McFarland et al. (2020) stated that although aluminum content in some vaccines is vital to help in functionalizing the vaccinations, the health concern associated with childhood exposure to injected aluminum is of great importance. ...
Full-text available
The concern about aluminum (Al) toxicity has been proven in various cases. Some cases are associated with the fact that Al is a neurotoxic substance that has been found in high levels in the brain tissues of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), epilepsy, and autism patients. Other cases are related to infants, especially premature infants and ones with renal failure, who are at the risk of developing the central nervous system (CNS) and bone toxicity. This risk is a result of infants’ exposure to Al from milk formulas, intravenous-feeding solutions, and possibly from aluminum-containing vaccinations. Furthermore, most antiperspirants contain aluminum compounds that raise human exposure to toxic Al. This review paper is intended to discuss in detail the above concerns associated with aluminum, and hence urges the need for more studies exploring the effects of overexposure to Al and recommending mitigation actions.
... The appraisal/evaluation sub-dimension contains eight items (13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20), the minimum score to be obtained from this subdimension is 8 and the maximum score is 40. The application/use sub-dimension contains five items (21)(22)(23)(24)(25), the minimum score to be obtained from this subscale is 5, the maximum score is 25. The lowest score that can be obtained from the scale is 25, the highest score is 125. ...
... There are claims stating that aluminum is a neurotoxin and that vaccines containing aluminum in infants whose brain development is not yet completed may cause neurodevelopmental and autoimmune diseases. 22 In laboratory studies, the toxic effects of aluminum and mercury on neuron cell cultures were mentioned, and another study claimed that some sheep developed postvaccination encephalitis. 23,24 However, clinically, there are many cases of encephalitis and meningitis prevented by vaccines, as there are no case reports of vaccine-induced encephalitis. ...
Background: Bariatric surgery has come out as an effective treatment for morbid obesity due to its effects as stabilized weight loss and remission of obesity related comorbidities like type 2 diabetes. Postoperative weight loss is affected by many factors and predictors of weight loss after bariatric surgery are controversial.This study has been performed to evaluate the impact of gender and age on the short-term outcomes of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) in type 2 diabetic(T2D) obese patients. Material and Methods: In this retrospective study, the records of morbidly obese patients with a body mass index(BMI)≥40 kg/m2, aged between 18-65 years old who underwent LSG and were followed-up for at least 6 months postoperatively were reviewed.Patients were subdivided into two groups according to age(≥50 y
... The appraisal/evaluation sub-dimension contains eight items (13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20), the minimum score to be obtained from this subdimension is 8 and the maximum score is 40. The application / use sub-dimension contains five items (21)(22)(23)(24)(25), the minimum score to be obtained from this subscale is 5, the maximum score is 25. ...
... There are claims stating that aluminum is a neurotoxin and that vaccines containing aluminum in infants whose brain development is not yet completed may cause neurodevelopmental and autoimmune diseases. 22 In laboratory studies, the toxic effects of aluminum and mercury on neuron cell cultures were mentioned, and another study claimed that some sheep developed postvaccination encephalitis. 23,24 However, clinically, there are many cases of encephalitis and meningitis prevented by vaccines, as there are no case reports of vaccine-induced encephalitis. ...
Full-text available
Background This research was conducted to determining the health literacy levels and attitudes of individuals in different countries towards vaccination. Material and Methods This study is cross-sectional, comprised of eight hundred and and thirty eight participants (n=838) drawn from communities in eight different countries; Turkey (Agri), Nigeria (Ibadan), Pakistan (Charsadda), India (Assam), Malaysia (Ipoh), Madagascar (Antananarivo), Indonesia (Bandung), and Nepal (Kathmandu) between September and October 2020. Results The Health Literacy scale total score mean was 54.92±23.64. Vaccine Reliability Scale Total Score Means 55.38±12.99. It was found that there was a statistically significant negative correlation between Health Literacy scale total score mean and Vaccine Reliability Scale Total Score Means and two Vaccine Reliability Scale sub dimension; Vaccine Benefit Perception and Trust in Healthcare Professionals. Conclusions The Health Literacy total score mean was found to be statistically significantly higher among Nepal nationality, male, civil servant and those who do not think the COVID-19 vaccine will be effective and those who do not think they will receive the COVID vaccine if it is free (p<0.05). The vaccine reliability scale total score mean was found to be statistically significantly higher among India nationality, those who receive COVID-19 vaccine, who were not against the COVID-19 vaccine, who think the COVID-19 vaccine will be effective and who will receive the COVID-19 vaccine if it is free (p<0.05). It is recommended to conduct the study in a larger groups.
