ArticleLiterature Review

Variables Associated With Achievement in Higher Education: A Systematic Review of Meta-Analyses

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Abstract

The last two decades witnessed a surge in empirical studies on the variables associated with achievement in higher education. A number of meta-analyses synthesized these findings. In our systematic literature review, we included 38 meta-analyses investigating 105 correlates of achievement, based on 3,330 effect sizes from almost 2 million students. We provide a list of the 105 variables, ordered by the effect size, and summary statistics for central research topics. The results highlight the close relation between social interaction in courses and achievement. Achievement is also strongly associated with the stimulation of meaningful learning by presenting information in a clear way, relating it to the students, and using conceptually demanding learning tasks. Instruction and communication technology has comparably weak effect sizes, which did not increase over time. Strong moderator effects are found for almost all instructional methods, indicating that how a method is implemented in detail strongly affects achievement. Teachers with high-achieving students invest time and effort in designing the microstructure of their courses, establish clear learning goals, and employ feedback practices. This emphasizes the importance of teacher training in higher education. Students with high achievement are characterized by high self-efficacy, high prior achievement and intelligence, conscientiousness, and the goal-directed use of learning strategies. Barring the paucity of controlled experiments and the lack of meta-analyses on recent educational innovations, the variables associated with achievement in higher education are generally well investigated and well understood. By using these findings, teachers, university administrators, and policymakers can increase the effectivity of higher education.

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... Student's academic achievement is largely determined by individual factors (Veas et al., 2019;Hanet al., 2015) such as the student's cognitive abilities as well as self-discipline (Shi & Qu, 2022;Liang et al., 2020) but is shaped largely by student attitude, classroom instruction and climate, home and community educational contexts, curriculum design and delivery and school demographics and organization in that order (Schneider &Preckel, 2017). At an individual level, academic achievement is also strongly associated with clarity and understandability, the teacher's stimulation of the student's interest, elocutionary skills and the teacher's enthusiasm (Schneider & Preckel, 2017;Nicol & Macfarlane-Dick, 2006 Students' interest and attitude to learning are the predominant factors in the mastery of any subject matter (Nja et al., 2022) as indicated by the impact of positive attitudes towards science and technology influence science education (Sjøberg& Schreiner, 2010). ...
... Student's academic achievement is largely determined by individual factors (Veas et al., 2019;Hanet al., 2015) such as the student's cognitive abilities as well as self-discipline (Shi & Qu, 2022;Liang et al., 2020) but is shaped largely by student attitude, classroom instruction and climate, home and community educational contexts, curriculum design and delivery and school demographics and organization in that order (Schneider &Preckel, 2017). At an individual level, academic achievement is also strongly associated with clarity and understandability, the teacher's stimulation of the student's interest, elocutionary skills and the teacher's enthusiasm (Schneider & Preckel, 2017;Nicol & Macfarlane-Dick, 2006 Students' interest and attitude to learning are the predominant factors in the mastery of any subject matter (Nja et al., 2022) as indicated by the impact of positive attitudes towards science and technology influence science education (Sjøberg& Schreiner, 2010). Thus, academic achievement in science is determined by the learners' experiences, skills, and self-regulation as different cognitive learning strategies are deployed in a distinct learning context, whether in the classroom or laboratory (Aquino & Bautista, 2022;Nja et al., 2022). ...
... Academic achievement is also predicted by the students' approaches to learning (García et al., 2016;Schneider &Preckel, 2017) but Science teachers also play a critical role in the formation and reorganization of students' conceptions and attitudes towards science, hence, teachers with a positive view towards science tend to draw a comparative positive view among students (Nja et al., 2022;Potvin &Hasni, 2014). However, the effectiveness of teaching methods depends on their implementation. ...
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In most secondary schools, the conventional approaches to learning are exclusively used for science education, though with mixed results. These conventional learning approaches do not arouse the learner's interest in science or improve learners' cognitive development. The rise in new pedagogical approaches has seen the adoption of flipped learning approaches take a focal point in improving cognitive development and achievement outcomes in science education in secondary schools and university levels alike. Thus, the study adopted the flipped learning approached and used the Solomon four non-equivalent control group to explore the possibility of using flipped classroom arrangement with the aid of a computer-based collaborative concept mapping to foster meaningful learning and creativity in Biology instruction in secondary schools in Kenya. In the study, 345 form-two students were enrolled and were randomly split as a whole class into the intervention (flipped learning approach) or control (conventional teaching method) groups who were taught separately. The study was located in eight extra-county schools in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya drawn from because the school are well-equipped with computing facilities for learning. Both groups were taught the respiration concepts, with the experimental group (n = 167) being taught with the aid of computer-based concept mapping outside the normal class hours (5.00 pm-6.00 pm) in the computer laboratory while the control group (n = 178) was taught within their respective class hours. The whole concept of respiration was taught in five lessons each lasting for one hour daily over a period of five days (300 minutes). Before the commencement of the experiment, the study carried out an initial examination of attitudes and test scores. The t-test results that the initial attitudes towards biology for the two groups were equivalent (t =-0.820, p > 0.05) while the initial biology score before the experiment were equivalent (t =-1.463, p > 0.05). The study used descriptive statistics and the independent t-test to test for any differences at 0.05 significance levels. The results indicate that there were significant gender differences in the scores for the study group (t =-2.740, p < 0.05) and experimental groups (t =-4.819, p < 0.05) after the experiment. In testing for the control, there were no significant differences in the scores for the control groups (t =-1.463, p > 0.05) before the experiment, but, there were significant differences in the scores for the experimental groups (t =-4.819, p < 0.05) after the experiment. However, there were significant differences in the scores for the control group (t =-2.299, p < 0.05) after the experiment. Findings revealed that academic achievement was significantly higher in the intervention group than those in the conventional group. Based on the findings, the study concluded that computer-based collaborative concept mapping explains the gender and group differences in the post-test scores. This implies that flipped learning approach could improve students' attitudes of students towards biology, thereby improving their academic achievement. The result is especially relevant to learning science in secondary and tertiary institutions in sub-Saharan Africa. The study recommends that teachers adopt the most realistic learning approaches that may positively influence attitudes and achievement in science education.
... ommunication in higher education is vital as it can enhance the learning experience with increased opportunities or negatively influence it when options are limited (Schneider & Preckel, 2017). Furthermore, the choice of educational technology will also affect how effective the learning environment is (MacLeod et al., 2019). ...
... Furthermore, the choice of educational technology will also affect how effective the learning environment is (MacLeod et al., 2019). As higher education moves away from teacher-centred education to student-centred learning environments, we must use technologies that enhance supportive learning-focused digital communication (MacLeod et al., 2019;Schneider & Preckel, 2017). Digital communication in educational environments affords the ability to stimulate discussions that result in multiple responses, leading to enhanced peer-to-peer engagement around the learning materials (Zhou, 2015). ...
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The ability to communicate is critical for enhancing the learning experience. Integrated messaging applications, such as Discord, are critical with the increased diffusion of digitally mediated courses. The Discord application allows educators and students to readily communicate learning experiences within asynchronous and synchronous environments by sending messages, images, links, audio, and video. Our systematic review sought to understand the benefits and challenges of using the Discord application in higher education courses. We summarized research from eight empirical studies within global higher education. Benefits of using Discord included ease of access, user-friendliness, useful communication and interaction, and increased social presence leading to enhanced student learning outcomes. Challenges included the increased potential for distraction and technology issues, both of which can inhibit engagement. Practical recommendations and future research recommendations regarding the use of Discord are provided.
... Peer engagement activities are important in promoting student self-regulatory skills and attainment (Schneider & Preckel, 2017), but peer support needs to be of high quality and students needs to be discerning in their selection and use of it (Brown et al., 2016). The term "peer engagement" focuses on student collaboration, confidence, and autonomy (Cowan & Creme, 2005) and predominantly comprises formative support as opposed to summative peer assessment. ...
... Inclusive approaches require understanding of the different ways in which learners' process information (Friedlander et al., 2011;, and with individual and organisational factors impacting student success Schneider & Preckel, 2017). For example, giving students unlimited choice in assessment may penalise those whose self-regulatory abilities are not as well developed. ...
Article
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The Equity, Agency, Transparency (EAT) Framework (2022) is the updated version of the orginal EAT Framework (2016). This framework was developing from extensive systematic review of the assessment literature leading to identification of 12 key areas of practice that impacted the efficacy of assessment for individuals and organisations. The framework has been consistently tested against the literature (review of > 50,000 articles), and the 12 areas of the framework are confirmed. The framework translates the research into a practical model that individuals, teams, and organisations can use with academics, professional services staff and students to enhance assessment feedback practice in higher education. It has been used successfully across institutions and continents. All resources are available for colleagues to use and adapt and additional resources can be found on inclusivehe.org along with a Guide on how to use the EAT Framework in practice.
... Based on research examining teaching effectiveness in classroom settings, we considered the following dimensions of instruction: cognitive stimulation, clarity of task structures and explanations, difficulty, classroom discussion, instructor enthusiasm, and rapport between instructor and students. These variables are crucial for academic achievement (Perry, 1991;Perry & Smart, 2007;Schneider & Preckel, 2017). Given their likely impact on control and value appraisals, we contend that they also influence students' emotions. ...
... The findings add to the literature on effective teaching. They show that key dimensions including cognitive stimulation, clarity, and structure, and the match between task demands and capabilities not only affect achievement (e.g., Schneider & Preckel, 2017), but students' emotions as well. Based on the findings, it seems likely that these dimensions also influence people's achievement emotions in nonacademic contexts, such as work and sports. ...
Article
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We present a three-dimensional taxonomy of achievement emotions that considers valence, arousal, and object focus as core features of these emotions. By distinguishing between positive and negative emotions (valence), activating and deactivating emotions (arousal), and activity emotions, prospective outcome emotions, and retrospective outcome emotions (object focus), the taxonomy has a 2 × 2 × 3 structure representing 12 groups of achievement emotions. In four studies across different countries (N = 330, 235, 323, and 269 participants in Canada, the United States, Germany, and the U.K., respectively), we investigated the empirical robustness of the taxonomy in educational (Studies 1-3) and work settings (Study 4). An expanded version of the Achievement Emotions Questionnaire was used to assess 12 key emotions representing the taxonomy. Consistently across the four studies, findings from multilevel facet analysis and structural equation modeling documented the importance of the three dimensions for explaining achievement emotions. In addition, based on hypotheses about relations with external variables, the findings show clear links of the emotions with important antecedents and outcomes. The Big Five personality traits, appraisals of control and value, and context perceptions were predictors of the emotions. The 12 emotions, in turn, were related to participants' use of strategies, cognitive performance, and self-reported health problems. Taken together, the findings provide robust evidence for the unique positions of different achievement emotions in the proposed taxonomy, as well as unique patterns of relations with external variables. Directions for future research and implications for policy and practice are discussed.
