Article

Essential Oils, Part VI: Sandalwood Oil, Ylang-Ylang Oil, and Jasmine Absolute

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Abstract

In this article, some aspects of sandalwood oil, ylang-ylang oil, and jasmine absolute are discussed including their botanical origin, uses of the plants and the oils and absolute, chemical composition, contact allergy to and allergic contact dermatitis from these essential oils and absolute, and their causative allergenic ingredients.

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... Sandalwood oil has three different variants that originate from East India, Australia, and New Caledonia, is obtained by distillation of the stem and stump wood and roots, and is used in the production of soaps powder and creams, as well as for medicinal purposes. There have been cases of pigmented cosmetic dermatitis in Asian women and cases of photocontact allergy [42]. In patients suspected of contact dermatitis, there is a prevalence of positivity to sandalwood oil among 0.1 to 2.4% [24,43,44]. ...
... In folk medicine, it has been used for infections and skin diseases. It is a frequent sensitizer in Japan and has been related to pigmented cosmetic dermatitis [42]. In groups of patients suspected of contact dermatitis, a prevalence of 0.7 to 2.6% positive patch tests have been reported [44]. ...
... In groups of patients suspected of contact dermatitis, a prevalence of 0.7 to 2.6% positive patch tests have been reported [44]. Co-reactivity to benzyl salicylate and geraniol has been observed [42]. ...
Article
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Background Fragrances are a group of substances present in many cosmetic products, which are one of the most common sources of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in Europe. Their widespread distribution, the presence of these substances as combinations, their ability to transform into more reactive substances, and the relatively recent regulations regarding these products are the main reasons for this high prevalence. In the last few years, advances on knowledge about haptens in fragrances have made possible to discover new allergens, to state that current fragrance markers are not enough to detect most of fragrance ACD cases and to know the products that should be patched and their concentrations. In this review, we revise the mechanisms of sensitization to allergens that are not represented in baseline series and the concentrations at which they should be used, which should be included in specific series and the usefulness of baseline and fragrance specific series. Purpose of review To revise the most recent advances in knowledge about fragrance contact dermatitis, especially about sensitization mechanisms and effectivity of fragrance markers in baseline series and fragrances in essential oils. Recent findings Fragrance allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is one of the most common sources of ACD only preceded by nickel sulfate. Many studies have shown that fragrance mix (FM)I, FMII, and colophonium, fragrance markers in baseline series, are not enough to screen for cases of ACD to fragrances. Some fragrances use limonene and linalool hydroperoxides, which have shown a high prevalence of sensitization and have been proposed as new allergens to include in the European Baseline Series, while other fragrances like Evernia furfuracea, which have also shown a high prevalence of sensitization, will not be included. Essential oils are obtained by distillation process and are widely used. In some cases, their allergenic components are not known. Co-sensitization to other fragrance components is frequent and they should be patch tested if allergic contact dermatitis to fragrances or cosmetics is suspected. Summary A more extensive group of fragrance markers should be included in the European Baseline Series, with at least limonene and linalool hydroperoxides and Evernia furfuracea. The use of products containing fragrances is very common and people sensitized to one of these substances should be suspected of multiple co-sensitizations.
... Flowers of the night-blooming plant Jasminum sambac (L.) Aiton (Oleacese) emit a strong fragrance which has long been used as raw material in the perfume industry and in scented tea. While jasmine absolute is the common name of the aroma product made by distillation from subsequent hexane and ethanol extractions of the flowers, the VOCs are enriched in benzyl acetate, linalool and (E,E)-α-Farnesene [8]. Floral VOCs in several ...
... After blooming at night, J. sambac flowers produce and emit various volatile benzenoid compounds among others, with benzylacetate occupying~one-third to one-half of headspace volatiles and~10 to 30% in the extracts (Table 1) [8,9,14]. In this study, we have identified at least four candidate BAHD acyltransferase-coding genes that were expressed preferentially at similar time window (Figure 2 and Figures S2-S4). ...
Article
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Volatile benzenoid compounds are found in diverse aromatic bouquets emitted by most moth-pollinated flowers. The night-blooming Jasminum sambac is widely cultivated worldwide in the tropics and subtropics for ornamental and industrial purposes owing to its fragrant flowers. Benzylacetate is a characteristic constituent in jasmine scent which makes up to approximately 20–30% of the total emission in the headspace or extract, but the biosynthesis enzymes and the encoding genes have not yet been described. Here, we identify two cytosolic BAHD acyltransferases specifically expressed in the petals with a positive correlation closely to the emission pattern of the volatile benzenoids. Both JsBEAT1 and JsBEAT2 could use benzylalcohol and acetate-CoA as substrates to make benzylacetate in vitro. The recombinant GST-JsBEAT1 has an estimated apparent Km of 447.3 μM for benzylalcohol and 546.0 μM for acetate-CoA, whereas in the instance of the His-JsBEAT2, the Km values are marginally lower, being 278.7 and 317.3 μM, respectively. However, the catalytic reactions by the GST-JsBEAT1 are more efficient than that by the His-JsBEAT2, based on the steady-state kcat parameters. Furthermore, ectopic expression of JsBEAT1 and JsBEAT2 in the transgenic P. hybrida plants, driven by a flower-specific promotor, significantly enhances the biosynthesis of benzylbenzoate and benzylacetate, as well as the total VOCs.
... Despite perceived safety, more than 80 EOs have been implicated in causing contact allergy [8]. In 2016, de Groot and Schmidt published a comprehensive, 6-part series in Dermatitis on allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to EOs including a detailed compositional analysis of more than 90 different oils [8][9][10][11][12][13]. The present review provides an update on ACD due to EOs, focusing on the last 5 years of publications since the de Groot series [8][9][10][11][12][13]. ...
... In 2016, de Groot and Schmidt published a comprehensive, 6-part series in Dermatitis on allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to EOs including a detailed compositional analysis of more than 90 different oils [8][9][10][11][12][13]. The present review provides an update on ACD due to EOs, focusing on the last 5 years of publications since the de Groot series [8][9][10][11][12][13]. We summarize allergenicity, sources of exposure, clinical presentations, prevalence of positive patch test reactions, and testing strategies for EOs. ...
