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Textile finds from a Chieftain's grave: Preliminary report from Poprad-Matejovce, Slovakia

  • Niedersächsisches Landesamt für Denkmalpflege
  • Reiss-Engelhorn-Museen
Archaeological Textiles Review No. 56
Textiles Review
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Elisabeth Winco Hecke, Ireland
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Tereza Štolcová, Slovakia
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Christina Margariti, Greece
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Archaeological Textiles Review No. 5650
Tereza Štolcová, Dorte Schaarschmidt and Sylvia Mitschke
Textile Finds from a
Chieftain’s Grave
Preliminary Report from Poprad-
Matejovce, Slovakia
A double-chambered chieftain’s grave from Poprad-
Matejovce discovered in 2005 is dated to the early
Migration period (late 4th/early 5th century AD). Over
four months in 2006, an interdisciplinary group of
specialists covering archaeology, archaeobotany,
geology, geophysics, palynology, dendrochronology
and conservation carried out the rescue excavation
(Pieta and Roth 2007; Belanová and Pieta 2007; Pieta
2009; Štolcová et al. 2009, Štolcová and Zink 2013;
Lau and Pieta 2014). It was done in collaboration of
three institutions: the Archeologický ústav Slovenskej
akadémie vied in Nitra, the Podtatranské múzeum
in Poprad and the Archäologisches Landesmuseum,
Stiftung Schleswig-Holsteinische Landesmuseen,
Schloss Goorf in Schleswig. Although the grave was
penetrated by ancient robbers, it yielded abundant
evidence of organic nds: wooden furniture parts,
leather objects, bast fragments and layers of textiles.
Fragile waterlogged organic nds as well as in situ
blocks were transported to Schleswig, where they
were stored at a temperature of -20°C and since then
have been processed step by step under laboratory
The grave consisted of outer and inner chambers made
of European larch (Larix decidua Mill.) with a north-
south orientation (Fig. 1). At a depth of ve metres
below the present surface, the base of the structure
was constructed as a platform of twelve over four
meter long timbers set on two round beams. On top of
it was the outer log-built chamber of L: 3.95 m, W: 2.70
m and H: 2.00 m. It was covered using 12 solid beams.
The sarcophagus-like inner chamber (2.90 x 1.70 m)
was built in a muntin-and-plank construction, covered
with a gabled roof and pediments on each side. The
Fig. 1. View of the grave at the end of the excavation
in 2006 (Photo: Karol Pieta).
grave was insulated by a layer of charcoal from the
surrounding area. The ancient robbery event not only
caused surrounding silt sediment and underground
water to ll it up, but also helped to preserve the
organic objects. Additionally, very few goods were
left in the grave after the robbery and most of those
that remained had been displaced. The dispersed
human body remains belong to a 20-25 year-old male
individual with a height of 171 cm. Apart from that,
there was a pendant made of a golden solidus of the
emperor Valens (375 AD), some poery, a glazed
mortarium and a bronze Hemmoor bucket. Also found
were a gaming board with glass gaming pieces, a
bronze arrowhead, a silver clasp, a silver awl with
51Archaeological Textiles Review No. 56
wooden handle, an amber bead and many hazelnuts
spread around the oor of the inner chamber. Above
all, there were many parts of wooden furniture turned
on lathe (e.g. a death bed and a round table), layers
Fig. 2a. Detailed GIS-based visualisation of the grave (© Karin Göbel).
of textiles, various leather objects and a basket. The
wooden parts of the grave construction are still being
conserved in Schloss Goorf in Schleswig. After a
time-consuming conservation process, the wooden
Archaeological Textiles Review No. 5652
furniture was transported to Slovakia in 2013. First
analyses of the grave inventory in the Geographical
Information System (Fig. 2a) as well as outputs of
3D-digitalised nds (Fig. 2b) have shown very exciting
results. However, the nal evaluation and laboratory
examination of in situ blocks is still an ongoing process,
and it has great potential to give us a much deeper
insight into the culture of the early Migration period
in northern Slovakia.