... e que não irão presentar dificuldades durante o seu percurso escolar. Contudo, vários estudos (Casanova & Almeida, 2016;Casanova, Araújo, & Almeida, 2020;Chen et al., 2017;Esteban et al., 2017;Joly et al., 2015;Vasconcelos, Almeida, & Monteiro, 2005) mostram que muitos estudantes chegam à universidade com inúmeras dificuldades nas suas competências de aprendizagem, sendo que, algumas dessas dificuldades ocorrem a partir da falta de conhecimentos prévios e da ineficácia das estratégias de estudo desenvolvidas em níveis escolares anteriores (Araújo, 2017;Ferrão & Almeida, 2018;Schneider & Preckel, 2017). ...
... As dimensões identificadas no presente estudo traduzem condutas que combinam variáveis comportamentais, cognitivas, metacognitivas, motivacionais e atitudinais (Almeida, 2007;Doreth & Kobbeltvedt, 2010;Joly, 2007;Valadas, Gonçalves, & Faísca, 2010;Vasconcelos, Almeida, & Monteiro, 2005;Zimmerman, 1989) que, aparecendo diferenciadas na investigação, muitas vezes os estudantes combinam para tornar mais eficiente o seu estudo e aprendizagem (Almeida, 2007;Araújo, 2017;Casanova, 2021;Rosário et al., 2004;Schneider & Preckel, 2017). ...
Article
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Face às exigências do processo de ensino-aprendizagem na universidade, a literatura mostra a importância de se identificar dimensões que melhor descrevam os métodos de estudo para explicar o rendimento acadêmico dos estudantes. Este artigo descreve a construção e os estudos preliminares de validação de um questionário de avaliação dos métodos de estudo e de aprendizagem de estudantes do Ensino Superior. Os estudantes foram abordados sobre suas condutas habituais de estudo, dentro e fora de sala de aula, nomeadamente aqueles que melhor explicam ou predizem seus níveis de rendimento acadêmico. Após a uma primeira sistematização do conteúdo das respostas dos estudantes um questionário com 45 itens foi aplicado em 132 estudantes de Portugal, abrangendo diferentes cursos em Ciências e Humanidades, maioritariamente do sexo feminino (81%), do 1º ano, com a idade mais frequente de 18 anos (37,9%). Os resultados da análise fatorial exploratória permitem identificar quatro dimensões: organização e planejamento do estudo (alfa=.76); persistência nas tarefas de estudo (alfa=.78); autoeficácia no estudo (alfa=.65) e participação ativa na sala de aula (alfa=.64). Estas dimensões refletem métodos de estudo que combinam aspectos cognitivos, motivacionais e atitudinais que algumas vezes, aparecem diferenciadas na investigação, podendo o estudante combinar ainda abordagens superficiais e profundas quando necessárias ao seu estudo.
... If so, this opening chapter attempts to make a case for active learning as practised by lecturers in the classrooms or outside in the informal learning spaces. Specifically, given the popularity and numerous definitions of active learning in research and practice (Schneider & Preckel, 2017), it is important to critically check the attributes of active learning. To this end, this chapter provides an overview of the socio-constructivist framework for active learning that opens up group-based learning of which collaboration is the nexus. ...
... According to Schneider and Preckel (2017), there are many definitions of active learning but they all agree on getting students to learn by doing something to manage and develop their learning (Fu et al., 2009) other than passively listening to recorded lectures, watching videos, readings, homework and even tests (Johnson & Aragon, 2003). The key words here are 'doing something' and based on the verbatim above, the students are doing something, but are they into active learning? ...
Chapter
There are many challenges impeding the implementation of collaborative active learning (CAL) ranging from the different definitions itself to social interactions among students where the effect of social presence is paramount. Having a socio-constructivist theoretical framework, CAL primarily deals with the process of student learning thereby the focus is on the nature of the educational transactions such as assessment and feedback for learning. It is important to gain insights into some educational technologies to grasp a full conceptual understanding of CAL whose effectiveness has been examined from different perspectives ranging from learning and teaching strategies to eventually assessment and feedback approaches. There remains, however, certain degree of concerns regarding the challenges of CAL strategies and how best to utilise the strengths and opportunities of these strategies in both the online and offline environments. Since CAL is already—and will continue to be—used by the students, lecturers should adopt these strategies as a pedagogical basis. To achieve effective results, the author provides some general guidelines in the design and implementation of CAL lessons in this chapter.KeywordsSelf-reflectionSocial interactionSocio-constructivismSocio-cognitive conflictsAssessment for learningCollaborative learning
... Much less is known, however, about the impact of the limitations in on-campus teaching and learning specifically on students' study-related experiences, including study-related wellbeing (i.e., academic burnout, study engagement), studyrelated behaviors (i.e., study effort), and study-related attitudes (i.e., education satisfaction, online self-efficacy, attitudes toward online education). Investigating changes in these study-related experiences during the pandemic is important as previous research showed that these experiences are in general closely related to students' academic performances and achievements (Upadyaya and Salmela-Aro, 2013;Chang et al., 2014;Schneider and Preckel, 2017;Lei et al., 2018;Madigan and Curran, 2020;Pu et al., 2020;Gopal et al., 2021). ...
... Our findings imply that universities should (be allowed to) provide and facilitate on-campus teaching and learning as much and as long as possible to preserve students' study-related wellbeing, education satisfaction, and study effort. This might be beneficial to students' academic performances and achievements (Upadyaya and Salmela-Aro, 2013;Chang et al., 2014;Schneider and Preckel, 2017;Lei et al., 2018;Madigan and Curran, 2020;Pu et al., 2020;Gopal et al., 2021). ...
Article
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Introduction During the COVID-19 pandemic, emergency remote teaching was implemented at all conventional Dutch universities; however, the degree of limitations in on-campus teaching and learning varied during the pandemic dependent on the strictness of the measures. In the present study, it will be investigated how study-related experiences of university students changed in the face of varying limitations in on-campus teaching and learning. Methods The study had a longitudinal natural experiment design with three points of measurement during the academic year 2020–2021: November–December 2020 (t1; campuses partially open), March 2021 (t2; campuses fully closed) and June–July 2021 (t3; campuses partially open). In total, 680 Dutch university students (65.9% female; age: M = 21 years, SD = 2.06) filled in online surveys measuring study-related wellbeing (academic burnout and study-engagement), study-related behavior (study effort), and study-related attitudes (education satisfaction, online self-efficacy, and attitudes toward online education). Results Overall, students reported moderate levels of academic burnout, study engagement, study effort, education satisfaction, and online self-efficacy; their attitudes toward online education were rather negative. Students’ study-related wellbeing and education satisfaction decreased in the period when on-campus teaching and learning was impossible (t2) compared to periods in which on-campus teaching and learning was possible at a low level with several restrictions (t1 and t3). Students’ attitudes toward online education and online self-efficacy slightly increased at the end of the academic year (t3); however, the attitudes toward online education remained negative. Discussion The findings indicate that students’ academic burnout, study engagement, and education satisfaction varied over the course of the academic year in the context of changing limitations in on-campus teaching and learning. To facilitate positive study-related experiences, universities are advised to offer as much on-campus education as possible in times of pandemics.
... A literatura é bastante consensual ao apontar que estudantes com desempenho acadêmico mais baixo têm maiores chances de evadirem (Bernardo et al., 2016;Casanova et al., 2018a;Ferrão & Almeida, 2019;Stinebrickner & Stinebrickner, 2014;Tinto, 2012;Tinto, 2017). O desempenho acadêmico é descrito pelas notas e conceitos obtidos pelos alunos, pelas aprovações nas disciplinas e pelos créditos finalizados os quais fornecem informações sobre os progressos que os estudantes realizam ao longo do seu curso (Araújo, 2017;Casanova et al., 2018a;Schneider & Preckel, 2017). ...
... Dada a importância do rendimento acadêmico na permanência, é crucial que sejam identificadas variáveis ou experiências preditivas do bom desempenho. Deste estudo, aponta-se o impacto da autoeficácia no rendimento, com elevadas crenças associadas a maiores realizações, o que dialoga com resultados de outras investigações (Graff, 2019;Schneider & Preckel, 2017). Isto significa que o julgamento do estudante em sua capacidade de organizar cursos de ação a fim de atingir os seus objetivos influencia o desempenho, já que se associam ao tempo e esforço despendido nas tarefas acadêmicas, na capacidade de superar os desafios, manter-se envolvido nas atividades e de autorregular a aprendizagem (Costa et al., 2016;Criollo, Romero, & Fontaines-Ruiz, 2017;Tinto, 2017). ...
Article
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Dropping out of Higher Education has implications for students and universities, and the identification of variables associated with dropout makes it possible to develop actions that reduce its occurrence. This study analyzes the direct and mediated impacts of self-efficacy, income, sex, age, receipt of social assistance grants and entry into a preferred option course in evasion. Data were collected from 346 university students through a Socioeconomic Questionnaire, the Self-Efficacy Scale in Higher Education, in addition to documentary information, and were analyzed using the AMOS software. The results identified that being a woman and manifesting high self-efficacy are associated with better academic performance, which are related to lower risks of dropping out. It was also found that being a woman and attending the preferred option course decreases the chances of dropping out. Such results reinforce the weight of personal, psychological, academic and career variables in dropout and suggest ways for interventions that promote student permanence. Keywords: student dropout; academic performance, self-efficacy or cognitions; career choice
... This combined information provides critical information about the student's progress throughout the course. (Araújo, 2017;Casanova et al., 2018a;Schneider & Preckel, 2017). ...
... Given the importance of academic performance in permanence, it is crucial to identify variables or experiences that predict good performance. From this study, the impact of self-efficacy on income is pointed out, with high beliefs associated with greater achievements, which is in line with the results of other investigations (Graff, 2019;Schneider & Preckel, 2017). This means that the student's judgment about their ability to organize courses of action in order to achieve their goals influences performance, as they are associated with the time and effort spent on academic tasks, the ability to overcome challenges, stay involved activities and self-regulate learning (Costa et al., 2016;Criollo, Romero, & Fontaines-Ruiz, 2017;Tinto, 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Dropping out of Higher Education has implications for students and universities, and the identification of variables associated with dropout makes it possible to develop actions that reduce its occurrence. This study analyzes the direct and mediated impacts of self-efficacy, income, sex, age, receipt of social assistance grants and entry into a preferred option course in evasion. Data were collected from 346 university students through a Socioeconomic Questionnaire, the Self-Efficacy Scale in Higher Education, in addition to documentary information, and were analyzed using the AMOS software. The results identified that being a woman and manifesting high self-efficacy are associated with better academic performance, which are related to lower risks of dropping out. It was also found that being a woman and attending the preferred option course decreases the chances of dropping out. Such results reinforce the weight of personal, psychological, academic and career variables in dropout and suggest ways for interventions that promote student permanence. Keywords: student dropout; academic performance, self-efficacy or cognitions; career choice
... Gay (2000) asserted that students from racially/ethnically underrepresented groups often feel "insulted, embarrassed, ashamed, and angered when reading and hearing negative portrayals of their ethnic groups or not hearing anything at all" (p. 116) and, in their research, Schneider and Preckel (2017) confirmed that course effectiveness is strongly related to what teachers do and that the choice of teaching methods has substantial effects on student achievement. ...