Article
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Purpose of Review Use of essential oils (EOs) has become popular due to consumer demand for natural products. Despite the widespread perception that natural ingredients are safe, allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a well-described complication of EO use. This article provides a comprehensive overview regarding allergenicity, prevalence of positive patch test reactions, and sources of exposure associated with EOs. Recent Findings Approximately 80 different EOs have been implicated in contact allergy. Patch testing EOs is important for identifying sensitivity not detected by screening fragrance allergens. Clinical presentation depends on the specific EO and method of use. Summary EOs are complex substances of highly variable composition which may cause ACD. Due to popularity and widespread use, clinicians should ask patients about EO use. Patch testing is an important tool in the diagnosis and management of contact allergy to EOs.
... Sandalwood oil in this study is obtained from Santalum spicatum (Australian Sandalwood). There are two other kinds of Sandalwood oil: East Indian Sandalwood oil extracted from Santalum album and New Caledonian Sandalwood oil prepared from the wood of Santalum austrocaledonicum [37]. Sandalwood oil from East Indian is widely studied as an attractive natural therapeutic for inflammatory skin diseases [38]. ...
... Sandalwood oil from East Indian is widely studied as an attractive natural therapeutic for inflammatory skin diseases [38]. On the other hand, Sandalwood oil from Santalum spicatum has high commercial value for applications in aromatherapy and for the production of cosmetics such as soaps, creams and powder [37]. In this study, Sandalwood oil extracted from Santalum spicatum showed good activity against S. aureus, which demonstrated that it may be a promising antibacterial agent. ...
Article
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Background: Staphylococcus aureus is the most dominant human pathogen, responsible for a variety of chronic and severe infections. There is mounting evidence that persisters are associated with treatment failure and relapse of persistent infections. While some essential oils were reported to have antimicrobial activity against growing S. aureus, activity of essential oils against the stationary phase S. aureus enriched in persisters has not been investigated. Methods: In this study, we evaluated the activity of 143 essential oils against both growing and stationary phase S. aureus by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) testing and by colony forming unit assay. Results: We identified 39 essential oils (Oregano, Cinnamon bark, Thyme white, Bandit "Thieves", Lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus), Sandalwood oil, Health shield, Allspice, Amyris, Palmarosa, Cinnamon leaf, Clove bud, Citronella, Geranium bourbon, Marjoram, Peppermint, Lemongrass, Cornmint, Elemi, Ho wood, Head ease, Lemon eucalyptus, Litsea cubeba, Myrrh, Parsley seed, Coriander oil, Dillweed, Hyssop, Neroli, Rosewood oil, Tea tree, Cajeput, Clove bud, Lavender, Sleep tight, Vetiver, Palo santo, Sage oil, Yarrow) at 0.5% (v/v) concentration, 10 essential oils (Cinnamon bark, Oregano, Thyme white, Bandit "Thieves", Lemongrass, Sandalwood oil, Health shield, Allspice, Amyris, Palmarosa at 0.25% (v/v) concentration, and 7 essential oils (Oregano, Cinnamon bark, Thyme white, Lemongrass, Allspice, Amyris, Palmarosa at 0.125% (v/v) concentration to have high activity against stationary phase S. aureus with no visible growth on agar plates after five-day exposure. Among the 10 essential oils which showed high activity at 0.25% (v/v) concentration, 9 (Oregano, Cinnamon bark, Thyme white, Bandit "Thieves", Lemongrass, Health shield, Allspice, Palmarosa, Amyris showed higher activity than the known persister drug tosufloxacin, while Sandalwood oil had activity at a higher concentration. In Oregano essential oil combination studies with antibiotics, Oregano plus tosufloxacin (or levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin) and rifampin completely eradicated stationary phase S. aureus cells, but had no apparent enhancement for linezolid, vancomycin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, azithromycin or gentamicin. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that some essential oils have excellent activity against both growing and stationary phase S. aureus. Further studies are needed to identify the active components, evaluate safety, pharmacokinetics, and their activity to eradicate S. aureus infections in vivo.
... Artabotrys odoratissimus is a valuable medicinal shrub belonging to the family Annonaceae, widely cultivated across Southeast Asia for ornamental and industrial purposes. The essential oil from this plant, commonly known as ylang ylang oil, is used in the perfumery, aromatherapy and flavouring agent in tea and ice creams and in the soap and detergent industry [1]. The plant is used in folk medicine to treat biliousness, malaria, scrofula, vomiting, diseases of blood and heart, foul breath, leucoderma, itching, headache and diseases of the bladder [2]. ...
Article
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Alcohol-induced oxidative stress is a key player in the development of liver diseases, and herbal alternatives are important means of ameliorating the hepatotoxic effects. The study aimed to evaluate the hepatoprotective potentiality of Artabotrys odoratissimus, an important medicinal shrub from the family Annonaceae. The phenolic compounds from bark ethanol extract (BEE) were detected using RP-HPLC. The in vitro hepatoprotective activity against ethanol-induced damage was studied in HepG2 cells with cell viability assays, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) assay, reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay, double staining assay and western blotting. The in vivo mice model was used to evaluate the alcohol-induced stress with liver function enzymes, lipid profile and histopathology. All the thirteen phenolic compounds detected with HPLC were docked onto protein targets such as aspartate amino transferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (NO). The RP-HPLC detected the presence of various phenolics including rutin, chlorogenic acid and catechin, amongst others. Co-administration of BEE with ethanol alleviated cell death, ROS and MMP in HepG2 cells compared to the negative control. The extract also modulated the MAP kinase/caspase-3 pathway, thereby showing protective effects in HepG2 cells. Also, pre-treatment for 14 days with the extract in the mice model before a single toxic dose (5 g/kg body weight) reduced the liver injury by bringing the levels of liver function enzymes, lipid profile and bilirubin to near normal. In silico analysis revealed that rutin showed the best binding affinity with all the target proteins in the study. These results provide evidence that BEE possesses significant hepatoprotective effects against ethanol-induced oxidative stress in hepatic cells and in vivo models, which is further validated with in silico analysis.