Processing of the in situ blocks
The laboratory examination of the in situ blocks
was executed in several stages (Fig. 3). It started in
Schleswig in 2008 within the European project Clothing
and Identities – New Perspectives on Textiles in the Roman
Empire (DressID) when parts of the oor of the inner
chamber were examined (Štolcová et al. 2009; Štolcová
and Lau 2013; Štolcová and Zink 2013). Stable and
cold laboratory conditions with a suction unit were
established to process the large waterlogged in situ
blocks. The cleaning of the fragile organic objects was
done with a ne air-brush and demineralised water,
small brushes, delicate dental tools and tweezers. All
the stages of the excavation were accompanied by
close examination through an operation microscope.
Thus, even the nest structures of textile remains in
the soil of an in situ block could be traced. Among
other things the documentation was made with the
help of a drawing tube aached to the microscope.
This guaranteed an exact documentation of delicate
but mostly decayed textile remains and their
surrounding context. All sketches and photographs
were later edited and integrated into the Geographic
Information System database (Štolcová and Zink 2013,
Fig. 9). The organic nds retrieved from the blocks
were processed in the wood conservation department
in Schleswig or stored in a freezing room for further
treatment. These excavation and documentation
methods have also been applied to the latest stage of
the laboratory research, which started in 2013 under
the German Research Foundation’s project Das
frühvölkerwanderungszeitliche Kammergrab von Poprad,
Slowakei Ein interdisziplinäres Forschungsprojekt
Fig. 2b. 3D-reconstruction of the inner and outer
chamber (© Karin Göbel).
Fig. 3. Documentation of fragile organic nds in the
laboratory (Photo: Claudia Janke).
Fig. 4. Tablet-woven textile fragment with severely
degraded threads in both systems (Photo: Tereza
53Archaeological Textiles Review No. 56
zur Auswertung eines außergewöhnlichen Fundes (The
Migration-period chamber grave at Poprad, Slovakia –
an interdisciplinary research project for the evaluation
of an extraordinary nd). In collaboration between
the Centre for Baltic and Scandinavian Archaeology
in Schleswig, the Niedersächsisches Landesamt für
Denkmalpege in Hannover, the Koninklijk Instituut
voor het Kunstpatrimonium in Brussels and the Curt-
Engelhorn-Zentrum für Archäometrie in Mannheim,
the remaining in situ blocks are currently being
processed in Hannover and are revealing new and
interesting nds.
Fig. 5a. Detailed photo of the carbonized fabric made
in sprang technique (Photo: Tereza Štolcová).
Fig. 5b. Plant bre from sprang textile fragment
identied in SEM (Photo: Sylvia Mitschke).
Although textiles were the least preserved organic
material from the grave, it was still possible to detect
many layers of various types. Most of the textiles could
be determined as being made of sheep’s wool (OVIS)
the preservation of which may have been caused
by the acidic environment in the grave. Apart from
remains of decayed tabbies, twills and microscopic
fragments of golden threads, it was possible to identify
several tablet-woven textiles, a single piece of sprang
and parts of a slit tapestry fabric. The large collection
of recovered leather objects is assumed to have been
connected to the textiles as well.
Tablet-woven textiles
On a small wooden plank from inside of the inner
chamber, the remains of woollen tablet-woven textiles
were still aached (Štolcová et al. 2009, 273, Fig. 10).
One of the fragments was made with approximately
nine four-holed tablets, which corresponds to c. 36
threads per cm. The paern 3S-3Z-3S consists of three
tablets twisted in the same way (S) alternating with
three tablets twisted in the opposite way (Z). Due
to their poor state of preservation it was possible to
determine neither the spin direction nor the original
dimensions (Fig. 4).
Fig. 5c. Reconstruction of sprang technique based on
the nd from the grave (Photo: Tereza Štolcová, re-
construction by Juraj Zajonc).
Archaeological Textiles Review No. 5654
Fig. 6a. Largest preserved
piece of a slit tapestry textile
(Photo: Dorte Schaarschmidt).
Fig. 6b. Detail of the reinforced selvedge of the tap-
estry textile (Photo: Dorte Schaarschmidt).