... Vaccine adjuvants and infant formula contain aluminium, which can cause chronic brain inflammation. Strong correlation exists between the amount of aluminium given to infants by aluminium-adjuvanted vaccines and autism rates (Miller 2016). Aluminium can be transferred by placenta and milk to foetus. ...
Biofilm is an aggregate of microorganisms enclosed inside an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) matrix adhering to living or non-living surface. It has extensively been studied since it was identified as the primary growth mode of microbial life. As biofilms are extremely resistant to antimicrobials in the clinical set-ups and food processing industries, they have been considered a threat to human health. On the other hand, biofilms also have beneficial properties and they can be exploited due to their suitability for the remediation of pollutants. Biofilms have been proved appropriate for pollutants remediation due to their high microbial biomass and pollutants immobilization capability. It has the ability of treating wastewaters having certain types of contaminants. In this chapter, we will discuss the role of the biofilms in pollutants remediation from the environment. Attention should be given to hydrocarbons, pharmaceuticals, halogenated compounds, toxic chemicals, pesticides and some heavy metals, as these groups signify the majority of significant pollutants. The biofilm structure and durability along with the varied range of metabolic and structural features make such communities striking performers in ecosystems monitoring and also in biofilm-enabled remediation solutions.
... It accumulates in the brain (Khan et al., 2013), from where it is practically non-excretable (Hem, 2002). Almost 5 mg of aluminum from parenteral vaccines can surge into the infant's body (Miller, 2016). Regarding the fact that aluminum neurotoxicity was confirmed in mice experiments (Crepeaux et al., 2017) and clinical studies (Bishop et al., 1997), in 2019 it was proposed that non-toxic zinc compounds (hydroxide, sulfate, or phosphate) could be used as an adjuvant replacement, instead (Ivanovski et al., 2019). ...
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The identification of biomarkers as diagnostic tools and predictors of response to treatment of neurological developmental disorders (NDD) such as schizophrenia (SZ), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or autism spectrum disorder (ASD), still remains an important challenge for clinical medicine. Metallomic profiles of ASD patients cover, besides essential elements such as cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, molyb-denum, zinc, selenium, also toxic metals burden of: aluminum, arsenic, mercury, lead, beryllium, nickel, cad-mium. Performed studies indicate that children with ASD present a reduced ability of eliminating toxic metals, which leads to these metals' accumulation and aggravation of autistic symptoms. Extensive metallomic studies allow a better understanding of the importance of trace elements as environmental factors in the pathogenesis of ASD. Even though a mineral imbalance is a fact in ASD, we are still expecting relevant tests and the elaboration of reference levels of trace elements as potential biomarkers useful in diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of ASD.
... In children previously vaccinated and heavily loaded with adjuvant Al 3+ [32] MCT adjuvanted vaccines theoretically could provoke additional intracellular Al 3+ loading. ...