... This can occur from direct application of oils, application of personal care products which contain essential oils, or diffusion of oils (cause of airborne contact dermatitis 11 ). ...
Article
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Aromatherapy is defined as the use of essential oils, through inhalation or direct application to the skin, to achieve physical, psychological and spiritual well-being². It has become an increasingly popular trend in modern day holistic approaches to healthcare. Essential oils are thought to be natural & pure products, some of the most common being lavender, tea tree, peppermint, and ylang-ylang. In recent years, however, the composition of these oils has been found to be more complex than previously thought. Increased use has led to increasing reports of allergic contact dermatitis - a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction to allergens in sensitized individuals. It is important to inquire about essential oil use when conducting clinical evaluations of suspected allergic contact dermatitis. The authors seek to highlight the possibility that natural products may not be necessarily as safe as once thought, and in particular seek to highlight allergic contact dermatitis caused by essential oils.
... Ylang-ylang essential oil is primarily used as fragrance in finer perfumes, cosmetics and aromatherapy, folk medicine and as flavour in food and drinks. 121 Earlier, dihydro-isoeugenol was the primary allergen in ylang-ylang oil and caused several cases of pigmented contact dermatitis, especially in Japan. After elimination of dihydroisoeugenol, derivatives of geraniol and linalool are probably the main sensitizers. ...
Article
Background Naturally‐derived cosmetic product ingredients of both plant and animal origin are increasingly being included in product formulations in order to cater to consumer preferences. They may be an overlooked cause of reactions to cosmetic products in some patients with dermatitis. Objectives To identify naturally‐derived cosmetic product ingredients with allergenic potential (type I and type IV) and propose a cosmetic screening test series. Methods The study was conducted in two steps. The first step was a market survey using a non‐profit application helping consumers avoid problematic substances in cosmetic products. The application contained 10舁067 cosmetic products that were label checked for naturally‐derived cosmetic product ingredients. The second step was a literature search to examine how frequently the naturally‐derived ingredients were described and related to allergic reactions in cosmetics or other topically administered products. Results We identified 121 different naturally‐derived cosmetic product ingredients that were included in at least 30 cosmetic products. In total, 22 ingredients were selected for a screening test series. Conclusions We propose a supplemental patch test and a prick test screening series with naturally‐derived cosmetic product ingredients for patients with skin reactions to cosmetic products, aiming to identify a cause in more patients than is currently possible. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Chapter
The essential oil extracted from the Santalum genus, known as sandalwood oil is one of the most valuable plant-derived secondary metabolites. It is obtained from the steam distillation of the heartwood of the sandalwood tree. The high value of this oil mainly stems from the limited supply, caused by difficulties in the cultivation of the plant and other socio-economic conditions. All species of the Santalum genus, including the highest oil-producing Santalum album (east Indian sandalwood), are very slow-growing that takes about 15 to 20 years to form heartwood from which oil is distilled. Combined with the loss of cultivatable land and poaching of wild trees make sandalwood oil is very valuable. This oil has seen various applications in the aroma, perfume, cosmetic, flavour and pharmaceutical industries. Though the essential oil of sandalwood constitutes several terpenes and terpene alcohols, the main fragrance-defining constituents of the oil are sesquiterpene alcohols (Z)-α-santalol, (Z)-β-santalol, (Z)-epi-β-santalol and (Z)-α-exo-bergamotol, which are derived from their corresponding sesquiterpenes. In this chapter, we summarise the biosynthetic pathways involved in the formation of terpenoids and genes involved in the formation of key constituents of sandalwood essential oil. We cover different studies carried out towards the complete understanding of the pathway involved in sandalwood oil formation. We also take a look at how the deciphering of the sandalwood oil pathway has enabled bio-engineering approaches for enhanced and sustainable production using various biotechnological strategies.
Chapter
Indian sandalwood (Santalum album L.) is an exquisite evergreen woody tropical tree which yields one of the world’s most expensive essential oil from its matured heartwood (~US$2600 l−1). The tree accumulates sesquiterpenes, second important group of active compounds in essential oil of plants. α- and β-santalols (C15H24O) in addition to α-and β-santalenes are the major constituents. The minor constituents of essential oil includes lanceol, nuciferol, bisabolol and the sesquiterpene hydrocarbons such as, bergamotenes, α-, β- and γ-curcumenes, β-bisabolene. Oil yield vary from 3 to 4% through steam distillation (48–72 h). Sandalwood oil having incredible signature in their base and top note, Cis-α-santalol is responsible for the light woody smell, and Cis-β-santalol is more linked to the stronger woody smell with a distinctive mark which fetch high value in the perfume and fragrance industries. In addition to this, sandalwood oil is well known to aid wide range of ailments and it has long antiquity of pharmacology and aromatherapy.Keywords Santalum album Sandalwood oilSesquiterpeneα-santalenesHeartwoodSantalol
Article
Background: Artabotrys odoratissimus (Annonaceae) is a medicinal and ornamental plant widely cultivated in Southeast Asia for its famous ylang ylang essential oil. The fruits of this plant are used for health benefits, but very little is studied about the bioactive principles, their role in regulating oxidative stress and tumour progression. Objective: The study aimed at evaluating the antiproliferative effects of fruit extract of Artabotrys odoratissimus and its bioactive fraction using cell-based assays. Methods: The free radical scavenging and anti-proliferative effects of Artabotrys odoratissimus Fruit Ethyl acetate (FEA) extract and its bioactive fraction were evaluated using Cell viability assays, Colony formation assay, Double staining assay, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) assay, Comet assay, Cell cycle analysis, and Western blotting. Results: The extract showed phenolic content of 149.8±0.11µg/mg Gallic acid equivalents and flavonoid content of 214.47±4.18 µg/mg Quercetin. FEA showed IC50 value of 76.35 µg/ml in ABTS assay and an IC50 value of 134.3±7.8 µg/ml on MIA PaCa-2 cells. The cells treated with 125 µg/ml and 250 µg/ml FEA showed increased apoptotic cells in Double staining assay, DNA damage during comet assay, attenuated ROS and cell cycle arrest at G2M phase at 125 µg/ml and 250 µg/ml. The active fraction AF5 showed a IC50 value of 67±1.26 µg/ml on MIA PaCa-2 cells during MTT assay, displayed potential antiproliferative effects, showed marked increase in the expression of γH2AX and p53. Conclusion: These results prove that the fruit extract and the bioactive fraction demonstrate oxidative stress mediated DNA damage leading to the apoptosis in MIA PaCa-2 cell line.