A small fragment of sprang fabric (6 mm x 2.5 mm)
preserved through carbonisation was found on the
boom of the inner chamber (Fig. 5a). Its analysis with
the scanning electron microscope has proved that it
was created from very ne, about 0.2 mm thick z-spun
threads, made from a plant material, most possibly
linen (Linum usitatissimum L.) (Fig. 5b). The fragment
consists of a simple interlinked sprang 11/11 structure
with alternating z and s twists in each row (Seiler-
Baldinger 1994, 52, Fig. 95b). Its reconstruction showed
that the rows with S twists were made from the right
to the left side whereas the rows with Z twists were
executed from the left to the right (Fig. 5c).
Recent examination of a wooden plank from the
eastern side of the outer chamber revealed one of
the best preserved textile fragments in the grave.
After recovery, unfolding and initial cleaning, it was
revealed that the textile was produced in a slit tapestry
technique (Fig. 6a). It consists of many fragments
within which the largest piece has a size of 14.5 cm
x 16.7 cm. Its reinforced selvedge was created by a
brown weft running over three warp threads (Fig. 6b).
The ground plain weft-faced weave creates a palmee-
55Archaeological Textiles Review No. 56
Fig. 6c. Detail of the half-moon shapes and reddish
stripe ornament (Drawing: Dorte Schaarschmidt).
Fig. 6d. Sample of aligned woollen remains in the
openings in SEM (Photo: Sylvia Mitschke).
Archaeological Textiles Review No. 5656
Fig. 6e. Detail of a braided
border from the tapestry
textile (Drawing: Dorte
Fig. 7a. Remains of gold strips found in decayed
layers of textiles (Photo: Tereza Štolcová).
Fig. 7b. Looped thread with fragments of golden
strips wound around the black core (Photo: Tereza
57Archaeological Textiles Review No. 56
like paern through the use of at least three dierent
coloured wefts. The palmee is formed by brown and
black wefts with an inlay of red threads in the rounded
areas followed by an intricate ornament of a reddish
stripe with light brown squares and half-moon shapes
set in wide openings (Fig. 6c). Microscopic traces of
textile remains in these openings indicate that they
were originally lled with another, presumably ner,
yarn (Fig. 6d). The dierent coloured parts of the
fabric1 are connected through the continuing use of
the same warp with another weft and thus show the
typical slits, creating a slanting edge in the ornament.
Coloured parts are also connected using a variation
of dovetailed joints with two weft threads turning
back around a common warp thread of the adjacent
area and creating a straight line in the paern. Both
warps and wefts were identied as woollen. The warp
threads are 0.65 mm thick and their thread count
is about nine to ten threads per cm. The dierent
coloured wefts vary slightly in their thickness from
0.4 mm to about 1.0 mm. Depending on which colour
was used for the weft, the thread count diers from
seven to eight weft threads per cm in the black
areas, about 15 weft threads per cm in the brown
areas and up to 20 threads in the reddish stripe of
the ornament. The most distinctive threads of black,
brown and red colour were determined as z-spun
whereas the least preserved remains, which originally
lled the symmetrically arranged openings, were
only microscopically identied as woollen remnants
of aligned structure. An ongoing examination of the
last in situ block found in the same area as the above
described piece yields further details of this textile. It
is a horizontal edge of the same tapestry textile with
remains of warp threads nished in a braided style
(Fig. 6e).
Gold threads and gold embroidery
Scaered all over the oor of the inner chamber,
remains of gold threads and thin gold strips were
found in decayed layers of textiles. These include either
fragments of gold strips wound around a decayed
black core or remains of narrow and straight stripes
cut from a gold leaf, which are c. 1 mm wide and 20
μm thick (Fig. 7a). Lastly, a gold thread with a black
core creating seven loops in a spiral-like ornament
has been preserved (Fig. 7b). It can be presumed that
it was originally part of a larger piece of embroidery.
Textiles and leather
So far, more than 80 single leather pieces were found
in the grave. Most of the leather nds were well
preserved due to the slightly acidic pH-value of the
soil, as well as the waterlogged conditions. All of them
Fig. 8a. An ornamented open-work leather piece of
triangular shape, size c. 20 x 23 cm (Photo: Tereza
Fig. 8b. Leather trefoil aached to a strip, remains of
stitching clearly visible (Photo: Tereza Štolcová).