Article
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In the Republic of Croatia, the importance of intercultural education and competence-oriented curricula has gained momentum in the last decade, with children’s literature being perceived as an invaluable source of intercultural learning and a fruitful tool for an exploration of global cultural diversity. Given that empirical data indicate the importance of children’s age for selecting age-appropriate intervention methods that would help combat discriminatory and prejudicial views, especially during the period between early and late childhood, this paper explores the choice of authors and picturebook titles taught in children’s literary courses at six Croatian Faculties of Teacher Education (Rijeka, Pula, Zagreb, Osijek, Zadar, and Split) with the aim to determine how university instructors interpret multicultural children’s literature and to which extent their syllabi accentuate the potential of picturebooks in fostering future pre-school and elementary-school teachers’ intercultural competence. The findings indicate a misalignment between the objectives of intercultural education and the racial and ethnic representation of authors and their characters, especially protagonists. Furthermore, intercultural competence is not a major learning objective in the analyzed university syllabi. The choice of authors and picturebooks indicates a clear preference for white North American and European authors and white characters and protagonists. These findings highlight the need for teacher-educators, i.e., university instructors, to rethink the nature of their learning objectives and study content and to expand their reading lists with more diverse voices that challenge the traditional models that have historically left many ethnic groups misrepresented, under-represented, or fully omitted from school and university curricula.
... 66 In active learning, the student is engaged in active, meaningful exercises via technological tools that provide cognitive support. 67 It can be noted that assessment practices are about as important as presentation practices, 68 and in this con-text nbgrader 24 is of particular relevance. This is a tool which facilitates creating and grading assignments (coding or written form) in a Jupyter notebook environment, including auto-grading functionalities as well. ...
Preprint
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The eChem project features an e-book published as a web page (https://doi.org/10.30746/ 978-91-988114-0-7), collecting a repository of Jupyter notebooks developed for the dual purpose of explaining and exploring the theory underlying computational chemistry in a highly interactive manner as well as providing a tutorial-based presentation of the complex workflows needed to simulate embedded molecular systems of real biochemical and/or technical interest. For students ranging from beginners to advanced users, the eChem book is well suited for self-directed learning, and workshops led by experienced instructors for targeting student bodies with specific needs and interests can readily be formed from its components. The members of the eChem team are engaged in both education and research and as a mirroring activity, we develop the open-source software upon which this e-book is predominantly based. The overarching vision and goal of our work is to provide a science- and education-enabling software platform for quantum molecular modeling on contemporary and future high-performance computing systems, and to document the resulting development and workflows in the eChem book.
... Perceived stress arising from the pandemic, the lack of social interactions and the shift from traditional to online teaching put pressure on students. When students suffer from burnout, they perceive themselves as incompetent which affects learning [25,26]. ...
Article
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This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of burnout syndrome in adolescents entering university studies, to detect differences in burnout levels, personality factors and fear of coronavirus in a pandemic context due to COVID-19. A cross-sectional predictive study was performed with a sample that comprised 134 individuals in their first year of a Psychology degree at Spanish universities. The Maslach Burnout Inventory Student Survey, the NEO Five-Factor Inventory and the Fear of COVID-19 Scale were applied. The prevalence of burnout is estimated according to three methods: Maslach and Jackson’s severity classification, Golembiewski’s phase model and Maslach et al.’s profile model. The estimates show significant differences. The results indicated that between 9 and 21% of students were at risk of developing burnout. On the other hand, students who reported having suffered psychological consequences of the pandemic showed greater emotional exhaustion, neuroticism and fear of COVID-19, and a lower level of personal accomplishment than those who did not suffer such consequences. Neuroticism was the only significant predictor for all burnout dimensions, and fear of COVID-19 did not contribute to any of them.
... Freeman (Freeman et al., 2014) beschreibt einen stärkeren Lernzuwachs bei aktivierenden Lehrmethoden im gesamten MINT-Bereich gegenüber herkömmlicher Lehre. In einer großen Meta-Studie untersuchen Schneider und Preckel (Schneider & Preckel, 2017) den Einfluss vieler Faktoren auf die erzielten Leistungen von Studierenden. Nachdem ich mit hands-on Aktivitäten der Studierenden gute Erfahrungen gemacht hatte, wählte ich für das Zertifikat "Hochschullehre Bayern -Profistufe" am DiZ Ingolstadt das Projekt "Einsatz der aktivierenden Methoden Just-in-Time Teaching (JiTT) und Peer Instruction (PI) in Lehrveranstaltungen zur Analysis". ...
Conference Paper
Die Veröffentlichung stellt das Konzept der Lehrveranstaltung vor und legt dabei ein Augemerk auf die Gestaltung der Präsenzphasen in einem Inverted Classroom Konzept.
... Um auch in der Pandemiesituation den universitären Lehrbetrieb in Deutschland aufrechtzuerhalten, konzipierten Dozierende ihre Seminare in einem Onlineformat, was gleichzeitig ein neues Forschungsfeld eröffnete (Krammer, Pflanzl & Matischek-Jauk, 2020 (Schneider & Preckel, 2017). Weiter fanden sich innerhalb der Onlinelehre im direkten Vergleich leichte Vorteile asynchroner gegenüber synchronen Formaten (Bernard et al., 2004). ...
Book
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Das Themenheft 2021 (1) der Zeitschrift Lehrerbildung auf dem Prüfstand widmet sich der Frage, wie sich Lehr-Lernprozesse in der ersten, zweiten und dritten Phase der Lehrerbildung verändern, wenn traditionelle Präsenzveranstaltungen oder bestimmte Elemente davon in eine virtuelle, digitale Lernumgebung transferiert werden.
... By analyzing the title of research conducted in a study program, trends and research topics will be obtained [18]. By knowing the research topic, the study program can evaluate and assess whether there is compatibility between the research conducted and the concentration of the study program [19]. The results of this evaluation can be used as a reference for improving learning activities in the study program [20]. ...
Article
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Writing research reports at the undergraduate level is one of the obligations that must be fulfilled by students as a fulfillment of graduation requirements at a university. One of the independent learning programs implemented at Nusa Putra University is through the research method, where students are required to conduct research as a graduation requirement in the Study Completion Program course. The growing development of information and communication technology provides opportunities for students to determine research themes. However, sometimes students take research themes that are not in accordance with the concentration in the study program. This research was conducted with the aim of identifying how the LDA topic modeling method can analyze research topic trends by modeling topics on research titles that have been taken by students at the Informatics Engineering Study Program, University of Nusa Putra. Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) is one of the most popular topic modeling methods today. This research uses a dataset in the form of 159 titles of study completion program research reports and tittles of final assignment reports for students of the Informatics Engineering study program, University of Nusa Putra. This research is expected to be a reference in conducting research by students based on the topics that have been modeled
... Our study can be framed within the broader literature on factors of educational innovation in the University (see Schneider & Preckel, 2017, for a meta-analyses review). Our research is focused on three branches of this literature, which we briefly review in order: namely, the role of educational innovation in improving student employability, professional certifications as innovation factors in education, and the impact of these certifications on students' perception and satisfaction. ...
Article
p style="text-align: justify;">Professional certifications represent for many university degrees, especially postgraduate degrees, a recognition of their academic quality and the future employability of the graduates. This article contributes to the analysis of the impact of external accreditations on students’ perception of employability and satisfaction. We offer a case of study, a Master of Science (MSc) in Banking and Finance that became the first academic degree in Spain to obtain the two professional accreditations required for employees in financial institutions since 2019. A survey to a sample of students who graduated two academic years before and two years after the MSc was recognised is used to measure students' motivations for enrolment and satisfaction. The results provide significant evidence that professional accreditation became a key motivation for students to enrol the master, is associated with a more diverse geographical origin of students, and students highlight the higher quality and better coordination of the teaching staff.</p
... Therefore, with the TBC, the degree to which teachers exhibit qualities of excellent teachers is being assessed. Schneider and Preckel (2017) pointed out that many behaviors of a teacher can promote students' learning and engagement, such as "encouraging and caring for students", "promoting class discussion", "providing feedback", "being friendly", "establishing objectives for learning", etc. Several of these behaviors are covered by the TBC items, which also show many behavioral examples for each quality, helping teachers develop ideas on how to improve their teaching skills. ...
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The Teacher Behavior Checklist (TBC) is a worldwide valued instrument to measure teachers’ performance. Nonetheless, the studies about TBC in Brazil are still scarce, with samples mainly composed of psychology and civil engineering students. The aim of this study was to replicate the research by Keeley et al. (2010) to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the TBC with a new sample. Participants were 107 undergraduates from physical education courses from a Brazilian public university. Participants used the TBC to evaluate three types of teachers: the worst they had ever had, a regular one, and the best one. The order of evaluation of teacher types did not interfere with the response patterns, but as expected, statistically significant differences were found among the three types of teachers. Additionally, the two-factor model of the TBC was confirmed through Confirmatory Factor Analysis, providing additional evidence of construct validity. However evidence to advocate in favor of a one-factor solution was also found. McDonald’s Omega results provided evidence of reliability. These findings support the use of TBC in the formative evaluation of teachersin Brazil.
... Motivation influences a person's educational career, including their academic performance (Richardson et al., 2012;Schneider & Preckel, 2017) or participation in educational programs (Harackiewicz et al., 2002), but it decreases during the first academic year (Benden & Lauermann, 2021;Robinson et al., 2019). In recent years, motivation is seen more and more as an important factor for student dropout (Benden & Lauermann, 2021;Dresel & Grassinger, 2013;Schnettler et al., 2020). ...
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Student dropout in higher education is a challenge for higher education systems. In recent years, there has been an increasing focus on analyzing motivational aspects in order to counteract dropout. However, the detailed impact mechanisms and processes of motivation on dropout have not been sufficiently researched. For example, there is very little research analyzing the preconditions of motivation and their influence on motivation as well as their eventual influence on dropout. From the background of self-determination theory and the person-object theory of interest, this study analyzes the effects of satisfying the three basic psychological needs on dropout via subject interest. We use data from a cross-sectional design with N = 2662 cooperative students in their first academic year. Our analysis identifies a direct effect of relatedness and subject interest on dropout. Furthermore, indirect effects of satisfying basic psychological needs, specifically, autonomy and relatedness, on dropout via subject interest are noted. We evaluate our results in the context of the current state of research and discuss implications.
... In order to test inference for indirect effects, bootstrap confidence intervals (based on 10,000 bootstrap samples) were used (Hayes, 2018). As previous studies reported that prior achievement in school was an important predictor of study success (e.g., Brandstätter et al., 2006;Schneider & Preckel, 2017) and was also correlated to academic self-beliefs (Hailikari et al., 2008), we controlled for students' self-reported school qualification grade (1≙very good, 4≙sufficient) as an indicator for prior achievement during the whole analysis. By doing so, we wanted to ensure that the relation between self-concept and dropout (as well as between self-concept and satisfaction and achievement) is not overestimated. ...