Book
This book provides a global perspective of Indian Sandalwood categorized as ‘Vulnerable’ by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. It deals with history, distribution, propagation, chemistry, utilization, improvement, trade, and conservation in the present context. This book explores ways and means for restoring its past glory by creating awareness for its conservation and sustainable utilization. The content encompasses informative tables, appropriate graphs and figures, and illustrations with photographs and line drawings. This compendium would be useful for foresters, forestry professionals, botanists, policymakers, conservationists, NGOs, and researchers in the academia and the industry sectors.
Chapter
The essential oil produced by steam distillation from the heartwood of East Indian sandalwood trees (Santalum album) has been used as a traditional medicine for centuries due to its broad spectrum of biological properties. Recent biochemical studies have begun to elucidate the specific mechanisms of action of the oil and its major components. The creation of guidelines for the development of botanical drugs as a special category by regulatory agencies such as the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has allowed the development of complex mixtures such as sandalwood oil as potential pharmaceutical agents. Sandalwood oil has been shown in several early Phase 2 clinical trials in the USA to give promising results. Extensive pivotal clinical studies are required to confirm the beneficial activity and favourable safety profile seen in these early human studies.
Chapter
In this chapter, we focus on the current status of knowledge on the floral biology of Santalum album and the role of flower visitors in its pollination and fruit set. Flowers are bisexual, actinomorphic and epigynous, borne on axillary or terminal panicles. Based on the position of stigma, three types of flowers are observed: pin (stigma above the level of anther), thrum (stigma at a lower level) and homostylous (stigma and anther at the same level). A flower lasts for about three days, and its colour gradually changes from pale green or white to dark red with age. Though the ovary has 2‒4 embryo sacs, only one matures. From flowering to fruit maturation, it takes 80‒85 days, and the berries are eaten by birds, especially the Asian Koel, which may also be involved in the dispersion of seeds. There appear to be some contradictions concerning pollination, though many workers suggest that S. album is an obligate outcrossing species. However, the per cent fruit set under open pollination conditions appears to be very low, indicating a deficit in pollinators. Of the 46 species of flower visitors recorded, syrphids, calliphorids and honey bees have been reported as the most frequent visitors. However, there have been no studies to identify efficient pollinators, as most of the reports are subjective and are not supported by hard data. We also discuss the methods to be followed in sandalwood pollination studies.
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The phytochemistry of the fragrant flowers of Jasminum grandiflorum is reviewed, highlighting the remarkable circadian interplay between the isoprenoid, polyketide and shikimate pathway in this plant, and outlining the challenges involved in capturing its metabolic profligacy into extracts. After presenting a detailed historical survey on the techniques developed for the production of jasmine extracts, the identification of their constituents, their associated sensory properties and their use for authentication purposes is discussed in detail. A review on the phytochemistry of Jasminum grandiflorum of flowers, including a comprehensive survey of the extraction techniques in use for the recovery of the volatile fragrant fraction. A critical analysis of the published data on the composition of the extracts is presented.
Chapter
Santalum album L. (Sandalwood) is one of the pharmacologically valued tree species. The essential oil derived from its heartwood has much more commercial importance, and is an active ingredient in various traditional medicine systems for the management and prevention of various illnesses all over the world. The versatile therapeutic and healthcare importance of Sandalwood is attributed to the rich source of phytochemicals, particularly sesquiterpenes. A variety of biological properties and impending health benefits of Sandalwood have been testified, including anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic activities, and protecting properties on the gastric mucosa, liver and nervous system. No significant toxicity has been indicated by Sandalwood oil or its individual constituents. The present chapter discusses traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of Sandalwood. Also, it provides an understanding of Sandalwood oil extraction methods, chemistry of the compounds and their medicinal importance.
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Background: Mastisol Liquid Adhesive is widely used on the skin, especially after surgical procedures. It contains gum mastic, gum storax, methyl salicylate, and ethanol. Objective: The aims of the study were to review our experience patch testing patients allergic to Mastisol and to assess coreacting substances. Methods: We identified 18 patients who were allergic to Mastisol. Most of these had a history of postoperative or cardiac electrode dermatitis and underwent patch testing with multiple surgically related substances, including ingredients of Mastisol, compound tincture of benzoin, and fragrance-related ingredients and botanicals. Results and conclusions: Among Mastisol-allergic patients, 13 (72%) of 18 were allergic to gum mastic, whereas 7 (44%) of 16 were allergic to gum storax. There was frequent coreactivity with various fragrance-related materials, including Majantol, Styrax benzoin, Myroxylon balsamum, Myroxylon pereirae, propolis, and others. Two gum mastic-allergic patients had positive patch tests with hydroperoxides of linalool and several other linalool-containing essential oils. As gum mastic contains linalool, it may explain some gum mastic reactions. Among patients without a history of postoperative contact dermatitis, 1 (0.4%) of 250 was patch test positive for gum mastic. This patient had allergic contact dermatitis from fragrances, so the gum mastic reaction was likely a true-positive relevant reaction.
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With more than 350,000 plant species recognized and new species continually being identified, it is not surprising that humans contact plants or plant-containing products daily. The nearly endless list of potential exposures leaves us with a challenging task when attempting to categorize and study potential plant-related irritants and allergens. This article focused on laying a sound framework for understanding some of the more pertinent potential irritants and allergens.
