ArticleLiterature Review

Variables Associated With Achievement in Higher Education: A Systematic Review of Meta-Analyses

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

The last two decades witnessed a surge in empirical studies on the variables associated with achievement in higher education. A number of meta-analyses synthesized these findings. In our systematic literature review, we included 38 meta-analyses investigating 105 correlates of achievement, based on 3,330 effect sizes from almost 2 million students. We provide a list of the 105 variables, ordered by the effect size, and summary statistics for central research topics. The results highlight the close relation between social interaction in courses and achievement. Achievement is also strongly associated with the stimulation of meaningful learning by presenting information in a clear way, relating it to the students, and using conceptually demanding learning tasks. Instruction and communication technology has comparably weak effect sizes, which did not increase over time. Strong moderator effects are found for almost all instructional methods, indicating that how a method is implemented in detail strongly affects achievement. Teachers with high-achieving students invest time and effort in designing the microstructure of their courses, establish clear learning goals, and employ feedback practices. This emphasizes the importance of teacher training in higher education. Students with high achievement are characterized by high self-efficacy, high prior achievement and intelligence, conscientiousness, and the goal-directed use of learning strategies. Barring the paucity of controlled experiments and the lack of meta-analyses on recent educational innovations, the variables associated with achievement in higher education are generally well investigated and well understood. By using these findings, teachers, university administrators, and policymakers can increase the effectivity of higher education.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Systematic reviews of meta-analyses can help to merge the traditions within one research field (see Alexander, 2020, andPreckel, 2017, for a discussion of this method). What can systematic reviews of meta-analyses contribute to the existing meta-analytic research? ...
... Second, systematic reviews can support the results of meta-analyses by calculating mean effect sizes and conducting heterogeneity analyses. Confirming meta-analytic results is especially important, as meta-analyses are very influential in the research community (Alexander, 2020; see also Schneider & Preckel, 2017). Third, systematic reviews help researchers to find relevant literature and to identify critical questions and suitable methods for future studies. ...
... We consider important variables described in models of academic motivation as described above, and we differentiate between variables that focused on student and instructional variables. On the basis of our literature search, we listed every variable related to motivation in the metaanalyses and then organized them into the two areas of student and instruction (from Schneider & Preckel, 2017). Distinguishing between student and instructional variables is an established heuristic and is useful when categorizing studies in summative reviews of meta-analyses (Schneider & Preckel, 2017). ...
Article
Academic motivation is an essential predictor of school success in K 12 education. Accordingly, many meta-analyses have examined variables associated with academic motivation. However, a central question remains unanswered: What is the relative strength of the relations of both student variables (achievement, socioemotional variables, and background variables) and instructional variables (teacher variables, interventions, and technology) to academic motivation? To address this question, we conducted a systematic review of meta-analyses of constructs that focus on the question “Do I want to do this activity and why?” We included 125 first-order meta-analyses published before January 2021, with 487 first-order effect sizes, that investigated variables associated with academic motivation in K 12 education and were based on more than 8,839 primary studies and comprised almost 25 million students. We computed second-order standardized mean differences (SMD) using a two-level meta-analysis with robust variance estimation, considering moderators and including the methodological qualities and publication status of the meta-analyses. Our results showed that student variables (SMD = 0.39) and instructional variables (SMD = 0.43) had medium and similar second-order effect sizes. Of the student variables, socioemotional variables (SMD = 0.52) and achievement (SMD = 0.46) were more important than background variables (SMD = 0.19). Of the instructional variables, teacher variables (SMD = 0.61) were more important than interventions (SMD = 0.36) and technology (SMD = 0.35). Overall, the results provide the field with a clearer depiction of which student and instructional variables relate most closely to students’ academic motivation and thus have implications for the design of future interventions to foster students’ academic motivation in school.
... Despite ongoing discussions on the merits and demerits of research in this field, it is remarkable how research activities and applied methodologies have developed over the last few decades (Hedges, 2018). For example, recent years have witnessed a surge of empirical studies on teaching and its associations with learning (Seidel and Shavelson, 2007;Schneider and Preckel, 2017). Simultaneously, there is a greater demand from policymakers that educational policy and practice must be guided by evidence of effectiveness (e.g., No Child Left Behind Act, 2002;Every Student Succeeds Act, 2015). ...
... With this systematic review of meta-analyses, we aim to make a valuable contribution toward creating an evidence-base in a particular field of educational practice. While recent systematic reviews of meta-analytic research provide broad and inclusive summaries (e.g., Hattie, 2009;Schneider and Preckel, 2017), this review seeks to harness the power of focus with regard to the scope and content of analysis. In order to match the level of specificity of educational goals and standards that are both domain and schooling-level specific, we seek to develop an evidence base on effective teaching strategies in mathematics and science subjects for secondary student populations. ...
... This simultaneous variation on several parameters, particularly in research methodology (e.g., sampling, group assignment, comparison condition, outcome measure, effect size calculation, etc.), complicates comparing and contrasting results across different meta-analyses. The resulting complexity of effect size comparisons, highlighted in the literature (see e.g., Coe, 2002;Hill et al., 2008;Ferguson, 2009;Dunlosky et al., 2013;Belland et al., 2017;Schneider and Preckel, 2017;Simpson, 2018), does not favor rank-ordering effect sizes on a single scale in terms of their magnitude. Thus, instead of providing rank orders, we categorized all aggregated effect sizes into coherent categories with regard to meta-analytic design, teaching strategies, and learning outcomes (see Table 2). ...
Article
Full-text available
The call for evidence-based practice in education emphasizes the need for research to provide evidence for particular fields of educational practice. With this systematic literature review we summarize and analyze aggregated effectiveness information from 41 meta-analyses published between 2004 and 2019 to inform evidence-based practice in a particular field. In line with target specifications in education that are provided for a certain school subject and educational level, we developed and adopted a selection heuristic for filtering aggregated effect sizes specific to both science and mathematics education and the secondary student population. The results include 78 context-specific aggregated effect sizes based on data from over one million students. The findings encompass a multitude of different teaching strategies, most of which offer a measurable advantage to alternatives. Findings demonstrate that context-specific effect size information may often differ from more general effect size information on teaching effectiveness and adherence to quality standards varies in sampled meta-analyses. Thus, although meta-analytic research has strongly developed over the last few years, providing context-specific and high-quality evidence still needs to be a focus in the field of secondary mathematics and science teaching and beyond.
... Similarly, other researchers have explored how learners can modify their behavior in order to improve their outcomes; for example, Zimmerman and Risemberg (2008) enumerated six areas under the control of students: motivation, methods of learning, use of time, their physical and social environments, and performance. Similarly, Schneider and Preckel's (2017) review of 38 previous meta-analyses of studies (including data from nearly two million students) found that high-achieving learners were most likely to have been involved in 1) courses for which instructors had spent considerable effort and time designing microstructures, 2) learning environments with clear learning goals, and 3) courses in which instructors employed consistent feedback practices through formative-assessment activities. The six areas which Zimmerman and Risemberg (2008) discussed may be intentionally crosswalked with the findings from Schneider and Preckel (2017); both curriculum developers and instructors may benefit from such exercises. ...