Fig. 8c. Leather loop (Photo: Tereza Štolcová).
Archaeological Textiles Review No. 5658
bear traces of stitching and therefore may have been
connected to an already decayed underlying material,
most probably textiles (Fig. 8a). They consist of various
ornamental pieces like numerous trefoils (Fig. 8b) or
leather loops (Fig. 8c) and strips of many sizes and
types. Presumably they were parts of clothing.
Future perspectives
As research on the Poprad-Matejovce grave is still
ongoing, it is not possible to state the exact cultural
context of the grave. Chronologically it belongs to the
so-called North Carpathian Group, whose selements
can be found in hilly areas of northern Slovakia, but
graves from this region are very rare (Pieta 1991, 376;
Lau and Pieta 2014, 361). The costly construction of
both chambers, as well as the inventory containing
coloured tapestry pieces, remains of golden threads
and intricate leather objects points to the highest social
class in Europe, known from comparable Late Roman
graves like Pilgramsdorf (Lau 2012; 2014), Neudorf-
Bornstein (Abegg-Wigg 2014) or Gommern (Becker
2010). The inuence of the Roman Empire is visible in
many aspects on the nds from Poprad, above all in
the form of the inner grave chamber and the furniture
as well as some grave goods like the golden solidus or
the glazed mortarium. However, the date and place
of the burial also indicate that there may be many
dierent elements intermingled together. Strontium
isotope analyses planned for the near future will
hopefully answer questions about the origins of these
nds. Further conservation, detailed documentation,
technical analysis and evaluation of textile and leather
remains as well as colour and dye analyses will bring
essential insights into the production and use of
textiles in the Late Roman period and the beginning
of the Migration period from the territory of Slovakia.
1. Samples for dye analyses of this textile were
submied to Ina Vanden Berghe from the Koninklijk
Instituut voor het Kunstpatrimonium in Brussels.
Thanks to Ina Vanden Berghe, Claus von Carnap-
Bornheim, Karin Göbel, Nina Lau, Monika Lehmann,
Karol Pieta, Lise Ræder Knudsen, Juraj Zajonc,
Gabriele Zink, the DFG project LA 2891/2-1 Das
frühvölkerwanderungszeitliche Kammergrab von Poprad,
Slowakei – Ein interdisziplinäres Forschungsprojekt zur
Auswertung eines außergewöhnlichen Fundes and the
VEGA project No. 0117/12 Between the Antiquity and
the Middle Ages. Ethnic-Cultural Relations in the Middle
Danubian Region from the Celtic Occupation till the
Beginning of the Middle Ages.
Abegg-Wigg, A. (2014) Die Grabkammern aus
Holz der Römischen Kaiserzeit von Neudorf-
Bornstein. In A. Abegg-Wigg and N. Lau (eds),
Kammergräber im Barbaricum Zu Einüssen und
Übergangsphänomenen von der vorrömischen Eisenzeit
bis in die Völkerwanderungszeit. Neumünster/Hamburg:
Wachhol Verlag, 105-122.
Becker, M. (2010) Das Fürstengrab von Gommern.
Veröentlichungen des Landesamtes für
Denkmalpege und Archäologie Sachsen-Anhalt
Landesmuseum für Vorgeschichte 63/I–II. Halle
Belanová, T. and Pieta, K. (2007) Discovery of a Unique
Chamber Tomb in Poprad-Matejovce (Slovakia).
Archaeological Textile Newsleer 44, 18-20.
Lau, N. (2012) Pilgramsdorf/Pielgrzymowo Ein
Fundpla der römischen Kaiserzeit in Nordmasowien.
Eine Studie zu Grabsien, Archivalien und Fundbestand.
Studien zur Siedlungsgeschichte und Archäologie der
Ostseegebiete 11. Neumünster: Wachhol Verlag.