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Essential oils are usually used in aromatherapy to alleviate anxiety symptoms. Compared to traditional drugs, essential oils have fewer side effects and more diversified application ways including inhalation. This review provides a comprehensive overview of studies on anxiolytic effects of essential oils in preclinical and clinical trials. Most of the essential oils that used in clinical researches had been proved to be anxiolytic in animal models. Inhalation and oral administration were two common methods for essential oil administration in preclinical and clinical trials. Massage was only used in the clinical trials while intraperitoneal injection was only used in the preclinical trails. In addition to essential oils that are commonly used in aromatherapy, essential oils from many folk medicinal plants have also been reported to be anxiolytic. More than 20 compounds derived from essential oils have shown anxiolytic effect in rodents, while two-thirds of them are alcohols and terpenes. Monoamine neurotransmitters, amino acid neurotransmitters and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis are thought to play important roles in the anxiolytic effects of essential oils.
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Background The development of non-animal alternatives for skin sensitization potency prediction is dependent upon the availability of a sufficient dataset whose human potency is well characterized. Previously, establishment of basic categorization criteria for 6 defined potency categories, allowed 131 substances to be allocated into them entirely on the basis of human information. Objectives To supplement the original dataset with an extended range of fragrance substances. Methods A more fully described version of the original criteria was used to assess 89 fragrance chemicals, allowing their allocation into one of the 6 potency categories. Results None of the fragrance substances were assigned to the most potent group, category 1, whereas 11 were category 2, 22 were category 3, 37 were category 4, and 19 were category 5. Although none were identified as non-sensitizing, note that substances in category 5 also do not pass the threshold for regulatory classification. Conclusions The combined datasets of >200 substances placed into potency categories solely on the basis of human data provides an essential resource for the elaboration and evaluation of predictive non-animal methods.
Article
Background: Synthetic fragrances and natural essential oils (EOs) are used in perfumery and found in various cosmetics. Essential oils are also increasingly used to promote wellness. In previous studies, the sensitization potential of some EOs has been identified; however, the current prevalence of sensitivity is largely unknown. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine frequency of positive patch-test reactions to EOs tested in the baseline series, along with 3 fragrance markers (FMs) (fragrance mix I, fragrance mix II, and Myroxylon pereirae), in consecutive patients in the US/Canadian North American Contact Dermatitis Group (NACDG) (2009-2014) and the central European, trinational Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK) (2010-2014). Methods: This study used a retrospective analysis of patch-test results and relevant demographic/clinical data collected electronically by the networks, obtained with Santalum album 10% petrolatum (pet) (IVDK only); Cananga odorata 2% (NACDG) and 10% (IVDK) pet; Jasminum species 2% (NACDG) and 5% (IVDK) pet; Mentha piperita 2% pet; Melaleuca alternifolia, oxidized (tea tree oil), 5% pet; and Lavandula angustifolia 2% pet (latter 3 NACDG only). Results: Overall, 62,354 patients were tested to 3 FMs and EOs (NACDG, 13,398; IVDK, 48,956); 11,568 (18.6%) reacted to at least 1 FM or EO, whereas 857 (1.4%) reacted to 1 or more EOs but none of the 3 FMs. For both the NACDG and IVDK populations, individuals who were positive to 1 or more of the 9 study allergens were significantly less likely to be male, have occupational skin disease, or have hand involvement and significantly more likely to have leg dermatitis and be 40 years and older (P's ≤ 0.005). Prevalence rates for EOs were as follows: S. album, 1.4% IVDK; C. odorata, 1.1% NACDG and 2.4% IVDK; Jasminum species, 0.7% NACDG and 1.4% IVDK; M. piperita, 0.9% NACDG; L. angustifolia, 0.3% NACDG; and M. alternifolia, 0.3% NACDG. Of the 140 NACDG patients who reacted to 1 or more of the 5 NACDG EOs but none of the FMs, M. alternifolia yielded most positive reactions (45%); half of these reactions were strong (++ or +++, 50.8%) and of definite/probable clinical relevance (52.4%). Of the 717 IVDK patients who reacted to 1 or more of the 3 IVDK EOs but none of the 3 FMs, 38% were positive to C. odorata, 38% to S. album and 36% to Jasminum species.' Conclusions: Testing to EOs may be important for detecting sensitivity not detected by FMs alone. In North America, M. alternifolia is an important and clinically relevant sensitizer often not detected by FM. In Europe, as well as in North America, clinical relevance is often difficult to evaluate because (1) labeling of EOs when used as fragrance is not mandatory, and (2) these mixtures may indicate sensitization to 1 or more of their individual constituents from other sources, including synthetic fragrances.
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Allergic contact dermatitis from the topical use of essential oils is not widely recognized as an occupational hazard. Four cases of allergic contact dermatitis to essential oils occurring in three aromatherapists and one chemist with a particular interest in aromatherapy are described. All presented with predominantly hand dermatitis and demonstrated sensitization to multiple essential oils. One patient developed a recurrence of cutaneous symptoms following ingestion of lemongrass tea. Workers within this industry should be aware of the sensitization potential of these products and the risk of limiting their ability to continue employment.
Article
Nearly 80 essential oils (including 2 jasmine absolutes) have caused contact allergy. Fifty-five of these have been tested in consecutive patients suspected of contact dermatitis, and nine (laurel, turpentine, orange, tea tree, citronella, ylang-ylang, sandalwood, clove, and costus root) showed greater than 2% positive patch test reactions. Relevance data are generally missing or inadequate. Most reactions are caused by application of pure oils or high-concentration products. The clinical picture depends on the responsible product. Occupational contact dermatitis may occur in professionals performing massages. The (possible) allergens in essential oils are discussed. Several test allergens are available, but patients should preferably be tested with their own products. Co-reactivity with other essential oils and the fragrance mix is frequent, which may partly be explained by common ingredients. Patch test concentrations for essential oils are suggested.
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Data on the chemistry of essential oils which have caused contact allergy are provided. The largest group of chemicals found in essential oils consists of terpenes. The number of identified components usually ranges from 100 to 250, but in some oils (lavender, geranium, rosemary) 450 to 500 chemicals have been found. Many chemicals are present in a large number of oils, up to 98% for β-caryophyllene and 97% for limonene. Chemicals that are important constituents of >20 oils are limonene, linalool, and α-pinene. In many essential oils, there are 2 to 5 components which together constitute over 50% to 60% of the oil. In some oils, however, there is one dominant ingredient, making up more than 50% of the oil, including (E)-anethole in aniseed and star anise oil, carvone in spearmint oil, 1,8-cineole (eucalyptol) in Eucalyptus globulus oil, and (E)-cinnamaldehyde in cassia oil. The most important chemicals in 93 individual oils are specified.