... Similarly, Schneider and Preckel's (2017) review of 38 previous meta-analyses of studies (including data from nearly two million students) found that high-achieving learners were most likely to have been involved in 1) courses for which instructors had spent considerable effort and time designing microstructures, 2) learning environments with clear learning goals, and 3) courses in which instructors employed consistent feedback practices through formative-assessment activities. The six areas which Zimmerman and Risemberg (2008) discussed may be intentionally crosswalked with the findings from Schneider and Preckel (2017); both curriculum developers and instructors may benefit from such exercises. ...
... We synthesized Zimmerman and Risemberg's (2008) and Schneider and Preckel's (2017) findings with those from an earlier research project (Nix et al., 2015), which demonstrated that weekly formativeassessment activities, in the form of online muddiest point responses, were linked with shared regulation of learning. That study found that adult GED-earners with at-risk characteristics who were admitted to a transition-to-college program were impacted the most by involvement in collaborativelearning groups of 3-5 people, wherein group facilitators used muddiest-point 4 data to guide subsequent learning sessions. ...
Article
Full-text available
Course assessment is traditionally a one-way process, where instructors evaluate pupils’ progress toward mastery. Done conscientiously, this sort of feedback can be effective but relies upon an individual student’s ability to self-regulate, which is predicated upon their ability to manage their environment and incorporate evaluations into their work. Co-regulated learning is a relatively new idea, wherein students evaluate themselves and each other, which helps the learners not only improve their own work, but absorb the underlying rationale of the lessons as well. One underexplored area is whether a co-regulated environment in which the learners are also expected to evaluate the instructor can lead to better outcomes. The authors designed doctoral-level online courses with the explicit intent of using student feedback to improve the curricula, and this study demonstrates that incorporating those assessments seemed to markedly improve enrollees’ ratings of course-design elements and their mastery of the subject matter.
... Besides the methodological arguments of Edwards (1993), ASA theory also indicates that persons are selected (or retained) into an environment based on perceived fit. As academic achievement already functions as the selection criterion in higher education towards degree attainment (Schneider & Preckel, 2017), academic achievement is not only a methodologically valid criterion choice for PE interest fit but also a theoretically valid one. ...
... To assess the explanative power of polynomial regression towards academic achievement, we have controlled for the effects of prior achievement, as prior achievement is arguably considered as the best predictor towards future achievement (Schneider & Preckel, 2017). Students thus self-reported their global result in the final year of secondary education (GRSE) through a score ranging from 1 to 100. ...
... For H3, this GPA regression is also used to test if RIF has a larger effect on academic achievement than correlation fit and ED. GRSE is included as a control variable that also functions as a benchmark for the predictive power of PE interest fit towards academic achievement (Schelfhout et al., 2022;Schneider & Preckel, 2017). For H4, we have examined multicollinearity in all polynomial regressions, by making use of the variance inflation factor (VIF) and the condition index (CI). ...
Article
Polynomial regression is a proven method to calculate person-environment (PE) interest fit between the RIASEC (realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising and conventional) interests of a student and the RIASEC profile of a study program. The method has shown much larger effects of PE interest fit on academic achievement than earlier approaches in literature. However, the polynomial regression method in its current form only focuses on establishing the regressed interest fit (RIF) of a population of students with their study environments, in order to observe how large the general impact of PE interest fit can become on academic achievement. The present study (N = 4407 across n = 22 study programs) further validates this method towards new applications by theoretically deriving two measures of RIF that only affect a single environment like a study program. Analyses show that the use of RIF for a single study environment results in an even stronger positive relation between PE interest fit and academic achievement of r = 0.36, compared to r = 0.25 for the original polynomial regression method. Analyses also show that RIF for one environment can be used to generate interpretable and reliable RIASEC environment profiles. In sum, RIF for a single (study) environment is a promising operationalization of PE interest fit which facilitate both empirical research as well as the practical application of interest fit in counseling settings.
... Auch in diesen Fällen können verbindliche Strukturen, wie etwa der regelmäßige Besuch einer Veranstaltung, helfen, das Studium erfolgreich abzuschließen. Weiterhin deuten Metaanalysen darauf hin, dass die digitale Lehre trotz der Potenziale, die in ihr liegen, keineswegs von allein positive Wirkung entfaltet (Schneider & Preckel, 2017). Ein Schlüssel erfolgreicher Lehre scheint in der Interaktion zwischen den beteiligten Personen zu liegen (Schneider & Preckel, 2017;Schulmeister, 2012). ...
... Weiterhin deuten Metaanalysen darauf hin, dass die digitale Lehre trotz der Potenziale, die in ihr liegen, keineswegs von allein positive Wirkung entfaltet (Schneider & Preckel, 2017). Ein Schlüssel erfolgreicher Lehre scheint in der Interaktion zwischen den beteiligten Personen zu liegen (Schneider & Preckel, 2017;Schulmeister, 2012). Die Interaktion hilft beispielsweise dabei, Schwächen im didaktischen Konzept zu erkennen und abzustellen. ...
... Die Interaktion hilft beispielsweise dabei, Schwächen im didaktischen Konzept zu erkennen und abzustellen. Direktes Nachfragen, Feedback und Erklärungen der Dozent*innen helfen den Student*innen den Lehrstoff besser zu verstehen (Schneider & Preckel, 2017;Schulmeister, 2012). Dies gilt gleichermaßen für die Präsenzlehre wie für die synchrone Digitallehre. ...
Article
Befragt wurden 669 Dozent*innen und 279 Student*innen zu ihrem Erleben der Hochschullehre in Zeiten der Corona-Pandemie im Sommersemester 2020. Die Ergebnisse zeigen in beiden Gruppen, dass die Präsenz-lehre mit einer höheren Zufriedenheit einhergeht und die Befragten auch nach der Pandemie mehrheitlich eine Rückkehr zur Präsenzlehre präferieren. Unter Dozent*innen sind diese Präferenzen stärker ausgeprägt als unter Student*innen. In Zeiten der Pandemie präferieren beide Gruppen die digitale Lehre. Im Bereich der digitalen Lehre sind Formate, in denen Dozent*innen und Student*innen zeitgleich miteinander interagie-ren (synchrone Lehre), gegenüber Formaten, in denen dies nicht möglich ist (asynchrone Lehre), in beiden Gruppen mit größerer Zufriedenheit assoziiert. Die Vorerfahrung der Befragten mit digitaler Lehre sowie die Informationspolitik der Hochschule im Sommersemester 2020 nehmen positiv Einfluss auf das Erleben sowie die Präferenzen für digitale Lehre. Hingegen wirkt sich in beiden Gruppen der im Corona-Semester zu ver-zeichnende Workload negativ aus. 669 lecturers and 279 students were interviewed about their experience of university teaching during the corona pandemic in the summer semester 2020. The results show in both groups that face-to-face teaching is associated with higher satisfaction and that the majority of those interviewed prefer a return to face-to-face teaching after the pandemic. These preferences are more pronounced among lecturers than among students. In times of the pandemic, both groups prefer digital teaching. In the field of digital teaching, formats in which lecturers and students interact with each other simultaneously (synchronous teaching) are associated with greater satisfaction in both groups than formats in which this is not possible (asynchronous teaching). The respondents' previous experience with digital teaching and the university's information policy in the summer semester 2020 have a positive influence on their experience and preferences for digital teaching. In contrast, the workload recorded in the Corona semester has a negative effect in both groups.