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The transition from school to university mathematics is a challenging process for many students, which is reflected in high dropout rates during the first year at university. Using mediation analysis, we want to shed light on the role of students' attitudes towards mathematics especially their interest in mathematics and their mathematical self-concept-for early dropout and investigate the underlying mechanisms for the relations between attitudes and dropout. Informed by frameworks of person-environment-fit and results from educational psychology, we consider satisfaction with one's studies and achievement as potential mediators, influencing the relations between attitudes and early dropout. Our results within a sample of 274 first-year students, enrolled in a pure mathematics or a teacher education program at a German university, show that interest in university mathematics and mathematical self-concept are associated with less risk to drop out. In the case of interest , this relation is mediated by students' satisfaction, and in the case of self-concept, this relation is mediated by satisfaction and achievement. Based on these results, we discuss how to support students during the transition from school to university mathematics in order to prevent early dropout.
... In this way, the concept of student profile expands well beyond that of simply a learner (Inglés et al., 2015;Veiga et al., 2015). A students' expectations of being competent and of successfully carrying out tasks with academic subject matter is called perceived self-efficacy; it has become established as one of the strongest variables in predicting academic performance (Cerezo et al., 2019;Schneider & Preckel, 2017). This variable has been explained through studies that show significant, positive relationships between perceived self-efficacy, persistence in academic work, and general achievement (Honicke & Broadbent, 2016;Multon et al., 1991;cited in Garzón et al., 2021), as well as other studies of the directional relationship between the two variables, finding significant, positive relationships in both directions, even if academic achievement's influence on perceived self-efficacy is the stronger of the two (Talsma et al, 2018). ...
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Among a multitude of variables that are involved in self-regulated learning and that define the student’s profile, we find learning strategies and academic motivation. The aim of this study was to analyze relationships between learning strategies, attitude toward study, self-concept, and academic achievement. A total of 519 students from upper primary education in Cantabria (Spain) were participants in this cross-sectional study, which used non-experimental, descriptive, correlational methodology. The results confirmed a tendency for greater use of learning strategies, along with optimal motivation towards schoolwork, to be positively related to overall academic achievement. Moreover, low-medium-high levels of learning strategy use and of academic motivation were differentially associated with academic achievement. This study has confirmed that complementary learning strategies such as group work or extracurricular activities, as well as academic self-concept, are predictive of achievement in the subjects considered, as well as of academic achievement in general. Educational contexts that take into account learning strategies and academic motivation are called for, both as a means and as an end in themselves, in order to achieve meaningful, practical and functional learning that leads to higher academic achievement.
... Learning is one of the most important tools in the training of any professional, and once achieved, it is possible to predict optimal labor performance. 5 Although learning is selfregulating, 6,7 students may not be able to manage the time to study effectively, especially those in the beginning stages of college. Moreover, while learning is an individual construct, evidence points to the fact that the student does not easily adapt to a challenging environment but rather expects solutions from the teaching staff. ...
Article
In this work, we report the online activities carried out in the Basic Organic Chemistry virtual course of the Chemistry Department at UNS (Argentina) for first-year students of the Agronomic Engineering career. In particular, we present the use and results obtained from quick question/answer games using available applications to reinforce theoretical concepts. These activities helped to review and emphasize essential concepts of the course.
... Asimismo, a partir de los resultados coincidentes de las tres técnicas implementadas, se infiere la importancia del compromiso afectivo y conductual de cada estudiante con su aprendizaje matemático, para alcanzar resultados académicos positivos, en el marco del propósito de acceder a carreras de Ingeniería. Estos datos confirman estudios sobre el rendimiento académico y variables más influyentes(Fredricks et al., 2004;Schneider y Preckel, 2017) y añade mayor cualificación a los estudios hechos en el ámbito de Ingeniería(Tossavainen et al., 2019, Zakariya et al., 2020.Hacemos notar que, dadas las características metodológicas de la investigación, las afirmaciones se circunscriben al caso de estudio, sin embargo, constituye un aporte en la generación de evidencias de respaldo a la validez del cuestionario CreeMat, y su uso en técnicas cuantitativas para establecer relaciones con el rendimiento académico en matemáticas, o al menos no se han encontrado argumentos suficientes como para cuestionarlos, en contextos disímiles al que fueran anteriormente aplicados.Finalmente debemos indicar que este estudio deja abierta distintas líneas de estudio, entre ellas destacamos el profundizar en algunos resultados parciales observados en el trabajo, tales como un probable rol mediador del compromiso afectivo y conductual sobre el aprendizaje sobre otras dimensiones de creencia que mide el cuestionario, o qué impacto tendría en la confiabilidad o precisión la modificación de ítems. Futuros trabajos también pueden teorizar y ensayar, modelos y relaciones de factores metacognitivos, cognitivos y rendimiento académico, utilizando técnicas del creciente campo de la minería de datos. ...
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Este trabajo evaluó la validez y fiabilidad de un instrumento que examina las creencias de los estudiantes sobre las matemáticas en un grupo de postulantes a carreras de Ingeniería en la Universidad Nacional de Concepción de Paraguay, y se implementaron técnicas de minería de datos para modelizar la relación entre las creencias en matemáticas y el rendimiento académico. La población estuvo integrada por 113 estudiantes, el muestreo fue no probabilístico y con participación voluntaria. Se determinó el coeficiente alpha de Cronbach para el instrumento Creencias, y se implementaron las técnicas de minería de datos: Regresión Lineal Múltiple, Regresión de Mínimos Cuadrados Parciales y Redes Bayesianas tomando como variable respuesta el Rendimiento Académico promedio en matemáticas. Se concluye sobre la replicabilidad del instrumento en el caso de estudio, y la generación de evidencia sobre importancia del compromiso afectivo y conductual del estudiante sobre el rendimiento académico en matemáticas en el acceso a carreras de Ingeniería en Paraguay.
... Similar outcomes have also been confirmed longitudinally, with positive impacts including critical thinking, the inclination to inquire and life-long learning, intercultural effectiveness, and socially responsible leadership (Kilgo et al., 2015). Likewise, meaningful learning experiences involving authentic problems and assessments contribute to greater student engagement and learning (Schneider & Preckel, 2017). A substantial authentic project is a potent form of authentic learning experience and is an example of one of the high-impact educational practices (Kuh, 2008) advocated by the AAC&U for the development of their ELOs. ...
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A number of commentators have recently called for a re-examination of the purpose and value of undergraduate education, arguing that change is required if universities are to deliver the value in educational outcomes that students and communities now require for a changing and challenging world (for example, Aoun, 2017; Bok, 2020; Davidson, 2017; Fischman & Gardner, 2022). Indeed, some have argued that such change is necessary to stem an emerging crisis in universities’ ‘social license to operate’ (Bok, 2020). In this paper, we review the case for undergraduate curriculum change and present a case study of one Australian university’s engagement with this challenge, describing the reasons for change, the desired outcomes, and some early impacts on students’ study patterns. The change took place at the University of Sydney over the period from 2014 to 2021 with a new undergraduate curriculum introduced for commencing students from 2018. Intended to prepare students for a changing world, the new curriculum sought a balance between graduates’ expertise in a primary field of study and a set of broader capabilities that would support their capacity for future learning and for creative and effective engagement in life and career, including an understanding of broader intellectual landscapes; the skills for collaboration, invention, and influence; and the integration of knowledge with professional and personal ethics and values. The aspiration to develop such capabilities is shared with many universities around the world, and we describe here how the available evidence base was used to guide whole-of-University curriculum redesign in this case. We also identify areas where further research would be of value.
... At the latest with John Hattie's publication of "Visible Learning" in 2008 [1] the importance of feedback has become a vital element of many educational discussions. Even though Hattie's study focused on school learning similar results have been found for the field of higher education [2], [3]. At the same time, software solutions for digital learning -for instance for interactive videos, web-based training or online assessmentoffer increasingly flexible solutions to give differentiated and adaptive feedback to learners. ...
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Digital assessment systems, such as STACK, nowadays offer various features to provide differentiated and individual feedback to learners. As literature shows, the focus is often on retrospective (error-related) information on the content level. Further aspects beneficial to learning such as self-regulation and consideration of the different capacities of working memory of heterogeneous learners are not yet sufficiently addressed. This article illustrates how feedback in a digital learning environment using the assessment system STACK might be designed to close this gap. According to the feedback model of Hattie and Timperley the discrepancy between current understandings and intended learning goals can be reduced by answering three feedback questions: “Where am I going?” (Feeding Up), “How am I going?” (Feeding Back) and “Where to next?” (Feeding Forward). Within the article it is discussed how these questions can be addressed either on the question level (specific feedback, general feedback) or on the quiz level (overall feedback). Furthermore, following Carless and Boud’s concept of feedback literacy, learners are given the opportunity to choose a particular type of feedback. The concept is developed and proven as part of the interdisciplinary project IdeaL at the OTH Amberg-Weiden that is funded by the Stiftung Innovation in der Hochschullehre. A STACK question from a formative assessment on basic properties of functions serves to illustrate the concept.
... Durch Leistungsunterschiede lässt sich die Unterrepräsentation von Frauen nicht erklären: Studiengangübergreifend erzielen Frauen im Studium bessere Noten als Männer (Ramm & Bargel, 2005;Richardson et al., 2012;Schneider & Preckel, 2017). Im Studienfach Mathematik ist die Befundlage uneindeutig. ...
... Indre og ytre motivasjon fremstår som viktige laereforutsetninger. Det samsvarer med andre studier som har vist at motivasjon sammen med studentens forkunnskaper, generelle kognitive evner og laeringshistorie er assosiert med prestasjoner i høyere utdanning (Richardson et al., 2012;Schneider & Preckel, 2017). ...
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Bakgrunn:Et profesjonelt lærings- og undervisningsmiljø viser interesse for studentenes individuelle læreforutsetninger. Dette er viktige, men ofte neglisjerte faktorer for læring hos voksne. Det sentrale forskningsspørsmålet for denne studien er: Hvilke læreforutsetninger og ambisjoner har studenter ved starten av en masterutdanning?Metode:Data er hentet fra 27 refleksjonsnotater skrevet av masterstudenter i avansert klinisk nyfødtsykepleie ved Lovisenberg diakonale høgskole. Notatene ble analysert med Graneheim og Lundman (2004) sin modell for kvalitative innholdsanalyse.Resultater:Resultatene viser at masterstudenter har et spekter av motivasjon for å starte på en masterutdanning. Både indre og ytre motivasjon kan ha betydning for hvilke læringsaktiviteter studenten opplever at støtter læring. Voksne studenters utfordringer med å kombinere utdanning og familie blir fremhevet, men også hvordan voksne studenter har ressurser som kan bidra til felles læring i studentgruppen. Etter endt utdanning har studentene personlige og profesjonelle ambisjoner for sin nye rolle i klinisk praksis.Konklusjon:Masterstudenter skal møte et læringsmiljø som motiverer til læring og gjennomføring, og oppleve å bli aktiviserte og engasjerte som likeverdige medlemmer av det akademiske fellesskapet. Studien kan tyde på at vi først med kunnskaper om masterstudenters individuelle læreforutsetninger kan utøve didaktisk entreprenørskap i høyere utdanning. Mer kunnskap om studentenes diversitet kan bety at vi må endre vår pedagogiske tankegang fra å tenke «lik utdanning for alle» til «utdanning for hver og en».
