Article

Client Satisfaction and Outcome Comparisons of Online and Face-to-Face Counselling Methods

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

This article compares Global Assessment of Function (GAF) and Client Satisfaction Survey scores for clients receiving either face-to-face or online counselling. Clients were assessed by phone and then assigned to one of the two modalities. Analyses of variance were conducted with α = 0.05, to examine differences between counselling modalities. No significant differences were found for degree of change in GAF between assessment and closing between the two modalities. Some differences were found in Client Satisfaction Scores. Implications for screening and social work practice are discussed.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Transformation would entail improving efficiencies in technology-based student learning and support services (National Department of Higher Education and Training, 2013). The research by Murphy et al. (2009), whilst investigating comparative differences between online and face-to-face counseling methods, highlights the growth of cyber counseling in the field of distance education. This study by Murphy et al. (2009) focused on client satisfaction and outcome comparisons of online and face-to-face counseling methods. ...
... The research by Murphy et al. (2009), whilst investigating comparative differences between online and face-to-face counseling methods, highlights the growth of cyber counseling in the field of distance education. This study by Murphy et al. (2009) focused on client satisfaction and outcome comparisons of online and face-to-face counseling methods. It compared Global Assessment of Function (GAF) and client satisfaction survey scores for clients receiving either face-to-face or online counseling. ...
... Researchers, such as Anthony (2000), Britto and Rush (2013), Israelite (2015), Murphy et al. (2009), and Richards and Tangney (2008), highlighted the growth of technologies and the possibilities for online psychological support. These looked at internet-based psychological support, including online counseling. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports on the findings of a study which sought to investigate the impact and efficacy of technology-based counseling offered by the University of South Africa (Unisa), an Open and Distance Learning (ODL) institution. The study focused specifically on student perceptions of the services they had received from professionals based in the Gauteng regional center, in the context of academic admissions and support, career indecision, financial and psychosocial challenges. A client satisfaction questionnaire was administered to 30 students. The theoretical framework for the study was Activity theory, which is a philosophical and cross-disciplinary framework for studying different forms of human practices as development processes, with both individual and social levels interlinked simultaneously. A mixed-method approach was adopted to explore participants’ experiences and perceptions of e-counseling. Quantitative data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Open-ended responses contained in the questionnaire, were subjected to qualitative analysis using the Atlas.ti program. Accessibility, convenience, and efficiency were highlighted as significant benefits of e-counseling. Results of the study suggest that while e-counseling should not be construed as a substitute for traditional, face-to-face counseling and psychotherapy, particularly in respect of more severe emotional and psychological challenges, it can be a useful adjunct to traditional modes of practice. The study also has important quality assurance implications for student counseling practice in Open and Distance Learning (ODL) institutions, particularly with respect to informing online ethical imperatives.
... In one of these studies, Cook and Doyle (2002) concluded that no difference was observed between face-to-face counseling and online counseling in terms of client satisfaction. Similarly, Murphy et al. (2009) showed that from the point of view of clients, online counseling was as effective and satisfying as face-to-face counseling. Kilroe (2010) examined the opinions, perceptions and attitudes of online clients toward the psychological service that almost all the clients had a positive view about online counseling and they were satisfied with it. ...
... Individuals may want to receive online counseling instead of face-to-face various reasons. Online counseling can provide utility for people who live away from organizations providing psychological help, for people who cannot leave the home because of their physical disabilities and their chronic diseases, for people who travel frequently, for those who can express themselves better in writing than face-to-face communication and for people having economic difficulties (Alleman, 2002;Cook & Doyle, 2002;Joinson & Paine, 2007;Kilroe, 2010;Murphy et al., 2009;Shaw & Shaw, 2006). In this vein, online counseling can be beneficial service for many individuals. ...
... All the participants were satisfied with the counseling process and satisfaction of face-to-face clients was quite similar to satisfaction of online clients. This result coincides with the results derived from the studies of Cook and Doyle (2002), Murphy et al. (2009), Kilroe (2010) and Brown (2012) who have concluded that online counseling offer as much satisfaction as face-to-face counseling. ...
Article
Full-text available
Alongside technological developments, online counseling has started becoming widespread since last decade. The purpose of this study is to investigate face-to-face and online counseling in terms of client problems and satisfaction. This qualitative study used a phenomenology research design and consisted of 12 female and 9 male, twenty-one volunteer clients. Fifteen participants were given face-to-face, whereas six participants, online counseling. Clients received face-to-face and online counseling from seven volunteer senior students in the undergraduate program of Counseling and Guidance. A content analysis is used for data interpretation. The results of the study suggest that the problems and satisfaction are quite similar in face-to-face and online clients. Personal problems were the most common problem among the clients. Respectively, career development concerns, academic problems, and relationship issues with a partner and family follow personal problems. All the participants were satisfied with the counseling process and satisfaction of face-to-face counseling and online counseling participants were remarkably similar.
... Research within the field of psychological counselling suggests that the outcomes of counselling interventions correlate more strongly with the common factors, such as the working relationship, than they do with the use of specialised techniques (Hanley, 2012;Lambert & Barley, 2001;Lambert & Bergin, 1994). It has also been found that online counsellors are able to establish a comfortable environment, help service users develop plans and effectively communicate their skills to help them (Murphy et al., 2009;Schalken et al., 2013). ...
... Research (e.g. Cook & Doyle, 2002;Dunn, 2012;Murphy et al., 2009) found that the working relationship is established in both online and face-to-face settings. However, the absence of nonverbal cues that convey warmth, support and empathy within an online environment has been identified as a potential barrier (Callahan & Inckle, 2012;King et al., 2006). ...
... However, this does not mean that the working relationship is not important, but rather suggests that crafting and sustaining a positive working relationship should be achieved by other means, like understanding the characteristics of the medium itself, in order to be able to compensate for the loss of non-verbal interaction. This can be seen as a mechanism that might explain findings from previous research, which suggests that a lack of worker adaptation to the characteristics of the medium, are likely to have a negative effect on the online working process and outcome (Mallen et al., 2005;Murphy et al., 2009). It is therefore important for counsellors to be familiar with the basic issues before interacting with service users online, and to gain experience in the necessary communication technologies, fully understanding text-based communication, becoming more educated in writing (Callahan & Inckle, 2012;Jones & Stokes, 2008;Mallen et al., 2005), and to be familiar with the use and interpretation of online language in a professional context (Bocklandt, 2011;Haberstroh, 2009). ...
Article
This article reports on an empirical case study into the process of establishing a working relationship between social workers and service users in an online social work service. Workers were using an online chat application to interact with young people, who sought professional help for various types of psychosocial problems. Two chat conversations and one interview of each of five research participants were analysed in terms of the way in which the working relationship between the service user and the online social worker was established. Thus, a total of 10 chat conversations and five interviews were included in this study. Findings Subjects were shown to be particularly focused on the process of addressing the issues with which the service users were trying to cope. As a consequence, limited effort was observed with regard to shaping the working relationship in such a way that the service user gained control over the course of the conversation. Applications As the medium influences the process of establishing a positive working relationship, it is argued that the worker should be able to understand the implications for the manner in which online conversations are conducted. Social work education is called upon to facilitate the acquiring of the knowledge and skills needed for such. It is suggested that more research into service users’ expectations regarding the working relationship within online social work could provide additional insights for the further improvement of these types of services.
... Studies S1-S14 [18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31] are described in Multimedia Appendix 3. Information (where available) is provided relating to the study: location, sample, experimental design, type of intervention, intervention duration, control or comparison condition, attrition, and the main results of the study. ...
... Dowling and Rickwood [4] reported 6 in their systematic review, and we describe an additional 8 studies that have been published in the intervening 3 years and 7 reporting additional features of Web-based synchronous text-based interventions. Whereas Dowling and Rickwood [4] in their previous systematic review reported tentative support for Web-based chat counseling with evidence indicating it was as effective as face-to-face support [19,29], the authors noted limitations related to the overall poor quality of studies. Similarly, our findings are mixed, though overall positive. ...
... However, several studies reported no immediate advantage of Web-based text-based communication over self-help, enhanced support, or telephone intervention [18,23,26], whereas others showed significant benefits to Web-based, text-based communication above telephone delivered support [22]. All reported that Web-based support was significantly beneficial in comparison with WL [18,24,27,30], though others [26,29] reported no advantage of Web-based chat support interventions compared with TAU conditions. Studies indicate that Web-based chat is acceptable and feasible as a mode of therapeutic support, with participants in some studies indicating a preference for this mode of interaction over telephone call. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Synchronous written conversations (or “chats”) are becoming increasingly popular as Web-based mental health interventions. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to evaluate and summarize the quality of these interventions. Objective The aim of this study was to review the current evidence for the feasibility and effectiveness of online one-on-one mental health interventions that use text-based synchronous chat. Methods A systematic search was conducted of the databases relevant to this area of research (Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online [MEDLINE], PsycINFO, Central, Scopus, EMBASE, Web of Science, IEEE, and ACM). There were no specific selection criteria relating to the participant group. Studies were included if they reported interventions with individual text-based synchronous conversations (ie, chat or text messaging) and a psychological outcome measure. Results A total of 24 articles were included in this review. Interventions included a wide range of mental health targets (eg, anxiety, distress, depression, eating disorders, and addiction) and intervention design. Overall, compared with the waitlist (WL) condition, studies showed significant and sustained improvements in mental health outcomes following synchronous text-based intervention, and post treatment improvement equivalent but not superior to treatment as usual (TAU) (eg, face-to-face and telephone counseling). Conclusions Feasibility studies indicate substantial innovation in this area of mental health intervention with studies utilizing trained volunteers and chatbot technologies to deliver interventions. While studies of efficacy show positive post-intervention gains, further research is needed to determine whether time requirements for this mode of intervention are feasible in clinical practice.