... In recent years we have witnessed a growing body of knowledge on the prediction of study success in its various operationalisations. In recent years the resulting literature has been aggregated and summarised in meta- (Richardson, 2012;Robbins et al., 2004) and even meta-meta analyses (Schneider & Preckel, 2017). ...
... From a theoretical point of view and based on previous findings (Richardson, 2012;Robbins et al., 2004;Schneider & Preckel, 2017), we consider the first one as fulfilled because higher levels of freshmen selfefficacy could well be associated with higher levels of study satisfaction as well as higher GPA, but with lower levels of dropout intentions. In addition, the visual inspections of Figure 3 (standardised predictor on the x-axis and the criterion variables on the respective y-axis) underpin this. ...
Chapter
Students are often assumed to be "digital natives", i.e., to be competent in the use of digital technologies. However, observations in the teaching context show that students do not (or cannot) necessarily transfer skills acquired in their leisure time to the study context. In order to provide concepts for developing appropriate teaching/learning quality and for the efficient use of corresponding technologies, a valid database is required to document students' digital competences. We therefore refer to the European Reference Framework DigComp2.1 as a conceptual basis as well as selected results from surveys of several large universities in Germany. These conceptualise a new self-report questionnaire to assess digital competences. In this chapter, we first address the question: How precisely can we assess digital competences? Second, we stress the significance of digital competences in the first year of higher education under pandemic conditions. While it has been widely proven that self-efficacy is a good predictor of study success, satisfaction and dropout intentions, this paper attempts to examine the extent to which digital competences mediate this relationship when students experience their first year in higher education only in a virtual environment. For this purpose, we conducted an additional longitudinal study spanning the whole first year in higher education. Ultimately, a valid recording of digital competences serves as the basis for quality-enhancing concepts for higher education teaching to coordinate the sensible use of digital teaching/learning technologies with existing competences or to promote the acquisition of missing competences.
... Creative self-efficacy (CSE) is defined as 'one's perceived ability to create novel and useful ideas and/or products', 5 and is positively associated with achievement in higher education. 6 CSE differs fundamentally from creativity in that it is the perception of one's creativity, and is thus dependant on a student's beliefs about their ability to achieve mastery of their academic activities. Demonstrating creativity requires the production of novel ideas/products, which is challenging to assess objectively, as it must be judged by peers, or against that of peers. ...
... The social interaction element of the intervention aimed to create an environment where students were inspired to act on their strengthening perception of CSE, and because social interactions promote academic achievement. 6 The 'low evaluative' context and controllability engendered by the intervention are associated with lower stress and more effective creative performance than highly evaluative and uncontrollable creative environments. 15 ...
Article
Full-text available
Biochemistry graduates need to be creative, however assessing creativity requires the production of novelty, judged by or against that of peers. A related phenomenon is ‘creative self‐efficacy’ (CSE) – one's self‐belief in producing creative outcomes. CSE is a contributor to creativity, but is more easily assessed, and thus more amenable for targeting pedagogically. To investigate interactions between student CSE and the learning environment, a biochemistry laboratory exercise was deployed within a ‘creative’ module, wherein students created their own experimental protocols. Students completed questionnaires at the beginning and end of the module. Compared to ‘control’ modules lacking overtly creative activities, the creative module significantly increased students' perceptions of their own creativity and whether their studies had increased their creativity. Students' confidence in meeting degree learning outcomes (for instance the ability to work productively in a laboratory), and motivation to study, were also significantly increased. Marks attained from the creative exercise correlated with students' CSE, but surprisingly, students' expected marks correlated negatively with their CSE, implying they had a poor understanding of the relationship between creativity and success. Our results suggest that the learning environment can positively affect students' CSE, promoting academic attainment of learning outcomes, motivation, and their confidence as biochemists.
... Research on beliefs about self is often based on the construct of self-efficacy, according to Bandura [30]. In this theory, a teacher's self-efficacy is his/her own belief about the individual "ability to plan and execute the skills necessary to produce a certain behavior" ( [31], p. 591). ...
... This result was expected. However, this result is of importance since research showed that self-efficacy was found to be a main affective predictor for academic success [31]. ...
Article
Full-text available
In classrooms today, teachers are asked to support their teaching with digital tools. For this purpose, teachers require not only technological knowledge but also corresponding beliefs about the advantages of digital tools. The development of those beliefs should already be em-bedded in the university education of teachers. To this end, we developed a university seminar aimed at fostering prospective teachers’ confidence in the utility of digital tools, using the digital tool STACK as an example. The seminar is based on learning mathematics with the digital tool STACK, independently designing digital tasks with said tool, and finally, reflecting on a teach-ing experiment with school students using STACK. To make the development of prospective teachers’ beliefs visible throughout the seminar, we worked with different qualitative methods. The results of this case study show that there are four developmental phases of prospective teachers’ beliefs which include an initial situation, a purely positive phase, a disillusionment, and a phase of differentiated beliefs. It becomes apparent that it is possible to develop prospec-tive teachers’ beliefs about digital tools in a positive way.
... 1.2 | Undergraduate academic indicators 1.2.1 | Undergraduate GPA (UGPA) Theory suggests that prior study success plays a pivotal role in determining future study success (Galla et al., 2019;Schneider & Preckel, 2017). Prior grades (e.g., UGPA) have especially been shown as good determinants of subsequent study success (its various dimensions). ...
... However, it does align with our Hypothesis 2 and corroborates the meta-analytical findings which show that prior achievement (in this case, performance on a research-related task such as undergraduate thesis) is one of the best predictors of future achievement (Richardson et al., 2012;Schneider & Preckel, 2017). We consider that it could be beneficial to explore this operationalization further, especially as it allows us to place students on one metric, at least those who come from the same prior HEI. ...