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In this second article on contact allergy to and chemical composition of essential oils, some general aspects of essential oils are kprovided, including what they are, their applications, their mode of production, factors influencing their chemical composition, analysis of essential oil, and quality aspects.
Article
Essential oils are widely used in the flavor, food, fragrance, and cosmetic industries in many applications. Contact allergy to them is well known and has been described for 80 essential oils. The relevance of positive patch test reactions often remains unknown. Knowledge of the chemical composition of essential oils among dermatologists is suspected to be limited, as such data are published in journals not read by the dermatological community. Therefore, the authors have fully reviewed and published the literature on contact allergy to and chemical composition of essential oils. Selected topics from this publication will be presented in abbreviated form in Dermatitis starting with this issue, including I. Introduction; II. General aspects; III. Chemistry; IV. General aspects of contact allergy; V. Peppermint oil, lavender oil and lemongrass oil; VI: Sandalwood oil, ylang-ylang oil, and jasmine absolute.
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Background and Objectives Patch testing is a standard diagnostic tool used in the identification of causative allergens in allergic contact dermatitis. Ongoing surveillance of rates of allergen positivity is vitally important to detect trends and allow comparisons between countries. The objective of this study was to propose the first evidence-based Australian baseline series, based on retrospective review of our patch test data. We aimed to identify the most important and most relevant allergens in our population.Methods We conducted a 10-year (2001–2010) retrospective review of data from the contact dermatitis clinic and the occupational dermatitis clinic from our institution.ResultsWe patch tested 5281 patients in all. The top 20 allergens with the highest number of relevant positive patch test reactions were: fragrance mix 1: nickel, potassium dichromate, Myroxylon pereirae, formaldehyde, p-phenylenediamine (PPD), thiuram mix, colophony (rosin), dermatophagoides mix, ammonium persulfate, quaternium-15, cobalt chloride, methylchloroisothiazolinone or methylisothiazolinone, diazolidinylurea, epoxy resin, 1,3-dimethylol-5,5-dimethyl hydantoin, Compositae mix, toluenesulfonamide formaldehyde resin, basic red 46 and imidazolidinyl urea.Conclusion We have elucidated the most frequent and relevant contact allergens in our patient population and used this information to construct the first Australian baseline series.
Article
During 64 months (1977 to 1983), twelve dermatologists from various sections of the United States studied a total of 713 patients with cosmetic dermatitis out of an estimated total of 13,216 patients with contact dermatitis. The number of patients seen for all causes during this period was 281,100. An important finding was that half of the patients or physicians were unaware that a cosmetic was responsible for their dermatitis. Skin care products, hair preparations (including colors), and facial makeup were responsible for the majority of the reactions. The most important objective was identification of causative ingredients. Eighty-seven percent of the subjects had patch tests. Fragrance, preservatives (Quaternium-15, formaldehyde, imidazolidinyl urea, and parabens), p-phenylenediamine, and glyceryl monothioglycolate were the most frequently identified allergic sensitizers, in that order. In addition to the clinical data, the study permitted assessment of the frequency of cosmetic reactions, although the data may not be entirely representative of the country at large because of the special interests of the dermatologists involved.
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In this article the origins, production, perfumery and aromatherapeutic uses of three sandalwood oils are reviewed.
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Indian Jasminium grandiflorum L. flowers furnish a concrete and an absolute comparable with that from flowers of the same species from different locations, the average seasonal yield being 0.31% of the weight of flowers as concrete and 53.6% of the concrete as absolute. Gas chromatographic screening of the jasmine fragrances reveal that the gross compositional pattern is similar to that of oils from other countries. For comparison, quantitative data of major components gleaned from literature have been compiled. Organoleptically, isolates derived from the Indian flowers have gained the confidence of perfumery houses. The Indian jasmine industry has thus matured to play a significant international role.
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Several Jasmine (oil) samples of different origin were studied by glass capillary gas chromatography (CGC) and by CGC—mass spectrometry. Only quantitative differences were observed. There are only 15 major components. Avout 100 minor constituents were identified after fractionation by partial evaporation, preparative gas chromatography and chemical group separation. The concentration of important smell contributing compounds is lower in the French oil sample than in the other oils. In the head space or most volatile fraction this situation is reversed. This is ascribed to the enhancing and fixating effects of the less volatile fractions of the oils. A new way to study such effects is proposed.
Article
The chemical composition of the steam-distilled wood oil of Santalum spicatum was investigated by means of GC/MS. The major constituents of the entirely sesquiterpenoid oil were trans, trans-farnesol (31.6%), epi-α-bisabolol (anymol) (10.7%), α-santalol (9.1%), Z-nuciferol (6.5%), cis-β-santalol (5.4%), cis-lanceol (3.9%) and epi-β-santalol (2.9%).
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A comprehensive review is presented on the constituents of the heartwood from fragrant sandalwood species, including Santalum album, S. spicatum and S. austrocaledonicum, which are important raw materials in the fragrance industry, and S. insulare, a closely related species. Analytical aspects are discussed in detail, both on qualitative and quantitative standpoints, and sensory properties are also reviewed. It is shown that more than 230 constituents have been identified so far in the heartwood of these sandalwood species. These components belong to many different chemical classes and are mainly terpenoids, but some other families are also represented. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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We report the annual results of patch testing with lavender oil for a 9-year period from 1990 to 1998 in Japan. Using Finn Chambers and Scanpor tape, we performed 2-day closed patch testing with lavender oil 20% pet. on the upper back of each patient suspected of having cosmetic contact dermatitis. We compared the frequency of positive patch tests to lavender oil each year with those to other fragrances. We diagnosed contact allergy when patch test reactions were + or <+ at 1 day after removal. The positivity rate of lavender oil was 3.7% (0–13.9%) during the 9-year period from 1990 to 1998. The positivity rate of lavender oil increased suddenly in 1997. Recently, in Japan, there has been a trend for aromatherapy using lavender oil. With this trend, placing dried lavender flowers in pillows, drawers, cabinets, or rooms has become a new fashion. We asked patients who showed a positive reaction to lavender oil about their use of dried lavender flowers. We confirmed the use of dried lavender flowers in 5 cases out of 11 positive cases in 1997 and 8 out of 15 positive cases in 1998. We concluded that the increase in patch test positivity rates to lavender oil in 1997 and 1998 was due to the above fashion, rather than due to fragrances in cosmetic products.