... cyber counseling could avoid conveying emotions, a kind of emotional transference from counselee to counselor; (4) cyber counseling allowed counselees to be more willing to express comfortably personal things that were very difficult to convey in person. Then the research conducted by Attridge (2011), Murphy et al. (2009), and Péñate (2012) examined the effectiveness of cyber counseling or online therapy and found that cyber counseling or online therapy was generally as effective and satisfying as face-to-face counseling. Mallen et al., (2005) studied the feasibility of cyber counseling by reviewing the various counseling psychology literature and suggested that online counseling could be a viable service choice for some clients, especially those who were isolated. ...
... This easy accessibility makes it easier for counselees to contact the counselor when experiencing problems. Murphy et al. (2009) and Bastemur & Bastemur (2015) assert that online counseling is not bound by distance and time. Even counseling can be done anywhere and anytime according to the needs of the counselee and counselor. ...
... In general, this study also has relevance to the results of other previous studies which found that cyber counseling or online therapy is generally as effective and satisfying as faceto-face counseling (Attridge, 2011;Murphy et al., 2009;Péñate, 2012). Mallen et al. (2005) in the results of their review revealed that online counseling can be a viable service choice for several clients especially those who are usually isolated. ...
Article
Full-text available
This research aimed at developing theoretical models and guidelines for cyber counseling, as well as examining their acceptability and effectiveness. The stages of the study consisted of 4 D namely define, design, develop, and disseminate. The acceptance test involved 2 experts as reviewers, while the effectiveness test involved 30 high school students as participants. The effectiveness of models and guidelines was measured by participants' responses to the benefits of cyber counseling. Data were collected using questionnaires and then analyzed using a t-test. Results showed that the theoretical model of cyber counseling consisted of raw input, instrumental input, environmental input, process, and counseling goals. The guidelines for cyber counseling were set out in the steps of cyber counseling consisting of initial communication, internalization, and termination. The acceptance of the model and cyber counseling guidelines was very high with a coefficient of 1.00. Therefore, cyber counseling should be used as a model of counseling services for high school students in the digital age effectively.
... With the increasing interest in online counseling, satisfaction in the online environment has been frequently studied. A number of studies reveal no significant difference between online and face-to-face counseling in terms of client satisfaction (Cohen & Kerr, 1999;Cook & Doyle, 2002;Murphy et al., 2009). Kilroe (2010), researching online clients' experiences of counseling help, found that almost all clients had positive opinions and satisfaction with online counseling. ...
... After their experience, they added that online counseling is similar to face-to-face. There have been several studies that reveal that satisfaction with face-to-face and online counseling sessions are high and similar to each other (Brown, 2012;Cohen & Kerr, 1999;Cook & Doyle, 2002;Kilroe, 2010;Murphy et al., 2009;Simpson, 2001;Zeren, 2015). However, there are also studies (Leibert & Archer, 2006;Mallen et al., 2003) that concluded satisfaction with online counseling is not as high as that of face-to-face counseling. ...
Article
Full-text available
Online counseling has been increasingly becoming widespread. Nevertheless, the number of studies investigating counselees' online counseling experience in-depth is scarce, especially in Turkey, despite the proliferation of the service. Therefore, this phenomenological study aims to understand the experiences of participants who received online counseling regarding satisfaction and therapeutic alliance. For this purpose, semi-structured interviews were conducted with six participants. Thematic analysis was applied to explore their satisfaction with online counseling and therapeutic alliance. The results showed that three themes emerged for satisfaction with online counseling; improvements in the symptoms, the flexibility of the online counseling, and limitations of online counseling. Thematic analysis of therapeutic alliance revealed the themes; goals, tasks, and bond. As a result, the participants reported high satisfaction with the online sessions, and they were able to establish a therapeutic alliance with their counselor in setting goals, seeking solutions to problems, and bonding. Overall, most of the participants reported positive experiences with online counseling in terms of improvement in their situation and establishing significant relationships with their counselor over the Internet.
... Furthermore, it counteracts the wishes of some users to remain anonymous, which is considered to be an important advantage of an online environment (Callahan & Inckle, 2012;Dowling & Rickwood, 2014;Murphy et al., 2009). The view that an online working is only suitable for minor problems contradicts research evidence that demonstrates that it is possible to offer online help to users with complex problems (Cook & Doyle, 2002;Dunn, 2012;Murphy et al., 2009). ...
... Furthermore, it counteracts the wishes of some users to remain anonymous, which is considered to be an important advantage of an online environment (Callahan & Inckle, 2012;Dowling & Rickwood, 2014;Murphy et al., 2009). The view that an online working is only suitable for minor problems contradicts research evidence that demonstrates that it is possible to offer online help to users with complex problems (Cook & Doyle, 2002;Dunn, 2012;Murphy et al., 2009). ...
Article
Despite the growing interest of users in online services, social workers are still reluctant to offer their services in an online environment. Moreover, little is known about online working methods and their contribution to an effective online session. This paper reports on the findings of a Dutch case study of the online intervention “Clickforhelp”. The first aim of this paper is to explore whether social workers believe that they are able to stimulate the problem‐solving abilities of the users in an online working environment. The analysis pertaining to this question was based on the results of a qualitative online survey completed by 26 online social workers. The second aim is to examine how social workers implement the five essential components of a solution‐focused approach in a chat and email environment. A qualitative content analysis of 50 online cases was carried out based on analytical questions derived from the problem‐solving method. The findings illustrate that the social workers of “Clickforhelp” believe that they are able to stimulate the problem‐solving abilities of users in an online environment, but prefer a face‐to‐face setting. They rarely implement all five components of a solution‐focused approach. They predominantly stimulate the self‐esteem and the power position of the user, while relatively little attention is given to the strengths of the user and the social support system. Neither do they translate the problem‐solving process into concrete and achievable steps or evaluate the progress and the user’s experience. It is necessary to further develop knowledge relating to online working skills and methods.
... In these studies, it was found that one of the most crucial advantages of online counseling is that it provides the opportunity to people who do not have any other chance to take this service. For instance, Cook and Doyle (2002), Murphy et al. (2009), Savaş and Hamamcı (2010), and Tanrıkulu (2009) emphasized this advantage of online counseling. ...
... The reason could be that counselors in the training conducted only one pilot session and participants experienced this situation both as clients and counselors. The results are similar to the results of other researches in which no significant difference was found between face-to-face and online counseling (Barak, Hen, Boniel-Nissim and Shapira, 2008;Cook and Doyle, 2002;Fenichel et al., 2002;Holmes, 2011;Li-Xia, Ya-Nan, Li, and Sheng, 2010;McKenna, 1998;Murphy et al., 2009). Haberstroh, Parr, Bradley, Morgan-Fleming, and Gee (2008) emphasized the disadvantages of not being able to see the client, and highlighted the fact that establishing intimacy was about clients' gestures, voice tones, and body languages and hence, this situation was irritating for counselors. ...
Article
Full-text available
Using information and communication technology (ICT) in psychological counseling and guidance field is a current issue with the developing technology. In Turkey, scientific research on this subject is quite limited. The aim of this research is to examine the thoughts of counselors in training about the ICT. This qualitative study was conducted with 7 senior female students taking Individual Psychological Counseling Practice course in Psychological Counseling and Guidance Undergraduate Program in Yeditepe University. Data were gathered with both a questionnaire consisting of open-ended questions and focus group discussion. As a result of content analysis, counselors in training were found to think that ICT is positive since it is fast and convenient as a part of the education. Besides, they stated that there are both advantages and disadvantages of online counseling process they conducted within this context. It was understood that being in an online client role is generally easy for counselors in training and this process increases the empathy towards the clients. However, they had difficulties in scenario building and artificial atmosphere. The advantage of conducting online counseling is that it provides enough time to react properly to the clients during sessions, an opportunity to read the conversation again and again, giving opportunity to the people who cannot take counseling service, suitability to people who have difficulty in self-disclosure during face-to-face sessions, and contribution to the counselors’ professional development. Disadvantages of the online counseling is that the clients and the counselors cannot communicate directly; that it is hard to build trust, that it is necessary to take additional precautions about confidentiality, and the differences in time management.
... AND FACE-TO-FACE COUNSELING Murphy et al.'s (2009) study was a naturalistic comparison of online chat and face-to-face counseling at Therapy Online and Interlock in Canada. Of the 44 online participants, 26 had a Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) score. ...
... Although the number of studies is small, their results are promising. All six studies revealed a significant positive effect of online chat counseling, of which two found that individual online synchronous chat was equivalent to face-to-face help (Cohen and Kerr, 1998;Murphy et al., 2009); one found that it was better than a telephonedelivered care (Fukkink & Hermanns, 2009a); one that it was equivalent to a phone delivered service (Fukkink & Hermanns, 2009b); one that it was better than a wait-list control (Kessler et al., 2009); and one that it was effective but less so than a phone delivered service . Online chat appears to be effective despite the relatively slow pace of the sessions and the absence of face-to-face cues (e.g., verbal tone, facial expressions, and body language). ...