Article
Full-text available
In the face of increasing and diversifying graduate application numbers, evidence‐based selective admissions have become a pressing issue. By conducting multilevel regression analyses on institutional admissions data from a Dutch university, this study aims to determine the predictive value of undergraduate academic indicators for graduate study success on research masters’ programs in the life sciences. The results imply that in addition to undergraduate grade point average, undergraduate thesis grade is a valid predictor of graduate grade point average. To a small extent, the examined undergraduate academic indicators also predict graduate degree completion and time to degree. The results from this study can be used by admissions committees for evaluating and improving their current practices of graduate selective admissions. There is substantial scientific evidence that undergraduate grade point average (UGPA) is a valid predictor of certain dimensions of graduate study success. This paper adds to this evidence by showing that undergraduate thesis grade is also a valid predictor of graduate grade point average (GGPA). The predictive power of the type of prior higher education institution for the examined dimensions of graduate study success is small at best. Undergraduate academic indicators are better predictors of GGPA than of graduate degree completion or time to degree. The results of this study can be used for improving admissions decision‐making at graduate schools, especially ones with a research‐oriented curriculum. There is substantial scientific evidence that undergraduate grade point average (UGPA) is a valid predictor of certain dimensions of graduate study success. This paper adds to this evidence by showing that undergraduate thesis grade is also a valid predictor of graduate grade point average (GGPA). The predictive power of the type of prior higher education institution for the examined dimensions of graduate study success is small at best. Undergraduate academic indicators are better predictors of GGPA than of graduate degree completion or time to degree. The results of this study can be used for improving admissions decision‐making at graduate schools, especially ones with a research‐oriented curriculum.
... According to Social Cognitive Theory, self-efficacy impacts "how much effort will be expended, and how long it will be sustained in the face of obstacles and aversive experiences" (Bandura, 1977, p. 191). Thus, the constructs of buoyancy and self-efficacy show conceptual overlap (Smith, 2020) and academic self-efficacy has as well been shown to be a significant predictor of achievement (Schneider & Preckel, 2017). Therefore, we assume that selfefficacy could play an essential role in the relation between academic buoyancy and achievement and will investigate its indirect effect in this relationship. ...
... In addition to correlative effects, the prediction of performance by self-efficacy has also been investigated and confirmed by many studies (Özkal, 2019;Phan, 2012;Pietsch et al., 2003). In a meta-analysis examining 105 factors influencing academic performance, self-efficacy emerged as the second strongest predictor (Schneider & Preckel, 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Academic buoyancy describes the ability to successfully overcome and recover from setbacks in an academic context (e.g., a poor grade, motivational dips, stress due to upcoming performance exams). This day-to-day form of academic resilience has recently been defined in the context of positive psychology. The present study aimed to gain insights into the mechanisms of academic buoyancy by predicting math achievement. Since there is already evidence that this relationship is rather indirect than direct, we were particularly interested in investigating a potential actor of an indirect effect, namely academic self- efficacy. For this purpose, n = 974 students at eleven secondary schools in southwestern Germany were surveyed through a questionnaire. The data were analyzed using a latent variable approach. The results of the study show that academic buoyancy is a significant predictor of math achievement and that this relation is explained through academic self-efficacy, even when controlling for gender. Implications for practice and further research are also discussed.
... A systematic literature review analyzing achievement in higher education highlighted the close relation between current performance and students' characteristics, as high selfefficacy, intelligence, conscientiousness, and high prior achievement, social interaction in courses, instructional methods and learning strategies [49]. Underprepared students are more likely to drop out of college and have lower GPA compared to their more prepared peers [50]. ...
... The cited meta-analysis mentions EI as a weak predictor of academic performance in the science field; here, the cognitive ability is found to be an important predictor of academic performance [21]. ECTS/performance are associated in our study with engagement as other studies suggested [35] and with high prior achievement (GPA admission) [49] and expected GPA. ...
Article
Full-text available
Academic success is conceptualized as a multifactor model, achievement and persistence after the first year of study being considered the main learning outcomes. In this area, the findings are inconsistent, depending on the academic context, individual characteristics and diversity of psychological measures. Here, we conducted two related correlational studies to analyze variables of the emotional domain, as emotional intelligence (2017–2019), emotions, well-being and resilience (2018–2020), dropout intention, perceived barriers to completion at the beginning of first years of study in forestry, academic performance and real dropout at the end of the first year of study and several socio-demographic variables. The two studies focused on undergraduate students and included 367 and 227 participants, respectively. Forestry students with higher academic performance report higher accomplishment and engagement and feel weak negative emotions concerning aversive academic assessment compared with students with lower academic performance and students that abandoned their studies. Female students and students with full ECTS load at the end of the first year use their emotions more effectively, have reported lower dropout intention and lower perception of barriers to completion of study, and have higher GPA admission and expected GPA. Performance at the end of the first year is explained by GPA admission, relationships with high school teachers, expected GPA, gender, and academic resilience. Dropout intention is explained by barriers to completion of studies, general negative emotions and negative affect related to threatened assessment situations, and managing others’ emotions. Our findings may help develop intervention measures at the individual and organizational level.
... From a student's perspective, attrition can be seen as a manifestation of a flaw in motivation. According to results of multiple meta-analyses and reviews (e.g., Robbins et al., 2004;Richardson et al., 2012;Schneider and Preckel, 2017), academic self-efficacy shows the strongest relationship with both academic performance 2 and persistence. Also, indirect evidence shows that self-efficacy might be related to both dropping and transferring out behaviors. ...
... According to the Social Cognitive Theory, self-efficacy beliefs influence which course of action a person takes, the amount of effort devoted to a task, resilience, and perseverance in the face of obstacles (Bandura, 1986(Bandura, , 1997. Unsurprisingly, empirical evidence shows a medium-strong relationship between self-efficacy and academic performance (e.g., Robbins et al., 2004;Richardson et al., 2012;Schneider and Preckel, 2017). However, as discussed, performance comes up to be a non-significant determinant of transferring out while it does predict drop-out behaviors. ...
Article
Full-text available
Why do students leave universities? The current study addresses the problem of academic attrition from the perspective of students’ intentions. Specifically, we focus on the roles of academic self-efficacy and procrastination in exploring their relationships with attrition intentions. Based on existing research, we expected a negative relationship between academic self-efficacy and attrition intentions, with procrastination as a possible mediator. Furthermore, it was expected that this relationship would differ depending on the type of attrition (i.e., drop-out, transfer university, transfer study field). These hypotheses were investigated among Norwegian students in a questionnaire study ( N = 693). Results showed that procrastination partially mediated the relationship between academic self-efficacy and three attrition intentions categories. Although procrastination was a significant mediator of self-efficacy for all types of intentions, the sizes of the direct and indirect effects were different. We conclude that academic procrastination is important in understanding the relationship between students’ self-efficacy beliefs and attrition intentions.