... Then embed opportunities that require selfassessment and reflection on action during didactic and experiential components to develop these essential skills before the high stakes Level II fieldwork environment. The literature suggests that educators improve student self-efficacy by providing a sense of achievement within demanding tasks, clear-cut definitions of learning goals, criteria for success, and feedback consistent with the findings of this study (Artino, 2012;Bandura & Locke, 2003;Schneider & Preckel, 2017). Additionally, the results of this study suggest that Level II fieldwork students benefit from self-reflection, a scaffolded framework to process through challenges, support, and encouragement from their educators or academic fieldwork coordinators as they navigate the Level II fieldwork experience. ...
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Background Prior research suggests that the teaching of abstract concepts can be enhanced by the use of concrete examples, but there are few controlled studies. Objective To replicate key findings from experiment one from Rawson et al. (2015). Method Experiment participants studied definitions of abstract concepts from psychology, either with or without concrete examples. The replication differed from Rawson et al. by using a paid online participant pool, of non-psychology students, and a trimmed methodology focused on the key outcome. Results Concrete examples enhanced learning of abstract concepts. The critical finding was enhanced recognition of previously unseen examples matched to learned definitions, thus replicating the results of Rawson et al., with an effect size d = 0.30. Conclusion The use of concrete examples was found to enhance learning of abstract concepts when teaching concepts from psychology to non-psychology students using an online paid participant pool. Teaching Implications The teaching of abstract concepts in psychology could be helped by frequent use of concrete, real-world examples.
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Objective: Although intelligence and personality traits have long been recognized as key predictors of students' academic achievement, little is known about their longitudinal and reciprocal associations. Here, we charted the developmental interplay of intelligence, personality (Big Five) and academic achievement in 3,880 German secondary school students, who were assessed four times between the ages 11 and 14 years (i.e., in grade 5, 6, 7, and 8). Method: We fitted random-intercept cross-lagged panel models (RI-CLPs) to investigate reciprocal within-person associations between (a) academic achievement and intelligence, (b) academic achievement and personality, as well as (c) intelligence and personality. Results: The results revealed negative within-person associations between Conscientiousness and Extraversion assessed at the first wave of measurement and intelligence assessed at the second wave. None of the reciprocal personality-achievement associations attained statistical significance. Academic achievement and intelligence showed reciprocal within-person relations, with the strongest coefficients found for achievement longitudinally predicting intelligence. Conclusions: Our work contributes to developmental theorizing on interrelations between personality, intelligence, and academic achievement, as well as to within-person conceptualizations in personality research.
Article
The present study investigates the effects of a chatbot’s motivation support style on the learner’s experience and intention to continue the study in the context of online English lectures. Seventy-nine undergraduate students were recruited from a large private university in Seoul, South Korea, and assigned to one of three learning plan development groups: develop a plan alone, autonomy support (i.e., a chatbot stimulating intrinsic motivation), or control support (i.e., a chatbot promoting extrinsic motivation) groups. The learners were classified into two groups based on their learning motivation types (i.e., intrinsic and extrinsic), and by doing so, the present study created a chatbot’s matched and non-matched motivation support conditions in learning plan development. The two support strategies were compared with a control condition (i.e., learners’ own plan making), and the results suggest that a chatbot with a non-matched motivation strategy increases learner self-efficacy, enjoyment, and intention to continue using the lecture. Furthermore, the study also explores the moderation effect of learning motivation types, and reveals that a chatbot’s control support significantly improves the learning experience. The present study provides new insight into improving user evaluation by strategically differentiating a chatbot’s conversational style and a user’s characteristics.
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Universities are increasingly accountable for the quality of learning experiences and graduate outcomes afforded through a teacher-education degree. This research explored quality components of teacher education and how stakeholders can work collaboratively to embed work-integrated learning (WIL) in the student experience, thereby ensuring that graduates are prepared for professional teaching roles. A mixed-methods, case-study research design was used to gather data from principals, teaching staff, students and graduates, and representatives of professional bodies. The graduate survey generated 322 quantitative graduate responses and 492 comments. SPSS and Excel functions were used for quantitative data analysis and NVivo for thematic analysis. Analysis of data collected for the case study revealed domains perceived as important for graduate employability, with collaborative partnerships emerging as integral to actualising the domains. Findings challenge conventional university approaches to brokering and maintaining partnerships, and suggest a holistic engagement framework for stakeholders. Greater collaboration, cooperation, and consultation are required for a more holistic, relevant, and inclusive educative experience that meets the needs of all stakeholders. This chapter proposes a partnership framework to support the attainment of teacher-education graduates’ proficiency in preparation for the challenges and unpredictable interface of education. The “WIL Partnership Framework for Teacher Education” outlines roles and responsibilities of stakeholders and describes the features of partnerships among stakeholders to optimise graduate outcomes through shared expertise, vision, and aspirations.KeywordsWork-integrated learningWIL partnership frameworkProfessional accreditationEmployabilityQualityProfessional identity
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In a digitally led society, where social media consumption is constantly increasing, users are confronted not only with positive, but also with toxic content and dynamics like cyberbullying, racism, hate speech, or fake news [1,2,3]. Oftentimes, users are not aware of the severity (e.g., racist or homophobic comments) or level of manipulation (e.g., ideal body image which can be linked to eating disorders, feeding disorders, vigorexia) of specific postings [4,5], or do not know how to protect themselves against cyberbullying, discrimination or hate speech. On occasions, victims of cyber aggression even become perpetrators themselves, as they do not find another way out. This is highly problematic as it can initiate a severe circle expanding the dissemination of toxic behavior and content. This emphasizes the need to design and develop social media literacy interventions to raise awareness of the dangers and threats that are hidden within. To this date, a variety of media literacy initiatives have taken place to promote digital literacy skills and raise awareness around social media use [6,7]. However, most current approaches are limited in enabling deep reflection as they provide detached learning situations, or tend to be centered on more traditional methods [7]. COURAGE [8] introduces a new perspective on social media literacy by proposing the integration of educational opportunities within a simulated social media platform (SMP) addressed to adolescents. To successfully achieve this, we propose the use of virtual learning companions (VLC) that can provide opportunities for users to learn (e.g., empathy training or information transfer) whilst they naturally explore social media. VLCs can support this notion as they transfer learning with the help of computer simulated characters [9] through interactive chat interfaces. Incorporating this in an SMP has the potential to allow users to directly interact with social media scenarios and receive instant support instead of teaching them detached from hazardous situations. Therefore, rather than using external censorship or restriction, we aim to strengthen learners' social media self-protection skills through practices targeting their critical and analytical as well as socio-emotional skills, such as empathy, self-awareness, social awareness, responsible decision-making, and the enhancement of emotional intelligence mediated by a VLC within a SMP
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Die digitale Transformation erschließt neue Dimensionen für die wissenschaftliche Weiterbildung an Hochschulen. Dazu gehören digital unterstützte Konzepte und Formate sowie eine erweiterte zeitliche und räumliche Flexibilität. In dem Sammelband wird die digitale Transformation der wissenschaftlichen Weiterbildung auf theoretischer, empirischer und praktischer Ebene betrachtet. Die Autor:innen thematisieren Chancen und Herausforderungen der Digitalisierung für die gesamte pädagogische Handlungskette und verschiedene Bereiche des Bildungsmanagements. Kernpunkte sind: transformative Forschung, Entwicklung und Evaluation digitaler Lerndesigns, Professionalisierung des Personals, digitale Lehrkompetenz, technisch-didaktisches Plattformdesign, Selbstlernangebote, Marketingmaßnahmen sowie Angebots- und Kursmanagement. Der Sammelband bietet einen Überblick zum aktuellen Stand der digitalen Transformation in der wissenschaftlichen Weiterbildung.
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Nowadays, the diversity gap in STEM, with a special focus on the gender gap, is a worldwide challenge. A sustainable society cannot be achieved until society is represented in the STEM sectors that have such an impact on its development. The CreaSTEAM project is focused on mapping best practices in STEAM and creating STEAM-Labs in secondary schools in order to reduce diversity gaps, for example, gender, social or cultural background. With the aim to create adequate spaces according to the characteristics and possibilities of schools, this chapter addresses how to design and implement a training process for teachers and institutions that allows the design and implementation of STEAM-Labs in educational centers.KeywordsTeacher trainingDiversity gapSTEMSTEAMSTEAM-LabsSecondary schoolsErasmus + project
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Bu araştırmanın temel amacı, üniversite öğrencilerinin özyeterlik ve genel erteleme davranışları arasındaki ilişki de okul türünün düzenleyici bir etkisinin olup olmadığını belirlemektedir. Okul türünün düzenleyici etki oluşturup oluşturmadığını belirleyebilmek amacıyla iki farklı okul türünden öğrenciler araştırmaya dahil edilmiştir. Tokat Gaziosmanpaşa Üniversitesi Erbaa Sağlık Meslek Hizmetleri Meslek Yüksekokulu ve Erbaa Meslek Yüksekokulunda öğrenim gören 526 üniversite öğrencisine anket uygulanmıştır. Araştırmada örneklem belirlenmemiş öğrencilere online olarak anket formları gönderilmiştir. Ankette öz yeterlilik, genel erteleme eğilimi değişkenlerini ölçmeye yönelik ifadelere yer verilmiştir. Verilerin analiz aşamasından önce demografik bulgulara, korelasyon, güvenirlik, faktör analizlerine bakılmıştır. Geliştirilen hipotezlerin test edilmesinde regresyon ve durumsal etki analizi için SPSS Process Macro (Model 1) kullanılmıştır. Araştırma sonucunda öğrencilerin, özyeterlikleri ile genel erteleme eğilimi, erteleme alt boyutu ve zamanı etkin kullanma alt boyutu arasında negatif yönlü ilişki olduğu belirlenmiştir. Ayrıca özyeterlik ile zamanı etkin kullanma alt boyutu arasındaki ilişkide okul türünün düzenleyici etki oluşturduğu belirlenmiştir. Özyeterlik ile genel erteleme eğilimi ve erteleme alt boyutu arasındaki ilişki de ise okul türünün düzenleyici etkisi olmadığı anlaşılmıştır.