Article
Full-text available
Online interventions are increasingly seen as having the potential to meet the growing demand for mental health services. However, with the burgeoning of services provided online by psychologists, counselors, and social workers, it is becoming critical to ensure that the interventions provided are supported by research evidence. This article reviews evidence for the effectiveness of individual synchronous online chat counseling and therapy (referred to as “online chat”). Despite using inclusive review criteria, only six relevant studies were found. They showed that although there is emerging evidence supporting the use of online chat, the overall quality of the studies is poor, including few randomized control trials (RCTs). There is an urgent need for further research to support the widespread implementation of this form of mental health service delivery.
... Cyber counseling/ e-Therapy is defined by the National Board for Certified Counselors as ''the practice of professional counseling and information delivery that occurs when client(s) and counselor are in separate or remote locations and utilize electronic means to communicate over the Internet'' (NBCC 1997, p. 1). Research has shown that online therapies are effective and generally as effective and satisfying as faceto-face therapy (Attridge 2011;Murphy et al. 2009;Penate 2012), and that the therapeutic or working alliance in e-Therapy is equivalent overall to that in traditional counseling (Hanley 2009;Preschl et al. 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
The ascendancy of the cyber world has led to increasing client demand for online counseling and a dramatic growth in cyber counseling, a trend that is expected to continue in the coming years. Recognizing the need for social workers who can competently utilize communication technology in their practice, we developed a 4-year pilot project as a practicum in which second year MSW students provided cyber and face-to-face counseling to undergraduate students who presented with a range of issues. The purpose of this paper is to report on an exploratory study which examined the perspectives of the student interns and the undergraduate student clients, in order to illuminate benefits and challenges that emerged. Twenty-four MSW student interns and 34 undergraduate student clients who utilized cyber counseling on at least one occasion participated in interviews that were transcribed and analyzed. Both the MSW interns and the undergraduate student clients reported that cyber counseling provided practical and relational value and that the written aspect was particularly beneficial in facilitating clients’ disclosure of sensitive issues. Different perspectives about maintaining connection in the relationship emerged, suggesting challenges for social workers when learning to use cyber in counseling.
... From the client's perspective, the focus is on them as capable 'active citizens' using various IT media to enhance their autonomy and participation in civil society or as 'dependent' with psychosocial needs. The latter shifts the focus to the therapeutic relationship between clients and professionals, for example, in online counselling (Murphy et al., 2009). From an organisational perspective, IT has enabled service users to access services in novel ways, such as national call centres like Findhelp Information Services 211 in Canada or local call centres in England (Coleman & Harris, 2008, p. 581). ...
... Some scholars have investigated the potential of these interventions in relation to a crucial component of counseling work: the therapeutic alliance. On this particular point, the literature shows that some results are not always converging: while some authors state that it is possible to equate the results in terms of therapeutic alliance between interventions conducted online and offline (see Carroll et al., 2008, Kay-Lambkin et al., 2009Murphy et al., 2009), other researchers conclude the opposite results. For example, Kelders et al. (2012) show how the issue of adherence therapy is mainly lower for online programs, although some strategies can be introduced to reduce the personal feeling of interacting only with hardware and software tools. ...
Article
Full-text available
Technology-based interventions have emerged as a new modality to prevent and treat people involved in alcohol and drug abuse, especially in case of integrated users. The article summarizes the different kind of programs, both in prevention and in treatment field, and discusses the evidence of the effectiveness of Internet interventions for addictions. The literature review shows how the Internet affords unique opportunities to improve, support, and supplement traditional addiction services, even if the results depend on many factors, such as the strategies adopted, the substances involved, the presence of human contact alternatively to the web. Further studies are necessary to investigate the effectiveness of these treatments, and especially of those based on totally self-managed interventions.
... Actually, if the individuals having the intention of receiving online counseling can learn how to cope with their internet anxiety, there can be an increase in their behavior of receiving online counseling. Other studies showed that online counseling is at least as productive and pleasing as face-to-face counseling (Cook & Doyle, 2002;Murphy et al., 2009;Kilroe, 2010a, b;Brown, 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, it is aimed at measuring the university students’ behaviors of receiving online counseling services and determining the causes which have a causal relationship with these behaviors. University students’ behaviors of receiving online counseling services and the causes of those behaviors are investigated through structural equation model based on Theory of Planned Behavior. In this study, four different data collection tools were developed to measure subjective norm about the online counseling, perceived behavioral control, intention and behavior. The attitude towards online counseling was measured using Online Counseling Attitude Scale, which was developed by Rochlen et al. (Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development 37(2):95, 2004) and adapted into Turkish by Demirci et al. (International Journal of Psychology and Educational Studies 1(1):15–22, 2014). Internet anxiety was measured using Internet Anxiety Scale, which was developed by Joiner et al. (Computers in Human Behavior 23(3):1408–1420, 2007) and adapted into Turkish by Akın (2012). The data of this study were collected from participants in two steps. In the first step which is the development of the scale, the data were collected from 150 students studying at faculty of education of a university in Central Black Sea Region during 2014–2015 academic year. In the second step which is the testing of the proposed model, the data were collected from a total of 480 students [319 (66.46%) female, 161 (33.54%) male] studying at faculty of education of the same university, but they are different from the participants in the first step. According the results, the proposed model estimated the variance on the intention and behavior of receiving online counseling. The variance on the intention of receiving online counseling was affected by the internet anxiety most. In contrast with the argument of TPB, perceived behavioral control has no impact on intention, but has a direct and significant impact on behavior.
... Les recherches comparatives mesurant l' efficacité des interventions en face à face versus à distance et utilisant les mêmes variables telles que l'alliance de travail, les jugements d' experts, le niveau de satisfaction exprimé par les usagers et les changements de comportement rapportent régulièrement que les pratiques d'accompagnement à distance semblent être aussi efficaces que celles menées en personne (Barak et al., 2008 ;Hanley et Reynold, 2009 ;Kraus, 2011 ;Murphy, Parnass, Mitchell, Hallett, Cayley et Seagram, 2009 ;Richards et Vigano, 2013). ...
... Les recherches comparatives mesurant l' efficacité des interventions en face à face versus à distance et utilisant les mêmes variables telles que l'alliance de travail, les jugements d' experts, le niveau de satisfaction exprimé par les usagers et les changements de comportement rapportent régulièrement que les pratiques d'accompagnement à distance semblent être aussi efficaces que celles menées en personne (Barak et al., 2008 ;Hanley et Reynold, 2009 ;Kraus, 2011 ;Murphy, Parnass, Mitchell, Hallett, Cayley et Seagram, 2009 ;Richards et Vigano, 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
Les psychologues conseiller.ère.s en orientation suisses sont fortement mobilisés pour accompagner les élèves en fin de scolarité obligatoire dans leurs démarches de choix professionnel et de recherche d’une place d’apprentissage. Cet article présente comment la posture préconisée par l’entretien motivationnel (Miller et Rollnick, 2006; 2013) peut aider les professionnels de l’orientation à se positionner au sein des attentes contradictoires dont ils font l’objet. En particulier pour (1) motiver les jeunes à rechercher une place d’apprentissage, (2) pour faciliter le processus de compromis au choix professionnel, et (3) pour décloisonner les stéréotypes de genre. Les apports et limites de cette approche seront discutés.
... Les recherches comparatives mesurant l' efficacité des interventions en face à face versus à distance et utilisant les mêmes variables telles que l'alliance de travail, les jugements d' experts, le niveau de satisfaction exprimé par les usagers et les changements de comportement rapportent régulièrement que les pratiques d'accompagnement à distance semblent être aussi efficaces que celles menées en personne (Barak et al., 2008 ;Hanley et Reynold, 2009 ;Kraus, 2011 ;Murphy, Parnass, Mitchell, Hallett, Cayley et Seagram, 2009 ;Richards et Vigano, 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
La formation, les pratiques et les conditions d’exercice des conseillers et des conseillères d’orientation ont beaucoup évolué depuis la fin du siècle dernier et le début du second millénaire. Ces changements ou ces mutations ont été provoqués par de multiples facteurs. Parmi les principaux facteurs, notons les mutations sociales, économiques et technologiques qui ont participé à l’évolution des sociétés du monde occidental. Ce numéro de la Revue d’éducation de l’Université d’Ottawa se propose justement de rendre compte des différents enjeux et défis qui ont émergé à la faveur de ces mutations.
... Despite the recent growth of online counselling, the existing literature suggests that it does not pose a serious threat to face-to-face therapeutic services, as online counselling targets a different demographic, one that largely would never seek face-to-face counselling services (Alleman 2002;Murphy et al. 2009). Overall, the current evidence suggests that online counselling is effective in the prevention, assessment and treatment of mental health issues for those individuals who are socially, emotionally or physically isolated (Mallen et al. 2005). ...
Article
Full-text available
This article systematically reviews the ethical and legal challenges as well as benefits of online counselling. We address issues such as accessibility, anonymity, technology, asynchronous communication, online security, informed consent, and the challenges of licensure, liability, and regulation within the profession of online counselling. Current gaps in the empirical literature and legislation about online counselling and considerations for future research, practice and policy implications are also highlighted. The literature suggests that online counselling plays an important role in providing an alternative service delivery model that overcomes some of the barriers to traditional face-to-face counselling services. However, the authors conclude that there remains a lack of empirical evidence and many unanswered questions about the effectiveness of online mental health interventions and the appropriateness of online counselling for diverse populations.