... Students who are better able to self-regulate their learning tend to earn higher grades [27,28]. This finding was established well before the introduction of the smartphone. ...
Article
The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationships between self-regulated learning skills and smartphone usage in relation to studying. It is unclear whether poor learning habits related to smartphone usage are unique traits or a reflection of existing self-regulated learning skills. The self-regulatory skills (a) regulation, (b) knowledge, and (c) management of cognition were measured and compared to the smartphone practices (a) multitasking, (b) avoiding distractions, and (c) mindful use. First-year undergraduates (n = 227) completed an online survey of self-regulatory skills and common phone practices. The results support the predictions that self-regulatory skills are negatively correlated with multitasking while studying and are positively correlated with distraction avoidance and mindful use of the phone. The management of cognition factor, which includes effort, time, and planning, was strongly correlated with multitasking (r = −0.20) and avoiding distractions (r = 0.45). Regulation of cognition was strongly correlated with mindful use (r = 0.33). These results support the need to consider the relationship between self-regulation and smartphone use as it relates to learning.
... Wenn in Veranstaltungsbeurteilungen nach dem Lernergebnis oder dem Kompetenzzuwachs gefragt wird, zeigt sich eine positive Wirkung von studierendenzentrierten Ansätzen auf den wahrgenommenen Kom petenzzuwachs (Braun & Hannover, 2009). Eine Auswertung von 38 internationalen Metaanalysen (systematic review) zum Zusammenhang von Merkmalen der Hochschul lehre und Lernergebnissen hat das empirisch klar belegt (Schneider & Preckel, 2017). Danach können bereits kleinere Änderungen in der konkreten Lehrpraxis zu besseren Lernergebnissen beitragen, etwa die Gesprächsführung in Veranstaltungen oder die klare Kommunikation von Lernzielen. ...
... This is unsurprising, as students have routinely considered instructor clarity as the most paramount instructor behavior (Goldman et al., 2017;Knoster et al., 2021;Myers & Stratton, 2021). As multiple meta-analyses compiling decades of clarity research have demonstrated, instructor clarity is one of the strongest predictors of both student affect and learning (Schneider & Preckel, 2017;Titsworth et al., 2015); therefore, a lack of clarity would likely present a major class-related issue for most students, which could then lead to a greater likelihood of dissent. ...
Article
Full-text available
We integrated perspectives from achievement goal theory and expectancy-value theory to investigate how undergraduate students’ (N = 475) achievement motivation might influence their instructional dissent. A latent profile analysis of students’ achievement goals, performance self-efficacy, task value, and perceived cost revealed four distinct subgroups of students characterized by differences in their achievement motivation. Students between these latent profiles differed to some degree in their use of expressive and vengeful dissent but not rhetorical dissent. When examining instructor clarity as a triggering agent of dissent, lack of clarity was positively associated with all three types of instructional dissent; however, auxiliary moderation models revealed that latent profile membership did not moderate these effects. Our results suggest that although instructor clarity has similar effects on students’ instructional dissent—regardless of their latent profile membership—students still experience some differences in instructional dissent which can be explained by their achievement motivation profiles.
... The continuous professional training of university lecturers plays a crucial role in meeting these goals ( Creemers et al. 2013 ;Teräs 2016 ). A critical piece of this professional training is to emphasize student-centered instruction (SCI) in which students are engaged in higher-order tasks and developing ownership over their learning ( Kandlbinder & Peseta 2009 ;Schneider & Preckel 2017 ;Shea et al. 2012 ). Although student-centered teaching has become a widely accepted pedagogical approach throughout the world, however, challenges remain in supporting studentcentered learning, perhaps especially in the global South. ...
... While some studies have encouraged a transition towards student active teaching methods due to their strong relationship to academic achievement and learning quality (Deslauriers et al., 2019;Schneider and Preckel, 2017), other studies have highlighted challenges with such forms of teaching and course design. For instance, it has been noted that teaching and courses building on principles of active engagement have accumulated considerable degrees of student resistance in higher education contexts (Finelli et al., 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Understanding students’ preferences for teaching and course design is important for educators in higher education when planning courses and teaching activities. The purpose of this study was to explore changes in occupational therapy students’ preferences for teaching and courses across the three-year study program. Design/methodology/approach A total of 263 students participated in a longitudinal study, where preferences were measured with the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students. The data were analyzed with linear mixed effect models for repeated measures. Findings The results indicated no significant changes in preferences for courses and teaching over the three-year period. Also, there were no significant differences between the six involved study programs. Preferences for the courses and teaching type “supporting understanding” were associated with higher age and higher study effort. Preferences for the courses and teaching type “transmitting information” were associated with lower age and female gender. Originality/value In summary, the findings of this study suggest that preferences for teaching and courses are stable and may be challenging to alter during a three-year undergraduate study program.
... While some studies have encouraged a transition towards student active teaching methods due to their strong relationship to academic achievement and learning quality (Deslauriers et al., 2019;Schneider and Preckel, 2017), other studies have highlighted challenges with such forms of teaching and course design. For instance, it has been noted that teaching and courses building on principles of active engagement have accumulated considerable degrees of student resistance in higher education contexts (Finelli et al., 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Understanding students' preferences for teaching and course design is important for educators in higher education when planning courses and teaching activities. The purpose of this study was to explore changes in occupational therapy students' preferences for teaching and courses across the three-year study program. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 263 students participated in a longitudinal study, where preferences were measured with the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students. The data were analyzed with linear mixed effect models for repeated measures. Findings: The results indicated no significant changes in preferences for courses and teaching over the three-year period. Also, there were no significant differences between the six involved study programs. Preferences for the courses and teaching type "supporting understanding" were associated with higher age and higher study effort. Preferences for the courses and teaching type "transmitting information" were associated with lower age and female gender. Originality/value: In summary, the findings of this study suggest that preferences for teaching and courses are stable and may be challenging to alter during a three-year undergraduate study program.
... There is today a bulk of evidence regarding the importance of assessment practices on students' performance and learning. In their systematic review of metaanalyses, Schneider and Preckel (2017) concluded that assessment practices have medium to large effects on educational achievement among higher education students. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study explores the effects of the shift to emergency remote teaching on assessment practices due to COVID-19 lockdown. A total of 936 Spanish teachers from all educational levels ranging from early childhood to university participated in this nationwide survey. Four aspects were explored: (1) changes in the use of assessment instruments (e.g. exams); (2) changes in assessment criteria, standards and grading; (3) changes in the delivery of feedback and use of rubrics; and (4) changes in students’ involvement in assessment (i.e. self- and peer assessment). In general, results are mixed, with some areas undergoing certain changes with the aim of adapting to the new situation (e.g. primary education teachers lowering their grading standards), whereas many other assessment practices have remained similar, especially among higher education teachers. Unfortunately, some of the assessment practices have worsened, such as students’ involvement in assessment which has decreased.