Aluminum is inevitable component of many vaccines. The benefit of the vaccines is undeniable but effects of aluminum toxicity might be underestimated and neglected. In this review, we highlighted the mechanims of aluminum toxicity, which is still in debate. So far, all the papers that disscused the adverse aluminum effects pointed two mechanisms responsible for Al toxicity, direct Al toxicity and aluminum induced cell damage via the oxidative metabolism. According to our knowledge, which is based on basic principles of biochemistry and inorganic chemisty, we suggested that aluminum highly interferes with iron metabolism eventually resulting in iron-mediated cell damage. More importantly, in this paper, we offered easily feasible solutions, in order to avoid alumium toxicity in the future. We suggest that as it once was, Calcium Phosphate again to be used as the adjuvant or even better solution that the vaccine adjuvant should be based on zinc compounds. Until an adequate adjuvant is provided, we suggest instant postponement of vaccination with vaccines which use aluminum as the adjuvant until the 12 months of age.
... Others have questioned HIV as the cause of AIDS (50) and offered a sympathetic airing of antivaxxers' fringe view that autism is linked to vaccines, despite evidence to the contrary, even providing a forum for the discredited Andrew Wakefield (51,52,53). ...
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The perversion of science in the interest of ideology and greed is not a new phenomenon, but a public that is largely scientifically illiterate now is besieged by “alternative facts” and well‐designed efforts to discredit legitimate science on topics ranging from vaccines to climate change. Here, we examine three topics rooted in biology and biomedicine – creationism, harms from tobacco, and opioid addiction – to show that those purveying misinformation employ a consistent pattern of intellectual dishonesty to delegitimize science that challenges their ideological positions. Individual scientists and the scientific community at large should confront and counter these attacks on the intellectual integrity that is at the heart of the scientific enterprise.
The manuscript reviews the association between aluminum adjuvants (AlAd) in vaccines and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Aluminum (Al) is neurotoxic. Infants who have received AlAd in vaccines show a higher rate of ASD. The behavior of mice changes with Al injection. Patients suffering from ASD have higher concentrations of Al in their brains. Thus, AlAd is an etiologic factor in ASD. Immune efficacy led to the use of the AlAd in vaccines; however, the safety of those who are vaccinated with such vaccines has not been considered. The mechanisms of action of AlAd and the pharmacodynamics of injected AlAd used in vaccines are not well-characterized. The association between aluminum adjuvants in the vaccines and autism spectrum disorder is suggested by multiple lines of evidence.
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Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder of the brain characterized by shortfall in the social portfolio of an individual and abbreviated interactive and communication aspects rendering stereotypical behavior and pitfalls in a child’s memory, thinking, and learning capabilities. The incidence of ASD has accelerated since the past decade, portraying environment as one of the primary assets, comprising of metallic components aiming to curb the neurodevelopmental pathways in an individual. Many regulations like Clean Air Act and critical steps taken by countries all over the globe, like Sweden and the USA, have rendered the necessity to study the effects of environmental metallic components on ASD progression. The review focuses on the primary metallic components present in the environment (aluminum, lead, mercury, and arsenic), responsible for accelerating ASD symptoms by a set of general mechanisms like oxidative stress reduction, glycolysis suppression, microglial activation, and metalloprotein disruption, resulting in apoptotic signaling, neurotoxic effects, and neuroinflammatory responses. The effect of these metals can be retarded by certain protective strategies like chelation, dietary correction, certain agents (curcumin, mangiferin, selenium), and detoxification enhancement, which can necessarily halt the neurodegenerative effects. Graphical abstract
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Over the last 200 years, mining, smelting, and refining of aluminum (Al) in various forms have increasingly exposed living species to this naturally abundant metal. Because of its prevalence in the earth’s crust, prior to its recent uses it was regarded as inert and therefore harmless. However, Al is invariably toxic to living systems and has no known beneficial role in any biological systems. Humans are increasingly exposed to Al from food, water, medicinals, vaccines, and cosmetics, as well as from industrial occupational exposure. Al disrupts biological self-ordering, energy transduction, and signaling systems, thus increasing biosemiotic entropy. Beginning with the biophysics of water, disruption progresses through the macromolecules that are crucial to living processes (DNAs, RNAs, proteoglycans, and proteins). It injures cells, circuits, and subsystems and can cause catastrophic failures ending in death. Al forms toxic complexes with other elements, such as fluorine, and interacts negatively with mercury, lead, and glyphosate. Al negatively impacts the central nervous system in all species that have been studied, including humans. Because of the global impacts of Al on water dynamics and biosemiotic systems, CNS disorders in humans are sensitive indicators of the Al toxicants to which we are being exposed.