... However, other research has indicated that more males (particularly younger men) favour this kind of therapy due to its anonymity (Murphy, Parnass, Mitchell et al., 2009). Furthermore, young people are also turning to the internet for therapeutic support, generally for reasons of privacy and emotional security (King, Bambling, & Lloyd, 2006). ...
Chapter
In the modern world, there is a growing reliance of computer-mediated communication and social media sources. In this chapter, we illustrate the value of Internet sources, such as discussion forums, and social media, such as Facebook, for the study of health-related issues. Additionally, some email conversations, text messages, and instant message conversations can be classed as naturally occurring. The practical benefits and the challenges of using this kind of data for health research are critically discussed, along with some additional ethical dimensions that this kind of data raise.
... The necessity of changing the format in which social work interventions were conducted from face-to-face to online or other remote forms was perceived by many social workers as a barrier and was also perceived as challenging for the patients. This concern was indicated by more than one-third of the social workers in this study despite accumulative evidence suggesting no differences between online and face-to-face interventions in clients' outcomes and satisfaction (Murphy et al., 2009). Our findings showed that many social workers in health care are committed to the perception that distance interventions are not a first choice; distance format is a source of great concern for them. ...
Article
This exploratory study focuses on the personal and professional concerns of Israeli social workers in hospitals and community health settings during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. Other studies omitted health care social workers’ needs and concerns. Participants included 126 social workers (120 females, 5 males and 1 other gender identity) in hospitals and community health settings who completed an online survey during the height of the first wave of COVID-19 in Israel. Measures included questions on exposure to COVID-19, sense of safety at work, perceived support, and personal and professional concerns. Two open-ended questions about the social workers’ concerns and the perceived concerns of their patients were included. The results showed that 17 per cent reported one of their inter-disciplinary team testing positive for COVID-19. Only one-third of the social workers felt safe from COVID-19 infection in their workplace. Mothers of dependent children were more concerned about income loss and about balancing work and family requirements than mothers of older children. ‘Home–work conflict’ was also a main theme in the qualitative data. In conclusion, the work–home role conflict took an especially heavy toll during the COVID-19 pandemic on social workers who were mothers to dependent children.
... This may be due to the added benefit of receiving face-to-face support and developing a "human" therapeutic relationship (Mohr, Cuijpers, & Lehman, 2011). However, evidence has suggested that patient satisfaction levels are typically similar across CBIs and face-to-face support (Murphy et al., 2009;Zeren, 2015). Despite evidence suggesting the added benefit of therapist support, for the CBIs primarily targeting substance misuse, these were more effective at reducing comorbid mental health and substance misuse symptoms than psychiatric inpatient care (Rupp et al., 2012), but not when compared against substance misuse inpatient care (Wilson et al., 2015). ...
Article
Objective: Comorbid substance misuse and mental health difficulties are recognized as a leading contributor to disease burden worldwide. Amid cuts to health care services, computer-based interventions may provide support for patients experiencing these difficulties. The aims of this systematic review were to identify and investigate the efficacy of these computer-based interventions at improving substance misuse and mental health outcomes. Methods: A systematic search was conducted of CINAHL Plus, PsycARTICLES, PsycINFO, Medline, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library. Gray literature was also searched for relevant papers. Data were extracted from 33 papers, which met eligibility criteria by reporting a computer-based intervention designed to treat substance misuse and mental health in adults. Quality assessments were conducted on these papers. Results: Computer-based interventions generally led to an improvement of substance misuse and mental health outcomes within groups and when compared against waitlist control and psychoeducation. Computer-based interventions were effective at improving dual diagnosis outcomes, and improvements to mental health outcomes specifically were maintained for up to nine months. However, the combined effect of computer-based interventions and therapist support was found to be more effective than the effects of computer-based interventions alone. Conclusions: Many papers were limited by high attrition rates commonly attributed to “digital” interventions. Future research should consider systematically recruiting a range of participants, including those potentially affected by the digital divide, and incorporating methods within research to maintain engagement. This review was also limited by the heterogeneity of the papers reported, many of which differed between targeting dual diagnosis and targeting either substance misuse or mental health respectively, with outcomes investigating other difficulties out of curiosity.
... Satisfaction links with several factors, including convenience, accessibility and saving of travel costs, similar outcomes to F2F, and reducing social barriers (Orlando et al., 2019). Evidence suggests that clients generally experience satisfaction with telehealth comparable to F2F (Dami & Waluwandja, 2019;Jenkins-Guarnieri et al., 2015;Morgan et al., 2008;Murphy et al., 2009;Richardson et al., 2015) and some clients show preferences for telehealth over F2F (Simpson et al., 2005). Although therapists may experience perceptions of lower quality therapeutic connections with clients online, there is evidence that clients may feel increased sense of connection with their therapists (Mishna et al., 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Telehealth may become a more accepted format of service delivery after COVID-19 and it is essential that counsellors and counsellor educators are suitably prepared for contemporary professional practice in its diversity. While technology-assisted counselling has been practiced in Australia for 60 years, the Psychotherapy and Counselling Federation of Australia’s (PACFA) current Training Standards mandate that the 40 hours of placement done in training must be delivered in the same room as clients. This privileging of face-to-face (F2F) experience may reflect outdated practitioner reservations that demonstrate inadequate awareness of existing research on alternative delivery formats. In addition, I argue this restriction may run counter to employability aims of placements and has broader ramifications on students, training providers, and research. I argue that non-F2F formats such as those delivered by telehealth should be treated without prejudice and should be counted with or without the presence of F2F hours for student placements.
... Likewise, no differences were found in their therapeutical collaboration levels (Erus & Zeren, 2020), their perceptions about therapeutical collaboration and their subjective well-beings (Zeren et al., 2017). Finally, it has been concluded that online psychological counselling is as effective as face-to-face counselling (Barak et al., 2008;Murphy et al., 2009) and almost all online clients reported positive opinions about online psychological counselling and similar satisfaction levels (Kilroe, 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
People have needed mental health services more and more during Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Due to the contagious nature of the COVID-19 virus, online counseling has been preferred more during the COVID-19 pandemic. Those who need such mental health services might take actions to seek help by demanding psychological assistance from psychological counselors or mental health institutions. However, these people might avoid seeking and receiving such help when they think that they have a weak personality or they somehow will be criticized by the society or experience social stigma because they seek psychological help. This study aims to examine the mediating role of self-disclosure between attitudes towards online counselling and perception of social stigma due to receiving psychological help. Participants of the study consist of 519 adults who live in Turkey and are older than 18 years old. The data for the study were collected through "Distress Disclosure Index", "Online Counseling Attitudes Scale (OCAS)", "Stigma Scale for Receiving Psychological Help (SSRPH)" and "Personal Information Form". The hypothetical model developed in order to determine whether self-disclosure mediates in the relationship between perception of social stigma due to receiving psychological help and online psychological counselling attitudes was tested through SEM (Structural Equation Modeling). The results of the study revealed that self-disclosure play partial mediating role between perception of social stigma and value of online counselling and discomfort with online counselling.
... The rapidly increasing rate in the use of internet and ICT among Millennium generation has become a norm for all where it assists in obtaining information or in seeking help with health and relationships (Suzuki & Calzo, 2004). Simultaneously, the internet has provided counsellors with multiple methods in building counselling relations with clients and these include the use of e-mails, online chatroom, video conferencing and online support group (Stefan & David, 2013;Murphy et al., 2009). ...
... The rapidly increasing rate in the use of internet and ICT among Millennium generation has become a norm for all where it assists in obtaining information or in seeking help with health and relationships (Suzuki & Calzo, 2004). Simultaneously, the internet has provided counsellors with multiple methods in building counselling relations with clients and these include the use of e-mails, online chatroom, video conferencing and online support group (Stefan & David, 2013;Murphy et al., 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
Cyber-counselling, among its other names, is not at all new to the counselling field. Along with the emergence and advancement of computer-assisted technology, internet, and information and communications technology (ICT), the counselling field has also benefited from the use of online services in providing counselling to all. It is no longer a rare topic to discuss, but now an important area of study and service that has the ability to reach out to all people across the globe. Hence the purpose of this systematic literature review is to explore and discuss the prevalence of cyber-counselling in reaching out to all possible clients and improving counselling experiences and outcomes to all. Journal articles were selected primarily from the use of SCOPUS database for the purpose of this review and its main objectives. The searching process started with a list of keywords "cyber counselling", "online counselling", "e-counselling", "e-therapy" and "face-to-face counselling". The inclusion and exclusion criteria applied with limited from the year 2012 to 2019. The subject areas selected were Psychology, Social Sciences and Arts and Humanities. A total of 22 articles were selected and included in this review study. The limitations in the use and delivery of online counselling were also reviewed which finally led to the discussion of implications of online counselling as an alternative method to counselling.
... The flexibility of blended counselling is an advantage over face-to-face counselling, especially in individual mental development and community understanding of her immunity. The results showed no significant difference in satisfaction with face-to-face and virtual counselling (Murphy et al., 2009), and it is a fact that blended counselling is a tool that combines the two. Another assumption is that practitioners emphasize that counselling services must be face-to-face. ...