... It helps students to understand the effort that is required for effective learning and enables them to structure their learning activities and develop appropriate study habits [5,47,48]. Accordingly, empirical studies frequently demonstrate a significant correlation between students' time management and academic performance [15,16,35,38,39,[49][50][51][52][53][54], as well as well-being factors such as lowered stress and anxiety [15,[55][56][57][58]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Time management is regarded as an important prerequisite for effective and efficient learning in higher education. However, university students’ time management frequently proves to be deficient, especially with freshman students, who can therefore benefit from appropriate time management interventions. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of an intervention focused on imparting time management knowledge with those of an intervention focused on time management practice. We conducted an experiment with N = 118 university students who took part in a course over the duration of one semester. Participants with a time management deficit at the beginning of the semester (n = 88) were randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions: (a) time management knowledge, (b) time management practice, (c) control group. Exam scores at the end of the semester were considered as an indicator of participants’ academic performance. The results showed significant time management improvements for both time management intervention groups, but the time management practice group appeared superior. Academic performance was better in the time management practice group also, although the results were inconsistent. The effect of time management practice on academic performance was mediated by students’ time management skills.
... This cannot be individually evaluated without going into the exploration of contributors to academic achievement (Madigan and Curran, 2021). Several researchers evaluated different indicators and contributors to academic achievement, including grade point averages, class performance, perceptions about evaluation, etc. (Schneider and Preckel, 2017). A lot of other studies revealed the connection between student engagement and academic achievement and also demonstrated that academic achievement is linked to student engagement (Alhadabi and Karpinski, 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
The overarching goal of this study was to look into the effects of academic self-efficacy and academic motivation on student long-term engagement and academic achievement. This study also sought to investigate the role of learning agility as a mediator in the relationship between academic self-efficacy and academic motivation. This study examined the impact of student sustainable engagement on student academic achievement as part of our model. A questionnaire technique was used to collect data from 325 music education students studying at various music training institutions in China. The data were analyzed using the Smart-PLS software and a structural equation modeling (SEM) technique. Academic self-efficacy and academic motivation were found to have a positive and significant relationship with student long-term engagement. The academic motivation was also found to have a positive relationship with student long-term engagement. Furthermore, learning agility was found to mediate the relationship between academic self-efficacy and student sustainable engagement. Furthermore, learning agility mediated the relationship between academic motivation and long-term student engagement. Furthermore, student sustainable engagement has a significant and positive relationship with student academic achievement. This paper made a valuable theoretical contribution by investigating the impact of academic self-efficacy and academic motivation on student sustainable engagement, as well as the impact of student sustainable engagement on student academic achievement. Furthermore, this study added to the body of knowledge by investigating the relationship through the lens of cognitive learning theory. In terms of practical implications, this paper would undoubtedly assist educational institutions in maintaining a fair and just learning environment that encourages students to be engaged and perform well. Future research can include other constructs to gain a better understanding of the factors that influence students’ academic engagement and achievement.
... The female advantage in performance were moderated by country of origin and race. However, as Schneider and Preckel (2017) noted in a large meta-analysis of variables associated with achievement 'Students' strategies are more directly associated with achievement than students' personality or personal context' (595). The authors also note that such demographic factors cannot be altered or acted upon, and therefore, offer little value for intervention. ...
Article
Full-text available
Predictors of student academic success do not always replicate well across different learning designs, subject areas, or educational institutions. This suggests that characteristics of a particular discipline and learning design have to be carefully considered when creating predictive models in order to scale up learning analytics. This study aimed to examine if and to what extent frequently used predictors of study success are portable across a homogenous set of courses. The research was conducted in an integrated blended problem-based curriculum with trace data (n = 2,385 students) from 50 different course offerings across four academic years. We applied the statistical method of single paper meta-analysis to combine correlations of several indicators with students' success. Total activity and the forum indicators exhibited the highest prediction intervals, where the former represented proxies of the overall engagement with online tasks, and the latter with online collaborative learning activities. Indicators of lecture reading (frequency of lecture view) showed statistically insignificant prediction intervals and, therefore, are less likely to be portable across course offerings. The findings show moderate amounts of variability both within iterations of the same course and across courses. The results suggest that the use of the meta-analytic statistical method for the examination of study success indicators across courses with similar learning design and subject area can offer valuable quantitative means for the identification of predictors that reasonably well replicate and consequently can be reliably portable in the future.
... Essentially, then, prior to commencing class, instructors are simultaneously configuring technology and engaging in a variety of pedagogical tasks, as depicted in Figure 3. As noted by Hattie (2012) and Schneider and Preckel (2017), pedagogical tasks such as communicating lesson objectives at the outset of the lesson have been linked to gains in student attainment of course outcomes. In considering the many tasks instructors are engaging in, encompassing both technology and pedagogy, a more complete picture of the instructors' experience prior to class commencing begins to emerge, which may vary depending on whether the instructor has 15 minutes available to prepare for the first class of the day, as depicted below, or seven minutes for classes that immediately follow. ...
... Furthermore, past successes motivate students to work hard in the future (Marsh & Martin, 2011). In Germany, therefore, HEI admission processes have always used school performance as a selection criterion, and students' prior performance has proven to validly predict academic success (Schneider & Preckel, 2017). Individuals with good academic performance are more likely to pursue doctoral studies (de Vogel, 2017) and successfully complete their doctorates (Wright & Cochrane, 2000). ...
Article
Full-text available
In Germany, the final grade of a doctorate is significant for careers inside and outside the academic labor market. Particularly important is the highest grade—summa cum laude. At the same time, doctoral grades are constantly subject to criticism. Thus far, however, neither German nor international studies have examined the determinants of doctoral grades. Drawing on Hu’s model of college grades, this study develops a conceptual framework for explaining doctoral grades and investigates the impact of doctorate holders’, reviewers’, and environmental context characteristics on the probability of doctoral candidates graduating with the highest grade, summa cum laude. Using logistic regression analyses on data from the German PhD Panel Study, the study confirms that high-performing individuals are more likely to achieve the highest doctoral grade. A learning environment that is characterized by supervision security, high expectations to participate in scientific discourse, and strong support in network integration also increases the chances of graduating with a summa cum laude degree. In contrast, being female, having a highly respected reviewer, studying natural sciences, medical studies or engineering, completing an external doctorate, and studying within a learning environment characterized by rigid time constraints are negatively related to the probability of receiving a summa cum laude grade. This study is the first to lend empirical evidence to the critical discussion of doctoral grades and offers insights to ensure the validity of doctoral grades.
... • meta-analytic findings on single predictors of study success (Schneider & Preckel, 2017;Richardson, Abraham & Bond, 2021;Robbins et al., 2004) • Freshmen Self-Efficacy = FSE ...