Lau, N. (2014) Kammergrab und Gräberfeld von
Pilgramsdorf (Pielgrzymowo) Ein Fundpla
zwischen kulturellem Kontext und überregionalen
Einüssen. In A. Abegg-Wigg and N. Lau (eds),
Kammergräber im Barbaricum Zu Einüssen und
Übergangsphänomenen von der vorrömischen Eisenzeit
bis in die Völkerwanderungszeit. Neumünster/Hamburg:
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Lau, N. and Pieta, K. (2014) Das Grab von Poprad-
Matejovce in der Slowakei Konstruktion,
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frühvölkerwanderungszeitlichen Kammergrabes. In
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der vorrömischen Eisenzeit bis in die Völkerwanderungszeit.
Neumünster/Hamburg: Wachhol Verlag, 343-364.
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and E. Wamers (eds), Glaube, Kult und Herrschaft.
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Corresponding Author:
Archaeological Textiles Review No. 56
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Tema je članka jedinstveni nalaz kopče pronađene na brojčano malom groblju germanske pripadnosti u Novom Čemincu u hrvatskoj Baranji. Željezna, almandinima bogato ukrašena pojasna kopča pronađena je in situ iznad zdjelice pokojnika i djelomično ispod mača, a bila je dio vojnog pojasa. Kopča iz Novog Čeminca nema neposredne paralele, a prema tipološkim i stilskim karakteristikama, pripada krugu mediteranskih kopči druge polovine 5. i početka 6. stoljeća. Analiza očuvane tkanine na stražnjoj strani kopče pokazala je da je riječ o dijelu odjeće pokojnika, a vjerojatno je riječ o dijelu gornjeg, širega odjevnog predmeta, skupljenog i opasanoga pojasom. Tkanina je fine, vjerojatno lokalne proizvodnje te relativno tipičnih tehničkih karakteristika za srednju Europu onoga razdoblja.
В статье рассматриваются результаты археологических раскопок в г. Торжке Тверской области на участке, располагающемся между Новоторжским кремлем (Нижнее и Верхнее городища) и Борисоглебским монастырем, основанным в 1038 г. Раскопом частично вскрыт городской домонгольский некрополь, в котором положение рук умерших крайне неустойчиво. Впервые осуществлена частичная прорезка напольного рва Новоторжской крепости. The paper reports on the results of archaeological excavations in the town of Torzhok, Tver’ Region, carried out on the section between the New Torzhok Kremlin (the Lower and the Upper Hillforts) and the Monastery of St. Boris and Gleb founded in 1038. The excavation trench partially revealed a pre-Mongol town necropolis where graves demonstrate high variability in the position of the arms of the deceased. Partial cross-section of the fieldside ditch of the New Torzhok Fortress was performed for the first time.
Среди находок, сделанных при раскопках 2011–2012 гг. в Воскресенском монастыре на р. Истре (Новый Иерусалим), была обнаружена серия из 25 фрагментов, относящихся к изразцам с изображением на сюжет «Лестница возраста человека». Он никогда ранее не встречался на изразцах ни в России, ни, сколько известно, в Европе. В то же время этот сюжет очень распространен в нравоучительных гравюрах XVI и, особенно, XVII–XIX вв., в основном в протестантских странах. Среди русских гравированных и рисованных лубков (народных картинок) он также встречается. Анализ изображения позволяет видеть в изразцовой серии из Нового Иерусалима самостоятельную вариацию на тему этой притчи, составленную одним из европейских мастеров, работавших в монастыре с середины XVII до середины XVIII в. Изменение возрастной хронологии, введение дополнительных элементов симметрии и др. выявляют местное влияние. The finds from the excavations conducted in 2011–2012 in the Resurrection Monastery on the Istra (New Jerusalem) revealed a series of 25 fragments attributed to ceramic tiles depicting ’The Ladder of Ages of Man’. This narrative scene has never been identified on tiles either in Russia or, to the best of our knowledge, in Europe. At the same time this narrative was very common in moralizing engravings of the 16th and, especially, the 17th–19th centuries, mainly, in protestant countries. It also occurs on Russian engraved and painted luboks (popular prints). The analysis of the image permits interpretation of the tile series from the New Jerusalem Monastery as an independent variation on the topic of this parable made by a European craftsman who worked in the monastery from the mid-17th century to the mid-18th century. Changes in the periodization of ages of man, introduction of additional symmetry elements, etc. reveal local influence.