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For decades, scholars and managers alike have shared a sustained interest in harnessing the talents of high-performing employees primarily due to their disproportionate contributions. An emerging research stream has begun examining the diverse effects that high performers elicit on their peers. Prior work now spans multiple organizational fields of study and utilizes a variety of high performer conceptualizations, theoretical lenses, and methodological approaches to examine the main effects of high performers as well as the boundary conditions of these effects. However, the body of work on high performers has yet to be systematically reviewed to synthesize the current state of the high performer literature and build commonality across disciplines. In this multidisciplinary review, we first establish conceptual clarity on what a high performer is (and is not) and identify the conceptualization of high performers used in current research. We then use appraisal theories to create a framework to organize the cognitive, affective, and behavioral peer effects sparked by high performers as well as to build an integrative view of the psychological mechanisms through which peers interpret and react to high performers. Following this, we outline several boundary conditions of high performer peer effects, including the characteristics of high performers, peers, and the context in which high performers and peers interact. We further consider how the various operationalizations of high performers are associated with different peer effects. We conclude by identifying and elaborating several avenues for future research that may yield useful cross-disciplinary insights.
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Backgrounds: Several academic performance studies during the COVID-19 pandemic on education outside medicine showed varying results. This scoping review aims to identify research trends in medical education that focus on the academic performance of medical students during the COVID-19 pandemic to enable available research to be mapped and summarized, and gaps in research results can be identified. Methods: The authors applied the Arksey and O'Malley framework to conduct the scoping review. This review was conducted from January to 30 May 2022. Comprehensive article searches were conducted on six databases (PubMed, ProQuest, EBSCOhost, ERIC, Science Direct, Google Scholar) using keywords of COVID-19, academic performance, academic achievement, medical education, and medical students. Results: A literature search identified 24 publications eligible for analysis. The cohort is the most chosen research design. The publications were only taken from three continents; those were from Asia, America, and Europe. Most of the publications came from the Asian continent, and most of the participants involved in the studies were undergraduates. Eleven out of 24 publications reported on the impact of research before and during the COVID-19 pandemic on academic performance. Six out of 11 studies showed differences in results. Three studies indicated that students achieved lower grades during the COVID-19 pandemic. In contrast, three other studies reported that students got higher grades during the COVID-19 pandemic. Twenty studies reported the influencing factors of the academic performance. Conclusion: The literatures reported differences in medical students' academic performance before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Twelve variables affected medical students' academic performance during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Chapter
There is no evidence with regard to the effectiveness of the use of simulation in video conferences to facilitate the learning experiences of nursing student. Aims. To describe the research protocol 1) to validate instruments measuring student satisfaction, self-confidence, and perceptions of good planning and best practice in the use of virtual simulation in the Italian con- text on the basis of Jeffries and Rizzolo’s theoretical model in the Italian context and 2) to analyse student satisfaction, self-confidence, and perceptions of good planning and best practice in virtual simulation during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods. First, we will perform a validation study and then use a descriptive cross-sectional study design. Third year nursing students in a bachelor’s degree course in nursing in central Italy, who participated in virtual simulation-based learning during the COVID-19 pandemic will be included. We will consider translation and cultural adaptation, the content and face validity, the construct validity, the criterion validity, the reliability, and the responsiveness to changes in the instruments. Then we will consider means and standard deviations for evaluating the score of the instruments. Discussion. This study will provide us with the opportunity to determine the effectiveness of virtual simulation for nursing students. The intent is not only to evaluate students’ perceptions of virtual simulation but also to create a continuous monitoring system. The future intention is to evaluate the effectiveness of virtual simulation for developing students’ skills during their internship.
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En los espacios escolares de nivel universitario se plantea reconocer el abordaje de las experiencias e indagar desde la voz de los estudiantes. Este trabajo se centra en la investigación de la experiencia individual de estudiantes de la carrera de psicología generación 2017 de la FES Iztacala en un contexto de cambio curricular. Se indagó a través de la entrevista narrativa y el grupo focal la apreciación de 17 estudiantes que se encontraban cursando el sexto de ocho semestres. La perspectiva de análisis se realizó desde un acercamiento cualitativo-interpretativo de la experiencia vivida durante sus estudios. Se desarrollaron tres categorías a partir del análisis vertical y horizontal de las transcripciones: 1. Involucramiento en la carrera, 2. Acciones y actividades para desempeñarse en la carrera y 3. Estrategias de aprendizaje. El análisis muestra las opiniones que ubicaron los participantes en su paso por la carrera, así como los actores educativos reconocido como relevantes en su proceso de formación y los elementos que pusieron en juego en la toma de decisiones. Se identifica una escucha reflexiva del estudiante y toma de decisiones responsable a favor de su aprendizaje y desarrollo autodidacta.
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Mobile technologies are promising tools to scaffold teaching practice. In this study, we developed and tested a mobile app for teacher education. This mobile portfolio enables multimedia-based note-taking, reflection, and discussion with peers and mentors. We conducted two studies to explore the effect of design variants and use scenarios on the app’s acceptance. In the first study with N = 83 pre-service primary school teachers, technology acceptance was higher for those using the app with multimedia note-taking functionality than for those using the same app with this functionality disabled. In the second study with N = 81 pre-service teachers, those using the app together with their mentor teachers reported levels of technology acceptance similar to those who used the app exclusively among themselves. In consequence, a mobile portfolio app would be met with higher acceptance if it builds reflection upon multimedia note-taking both with and without the inclusion of mentors.
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The HELMeTO Conference aims at bringing together researchers and practitioners working in Higher Distance Education Institutions or studying Online Learning Methodologies to present and share their research in a multidisciplinary context. The conference provides a forum for the discussion of new research directions and applications in these fields, where different disciplines could effectively meet.
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When we speak about heterogeneity in a meta-analysis, our intent is usually to understand the substantive implications of the heterogeneity. If an intervention yields a mean effect size of 50 points, we want to know if the effect size in different populations varies from 40 to 60, or from 10 to 90, because this speaks to the potential utility of the intervention. While there is a common belief that the I(2) statistic provides this information, it actually does not. In this example, if we are told that I(2) is 50%, we have no way of knowing if the effects range from 40 to 60, or from 10 to 90, or across some other range. Rather, if we want to communicate the predicted range of effects, then we should simply report this range. This gives readers the information they think is being captured by I(2) and does so in a way that is concise and unambiguous. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Cooperative learning is an example of how theory validated by research may be applied to instructional practice. The major theoretical base for cooperative learning is social interdependence theory. It provides clear definitions of cooperative, competitive, and individualistic learning. Hundreds of research studies have validated its basic propositions and demonstrated that cooperative learning (compared with competitive and individualistic learning) increases students' efforts to achieve, encourages positive relationships with classmates and faculty, and improves psychological health and well being. Operational procedures have been derived from the validated theory to implement cooperative learning in university classes, including those needed to implement formal cooperative learning, informal cooperative learning, and cooperative base groups.
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Empirically analyzing empirical evidence One of the central goals in any scientific endeavor is to understand causality. Experiments that seek to demonstrate a cause/effect relation most often manipulate the postulated causal factor. Aarts et al. describe the replication of 100 experiments reported in papers published in 2008 in three high-ranking psychology journals. Assessing whether the replication and the original experiment yielded the same result according to several criteria, they find that about one-third to one-half of the original findings were also observed in the replication study. Science , this issue 10.1126/science.aac4716
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Many innovative approaches to education such as problem-based learning (PBL) and inquiry learning (IL) situate learning in problem-solving or investigations of complex phenomena. Kirschner, Sweller, and Clark (2006)45. Kirschner , P. A. , Sweller , J. and Clark , R. E. 2006. Why minimal guidance during instruction does not work: An analysis of the failure of constructivist, discovery, problem-based, experiential, and inquiry-based teaching. Educational Psychologist., 41: 75–86. [Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science ®]View all references grouped these approaches together with unguided discovery learning. However, the problem with their line of argument is that IL and PBL approaches are highly scaffolded. In this article, we first demonstrate that Kirschner et al. have mistakenly conflated PBL and IL with discovery learning. We then present evidence demonstrating that PBL and IL are powerful and effective models of learning. Far from being contrary to many of the principles of guided learning that Kirschner et al. discussed, both PBL and IL employ scaffolding extensively thereby reducing the cognitive load and allowing students to learn in complex domains. Moreover, these approaches to learning address important goals of education that include content knowledge, epistemic practices, and soft skills such as collaboration and self-directed learning.
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Hochschuldidaktik ist ein schwammiges Forschungsfeld ohne klare Befunde? Bei fachlich kompetenten Dozierenden ist die Lehrmethode unwichtig? Hochschulen brauchen eine völlig neue Lehrkultur? – Nichts davon ist wahr. Unbemerkt von den meisten Lehrenden ist in den letzten Jahrzehnten ein erfolgreiches internationales Forschungsfeld entstanden, in dem Fragen der Gestaltung effektiver Hochschullehre mit den Methoden der empirischen Lehr- und Lernforschung untersucht werden. Mit Hilfe quantitativ-empirischer Experimente werden Kausaleinflüsse auf den Lernerfolg Studierender identifiziert. Als entscheidend erwies sich dabei, wie Dozierende Vorlesungen, Seminare und Projekte im Detail gestalten und welche Denkprozesse dies in den Köpfen der Studierenden jeweils auslöst. In Metaanalysen über Einzelstudien wurden zahlreiche Gestaltungsprinzipien gefunden, die unabhängig von Hochschultyp und Studienfach den Lernerfolg erhöhen. Das vorliegende Buch gibt Dozierenden einen prägnanten und handlungsorientierten Überblick über empirisch gut belegte Gestaltungsprinzipien effektiver Lehre. Es richtet sich an junge ebenso wie an bereits erfahrene Dozierende. Die Kapitel gehen ein auf die Themenfelder Vorlesung, Seminar, Projekt, PowerPoint-Präsentation, Prüfung und Lehrevaluation. Ergänzende Interviews mit Lehrpreisträgern illustrieren in jedem Kapitel Möglichkeiten und vermeidbare Fallstricke bei der praktischen Umsetzung.