Presentation
Full-text available
Students are often assumed to be “digital natives”. However, not only the definition of “digital competences” (DC) but also the assessment modes differ in the seminal literature. Research shows that a substantial percentage of students lacks the required competences. To provide appropriate teaching concepts, a valid database is needed. We address that in four steps: First, we present a systematic overview of frameworks and models of DC. Second, we map the landscape of assessments instruments. Third, we report the reliability and construct validity of a self-report questionnaire and a knowledge test administered in surveys among students in Germany (N > 6900). Fourth, to examine the predictive validity, we conducted a longitudinal study among Nstart = 252 freshmen. Besides partially replicating pre-pandemic findings, DC revealed to mediate the effect from self-efficacy on satisfaction. In sum, results underpin the need for a valid assessment of DC as the basis for appropriate teaching.
... In addition to such affective variables, cognitive variables are relevant factors for academic success and related study satisfaction. The high school grade point average (HSGPA) has empirically proven to be one of the best indicators for predicting study 2 -308 PME 45 -2022 success across different study programs (e.g., Richardson et al., 2012;Schneider & Preckel, 2017;Westrick et al., 2021). Mathematical knowledge assessed in entrance tests is found to be an even better predictor of later academic performance in mathematics courses (Eichler & Gradwohl, 2021;Greefrath et al., 2017;Halverscheid & Pustelnik, 2013;Rach & Ufer, 2020). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In light of known challenges in the transition from school to university in mathematics, we investigate differences in the (mathematical) prerequisites of mathematics majors and preservice mathematics teachers. Results show that although there are no significant differences in high school grade point average, mathematical prerequisites of mathematics majors are significantly better than those of preservice mathematics teachers. Differences are higher in conceptual than in procedural knowledge with medium effect sizes between mathematics majors and preservice higher secondary teachers and (very) large effect sizes between mathematics majors and preservice lower secondary or primary school teachers. These results are discussed regarding transition challenges and the fit of prerequisites and chosen study program.
... This may be because HEIs' cultures and practices do not allow having a great concern for students' learning [76,77] or lack the mechanisms and processes to promote students' success [78,79]. SRLSs are generally accepted as playing a relevant role in undergraduate students' success Zimmerman and Schunk [57] because high self-efficacy and the goal-directed use of learning strategies are critical [80]. Hence, applying instructional strategies that promote SRLSs in undergraduate programs would contribute positively to promoting students' learning. ...
Article
Full-text available
Despite increasing focus on the importance of self–regulated learning for undergraduate students in universities in recent years, very little is known about its specific features in universities in developing countries, in general, and Ethiopia, in particular. This study examined the relationships of self-regulated learning strategies (SRLSs) with perceived learning and further assessed the relationships within the SRLS components in Ethiopian public universities. For this, the authors adopted Pintrich’s self-regulation theory as a guiding framework and used structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis. The sample used in the analysis pooled survey data from three randomly selected public universities and included volunteer undergraduate students having a major in Business and Economics and Engineering and Technology fields (n = 1142; male = 700 and female = 442), with mean age = 21.98 and SD = 2.50. The results indicated that the student SRLS and perceived learning gains scores were average values in terms of the magnitude of those measured variables. A two–step hierarchical regression analysis showed that the five components of SRLS that emerged from SEM analysis significantly predicted students’ perceived learning over and above the control variables (ΔR2 ≥ 0.38 and 39%) for the total samples. Moreover, the regression results showed that greater predictions were observed for the help–seeking component (0.35 ≤ β ≥ 0.47) than others, significantly positively predicting the perceived learning for the total samples. Overall, the findings of this study indicate that the SRLSs are relevant mechanisms to aid student success in higher education. The implications of the study are highlighted.
... Kompetenzen zum selbstregulierten Lernen gelten als notwendige Bedingung für die Entwicklung von Fachkompetenzen und den Studienerfolg (z.B. Robbins et al., 2004;Schneider & Preckel, 2017;Streblow & Schiefele, 2006). Gleichzeitig sollen Selbstregulationskompetenzen aber auch während des Studiums weiterentwickelt werden, da sie als Grundlage für lebenslanges Lernen auch das Ergebnis eines erfolgreichen Studiums darstellen (Schober et al., 2013). ...
Book
Full-text available
Self-regulated learning means directing one's own learning toward a self-determined learning goal, selecting appropriate learning strategies, monitoring one's own learning progress during learning, and adjusting strategies as necessary. It also involves mustering and maintaining motivation in the face of adversity and reflecting at the end of the learning process on whether the learning goal was achieved and what actions contributed or hindered it. Competencies for self-regulated learning (SRL) are on the one hand the goal of higher education and the basis of lifelong learning, but on the other hand they are already of great importance during studies: they are a necessary condition for the development of professional competencies and for academic success. This compendium is intended to provide instructors and course directors with a tool to support self-regulated learning, motivation, and motivation regulation in their students. It draws on established theories of self-regulated learning and motivation and presents methods that have been proven in practice.
... Given that the association of previous knowledge/achievement with academic performance is between β = 0.32 and 0.36 (Schneider & Preckel, 2017, p. 26), we decided to take the associations of 0.30 and 0.50 for Introduction to Psychology and Statistics, respectively. This is arguably an underestimate, as our knowledge tests were directly relevant to the academic performance (Bloom, 1976;Dochy et al., 2002), unlike most previous research, which used the measures of previous success as an indicator of knowledge/achievement (Schneider & Preckel, 2017). Similarly, we used specific college courses, instead of the average across a wide range of courses. ...
Article
Full-text available
It is well established that academic performance (AP) depends on a number of factors, such as intellectual capacities, practice, and previous knowledge. We know little about how these factors interact as they are rarely measured simultaneously. Here we present mediated-Factors of Academic Performance (m-FAP) model, which simultaneously assesses direct and indirect, mediated, effects on AP. In a semester-long study with 118 first-year college students, we show that intelligence and working memory only indirectly influenced AP on a familiar, less challenging college course (Introduction to Psychology). Their influence was mediated through previous knowledge and self-regulated learning activities akin to deliberate practice. In a novel and more challenging course (Statistics in Psychology), intellectual capacities influenced performance both directly and indirectly through previous knowledge. The influence of deliberate practice, however, was considerably weaker in the novel course. The amount of time and effort that the students spent on the more difficult course could not offset the advantage of their more intelligent and more knowledgeable peers. The m–FAP model explains previous contradictory results by providing a framework for understanding the extent and limitations of individual factors in AP, which depend not only on each other, but also on the learning context.
... 68 In active learning, the student is engaged in active, meaningful exercises via technological tools that provide cognitive support. 69 It can be noted that assessment practices are about as important as presentation practises, 70 and in this context nbgrader 24 is of particular relevance. This is a tool which facilitates creating and grading assignments (coding or written form) in a Jupyter notebook environment, including auto-grading functionalities as well. ...