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Vaccine adjuvants and vaccines may induce autoimmune and inflammatory manifestations in susceptible individuals. To date most human vaccine trials utilize aluminum (Al) adjuvants as placebos despite much evidence showing that Al in vaccine-relevant exposures can be toxic to humans and animals. We sought to evaluate the effects of Al adjuvant and the HPV vaccine Gardasil versus the true placebo on behavioral and inflammatory parameters in female mice. Six-week-old C57BL/6 female mice were injected with either, Gardasil, Gardasil + pertussis toxin (Pt), Al hydroxide, or, vehicle control in amounts equivalent to human exposure. At 7.5 months of age, Gardasil and Al-injected mice spent significantly more time floating in the forced swimming test (FST) in comparison with vehicle-injected mice (Al, p = 0.009; Gardasil, p = 0.025; Gardasil + Pt, p = 0.005). The increase in floating time was already highly significant at 4.5 months of age for the Gardasil and Gardasil + Pt group (p ≤ 0.0001). No significant differences were observed in the number of stairs climbed in the staircase test which measures locomotor activity. These results indicate that differences observed in the FST were unlikely due to locomotor dysfunction, but rather due to depression. Moreover, anti-HPV antibodies from the sera of Gardasil and Gardasil + Pt-injected mice showed cross-reactivity with the mouse brain protein extract. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed microglial activation in the CA1 area of the hippocampus of Gardasil-injected mice. It appears that Gardasil via its Al adjuvant and HPV antigens has the ability to trigger neuroinflammation and autoimmune reactions, further leading to behavioral changes.
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Current therapeutic approaches of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are symptomatic and of modest efficacy, and there is no available effective cure or prevention of AD; hence, the need arise to search for neuroprotective agents to combat AD. The current study aimed at investigating the neuroprotective effect of nanodiamond (ND), adamantine-based nanoparticles, in aluminum-induced cognitive impairment in rats, an experimental model of AD. AD was induced by aluminum chloride (17 mg/kg, p.o. for 6 weeks) and confirmed by Morris water maze and Y-maze behavioral tests. Biochemical and histological analyses of the hippocampus were also performed. Aluminum-treated rats showed behavioral, biochemical, and histological changes similar to those associated with AD. ND improved learning and memory and reversed histological alterations. At the molecular levels, ND mitigated the increase of hippocampal beta-amyloid (Aβ42) and beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme-1 (BACE1) together with down-regulation of phosphorylated tau protein. It also modulated the excitatory glutamate neurotransmitter level. Furthermore, ND boosted the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and mitochondrial transcription factor-A (TFAM), suppressed the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and curbed oxidative stress by hampering of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Moreover, ND augmented the hippocampal levels of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (p-STAT3) and B cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) anti-apoptotic protein while diminished nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and caspase-3 (casp-3) expression. These findings indicate the protective effect of ND against memory deficits and AD-like pathological aberrations probably via modulating NF-kB and STAT3 signaling, effects mediated likely by modulating N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors.