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It is assumed that serious games influences learning in 2 ways, by changing cognitive processes and by affecting motivation. However, until now research has shown little evidence for these assumptions. We used meta-analytic techniques to investigate whether serious games are more effective in terms of learning and more motivating than conventional instruction methods (learning: k = 77, N 5,547; motivation: k = 31, N 2,216). Consistent with our hypotheses, serious games were found to be more effective in terms of learning (d= 0.29, p d = 0.36, p d = 0.26, p > .05) than conventional instruction methods. Additional moderator analyses on the learning effects revealed that learners in serious games learned more, relative to those taught with conventional instruction methods, when the game was supplemented with other instruction methods, when multiple training sessions were involved, and when players worked in groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
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Self-handicapping represents a frequently used strategy for regulating the threat to self-esteem elicited by the fear of failing in academic achievement settings. Several studies have documented negative associations between self-handicapping and different educational outcomes, inter alia academic achievement. However, studies on the relation between self-handicapping and academic achievement have yielded heterogeneous results, indicating the need to conduct meta-analytic investigations and to examine the relevance of several potential moderator variables. This meta-analysis integrates the results of 36 field studies with 49 independent effect sizes (N = 25,550). A random effects model revealed a mean effect size between self-handicapping and academic achievement of r = −.23 (p < .001, range: r = −.46 to r = .02). Moreover, moderator analyses showed that the type of self-handicapping scale, the school type (elementary, middle, high school, university), the level of mastery goals in the sample, and the reliability of the self-handicapping scale considerably influenced the mean correlation. Based on our findings, we conclude that educational interventions to enhance academic achievement should additionally focus on preventing self-handicapping. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract)
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This paper serves several purposes. First and foremost, it is devoted to developing a better understanding of the effectiveness of blended learning (BL) in higher education. This is achieved through a meta-analysis of a sub-collection of comparative studies of BL and classroom instruction (CI) from a larger systematic review of technology integration (Schmid et al. in Comput Educ 72:271–291, 2014). In addition, the methodology of meta-analysis is described and illustrated by examples from the current study. The paper begins with a summary of the experimental research on distance education (DE) and online learning (OL), encapsulated in meta-analyses that have been conducted since 1990. Then it introduces the Bernard et al. (Rev Educ Res 74(3):379–439, 2009) meta-analysis, which attempted to alter the DE research culture of always comparing DE/OL with CI by examining three forms of interaction treatments (i.e., student–student, student–teacher, student–content) within DE, using the theoretical framework of Moore (Am J Distance Educ 3(2):1–6, 1989) and Anderson (Rev Res Open Distance Learn 4(2):9–14, 2003). The rest of the paper revolves around the general steps and procedures (Cooper in Research synthesis and meta-analysis: a step-by-step approach, 4th edn, SAGE, Los Angeles, CA, 2010) involved in conducting a meta-analysis. This section is included to provide researchers with an overview of precisely how meta-analyses can be used to respond to more nuanced questions that speak to underlying theory and inform practice—in other words, not just answers to the “big questions.” In this instance, we know that technology has an overall positive impact on learning (g + = +0.35, p 2011), but the sub-questions addressed here concern BL interacting with technology in higher education. The results indicate that, in terms of achievement outcomes, BL conditions exceed CI conditions by about one-third of a standard deviation (g + = 0.334, k = 117, p
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Letters of recommendation are used extensively in academic admissions and personnel selection. Despite their prominence, comparatively little is known about their predictive power for multiple outcomes. This meta-analysis combine the existing literature for college grade point average (GPA), academic outcomes of GPA, performance ratings, degree attainment, and research productivity for nonmedical school graduate programs, and GPA and internship performance ratings for medical school students. Intercorrelations with other commonly used predictors are also estimated and used to estimate incremental predictive power. Overall, letters of recommendation, in their current form, are generally positively but weakly correlated with multiple aspects of performance in post-secondary education. However, letters do appear to provide incremental information about degree attainment, a difficult and heavily motivationally determined outcome.
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Support for nontraditional students, team-based quality control, and assessment design are critical.
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Domain-general cognitive knowledge has frequently been used to explain skill when domain-specific knowledge held in long-term memory may provide a better explanation. An emphasis on domain-general knowledge may be misplaced if domain-specific knowledge is the primary factor driving acquired intellectual skills. We trace the long history of attempts to explain human cognition by placing a primary emphasis on domain-general skills with a reduced emphasis on domain-specific knowledge and indicate how otherwise unintelligible data can be easily explained by assumptions concerning the primacy of domain-specific knowledge. That primacy can be explained by aspects of evolutionary educational psychology. Once the importance of domain-specific knowledge is accepted, instructional design theories and processes are transformed.
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Prospects for higher education are discussed in the context of technologies and globalization sweeping over the world and affecting many of the world economy sectors. The report describes opportunities that will appear ahead of universities if they go for radical transformations in their key institutions, and analyzes the risks that may arise if such transformations lose to the challenges of the 21st century. The model of a traditional 21st century university and its functions are characterized. The authors examine the factors that can radically change the paradigm of a traditional university and points out that universities need to revise their existing business models and education patterns. Marketization of education has turned students into consumers dictating their own terms and has brought about a number of alternatives to universities for talented students. Therefore, universities need to define clearly what they can offer, differentiate themselves from competitors, and identify their target audience among potential student groups. The authors believe that universities of the future should rearrange functions performed by the existing universities. He also explains why the model of the future is more efficient than the existing one. It is supposed that the promising prospects proposed for higher education by the 21st century can only be reached if all players of the HE system, from students to the government, support the radical transformation initiative to tackle the challenges they are facing. The study defines the essential questions that all players should answer if they want a productive transformation in higher education.
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Pivotal to the transformation of higher education in the 21st Century is the nature of pedagogy and its role in advancing the aims of various stakeholders. This book brings together pre-eminent scholars from Australia, Canada, Europe, the Middle East, and the USA to critically assess teaching and learning issues that cut across most disciplines. In addressing long-standing and newly emerging issues, the researchers examine the scientific evidence on what constitutes effective teaching in college classrooms, on the psychometric integrity of measures of teaching effectiveness, and on the use of such measures for tenure, promotion, and salary decisions. Systematically explored throughout the book is the avowed linkage between classroom teaching and motivation, learning, and performance outcomes in students. In so doing, the book deals with the nexus between knowledge production by researchers and knowledge utility for end-users made up of classroom instructors, department heads, deans, directors, and policymakers. The book will appeal to researchers interested in teaching and learning, faculty members developing evidence-based pedagogical practices, academic administrators and policymakers responsible for instituting teaching and learning protocols, and faculty development officers promoting the effective teaching practices.
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This Introduction provides an overview of the book in terms of an historical framework underpinning the content of the book, the relevance of the content to stakeholders, and the structure of the chapters
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In this chapter, we review the current state of research on personality development across the lifespan with an emphasis on childhood and adolescence. We first provide a framework for discussing personality development across the life course by highlighting the fundamental personality traits observed across childhood and adolescence and into adulthood. We then discuss the various methods of assessing continuity and change of these traits, including rank-order stability, mean-level change, individual-level change, and ipsative continuity. In the context of each method, we offer a review of the findings to date concerning personality development. We next provide a brief overview of some possible explanations for the observed patterns of development then conclude with a discussion of the implications of these findings for educational research, theory, and practice.
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This article discusses the relationship between the use of presentation software and the maintenance of student interest in university lectures. The evidence of surveyed university students suggests that PowerPoint, used as a presentation tool in university lectures, is pedagogically effective only while it provides variety and stimulates interest in the learning environment. That stimulation can be increased if PowerPoint is used to bridge the direct and constructivist teaching models.
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A meta-analysis of findings from 108 controlled evaluations showed that mastery learning programs have positive effects on the examination performance of students in colleges, high schools, and the upper grades in elementary schools. The effects appear to be stronger on the weaker students in a class, and they also vary as a function of mastery procedures used, experimental designs of studies, and course content. Mastery programs have positive effects on student attitudes toward course content and instruction but may increase student time on instructional tasks. In addition, self-paced mastery programs often reduce the completion rates in college classes.
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Robert Slavin reviews the substantial body of studies of co-operative learning in schools, in particular those using control groups being taught with more traditional methods. There are two main categories – "Structured Team Learning" and "Informal Group Learning Methods" – each reviewed and illustrated. As regards affective outcomes, co-operative learning overwhelmingly shows beneficial results. For achievement outcomes, positive results depend heavily on two key factors. One is the presence of group goals (the learner groups are working towards a goal or to gain reward or recognition), the other is individual accountability (the success of the group depends on the individual learning of every member). The chapter presents alternative perspectives to explain the benefits of co-operative learning – whether it acts via motivations, social cohesion, cognitive development, or "cognitive elaboration". Despite the very robust evidence base of positive outcomes, cooperative learning "remains at the edge of school policy" and is often poorly implemented.
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This article reviews research on the achievement effects of cooperative learning instructional methods, in which students work in small groups to learn academic materials. Methodologically adequate field experiments of at least 2 weeks' duration in regular elementary and secondary schools indicate that among cooperative learning methods in which students study the same material together) only methods that provide group rewards based on group members' individual learning consistently increase student achievement more than control methods. Cooperative learning methods in which each group member has a unique subtask have positive achievement effects only if group rewards are provided. Group rewards and individual accountability are held to be essential to the instructional effectiveness of cooperative learning methods. Over the past 30 years there has been a considerable quantity of research concerning the effects of cooperative, competitive, and individualistic incentive structures on individual and group productivity. A cooperative incentive structure is one in which two or more individuals are rewarded based on their performance as a group; a competitive incentive structure indicates that two or more individuals are compared with one another, and those performing best are rewarded; and an individualistic incentive structure is one in which individuals are rewarded based on their own performance, regardless of others' performances. The research on these incentive structures has been reviewed on several occasions (e.g., Johnson & Johnson, 1974; Michaels, 1977; MillerHSlavin, 1977). All of these reviewers agreed that research relating different incentive structures to performance produces inconsistent findings. Some studies find that cooperative incentive
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Reproducibility is a defining feature of science, but the extent to which it characterizes current research is unknown. We conducted replications of 100 experimental and correlational studies published in three psychology journals using high-powered designs and original materials when available. Replication effects were half the magnitude of original effects, representing a substantial decline. Ninety-seven percent of original studies had statistically significant results. Thirty-six percent of replications had statistically significant results; 47% of original effect sizes were in the 95% confidence interval of the replication effect size; 39% of effects were subjectively rated to have replicated the original result; and if no bias in original results is assumed, combining original and replication results left 68% with statistically significant effects. Correlational tests suggest that replication success was better predicted by the strength of original evidence than by characteristics of the original and replication teams.
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Overviews, or syntheses of research syntheses, have become a popular approach to synthesizing the rapidly expanding body of research and systematic reviews. Despite their popularity, few guidelines exist and the state of the field in education is unclear. The purpose of this study is to describe the prevalence and current state of overviews of education research and to provide further guidance for conducting overviews and advance the evolution of overview methods. A comprehensive search across multiple online databases and grey literature repositories yielded 25 total education-related overviews. Our analysis revealed that many commonly reported aspects of systematic reviews, such as the search, screen, and coding procedures, were regularly unreported. Only a handful of overview authors discussed the synthesis technique and few authors acknowledged the overlap of included systematic reviews. Suggestions and preliminary guidelines for improving the rigor and utility of overviews are provided.
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A meta-analysis was conducted to determine the effectiveness of direct academic motivation enhancement interventions (interventions with students as the primary beneficiaries). Seventeen studies were included, the total sample size being 3720 (91.85% of the participants in the studies were university/college students). The overall weighted effect size (Cohen's d) for all studies was 0.33 (95% confidence interval = [0.26, 0.40]), a significant, but small to moderate effect. Interventions were coded as achievement motivation training program or attributional retraining. Analyses based on these subgroups suggested that intervention type played a moderating role, with achievement motivation training programs producing larger effects. The examination of outcome variables as moderators did not reveal significant variations in effect size, although the effects were largest for motivation measures.