Article
Full-text available
The Covid-19 (C-19) pandemic has had a significant impact on the mental health of individuals around the world. Society needs an end to the C-19 pandemic through the state of its herd immunity (HI). Significant roles counsellors in developing herd immunity and then mental health with a blended counselling strategy. This paper aims to design a counselling mix to create mental health and an understanding of herd immunity in the community. The results of the community data are fear, anxiety, anger, insomnia, and prolonged stress as a form of mental health of the community because it is socially and economically constrained. The length of time for the formation of herd immunity to prevent the C-19 pandemic is because people are worried and doubtful about vaccinations so that vaccines appear or do not trust. Significant roles counsellors in the formation of mental health through integrated counselling The implementation of face-to-face and online counselling allows the community to be more flexible and intensive according to conditions in the construction of mental health C-19 pandemic condition and post-C-19 preparations. Blended counselling as an intervention for the community in understanding herd immunity as a form supported the end of the C-19 pandemic. Integrated counselling requires the joint efforts of various relevant organizations for the science and practice of psychotherapy, psychiatry, and counsellor.
Article
This article reviews the origins, conceptual bases, psychometric properties, and limitations of consumer satisfaction measures in social welfare and behavioral health. Based on a systematic review of research reports published between 2003 and 2013, we identify 58 consumer satisfaction measures. On average, these measures have acceptable reliability (mean Cronbach's a ¼ .85). However, the research on the concurrent and predictive validity of consumer satisfaction is inconclusive. We identify the fol-lowing three core aspects of consumer satisfaction: (a) satisfaction with alternative elements of service, (b) promotion or rec-ommendation of a program based on a recent service experience, and (c) subjective appraisal of change or problem resolution related to participation in a service. Attrition bias, reactivity, and confounding of ratings with the image of service providers complicate and condition the interpretation of consumer satisfaction as an outcome measure.
Chapter
Global knowledge is increasingly essential for all aspects of social work. Today's professionals respond to concerns including permeable borders, the upheavals of war, displaced workers, natural disasters, international adoption, and human trafficking. Everywhere, social workers work with service users and colleagues from diverse cultures and countries. Globally relevant concepts such as human rights, development, and inclusion offer new perspectives to enhance policy and practice and facilitate the international exchange of ideas.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The general objective of this research is to present perceptions and reflections of thirteen career counsellors who have undergone distance career counselling. Despite the presence of information and communication technologies (ICT) in the practice of career counselling for more than 40 years, the use is largely limited to managing and transmitting information, offering to clients engaged in a self-help guidance process some form of support and administering tests. A limited number of career counsellors in Quebec (Canada) have engaged in distance career counselling. Yet, as more and more people are using and integrating ICT in their daily lives, there is ongoing pressure on the integration of ICT in the provision of career counselling services. The collection and analysis of the data is guided by the Enhanced Critical Incident Technique suggested by Butterfield, Borgen, Maglio and Amundson (2009). Preliminary results show that counsellors are substantially using the same tools and intervention processes that they master in face-to-face modality. However, many counsellors realize that the way they conduct interviews has begun to change, especially on the matter of keeping the control of the interview process, particularly when visual stimuli are absent. We will present the main themes of the professional skills and knowledge transferred and adjusted from face-to-face practice to distance intervention.
Article
Full-text available
Current global concerns regarding the mental well-being (MWB) of young males have called for fresh approaches to social work service delivery. This study investigates the efficacy of adopting more ‘online’ approaches within social work practice by examining the current impact of online help-seeking behaviours on the MWB of adolescent males. A survey questionnaire comprised of validated scales measuring mental well-being and self-efficacy, combined with questions examining online help-seeking attitudes and behaviours was completed by 527 respondents aged 14–16 years within a school environment. The internet was used by 42 per cent of respondents to retrieve health information. In general, respondents appeared knowledgeable regarding the importance of trusted and quality online health information, yet were more likely to use search engines (57 per cent) or social networking sites (48 per cent) to find information rather than a government-sponsored website (23 per cent). Young males who reported speaking to online friends regarding personal problems recorded statistically significantly higher levels of mental well-being (p < 0.02). This may suggest that being able to communicate online how you are feeling is a positive for male mental health. Social work practitioners need to recognise this generational shift in help-seeking, in terms of providing and commissioning interpersonal helping via social media
Article
Full-text available
Information and communication technology has created a new way for individuals to communicate and has entered a number of professional practices, including clinical social work. This article explores the potential ethical and clinical implications when cybercommunication is used in conjunction with traditional face-to-face clinical social work practice. Specific challenges addressed include confidentiality, professional boundaries, effective and competent practice, and unanticipated contact. The authors discuss how information and communication technology is emerging as an inevitable component of the therapeutic exchange, influencing in-person social work practice and the ways that practitioners interact with their clients.
Article
Full-text available
The main aim of this research is to present studies in online groups which have been conducted during Covid-19 pandemic which occurred in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and spread all over the world. In this study, the psychological effects of the precautions which have been made to prevent the spread of Coronavirus, online group counseling, group therapy and psycho-education groups made in Turkey and in the world, the advantages and disadvantages of online group counseling, group therapy and psycho-education groups, the factors which caused the preference of online group counseling, group therapy and psycho-education groups were evaluated. The results and importance of online group counseling, psycho-education groups and group therapy commonly used were discussed. In addition to the knowledge about online group counseling, group therapy and psycho-education groups presented during Covid-19 pandemic, suggestions for future studies were also included.
Article
As the use of multiple methods of communication have become more common experiences in everyday therapeutic practice, the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has emerged as a supportive tactic to strengthen the social presence involved in therapeutic alliance. Traditionally, mental health therapists have had little preparation involving the use of ICT as a part of their practice; the focus has remained on face-to-face interactions. This has led to a belief among many practitioners that the therapeutic alliance cannot be built or maintained in any manner other than face-to-face contact. Investigations have found that relationships can be built and maintained through many varieties of ICT supported affordances that promote social presence. To better understand the role of Internet-based resources as an adjunct to traditional therapy services in the context of therapeutic alliance, fifteen therapists at a community mental health center were offered the opportunity to use a dialect behavior therapy website with their clients to intentionally vary and expand the opportunities for social presence. Qualitative data was collected from clients and therapists to explore how the website was used to support the therapeutic relationship. In this study, the use of the website was found to be a positive influence on therapeutic alliance. Implications from this study indicate that variations in social presence as an adjunct to traditional treatment services may benefit the therapeutic alliance.
Article
Full-text available
The digital age has revolutionized how individuals interact. The number of computer users has increased exponentially, along with expanding local and global networks and opportunities for learning, entertainment, and support. Most recently, cyber communication is becoming an important part of face-to-face social work practice as an administrative and therapeutic exchange between practitioners and clients, with both benefits and challenges. The purpose of this article is to present results of a study that used grounded theory to explore the application and adaptation of information and communication technology (ICT) in traditional clinical social work practice within organizations and private practice. The overwhelming finding was that it is no longer possible not to engage in the use of ICT. We discuss implications for practice, including clinical, practical, and ethical benefits and issues of ICT.
Article
During the past few years, the efficacy of online counseling has been studied quite thoroughly. The general conclusion drawn from many studies and several meta-analysis reviews is that online counseling can be as effective as f2f sessions. This chapter reviews some of these studies that present empirical evidence, research findings, and future trends related to mental health services online. Most early studies concluded that online counseling has potential, but authors were often careful not to suggest that the modality was well understood. In 2008, a meta-analysis of online counseling research to date was published, which was conclusive in supporting the efficacy of online counseling. The authors based their conclusions on a review of 92 studies reported in 64 papers, collectively examining the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions done with some 9764 clients. Even though evidence now exists to support the practice, most clinicians are still hesitant about and many are unfamiliar with the potential of online counseling. In a comprehensive 2008 review of the effectiveness of video, text, and telephone consults for various mental health conditions, several areas were identified as promising, though more research was recommended. The authors reviewed 72 papers that described 65 clinical studies. Evidence of success with telemental health was reported in the areas of child psychiatry, depression, dementia, schizophrenia, suicide prevention, post-traumatic stress, panic disorders, substance abuse, eating disorders, and smoking prevention.
Article
Intimacy is very crucial to the success of any therapeutic relationship. In a counselling relationship, disclosure has been found to be a cornerstone for the relationship to be effective and for self-disclosure to be achieved. In counselling there should be trust, intimacy, and effective relational communication. Intimate relationships can only occur where there is trust, effective communication, and assurance of confidentiality. Lack of intimacy in a counselling relationship has been found to contribute to both physiological and psychological problems of a client. It is, therefore, important for any counsellor who is aspiring to make a remarkable impact in the practice of counselling to make the establishment of intimacy and relational communication a priority. Online counselling by its nature requires much more effort to establish intimacy and relational communication with the client than face-to-face counselling. This chapter posits that, apart from acquiring the necessary skills needed in becoming a professional counsellor, an online counsellor needs to acquire some level of proficiency in communication technologies, especially in the areas of handling computers and effective use of the Internet. Also, such a counsellor should be well equipped with the principles of effective communication. He/She should be familiar with some of the Internet languages often referred to as 'net lingo' and some emotional icons often referred to as 'emoticons' in order for him/her to establish and promote intimacy and relational communication in an online counselling relationship.
Article
Social media does not just lead to new ways of social participation; it creates new opportunities for serving difficult-to-reach groups in the community. This study examined the experiences and processes of a pioneering cyber youth work project working with young people involved in drug use and the sex trade in Hong Kong. A thematic analysis of online communication records and interviews of social workers and clients was conducted to determine the relating factors concerned, namely, ‘social presence’, ‘autonomy and ‘privacy’, ‘use of text and media’, and ‘time dimension’. The results suggest practice insights for youth workers.