Представлены результаты исследований коллекции энколпионов втор. пол. XIII – XV в., обнаруженных Новгородской археологической экспедицией ИА РАН в 2008–2017 гг. Коллекция включает 5 реликвариев. Дана краткая топографическая привязка этих находок, а также морфологическое описание и иконографическая характеристика, приведен химический состав металла. The paper reports on the studies of the collection of reliquary crosses dating from the second half of the 13th–15th centuries discovered by the Novgorod archaeological expedition of the Institute of Archaeology, RAS, in 2008–2017. The collection includes five reliquaries. The paper provides information on the location of these finds as well as morphological and iconographic characteristics and the chemical composition of metal.
Для изучения гончарных традиций древнерусского населения Ростова Великого были использованы материалы из двух раскопов на территории города. Технологическое изучение керамики проводилось по методике А. А. Бобринского в рамках историко-культурного подхода. Преобладали традиции отбора сильнозапесоченных глин и составления формовочных масс по рецепту Г + Д + О. Традиция использования шамота фиксируется преимущественно в смешанном виде в рецепте Г + Д + Ш + О. Хронологических особенностей в распространении этих традиций не выявлено. Постепенные изменения касаются только рецепта Г + Д + О: это переход от крупной дресвы к более мелкой и от большей концентрации дресвы к меньшей, что было прослежено по керамике Григорьевского раскопа. Сопоставление материалов двух раскопов выявило некоторые особенности в традициях отбора глин, а также дало возможность предположить перемешанность нижних пластов Конюшенного раскопа. Выяснилось также, что существует определенная связь традиций изготовления орнаментированной посуды и использования шамота в качестве примеси. To study pottery traditions of the Medieval Russia population in Rostov the Great, materials retrieved from two excavation trenches in the city were used. The technological examination of the ceramics was based on A. A. Bobrinsky’s methodology with the use of the historical and cultural approach. Traditions of selecting oversanded clay and using the ’clay + broken stone + organic materials’ formula predominated. The tradition of using grog is recorded mainly in a mixed formula: ’clay + broken stone + grog + organic materials’. No chronological characteristics in the spread of these traditions were identified. Gradual changes occurred only in the ’clay + broken stone + organic materials’ formula and consisted in a shift from coarse-grained broken stone to fine-grained broken stone and from larger broken stone quantities to smaller grit quantities and can be traced in the ceramics from the Grigoryevsky excavation trench. Comparison of the materials from these two excavation pits identified some specific features of clay selection and also suggested that the lower layers of the Konyushenny excavation trench had been dislodged. A certain linkage of traditions of making ornamented vessels and using grog as temper was also established.
В статье проведен анализ находок оружия ударного действия (каменного навершия булавы и каменных топоров кабардино-пятигорского типа) в 13 комплексах Кавминводской группы. Подчеркнуто, что оружие ударного действия найдено в погребениях мужчин. Захоронения с топорами могут быть в курганах как основными, так и впускными. Особо рассматриваются комплексы орудий с каменными топорами. Наиболее часто с ними встречаются каменные терочники-куранты. Они, по наблюдениям Г. Ф. Коробковой, служили наковаленками. В итоге делается вывод о символике погребений с каменными топорами Кавминводской группы как символике воинского статуса и ее связи с символикой умельцев – кузнецов. The paper analyzes finds of impact weapons (a stone mace head and stone axes of the Kabarda-Pyatigorye type) in 13 assemblages of the Caucasian Spas group. It emphasizes that impact weapons were found in the graves of males of the virile age. The burials with axes in the kurgans can be primary and secondary. Assemblages of implements containing stone axes are analyzed separately. Most frequently they are accompanied by grindstones/pestles. As G. F. Korobkova has observed, they were used as small anvils. The paper concludes that symbolism of the burials containing stone taxes of the Caucasian Spas group indicates the military status and demonstrate that this symbolism is associated with symbolism of skilled metalsmiths.