Article
Allergic contact dermatitis is considered one of the most common causes of eyelid dermatitis. In addition to metals and topical antibiotics, fragrances have emerged as a leading source of contact allergy for individuals with this condition. The objective of this study was to determine the added benefit of including a fragrance tray when patch testing patients presenting with eyelid dermatitis. During a 4.5-year period, all patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis involving the eyelids were patch tested with both standard and fragrance trays. One hundred consecutive patients with eyelid dermatitis were patch tested. Of these patients, 42 (42%) tested positive for 1 or more allergens within the fragrance series. Of these patients, 15 (36%) had no fragrance markers detected on the standard series, and these allergens would therefore have been missed had fragrance series testing not been performed. Overall, fragrance markers within the standard series detected 73.2% (41/56) of cases of fragrance allergy. Our results suggest that there may be a significant benefit to fragrance series testing in patients with eyelid dermatitis. Fragrance tray inclusion in this population may identify additional cases of fragrance allergy that are missed by the standard series.
Article
Essential oils are used in perfumery and in products for aromatherapy or balneotherapy. Previous studies have shown some to be important contact sensitizers. A practical diagnostic approach, based on the results of a large, central European network and other evidence, is needed. Data of the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK; www.ivdk.org) on all patients patch tested between January 2000 and December 2008 with essential oils were retrospectively analysed. 15 682 patients of 84 716 consulting in the period had been tested with at least one essential oil, and 637 reacted positively to at least one of the essential oils, most commonly to ylang-ylang oil (I and II) (3.1% as weighted mean of positive tests in special series and consecutive testing), lemongrass oil (1.8%), jasmine absolute (1.6%), sandalwood oil and clove oil (1.5% each). Cross-reactivity between distillate and main allergen, if available, was marked. Patch testing the important essential oils should be considered in patients with a suggestive history. Additionally, culprit products brought in by the patient should be tested, closing a diagnostic gap by (i) including those other essential oils not included in the commercial test series and (ii) providing a means of testing with the oxidized substances to which the patient had actually been exposed.
Article
Patch testing to a standard screening series of allergens in combination with supplemental cosmetic allergens is often used to diagnose allergic contact dermatitis due to personal care products. To report results of patch testing to skin care product allergens contained in a standard series and a supplemental cosmetic series and to compare efficacy of this combined series in detecting positive reactions to personal care product allergens with the efficacy of various standard screening series. Positive reaction rates to skin care product allergens were tabulated for patients who underwent patch testing to both standard and cosmetic series allergens at Mayo Clinic between 2000 and 2007. Data were compared with skin care allergens detected on standard screening series, including the thin-layer rapid use epicutaneous (TRUE) test. Of 945 patch-tested patients, 68.4% had at least one positive reaction and 47.3% had at least two positive reactions. Also, 49.4% of patients reacted to at least one preservative; 31.2% reacted to at least one fragrance/botanical additive. Compared with use of our standard series and cosmetic series, use of the TRUE test would have missed 22.5% of patients with preservative allergy, 11.3% with fragrance/botanical allergy, and 17.3% with vehicle allergy. Various allergens tested over time, patch test reading by residents, and lack of confirmation of allergen in personal care products. Standard patch-test screening series miss a substantial number of patients with skin care product ingredient allergy.
Article
Fragrance chemicals are the second most frequent cause of contact allergy. The mandatory labelling of 26 fragrance chemicals when present in cosmetics has facilitated management of patients allergic to fragrances. The study was aimed to define the characteristics of the population allergic to perfumes detected in our hospital district, to determine the usefulness of markers of fragrance allergy in the baseline GEIDAC series, and to describe the contribution made by the fragrance series to the data obtained with the baseline series. We performed a 4-year retrospective study of patients tested with the Spanish baseline series and/or fragrance series. There are four fragrance markers in the baseline series: fragrance mix I (FM I), Myroxylon pereirae, fragrance mix II (FM II), and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde. A total of 1253 patients were patch tested, 117 (9.3%) of whom were positive to a fragrance marker. FM I and M. pereirae detected 92.5% of the cases of fragrance contact allergy. FM II and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde detected 6 additional cases and provided further information in 8, enabling improved management. A fragrance series was tested in a selected group of 86 patients and positive results were obtained in 45.3%. Geraniol was the allergen most frequently found in the group of patients tested with the fragrance series. Classic markers detect the majority of cases of fragrance contact allergy. We recommend incorporating FM II in the Spanish baseline series, as in the European baseline series, and using a specific fragrance series to study patients allergic to a fragrance marker.
Article
• Patch tests to several screening sets of fragrance materials were performed on 20 perfume-sensitive patients. The most common allergens were found to be a jasmin synthetic (18 of 20 patients), cinnamic alcohol (15 of 20 patients), and hydroxycitronellal (9 of 20 patients). More than half of the patients were also contact sensitive to other ingredients of cosmetics and over-the-counter and prescription preparations. (Arch Dermatol 113:623-626, 1977)
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A patient with perfume dermatitis was patch-tested to 94 constituents of perfume and was found to have positive reactions to 12 components. An approach with regard to reducing the prevalence of perfume dermatitis is suggested.
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Some recent publications concerning perfume contact sensitivity are briefly reviewed. Japanese workers have identified some perfume sensitizers and have devised an allergen replacement system. Costus absolute of perfumery has been found to sensitize guinea-pig and man; sesquiterpene lactones are responsible for cross-sensitivity with some other plant products. Balsam of Peru is a useful screen for perfume sensitivity; terpenoids of balsams require study.