Article
Öz Teknolojik gelişmelerle birlikte çevrimiçi psikolojik danışma hizmetlerinin yaygınlaşmaya başladığı görülmektedir. Bu araştır-manın amacı insanların yüz yüze ve çevrimiçi psikolojik danışmanlığa yönelik sahip oldukları bilgileri tespit etmek ve yüz yüze ve çevrimiçi psikolojik danışmanlık hizmeti arasındaki tercihlerinin hangi yönde olduğunu belirlemektir. Nitel bir araştırma modeli olan durum çalışmasının kullanıldığı bu araştırmanın çalışma grubunu yaşları 17-49 arasında değişen ve farklı meslek gruplarına ait (asker, güvenlik görevlisi, sekreter, şoför, memur, temizlik görevlisi, ev hanımı, lise-üniversite öğrencisi ve akademisyen) 25 katılımcı oluşturmaktadır. Katılımcıların 4’ü yüz yüze psikolojik danışma hizmeti alırken, 21 katılımcı ise yüz yüze psikolojik danışma hizmeti almamış, ayrıca katılımcıların hiçbiri çevrimiçi psikolojik danışma hizmetinden yararlanmamış-tır. Katılımcıların çevrimiçi psikolojik danışma hizmetine ayırmak istedikleri zamanın yüz yüze psikolojik danışma hizmetine ayırmak istedikleri zamandan daha fazla olduğu görülmektedir. Çevrimiçi psikolojik danışma hizmeti almak isteyen 17 katılım-cının en çok tercih ettikleri yöntemin video konferansı ve chat olduğu görülmektedir. Son olarak katılımcıların çoğunun etkili olma ve jest ve mimik gibi sözel olmayan tepkilerin varlığından dolayı yüz yüze psikolojik danışma hizmetini tercih ettiği ve az bir kısmının ise anonimlik ve ulaşılabilir olma özelliklerinden dolayı çevrimiçi psikolojik danışma hizmetini tercih ettikleri görülmektedir. Sonuçlar genel olarak incelendiğinde bireylerin çevrimiçi psikolojik danışma alma konusunda istekli oldukları, ekonomik yönden ve ulaşım açısından çevrimiçi psikolojik danışmayı daha kullanılabilir buldukları ifade edilebilir. Anahtar sözcükler: Çevrimiçi psikolojik danışma, online psikoterapi, nitel analiz Abstract With advancements in technology, proliferation of online counseling services has recently become observable. The purpose of the current study was to reveal what people know about face-to-face and online counseling and to determine the direction of their preferences for both. The participants of the current study, which is of a qualitative case study, were 25 people, ranging in age from 17 to 49, of different professions (soldiers, security officers, secretaries, drivers, officers, housekeepers, housewives, high school-university students and academicians). While 4 of the participants reported experiencing face-to-face counseling services, 21 participants did not report receiving one. Besides, none of the participants reported receiving online counseling services. The time that the participants want to allocate for online counseling services was found to be more than the time that they want to allocate for face-to-face counseling. The top two methods that 17 participants preferred, being of the opinion that they would have a warm ambiance while receiving counseling, were video conference (7), and chatting (5). Finally, it was also observed that most of the participants (20) preferred face-to-face counseling services due to the existence of active participation and non-verbal reactions such as gestures and facial expressions, and very few of them (5) preferred online counseling services because of anonymity and availability. Results in general showed that individuals were eager to receive online counseling and find it more useful in terms of finance and availability. Keywords: Online counseling, online psychotherapy, qualitative analysis
Chapter
The aim of the chapter is to describe and analyse the conception of ICTs for social services on the basis of previous international and national research and a case study of Finnish experiences. The authors describe the concept of ICTs for social services and identify the main areas of interest and research findings in relation to the paradigm of social services informatics. The data for this part was collected by an integrated literature review of ICT research. Next, the authors review and evaluate the development phases of Finnish social services informatics. On the basis of national and international literature, they compare the similarities and distinguishing elements in the evolution of social care ICT in research and practice. On the basis of these findings on the main issues, challenges, opportunities, and trends, some recommendations for future research as well as for working practices are briefly described.
Article
The study provides insight into counsellors’ experiences of counselling clients online. The foci include (a) counsellors’ experience of negotiating the therapeutic relationship online, (b) their experiences of utilising and adapting their clinical skills to assess clients in an online capacity, and (c) ethical issues associated with practicing online. Open-ended interviews were conducted with 3 counsellors located in Canada and 1 in the United States. Narrative analysis revealed eight major themes: convenience, therapeutic alliance, online counselling skills, assessing client suitability, reaching diverse clients, assessing client satisfaction, legal and ethical concerns, and personal and professional goals.
Chapter
The Internet is no longer regarded as a world separate to our physical existence, but rather exists more as part of individuals’ everyday lives as a method to interact with others (Wellman & Haythornthwaite, 2002). The Internet has changed the way individuals obtain information, explore, and expand relationships with others in ways not contemplated until relatively recently (Skinner & Zack, 2004). It is being explored for both legitimate professional and charlatan therapies by practitioners, potential practitioners, clients, and conmen alike. One feature of the Internet that has developed in recent times is that of online counselling (Mallen et al., 2011). It is therefore important to consider academic theory and research in relation to online counselling methods to help further our understanding of the possible effectiveness of online therapies, and the factors that impact this effectiveness in order for clients to gain the best clinical outcomes.
Article
Full-text available
Background There are clear advantages to internet-delivered interventions for depression. Users' perspectives on the acceptability, satisfaction, and efficacy of an internet-delivered treatment for depression can inform future developments in the area. Methods Respondents (n = 281) were participants in an 8 week supported internet-delivered Cognitive Behaviour Therapy treatment for depressive symptoms. Self-report online questionnaires gathered quantitative and qualitative data on the user experience. Principle findings Most respondents were satisfied with the programme (n = 191), felt supported (n = 203), reported positive gains and impact resulting from use of the programme, and perceived these to be likely to be lasting effects (n = 149). Flexibility and accessibility were the most liked aspects. A small number of respondents felt their needs were not met by the intervention (n = 64); for this group suggestions for improvements centred on the programme's structure and how supporter feedback is delivered. Conclusion Results will deepen the understanding of users' experience and inform the development and implementation of evidence-based internet-delivered interventions.
Article
This article will address how cyber technology may facilitate reflective functioning with patients who present with primitive self states, fragmentation, and dissociation. The utilization of text-based information and communication technology may allow for a reflective space, apart from the therapist?s explicit intrusion and the potential danger of abandonment and rejection, and may help develop the capacity for reflection and symbolization. Through a case illustration and research findings, we will discuss the benefits and challenges of using cyber technology as an adjunct to face to face treatment.1
Book
Full-text available
Annual Review of CyberTherapy and Telemedicine (ARCTT) ISSN: 1554-8716 is published annually by the Interactive Media Institute (IMI), a 501c3 non-profit organisation, dedicated to the collaboration of interdisciplinary researchers from around the world to create, test, and develop clinical tools and protocols for the medical and psychological community. IMI realises that the mind and body work in concert to affect quality of life in individuals and works to develop technology that can be effectively used to improve the standards and reduce the cost of healthcare delivery worldwide.
Article
Full-text available
A quick transition to distance education in the world and Turkey has been made with the Covid-19 pandemic. In this process, counseling practices and supervision in counselor education were tried to be carried out by distance education. In this study, the experiences of counselors who experienced online counseling and supervision for the first time were examined using the critical incidents technique. For this purpose, online interviews were conducted with 12 counselors who are continuing their graduate education. The analysis steps of the critical incident technique were followed, and the data were classified as facilitating and challenging critical events with content analysis. The critical events which participants defined as facilitating and challenging in online counseling were gathered under the themes of planning and conducting counseling sessions, counseling relationship, counseling skills, counseling interventions, ethical issues, and pandemics. The critical events they mentioned about online supervision were presented under three themes as organization and delivery of supervision, supervision relationship, and pandemic. Based on the findings of the research, it is thought that the challenging factors stated by the participants can be eliminated by gaining the competencies for conducting online counseling. To increase the competencies for online applications of counselors and supervisors in Turkey, counselor educators need to take significant steps.
Article
In recent years, the number of litigants representing themselves without legal counsel has increased across the United States. Courts have responded by creating programs and services to help litigants represent themselves. Self‐help centers nationwide use different models to deliver legal advice and information to unrepresented litigants. Some offer court‐based, walk‐in self‐help centers. Others provide services remotely via phone, web, email, video conferencing, and live chat. In Maryland, self‐help center services are offered at walk‐in centers and remotely by phone and live chat. This article examines litigants' perceptions of in‐person and remote delivery of legal advice and information on family law matters. Results revealed that all three service delivery methods have high satisfaction rates, but chat users were less likely to feel as though they knew what to do next. They were also less optimistic about their case than were phone or in‐person users. In‐person and remote self‐help centers help courts address the justice gap by providing unrepresented litigants with legal advice and information. Litigants note high levels of satisfaction with all self‐help center service delivery methods; however, users of walk‐in and telephone‐based services experience slightly higher satisfaction rates than live chat users.