В 1937 г. совместная экспедиция ГМИИ им. А. С. Пушкина и ГИМ под руководством В. Д. Блаватского исследовала участок западного некрополя Фанагории, где были обнаружены в том числе захоронения эпохи Великого переселения народов. Данная работа посвящена публикации наиболее богатого погребения – двухкамерного склепа № 50. В статье собраны все доступные сведения об этой гробнице, представлен анализ погребального обряда, инвентаря, делаются выводы о датировке комплекса, а также о социальном статусе погребенных. In 1937 a joint expedition of the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts and the State Historical Museum (GIM) led by V. D. Blavatskiy excavated a section in the Phanagoria west necropolis where graves of the Migration Period were discovered among other burials. This paper publishes the richest burial, i. e. two-chamber vault No. 50. The paper contains all available data about the tomb, analyzes the burial rite, funerary offerings, provides conclusions about the assemblage dating as well as the social status of the deceased.
В статье дается морфологическое и технологическое описание керамических погребальных сосудов XIV–XVI вв. из захоронений, раскопанных в 2016–2017 гг. в Чудовом монастыре Московского Кремля, рассматриваются некоторые закономерности обряда погребения с использованием керамических сосудов и связь полученных археологических данных с историческими источниками The paper contains a morphological and technological description of ceramic burial vessels dated to the 14th–16th centuries from the graves excavated in the Chudov Monastery of the Moscow Kremlin in 2016–2017 and examines some distinctive characteristics of the funerary rite with the use of ceramic vessels as well as the links between the archaeological data obtained and historical sources
В результате археологических раскопок на правом берегу р. Дон в Волгоградской области в кургане № 1 у хут. Базки в насыпи найден бронзовый кованый котел раннесарматского времени с греческой надписью на плечиках сосуда. Надпись читается как [H]ΔΔΔΖ | ΔΙΡΙNAKOY и переводится: (Вес) 181 (драхм) (собственность) Диринака. По типологическим особенностям и палеографическим данным котел можно датировать в пределах II, возможно, начала I в. до н. э. Archaeological excavations on the right bank of the Don River in the Volgograd Region revealed a hammered bronze cauldron of the Early Sarmatian period in the mound of kurgan 1 near the Bazki farmstead. The caldron bears a Greek inscription placed on the vessel shoulders. The inscription reads as [H]ΔΔΔΖ | ΔΙΡΙNAKOY and is interpreted as (Weight) 181 (drachms) (owned by) Dirinak. Regarding typological characteristics and paleographic data, the dating puts the cauldron within II – possibly, early I century BC.
Данная статья является результатом продолжения более ранних исследований автора, посвященных изучению степени относительной устойчивости орнаментальных традиций в гончарстве. Ранее на материалах 5 могильников фатьяновской культуры было выявлено, что наиболее устойчивой традицией является «вид орнаментира», затем по степени устойчивости идет «орнаментальный образ» и наиболее изменчивым является «орнаментальный мотив». Источниковедческая база данного исследования охватывает все доступные сегодня для анализа сосуды фатьяновской и балановской культур, а также поздневолосовскую керамику ряда стоянок Верхнего и Среднего Поволжья. В результате внесены поправки в сделанный мною ранее вывод об относительной степени устойчивости разных орнаментальных традиций, в частности, предполагается, что наименее устойчивой орнаментальной традицией был не мотив, а орнаментальный образ. Кроме того, в статье описаны новые важные особенности проявления смешанности орнаментальных традиций в ходе смешения групп населения, владевших глубоко различными в культурном плане орнаментальными традициями. This paper is a follow-up of the earlier research carried out by the author to study the degree of relative stability of ornamental pottery traditions. The previous study of five Fatyanovo burial grounds identified that the most stable tradition is a type of the ornamental tool, then comes an «ornamental image», while the most variable attribute is an «ornamental motif». The historiographical database of this study covers all available Fatyanovo and Balanovo pots as well as Late Volosovo vessels from a number of sites in the Upper and Middle Volga Regions. This study is used to revise the earlier conclusion made by the author regarding the degree of relative stability of ornamental traditions; for example, it is now believed that the most stable ornamental tradition was an ornamental image rather than the motif. Besides, the paper describes new important distinctive features of mixed ornamental traditions developed as groups with extremely different cultural ornamental traditions mingled together.