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The heterogeneity statistic I(2), interpreted as the percentage of variability due to heterogeneity between studies rather than sampling error, depends on precision, that is, the size of the studies included. METHODS: Based on a real meta-analysis, we simulate artificially 'inflating' the sample size under the random effects model. For a given inflation factor M = 1, 2, 3,... and for each trial i, we create a M-inflated trial by drawing a treatment effect estimate from the random effects model, using s(i)(2)/M as within-trial sampling variance. RESULTS: As precision increases, while estimates of the heterogeneity variance tau(2) remain unchanged on average, estimates of I(2) increase rapidly to nearly 100%. A similar phenomenon is apparent in a sample of 157 meta-analyses. CONCLUSION: When deciding whether or not to pool treatment estimates in a meta-analysis, the yard-stick should be the clinical relevance of any heterogeneity present. tau(2), rather than I(2), is the appropriate measure for this purpose.
Article
The purpose of this article is to identify and estimate the influence of educational, psychological, and social factors on learning. Using evidence accumulated from 61 research experts, 91 meta-analyses, and 179 handbook chapters and narrative reviews, the data for analysis represent over 11,000 relationships. Three methods—content analyses, expert ratings, and results from meta-analyses—are used to quantify the importance and consistency of variables that influence learning. Regardless of which method is employed, there is moderate to substantial agreement on the categories exerting the greatest influence on school learning as well as those that have less influence. The results suggest an emergent knowledge base for school learning. Generally, proximal variables (e.g., psychological, instructional, and home environment) exert more influence than distal variables (e.g., demographic, policy, and organizational). The robustness and consistency of the findings suggest they can be used to inform educational policies and practices.
Book
“This is a very exciting project…[a]part from being helmed by two exemplary teachers, there is a strong line-up of authors. This will be the most up-to-date book of its kind as it takes the perspective of educating GTA supervisors and is not just a ‘tips’ book.” Regan A. R. Gurung, University of Wisconsin, Green Bay Using empirical research, Effective College and University Teaching gives faculty and graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) effective strategies and tactics for pursuing excellence in their teaching, be it in the classroom or online. Whereas the majority of books on college and university teaching are how-to books, this volume provides both the rationale and a detailed guide for how to use these practices and teach them to others. Written by leading scholars and master teachers, this book outlines, reviews, and discusses best practices for becoming an effective undergraduate teacher. Aimed at the professional development of professors and graduate students, this text provides full coverage of those topics central to effective teaching practices such as developing a teaching philosophy, becoming an ethical teacher, and fostering active learning in the classroom.
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Background/Context Earlier research on various forms of distance learning concluded that these technologies do not differ significantly from regular classroom instruction in terms of learning outcomes. Now that web-based learning has emerged as a major trend in both K–12 and higher education, the relative efficacy of online and face-to-face instruction needs to be revisited. The increased capabilities of web-based applications and collaboration technologies and the rise of blended learning models combining web-based and face-to-face classroom instruction have raised expectations for the effectiveness of online learning. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study This meta-analysis was designed to produce a statistical synthesis of studies contrasting learning outcomes for either fully online or blended learning conditions with those of face-to-face classroom instruction. Population/Participants/Subjects The types of learners in the meta-analysis studies were about evenly split between students in college or earlier years of education and learners in graduate programs or professional training. The average learner age in a study ranged from 13 to 44. Intervention/Program/Practice The meta-analysis was conducted on 50 effects found in 45 studies contrasting a fully or partially online condition with a fully face-to-face instructional condition. Length of instruction varied across studies and exceeded one month in the majority of them. Research Design The meta-analysis corpus consisted of (1) experimental studies using random assignment and (2) quasi-experiments with statistical control for preexisting group differences. An effect size was calculated or estimated for each contrast, and average effect sizes were computed for fully online learning and for blended learning. A coding scheme was applied to classify each study in terms of a set of conditions, practices, and methodological variables. Findings/Results The meta-analysis found that, on average, students in online learning conditions performed modestly better than those receiving face-to-face instruction. The advantage over face-to-face classes was significant in those studies contrasting blended learning with traditional face-to-face instruction but not in those studies contrasting purely online with face-to-face conditions. Conclusions/Recommendations Studies using blended learning also tended to involve additional learning time, instructional resources, and course elements that encourage interactions among learners. This confounding leaves open the possibility that one or all of these other practice variables contributed to the particularly positive outcomes for blended learning. Further research and development on different blended learning models is warranted. Experimental research testing design principles for blending online and face-to-face instruction for different kinds of learners is needed.
Article
A meta-analytic review of the relationship between control expectancies and academic achievement was conducted for studies published between 1983 and 1994. The purpose of this investigation was to replicate the results from a meta-analysis completed in 1983 and to use Rotter's (1954) social learning theory to generate predictions regarding the relations between generalized and specific control expectancies and academic achievement. Consistent with the results of Findley and Cooper's (1983) analysis, both generalized and specific control expectancies were related to academic achievement, but in no instance did specific control expectancies predict academic achievement better than generalized control expectancies. The control expectancy-academic achievement relation was not moderated by variables such as gender or type of dependent measure. Age moderated the relationship so that it was significant and similar for elementary- and college-aged individuals but significantly greater for secondary school-aged children. The implications of these findings with regard to the validity of assumptions made by Rotter are discussed.
Book
Education at a Glance 2013: Highlights summarises the OECD’s flagship compendium of education statistics, Education at a Glance. It provides easily accessible data on key topics in education today, including: • Education levels and student numbers: How far have adults studied, and how does early childhood education affect student performance later on? • Higher education and work: How many young people graduate from tertiary education, and how easily do they enter the world of work? • Economic and social benefits of education: How does education affect people’s job prospects, and what is its impact on incomes? • Paying for education: What share of public spending goes on education, and what is the role of private spending? • The school environment: How many hours do teachers work, and how does class size vary? Each indicator is presented on a two-page spread. The left-hand page explains the significance of the indicator, discusses the main findings, examines key trends and provides readers with a roadmap for finding out more in the OECD education databases and in other OECD education publications. The right-hand page contains clearly presented charts and tables, accompanied by dynamic hyperlinks (StatLinks) that direct readers to the corresponding data in Excel™ format.
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This article examines the statistical correction for attenuation and the controversies surrounding the procedure. Although originally developed for test construction purposes, the correction for attenuation is also used in meta-analysis and assessments of validity generalization. Since Spearman's classic article in 1904, correct use and interpretation of the correction for attenuation has been debated. The logic of the double and single correction formulae is discussed as well as the correction producing validity coefficients greater than 1.00. Three types of misapplications and misinterpretations of the correction in published literature are presented. The article concludes with arguments pertaining to the use of the correction formula, and it attempts to sharpen the focus of issues that have led to differences of opinion about its meaning and purpose.
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Hanna Dumont and David Istance set out the reasons why, over recent years, learning has moved increasingly centre stage politically. These include the nature of knowledge economies and societies, the demands of 21st century competences, the ubiquity of ICT, frustration with the lack of success of repeated education reforms and the burgeoning learning research base. They call for harnessing knowledge about learning and applying it more systematically to education. The chapter argues why these developments call for a particular focus on innovative "micro" arrangements – "learning environments" – which are conceptualised in this OECD work at a level between individual learners and conventional educational parameters. The chapter locates the book as seeking to address the "great disconnect" (as it has been called) between research, on the one hand, and policy and practice, on the other.
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There are 2 families of statistical procedures in meta-analysis: fixed- and random-effects procedures. They were developed for somewhat different inference goals: making inferences about the effect parameters in the studies that have been observed versus making inferences about the distribution of effect parameters in a population of studies from a random sample of studies. The authors evaluate the performance of confidence intervals and hypothesis tests when each type of statistical procedure is used for each type of inference and confirm that each procedure is best for making the kind of inference for which it was designed. Conditionally random-effects procedures (a hybrid type) are shown to have properties in between those of fixed- and random-effects procedures.
Chapter
In any meta-analysis, we start with summary data from each study and use it to compute an effect size for the study. An effect size is a number that reflects the magnitude of the relationship between two variables. For example, if a study reports the mean and standard deviation for the treated and control groups, we might compute the standardized mean difference between groups. Or, if a study reports events and nonevents in two groups we might compute an odds ratio. It is these effect sizes that are then compared and combined in the meta-analysis. Consider figure 12.1, the forest plot of a fictional metaanalysis to assess the impact of an intervention. In this plot, each study is represented by a square, bounded on either side by a confidence interval. The location of each square on the horizontal axis represents the effect size for that study. The confidence interval represents the precision with which the effect size has been estimated, and the size of each square is proportional to the weight that will be assigned to the study when computing the combined effect. This figure also serves as the outline for this chapter, in which I discuss what these items mean and how they are computed. This chapter addresses effect sizes for continuous outcomes such as means and correlations (for effect sizes for binary outcomes, see chapter 13, this volume).
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In this article, the authors examined the evidence for linkages among 3 variables: schooling, intelligence, and income. They concluded that intelligence and schooling have a bidirectional relationship, with each variable influencing variations in the other. Moreover, changes in both schooling and intelligence influence variations in economic outcomes. Although any single study of the interdependency of these 3 variables can be criticized on the grounds that the data are correlational - and consequently are open to alternative interpretations - when viewed together, the evidence for their linked causality is quite convincing: Each increment in school attendance appears to convey significant increases not only in economic and social returns but also in psychometric intelligence. Thus, the value of schooling appears to extend beyond simply schooling's direct effect on income.
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Testing aids, including student-prepared testing aids (a.k.a., cheat sheets or crib notes) and open-textbook exams, are common practice in post-secondary assessment. There is a considerable amount of published research that discusses and investigates the impact of these testing aids. However, the findings of this research are contradictory and inconclusive. The current meta-analytic investigation provides a general measure of the impact of both student-prepared testing aids and the use of open-textbook exams on student exam performance in post-secondary education, while examining variables that may moderate the effects of testing aids on student exam performance. The results indicate that, overall, testing aids can produce a moderate impact on student exam performance, with student-prepared testing aids associated with a larger effect (d=.402) relative to open-textbook exams (d = 0.257). The results are discussed in terms of their implications for college course instructors and for informing the broader debate about the role of testing aids in long-term student learning and mastery of course material.
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Literature on feedback in the fields of education, psychology, and organizational behavior was reviewed and analyzed in order to determine effective practice. Thirty-two effective practices were uncovered in the literature; three additional practices are offered from the author's experience as a practitioner.
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Although numerous studies have examined the relationship between communication apprehension (CA) and cognitive performance (e.g., IQ grade point averages, course grades, assignment grades, and test scores), the findings are equivocal. One area of findings suggests that students in the traditional educational environment experiencing high CA are at a distinct disadvantage when compared to their low or moderate counterparts. A second area of findings suggests that no significant relationship exists. A third area indicates that the nature of the instructional environment is a significant mediating variable that moderates the effects of CA on cognitive performance. In the present study, a meta‐analysis was conducted of 23 manuscripts containing information on 30 experiments that examined CA and cognitive performance. Results confirmed a statistically significant negative correlation between CA and cognitive performance. Implications for future research and classroom instruction are discussed.