Article
Full-text available
Although there is an increasing number of online counseling services, studies exploring clients’ and counselors’ attitudes toward online counseling services are needed to provide effective and efficient mental health counseling services. The purpose of this study is to investigate counselors’ attitudes toward online counseling in relation to counselors’ genders, their daily usage of computer, their total usage of computer, and their selfefficacy in computer usage. In this study, Personal Information Form, specific items from the Online Counseling Attitudes Scale, and the Face-to-Face Counseling Attitudes Scale were given to 193 counselors to measure attitudes toward online counseling. Data were analyzed by using independent samples t-test and one-way ANOVA. There were no statistically significant differences counselors’ attitudes toward online counseling and counselors’ gender, their daily usage of computer, their total usage of computer, and their self-efficacy in computer usage. The implications of these findings have been discussed in the literature review to provide some suggestions to researchers in the counseling profession.
Article
Full-text available
Online counseling is a growing area of clinical work with relatively little empirical evidence about the kind of clients that use the medium, advantages and disadvantages of online counseling, and satisfaction with relationships and treatment service. Sociodemographics were collected on 81 self-selected clients using online counseling, and self-reported therapeutic alliance and satisfaction with online counseling were assessed for comparison to past studies of clients using traditional face-to-face counseling. Online clients were predominantly female, were already regular Internet users, and enjoyed the convenience and anonymity of the service. They were satisfied with their relationships and treatment online but not as satisfied as clients who have undergone traditional face-to-face counseling. The main disadvantage, the loss of nonverbal information, was offset by the advantage of anonymity when sharing shameful personal information. Research limitations and clinical implications of the study are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Internet-based psychotherapeutic interventions have been used for more than a decade, but no comprehensive review and no extensive meta-analysis of their effectiveness have been conducted. We have collected all of the empirical articles published up to March 2006 (n = 64) that examine the effectiveness of online therapy of different forms and performed a meta-analysis of all the studies reported in them (n = 92). These studies involved a total of 9,764 clients who were treated through various Internet-based psychological interventions for a variety of problems, whose effectiveness was assessed by different types of measures. The overall mean weighted effect size was found to be 0.53 (medium effect), which is quite similar to the average effect size of traditional, face-to-face therapy. Next, we examined interacting effects of various possible relevant moderators of the effects of online therapy, including type of therapy (self-help web-based therapy versus online communication-based etherapy), type of outcome measure, time of measurement of outcome (post-therapy or follow-up), type of problem treated, therapeutic approach, and communication modality, among others. A comparison between face-to-face and Internet intervention as reported on in 14 of the studies revealed no differences in effectiveness. The findings of this meta-analysis, and review of additional Internet therapy studies not included in the meta-analysis, provide strong support for the adoption of online psychological interventions as a legitimate therapeutic activity and suggest several insights in regard to its application. Limitations of the findings and recommendations concerning Internet-based therapy and future research are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Although psychotherapy has been and continues to be a face-to-face activity primarily, a growing minority of therapists are conducting text-based (i.e. e-mail) psychotherapy over the Internet. This study compared the session impact (measured by the Session Evaluation Questionnaire, SEQ; Stiles, Gordon, & Lani, 2002) and the client-therapist alliance (measured by the Agnew Relationship Measure, ARM; Agnew-Davies, Stiles, Hardy, Barkham, & Shapiro, 1998) of the exchanges between clients and therapists who are engaged in e-mail therapy with previously published results on face-to-face therapy. According to preliminary results, the online clients provided similar session impact and therapeutic alliance ratings compared to face-to-face clients. Although online therapists followed this general trend, they evaluated the depth, smoothness, and positivity aspects of session impact and confidence aspect of therapeutic alliance more highly than face-to-face therapists.
Article
Full-text available
Sixty-four undergraduate students who did not previously know each other were placed in 32 pairs and randomly assigned to a conversation with a partner in either a face-to-face setting or an Internet chat program. Emotional understanding, self-disclosure, closeness, and depth of processing were measured. The findings indicate that the face-to-face group felt more satisfied with the experience and experienced a higher degree of closeness and self-disclosure with their partner. There were no significant differences between groups in regard to the level of emotional understanding of their partner, although the face-to-face group reported higher levels of positive and negative affect. No significant differences were found in depth of processing during the follow-up phone call. The implications for online counseling are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
The study aimed to examine agreement between patients' and professional staff members' ratings on the Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF). A total of 191 young adult psychiatric outpatients were included in a naturalistic, longitudinal study. Axis I and axis II disorders were assessed by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Before and after treatment, patients and trained staff members did a GAF rating. Agreement between GAF ratings was analyzed using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). The overall intra-class correlation coefficients before and after treatment were 0.65 and 0.86, respectively. Agreement in different axis I diagnostic groups varied, but was generally lower before treatment as compared to after treatment (0.50-0.66 and 0.78-0.90, respectively). Excessive psychiatric co-morbidity was associated with the lowest inter-rater reliability. Agreement, with respect to change in GAF scores during treatment, was good to excellent in all groups. Overall, agreement between patients' and professionals' ratings on the GAF scale was good before and excellent after treatment. The results support the usefulness of the self-report GAF instrument for measuring outcome in psychiatric care. However, more research is needed about the difficulties in rating severely disordered patients.
Article
Full-text available
The article traces the development of the concept of the therapeutic working alliance from its psychodynamic origins to current pantheoretical formulations. Research on the alliance is reviewed under four headings: the relation between a positive alliance and success in therapy, the path of the alliance over time, the examination of variables that predispose individuals to develop a strong alliance, and the exploration of the in-therapy factors that influence the development of a positive alliance. Important areas for further research are also noted.
Article
Full-text available
Online therapy, defined as the provision of mental health services through the Internet, is a growing field that has sparked an abundance of interest and controversy. A primary concern in the practice of online therapy is whether a working alliance, considered a central component of successful therapy, can develop when participants are geographically separated. Working alliance scores were compared between a small, primarily female sample of online therapy consumers and a representative sample of traditional face-to-face therapy clients. Results revealed significantly higher means on the goal subscale and composite score of the Working Alliance Inventory in the online sample, suggesting that a working alliance can be adequately established in therapy delivered online. No significant differences in the level of working alliance were found within the online therapy sample with respect to modality of communication, client presenting problem, or therapist. Themes from comments suggest the importance for participants of the disinhibiting effects of the medium.
Article
Objective To obtain initial results with regard to the reliability and validity of the Client Satisfaction Inventory (CSI), a 25-item scale for measuring general satisfaction with services among clients of human service agencies. Method The CSI was administered to 329 clients of 11 agencies in six states. Also administered were three other standardized measures and a brief descriptive questionnaire, results from which were used to assess the discriminant validity of the CSI. Results Findings indicated that both the full version of the CSI and a 9-item short-form version, the CSI-SF, have good to excellent internal consistency. Item analyses also provided some affirmative evidence with regard to the content validity of both versions, and the presence of hypothesized relationships between client satisfaction scores and those of the other instruments offered indications of good discriminant validity for each version. Conclusion Accountability demands, including pressures associated with managed care, have created a need in many agencies for brief, accurate, and norm-referenced measures of client satisfaction. Although further research is needed, initial results suggest that the CSI and CSI-SF may be useful tools for meeting this need.
Article
A new form of therapy termed therap-e-mail, developed by the authors for use in their Internet-based counselling service Therapy Online, is explained. Two major challenges that have been brought up by other professionals concerning on-line therapy are addressed, and solutions to these challenges are proposed. Five significant advantages of therap-e-mail are discussed. The need for research, and the implications for guidance and counselling, are addressed.
Article
A new form of therapy termed therap-e-mail, developed by the authors for use in their Internet-based counselling service Therapy Online, is explained. Two major challenges that have been brought up by other professionals concerning on-line therapy are addressed, and solutions to these challenges are proposed. Five significant advantages of therap-e-mail are discussed The need for research, and the implications for guidance and counselling, are addressed
Article
This study compared selected process and outcome variables across 3 modes of psychotherapy: face-to-face, real-time video conference, and 2-way audio (analogous to telephone). Results from 80 randomly assigned clients suggested that differences in process and outcome among the 3 treatments were small and clinically promising in comparison with the untreated control group. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
In July and August of 1999 Katharine Collie conducted an interview with Dan Mitchell and Lawrence Murphy on the topic of on-line counseling skills. The interview was done by e-mail so that Mitchell and Murphy could simultaneously demonstrate skills that they use in their e-mail counseling practice. This article contains a brief introduction that outlines the context for the interview, introduces the people involved in the interview, and highlights the key concepts that underline the discussion. Those concepts include: using narrative and solution-focused therapy within on-line counseling; dealing with the lack of nonverbal cues; using emotional bracketing; providing descriptive immediacy, a concept that deepens the connection between counselor and client; and utilizing metaphorical language for meaning enhancement. A reproduction of the interview is provided. (Contains 11 references.) (MKA)
Article
This article reports on the development of measures of attitudes toward online and face-to-face counseling. Overall, participants expressed more favorable evaluations of face-to-face counseling than of online counseling. Significant correlations were found between online and face-to-face counseling with traditional help-seeking attitudes, comfort with e-mail, and interest in various counseling services. Counseling and research considerations are reviewed.