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A wooden constructed, unique chamber tomb that dates back to 380 ± 27 AD was discovered in Poprad-Matejovce, Northern Slovakia in 2005. The chamber stood on a platform of twelve long timbers at a depth of 495cm from the original surface. The well preserved burial with its inventory including mainly wooden, leather, and textile objects was considered to be of high value. The tomb affirms to the high level of architectural construction in the Carpathian Area of 4th and 5th centuries AD, while the grave inventory shows the princely status of the deceased and provides new inputs about the close relations between the German elite and the Roman Empire.
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The problem of identification of the earliest Slavic settlement in central Europe drew researchers’ attention to the archaeological finds of the Late Roman and Migration periods. The simple hand-made pottery of this period in the northern Danube region showed a certain formal resemblance to the vessels of Early Slavic cultures, which provoked the idea of a direct time connection between the first wave of the Slav expansion from the east and the horizon of the preceding Germanic settlement in this territory. A find group from northeast Slovakia, known mainly from the small settlement at Presov (Chropovský 1962; Točík 1965; Chropovský & Ruttkay 1985), the ’Prešov‘ type, seemed to provide the geographical connection of this ethnic shift. However, different opinions were also expressed, pointing to a possible relationship with the Late Przeworsk culture milieu (Budinský-Krička 1963: 36–7), or connecting the genesis of the Prešov finds with the development of local settlement of the Later Roman period (Lamiová-Schmiedlová 1969: 478; Kolník 1980: 202). Investigations in the North Carpathian area has provided new evidence during the last few years enabling a first evaluation of its settlement.
In 2006, a double-chambered chieftain's grave dated to the late 4 th and early 5th century AD was excavated in Poprad-Matejovce (Northern Slovakia). Due to an ancient robbery, the grave lacked most of the artefacts, but still yielded a lot of organic materials: wood from the construction, wooden furniture, textiles, leather and wickerwork. Metal, glass, pottery as well as human and animal bones were found in smaller numbers. This paper deals with the excavation methods, describing the preparation of in-situ blocks, their appropriate packing, transport and storage. In October 2008, laboratory work on the first object - a wooden plank with attached textiles - started. First analyses revealed a woollen tablet-woven piece of textile, remains of tabby or twill structures as well as fragments of gold threads. The continued studies of the textiles from the grave take place in the context of the European project entitled »Clothing and Identities - New Perspectives on Textiles in the Roman Empire (DressID)«.
Die Grabkammern aus Holz der Römischen Kaiserzeit von Neudorf-Bornstein
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Abegg-Wigg, A. (2014) Die Grabkammern aus Holz der Römischen Kaiserzeit von Neudorf-Bornstein. In A. Abegg-Wigg and N. Lau (eds), Kammergräber im Barbaricum -Zu Einflüssen und Übergangsphänomenen von der vorrömischen Eisenzeit bis in die Völkerwanderungszeit. Neumünster/Hamburg: Wachholtz Verlag, 105-122.
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Kammergrab und Gräberfeld von Pilgramsdorf (Pielgrzymowo) -Ein Fundplatz zwischen kulturellem Kontext und überregionalen Einflüssen
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Das Grab von Poprad-Matejovce in der Slowakei -Konstruktion, Ausstattung und Wiederöffnung eines frühvölkerwanderungszeitlichen Kammergrabes
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Lau, N. and Pieta, K. (2014) Das Grab von Poprad-Matejovce in der Slowakei -Konstruktion, Ausstattung und Wiederöffnung eines frühvölkerwanderungszeitlichen Kammergrabes. In A. Abegg-Wigg and N. Lau (eds), Kammergräber im Barbaricum -Zu Einflüssen und Übergangsphänomenen von der vorrömischen Eisenzeit bis in die Völkerwanderungszeit. Neumünster/Hamburg: Wachholtz Verlag, 343-364.
Das germanische Fürstengrab aus Poprad-Matejovce
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