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A 63-year-old male school teacher with itchy depigmented macules on his left dorsum manus, left shoulder and abdomen presented at our clinic on 8 July 1986. He had practiced the incense ceremony for about 15 years, and had burnt several incenses and sandalwood. 48 h closed patch testing revealed perfume in the incenses was the cause. We assumed that perfume in the incense was volatized in air when incense was burnt; skin surface contact occurred with airborne particle, which dissolved in sebum; thus allergic contact dermatitis accompanied by depigmentation might arise.
Article
Pigmented cosmetic dermatitis1–4 is a new name for melanosis faciei feminase designated after the mechanisim and causative allergens of this pigmentary disorder were greatly clarified. In Japan, a large number of pigmented cosmetic dermatitis patients were noted in the 1960s and 1970s; however, the number of patients has decreased remarkably since 1978, when major cosmetic companies began to eliminate strong contact sensitizers from their products. This review is concerned with the way this pigmentary disorder was overcome through the use of patch testing and allergen control.
Article
Contact allergy to various essential oils used in aromatherapy was demonstrated on patch testing in a 53-year-old patient suffering from relapsing eczema resistant to therapy on various uncovered parts of the skin, in particular the scalp, neck and hands. Sensitization was due to previous exposure to lavender, jasmine and rosewood. Laurel, eucalyptus and pomerance also produced positive tests, although there was no hint of previous exposure. A diagnosis of allergic airborne contact dermatitis was thus established. On topical and systemic glucocorticoid treatment (peroral methylprednisolone at an initial dose of 60 mg/day) the skin lesions eventually resolved. Due to persistence of the volatile essential oils in the patient's home after a year-long use of aroma lamps, complete renewal of the interior of the patient's flat was considered essential. Due to changing self-medication habits, with increasing orientation to 'natural' modes of treatment, increasing numbers of such sensitizations might be on the horizon.
Article
Cosmetic contact allergy is commonly seen in patients undergoing patch testing, with fragrance one of the most frequently implicated ingredients. Many cosmetics contain plant extracts either as a fragrance or for medicinal properties. With a vogue for natural products there is an increase in their use. We have performed a prospective study over a 2-year period looking at the prevalence of contact allergy to plants in patients diagnosed with cosmetic dermatitis. In addition, we have performed a review of the products of two popular cosmetic companies, examining product labelling and the prevalence of use of plant extracts. We suggest that patients allergic to fragrance be advised to avoid plant extracts, which are separately labelled, in their personal care products.
Article
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of responses to selected fragrance materials in patients with suspect fragrance allergy and to evaluate risk factors and associations with such responses. The validity of using specific fragrance ingredients versus a mixture of fragrances was evaluated in terms of predicting allergy to different fragrance ingredients. Methods: One hundred sixty-seven subjects were evaluated in seven centers worldwide with a fragrance mix, the eight ingredients in the fragrance mixture, six other well-known fragrance allergens, balsam of Peru, and 15 lesser studied fragrance materials. Results: The age of the patients was 44.9 +/- 17.5 years (mean +/- SD). More than 85% were women. A relatively high proportion gave a past history of atopic disease. Facial eruptions (40%) and hand involvement (26.7%) were the most common topographic sites. All but 4 of the 35 fragrance materials produced a positive response in > 1%. A reaction to fragrance mix occurred in 47.3%. Seven of the 34 ingredients tested produced an allergic response in more than 10% of those tested. Men were more likely than women to exhibit a positive response to five fragrance ingredients. White persons were more likely to react to perfume mix (52.8% versus 25.3%) and certain ingredients in the mix than Asian persons. Allergy to benzyl salicylate was more common in Japan than in Europe or the United States. Conclusion: The age at which patients with perfume allergy present for evaluation is similar to that of other contactants. Atopic individuals may be overrepresented in this group of patients. Face involvement is likely. White persons are more likely to react to fragrance mix, whereas in Asian patients benzyl salicylate was a more frequent allergen. Fragrance mix corrected with 85.6% of positive responses to fragrance ingredients. The addition of ylang ylang oil, narcissus oil, and sandalwood oil to fragrance mix would be expected to pick up 94.2% with positive responses to fragrance materials; adding balsam of Peru increases this to 96%.
Article
Essential or fragrant oils are volatile odourous mixtures of organic chemical compounds that are widely used in aromatherapy and in the perfume industry. Because of their frequent use, allergy to essential oils is being increasingly recognized. We report 2 cases of multiple allergies to essential oils in professional aromatherapists. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to analyse the oils in order to identify a common allergen responsible for the contact dermatitis. In both the cases, alpha- and beta-pinene were found to be the most common constituent in the oils and thus appeared to be key allergens. alpha-pinene was confirmed as an allergen on repeat patch testing with pure alpha-pinene in both cases. 12 controls tested were negative for the same. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was found to be an extremely useful tool that could be utilized in investigating multiple allergies to essential oils.
Article
The aim of this study is to find out the causes of skin diseases in one-third of the staff of a perfume factory, in which 10 different perfume sprays were being manufactured. Site inspection, dermatological examination and patch testing of all 26 persons at risk with 4 perfume oils and 30 ingredients of them. The results showed 6 bottlers were found suffering from allergic contact dermatitis, 2 from irritant contact dermatitis, 12 workers showed different strong reactions to various fragrances. The main causes of allergic contact dermatitis were 2 perfume oils (12 cases) and their ingredients geraniol (12 cases), benzaldehyde(9), cinnamic aldehyde (6), linalool, neroli oil, terpenes of lemon oil and orange oil (4 each). Nobody was tested positive to balsam of Peru. Job changes for office workers, packers or printers to other rooms, where they had no longer contact with fragrances, led to a settling. To conclude, automation and replacement of glass bottles by cartridges from non-fragile materials and using gloves may minimize the risk.
Further important sensitizers in patients sensitive to fragrances
North American Contact Dermatitis Group patch test results: 2011-2012
Fragrance contact dermatitis: a worldwide multicenter investigation (Part II)