Article
The intention of those in the helping professions is to support and heal those who seek out their professional assistance. Ethics are based on the ongoing collective development of professional experience, the natural outflow of desire to care effectively for the needs of fellow human beings. Ethics help define what is and what is not an effective means of providing professional care. This document examines several ethical issues pertaining to telemental-health. It first considers this topic from the perspective of professional organizations. It then explores numerous specific ethical issues pertaining to the use of e-mail by individual professional helpers and offers suggestions for awareness and action. (Contains 11 references.) (Author)
Article
The development of a university-based cybercounseling certificate program through the continuing education department of a graduate faculty of social work is described. This web-based program consists of two levels: introductory and advanced, and offers experienced face-to-face counselors training in an asynchronous, e-mail form of cybercounseling. Ethical issues such as cross-jurisdictional concerns, client appropriateness, and counselor insurance are discussed. A system developed to provide online e-mail security through web-based access and encryption is highlighted. Several techniques for e-mail counseling such as presence, and spacing and pacing are discussed and illustrated. Demographics of learners and feedback from graduates are presented and lessons learned are discussed.
Article
This chapter explores the evidence for the efficacy and outcomes of individual counseling and psychotherapy. The first question addressed is whether counseling and psychotherapy generally lead to positive outcomes. The evidence convincingly supports the belief that psychotherapy is efficacious, although it supports many different approaches. An attempt is made to clarify the empirical evidence by differentiating common factor models and specific ingredient models. The second question addressed in this review is whether the general effects of counseling and psychotherapy are due to the commonalities that underlie most approaches or to the specific ingredients of each particular approach. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Adaptive functioning/impairment is an important mental health outcome domain that is conceptually distinct from symptom severity. The Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) is the most commonly used measure of adaptive functioning/impairment in mental health settings. We suspect that GAF scores may be influenced by factors other than functional impairment. In this study, 3 raters classified, with high reliability, the reasons given by 8 clinicians for 80 GAF ratings. As expected, GAF ratings were strongly influenced by factors other than adaptive functioning/impairment, like symptom severity. The GAF is not a good measure of adaptive functioning, yet important decisions affecting clinicians and clients are made on the basis of GAF scores. Better measures of adaptive functioning are needed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
C. J. Gelso and J. A. Carter (see record 1986-09708-001) suggested that all counseling and psychotherapy relationships, regardless of theoretical orientation, consist of 3 components: a working alliance, a transference configuration (including therapist countertransference), and a real relationship. Drawing on theoretical and research literature and using clinical examples, this article offers 19 propositions about how these 3 relationship components interact with one another, how each operates across the course of psychotherapy, and how they affect the treatment in both brief and longer term therapies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The premise of this book is that therapists can be dramatically empowered by embracing the Internet as a medium of communication with their patients and taking their practices online. Unlike discussions in professional journals and elsewhere, this book does not debate the merits and pitfalls of using the Internet in therapy, but moves directly to implementation. This book is divided into two parts. Part I provides an overview of the modes of therapy that work best online and discusses issues of ethics, privacy, and confidentiality. Part II covers the nuts and bolts of setting up an online practice, either by creating an individual Web site or by joining an e-clinic, and discusses such practical issues as telemedical law, advertising and pricing of online services, billing, payment for referral, and legislation relevant to managing Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) regulations. Four appendices outline the software needed for online practice, reference existing online therapy sites, and provide guidelines published by major psychiatric organizations such as APA. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The chapters in this book reflects the different specialized functions that have evolved in e-therapy, including a presentation of the "Ask the Expert" Web site, the use of e-mail to support the treatment of anorexia nervosa, the development of a model community telepsychiatry program in rural Arizona, and the use of chat rooms for individual e-therapy. Other chapters present guiding clinical and ethical principles for e-therapists and discuss the legal implications. Finally, a personal account of e-therapy and reflections on its evolution are presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Compared the effects of computer-mediated online counseling (via the Internet) and traditional face-to-face counseling on anxiety and attitudes toward counseling using 24 undergraduates as clients and 6 male graduate students as counselors. Clients completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (C. D. Spielberger et al, 1970), the Counselor Rating form (A. Barak & M. B. LaCrosse, 1975), the Session Evaluation Questionnaire (W. B. Stiles & J. S. Snow, 1984) and the Computer Usage Survey. Results show that while clients demonstrated a significant decrease in anxiety following each mode of delivery, their anxiety was not significantly impacted by the mode of delivery they received. In addition, Ss' ratings of counselors on expertness, attractiveness, and trustworthiness were not affected by mode of delivery. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The Internet offers a new method of delivering psychological interventions to consumers. Our understanding of how these interventions can be used for the prevention, treatment, and relapse prevention of psychological disorders is in its infancy. The features that are available for use with Internet-delivered interventions are described and exemplified with examples from interventions for body image dissatisfaction and eating disorders. Future evolution of these interventions is also discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The present study involves the development of a new self-report scale for the use of Internet services, and examines its relationship to extraversion and neuroticism. Forty-five males and 27 females, differing in extraversion and neuroticism, rated the frequency with which they use each of 12 main Internet services. An exploratory factor analysis revealed three factors of Internet services: social services; information services; and leisure services. Extraversion and neuroticism showed different patterns of relationships with the factors of the Internet-Services Scale, with different patterns of association for men and women. For men, extraversion was positively related to the use of leisure services and neuroticism was negatively related to information services, whereas for women, extraversion was negatively related and neuroticism positively related to the use of social services. Implications for the study of the psychological influences of the Internet are discussed.
Article
Few studies of the validity of the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) have been published and none has shown how GAF ratings are associated with concurrent ratings of symptoms and social functioning. This article provides such data. Patients suffering from schizophrenia were assessed at admission to hospital and at six- and 12-month follow-up, using the GAF, the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS), the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) and the Social Behaviour Schedule. GAF ratings were highly correlated with ratings of symptoms and social behaviour at both follow-ups but not at initial assessment, although the inter-rater reliabilities for the measures were good. The GAF can be rated reliably after minimal training. It provides a valid summary of symptoms and social functioning among schizophrenic patients provided they are not assessed when suffering from acute psychotic episodes.
Article
Working Alliance Inventory (WAI) ratings were compared with ratings comprising the 12-item WAI, Short Form (WAI-S). Responses were collected from 54 university counseling center client-therapist pairs after the 4th therapy session as well as at a final ratings point. WAI and WAI-S scores were highly correlated and had comparable descriptive statistics, internal consistencies, and subscale intercorrelations within and across rater perspectives. Predictive validity estimates for WAI and WAI-S total scales were also very similar. Fourth-session WAI and WAI-S scores were moderately predictive of therapy improvement ratings. Results support the interchangeability of scores on the WAI and WAI-S scales.
The Global Assessment Scale
  • J Endicott
  • R L Spitzer
  • J L Fleiss
  • J L Cohen
Endicott, J., Spitzer, R. L., Fleiss, J. L. and Cohen, J. L. (1976) ‘The Global Assessment Scale’, Archives of General Psychiatry, 33, pp. 766–71
Using Technology to Improve Counseling Practice: A Primer for the 21st Century
  • J M Tyler
  • R A Sabella
Tyler, J. M. and Sabella, R. A. (2003) Using Technology to Improve Counseling Practice: A Primer for the 21st Century, Alexandria, VA, American Counseling Association.
Online Counseling: A Handbook for Mental Health Professionals
  • R Kraus
  • J Zack
  • G Sticker
Kraus, R., Zack, J. and Sticker, G. (eds) (2004) Online Counseling: A Handbook for Mental Health Professionals, San Diego, CA, Elsevier Academic Press.
Online Therapy: A Therapist's Guide to Expanding your PracticeThe Global Assessment Scale
  • K Derrig-Palumbo
  • F Zeine
  • Norton
  • J Endicott
  • R L Spitzer
  • J L Fleiss
  • J L Cohen
Derrig-Palumbo, K. and Zeine, F. (2005) Online Therapy: A Therapist's Guide to Expanding your Practice, New York, Norton. Endicott, J., Spitzer, R. L., Fleiss, J. L. and Cohen, J. L. (1976) 'The Global Assessment Scale', Archives of General Psychiatry, 33, pp. 766 – 71.
Code of Ethics and Standards of Practice Handbook, available online at www.ocswssw.org/sectionsAxis V – Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (GAF), further evaluation of the self-report version
  • A Ramirez
  • L Ekselius
  • M And Ramklint
Ontario College of Social Workers and Social Services Workers (OCSWSSW) (2008) Code of Ethics and Standards of Practice Handbook, available online at www.ocswssw.org/sections/pdf/Standards_of_Practice_Final.pdf (retrieved 26 February 2009) Ramirez, A., Ekselius, L. and Ramklint, M. (2008) 'Axis V – Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (GAF), further evaluation of the self-report version', European Psychiatry, 23, pp. 575 – 9.
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Does the Global Assessment of Func-tioning assess functioning?
  • American Psychiatric Associationdsm-Iii-R ) Washington
  • American Dc
  • Association
  • S F Bacon
  • M J Collins
  • E V Plake
American Psychiatric Association (1987) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd edn, revised (DSM-III-R), Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association. Bacon, S. F., Collins, M. J. and Plake, E. V. (2002) Does the Global Assessment of Func-tioning assess functioning?, Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 24, pp. 202 – 13.
Code of Ethics and Standards of Practice Handbook, available online at www.ocswssw.org/sections
Ontario College of Social Workers and Social Services Workers (OCSWSSW) (2008) Code of Ethics and Standards of Practice Handbook, available online at www.ocswssw.org/sections/pdf/Standards_of_Practice_Final.pdf (retrieved 26 February 2009)
Code of ethics', available online at www.ccacc.ca/ECOEJAN07.pdf
Canadian Counselling Association (CCA) (2007) 'Code of ethics', available online at www.ccacc.ca/ECOEJAN07.pdf (retrieved 26 February 2009).
  • Endicott
  • Horvath