Macrophagic myofasciitis is a condition first reported in 1998, which cause remained obscure until 2001. Over 200 definite cases have been identified in France, and isolated cases have been recorded in other countries. The condition manifests by diffuse myalgias and chronic fatigue, forming a syndrome that meets both Center for Disease Control and Oxford criteria for the so-called chronic fatigue syndrome in about half of patients. One third of patients develop an autoimmune disease, such as multiple sclerosis. Even in the absence of overt autoimmune disease they commonly show subtle signs of chronic immune stimulation, and most of them are of the HLADRB1'01 group, a phenotype at risk to develop polymyalgia rheumatica and rheumatoid arthritis. Macrophagic myofasciitis is characterized by a stereotyped and immunologically active lesion at deltoid muscle biopsy. Electron microscopy, microanalytical studies, experimental procedures, and an epidemiological study recently demonstrated that the lesion is due to persistence for years at site of injection of an aluminum adjuvant used in vaccines against hepatitis 8 virus, hepatitis A virus, and tetanus toxoid. Aluminum hydroxide is known to potently stimulate the immune system and to shift immune responses towards a Th-2 profile. It is plausible that persistent systemic immune activation that fails to switch off represents the pathophysiologic basis of chronic fatigue syndrome associated with macrophagic myofasciitis, similarly to what happens in patients with post-infectious chronic fatigue and possibly idiopathic chronic fatigue syndrome. Therefore, the WHO recommended an epidemiological survey, currently conducted by the French agency AFSSAPS, aimed at substantiating the possible link between the focal macrophagic myofasciitis lesion (or previous immunization with aluminium-containing vaccines) and systemic symptoms. Interestingly, special emphasis has been put on Th-2 biased immune responses as a possible explanation of chronic fatigue and associated manifestations known as the Gulf war syndrome. Results concerning macrophagic myofasciitis may well open new avenues for etiologic investigation of this syndrome. Indeed, both type and structure of symptoms are strikingly similar in Gulf war veterans and patients with macrophagic myofasciitis. Multiple vaccinations performed over a short period of time in the Persian gulf area have been recognized as the main risk factor for Gulf War syndrome. Moreover, the war vaccine against anthrax, which is administered in a 6-shot regimen and seems to be crucially involved, is adjuvanted by aluminium hydroxide and, possibly, squalene, another Th-2 adjuvant. If safety concerns about long-term effects of aluminium hydroxide are confirmed it will become mandatory to propose novel and alternative vaccine adjuvants to rescue vaccine-based strategies and the enormous benefit for public health they provide worlwide.
Each year, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)* reviews the recommended immunization schedules for persons aged 0 through 18 years to ensure that the schedules reflect current recommendations for Food and Drug Administration-licensed vaccines. In October 2015, ACIP approved the recommended immunization schedules for persons aged 0 through 18 years for 2016; the 2016 schedules include several changes from the 2015 immunization schedules. For 2016, the figures, footnotes, and tables will be published on the CDC immunization schedule website ( This provides readers electronic access to the most current version of the schedules and footnotes on the CDC website. Health care providers are advised to use figures, tables, and the combined footnotes together. Printable versions of the 2016 immunization schedules for persons aged 0 through 18 years in several formats (e.g., portrait, landscape, and pocket-sized versions) and ordering instructions for laminated versions and "parent-friendly" schedules are available at the immunization schedule website.
C-reactive protein (CRP; also known as pentraxin 1, PTX1), a 224 amino acid soluble serum protein organized into a novel pentameric ring-shaped structure, is a highly sensitive pathogenic biomarker for systemic inflammation. High CRP levels are found in practically every known inflammatory state, and elevated CRP levels indicate an increased risk for several common age-related human degenerative disorders, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). While the majority of CRP is synthesized in the liver for secretion into the systemic circulation, it has recently been discovered that an appreciable amount of CRP is synthesized in highly specialized endothelial cells that line the vasculature of the brain and central nervous system (CNS). These highly specialized cells, the major cell type lining the human CNS vasculature, are known as human brain microvessel endothelial cells (hBMECs). In the current pilot study we examined (i) CRP levels in human serum obtained from AD and age-matched control patients; and (ii) analyzed the effects of nanomolar aluminum sulfate on CRP expression in primary hBMECs. The three major findings in this short communication are: (i) that CRP is up-regulated in AD serum; (ii) that CRP serum levels increased in parallel with AD progression; and (iii) for the first time show that nanomolar aluminum potently up-regulates CRP expression in hBMECs to many times its 'basal abundance'. The results suggest that aluminum-induced CRP may in part contribute to a pathophysiological state associated with a chronic systemic inflammation of the human vasculature. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.