Preprint
The eChem project features an e-book published as a web page (https://bit.ly/e-chem), collecting a repository of Jupyter notebooks developed for the dual purpose of explaining and exploring the underlying theory behind computational chemistry in a highly interactive manner as well as providing a tutorial-based presentation of the complex workflows needed to simulate embedded molecular systems of real biochemical and/or technical interest. For students ranging from beginners to advanced users, the eChem book is well suited for self-directed learning, and workshops led by experienced instructors for targeting student bodies with specific needs and interests can readily be formed from its components. The members of the eChem team are engaged in both education and research and as a mirroring activity, we develop the open-source software upon which this e-book is predominantly based. The overreaching vision and goal of our work is to provide a science- and education-enabling software platform for quantum molecular modeling on contemporary and future high-performance computing systems, with the resulting development and workflows now being documented in the eChem book.
Article
This study examined how working memory (WM) and mathematics performance are related among students entering mathematics-intensive undergraduate STEM programs (N = 317). Among students of mechanical engineering and math-physics, we addressed two questions: (1) Do verbal and visuospatial WM differ in their relation with three measures of mathematics performance: numerical reasoning ability, prior knowledge in mathematics, and achievements in mathematics-intensive courses? (2) To what extent are the effects of WM on achievements in mathematics-intensive courses mediated by numerical reasoning ability and prior knowledge in mathematics? A latent correlational analysis revealed that verbal WM was at least as strongly associated with the three mathematics measures as visuospatial WM. A latent mediation model revealed that numerical reasoning fully mediated the effects of WM on achievements in math-intensive courses, both directly and in a doubly mediated effect via prior knowledge in mathematics. We conclude that WM across modalities contributes significantly to mathematics performance of mathematically competent students. The effect of verbal WM emerges as being more pronounced than has been assumed in prior literature.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Digitale Bildung und die damit verbundene Ermöglichung einer selbstbestimmten, aktiven Teilnahme an der digitalen Welt ist nicht erst seit der Corona-Pandemie in aller Munde. Um perspektivisch alle Bürger*innen in diesem Bereich zu bilden, sind Lehrkräfte als Vorbilder und Multiplikatoren unerlässlich (Redecker, 2017). Die internationale Studie ICILS zeigt jedoch, dass die selbstberichtete Nutzung von Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien (IKT) bei Lehrkräften weit hinter dem internationalen Durchschnitt zurückliegt (Eickelmann et al., 2019). Allerdings gibt es kaum Forschungsarbeiten zur Gestaltung digital gestützter Fortbildungen (Lipowsky, 2014). Dazu sollen die folgenden Forschungsfragen beantwortet werden: 1. Welche Vorstellungen, Wünsche und Einstellungen haben Lehrkräfte bezüglich Fortbildungen zum Thema digitale Bildung? 2. Welche Implikationen ergeben sich daraus für die Praxis von Fortbildungen? Um die erste Forschungsfragen zu beantworten, wurden im April und Mai 2020 zehn leitfadengestützte Interviews mit Lehrkräften durchgeführt (Helfferich 2019; Lamnek&Krell 2010). Diese Interviews werden anhand der strukturierten qualitativen Inhaltsanalyse nach Mayring (2016) ausgewertet (Przyborski&Wohlrab-Sahr 2019). Aus den Ergebnissen zur ersten Forschungsfrage und einer Einbettung in den theoretischen Kontext wird dann die zweite Forschungsfrage beantwortet. Erste Ergebnisse zeigen die hohen Wünsche und Erwartungen der Lehrkräfte an die Weiterentwicklung innovativer digital gestützter Angebote. Eines der zentralen Ergebnisse ist, dass sich die befragten Lehrerinnen und Lehrer einen intensiveren Austausch untereinander, die Möglichkeit zur individuellen Bearbeitung von Lerninhalten sowie die Begleitung bei der Integration von IKT im Unterricht. Die inhaltliche Ausrichtung soll dabei das unterschiedliche Vorwissen berücksichtigen, um auch die medienbezogenen Kompetenzen erfahrener Lehrkräfte zu fördern. 10.25656/01:23404
Article
Full-text available
Trotz der hohen Erwartungen, durch Digitalisierung die Teilhabe einer diversen Studierendenschaft an hochschulischer Bildung zu erhöhen, sind die beiden Forschungs-stränge "Diversität" und "Digitalisierung" bislang unverbunden. Im vorliegenden Beitrag werden diese auf theoretischer Ebene in einem Analysemodell zusammen-geführt. Das Modell bildet die Grundlage für eine Sekundäranalyse von Befragungs-daten des DZHW-Online-Access-Panel "HISBUS" (n = 4.375), in der untersucht wird, welche Effekte studentische Diversität einerseits und Charakteristika der Lernumwelt andererseits auf die studienbezogene internationale Mobilität (digitale und tatsächliche) von Studierenden haben. Die Ergebnisse belegen zum Teil deutliche Effekte auf die "internationale Mobilität" entlang sozialer Merkmale der Studierenden (z. B. Gender, nicht-akademisches Elternhaus, Elternschaft) sowie lernumweltlicher Charakteristika (z. B. Hochschultyp, Studienfach, digitalisiertes Lernumfeld).
Chapter
Full-text available
Der Beitrag betrachtet im Sinne von Lessons Learned die Durchführung des Moduls »Grundlagen der Kommunikation, Gesprächsführung und Beratung« im Bachelorstudiengang Soziale Arbeit der Fachhochschule Nordwestschweiz. Nach der Aussetzung des Präsenzunterrichts im Frühling 2020 wurde das Modul mit 200 Studierenden und zehn Dozierenden ab der fünften Einheit im digitalen Setting realisiert. Die Überlegungen zur Gestaltung des Beratungslernens werden am Beispiel von zwei Teilgruppen näher erläutert, die didaktisch verschieden gearbeitet haben. Anschließend werden Potenziale und Herausforderungen des Transfers eines handlungsorientierten Moduls in ein Online-Lernsetting anhand verschiedener Aspekte reflektiert. So möchte der Beitrag Impulse dafür geben, wie didaktisch vielfältiges Beratungslernen auch im digitalen Setting möglich ist und wo Herausforderungen sichtbar werden.
Chapter
Dieser Beitrag beschreibt, dass nicht nur Lehren und Lernen, sondern auch Forschen durch eine „Kultur der Digitalität“ bedingt ist. Mit Rekurs auf das forschende Lernen wird verdeutlicht, wie dann in „digitalitätsbedingte“ Praktiken innerhalb von Universität eingeführt werden kann (und sollte). Dabei wird auf (eigene) Erfahrungswerte aus zwei Modulen der beiden erziehungswissenschaftlichen Studiengänge der FernUniversität in Hagen zurückgegriffen, da hier Fernstudium und Online-Lehre praktisch einhergehen und forschendes Lernen in den betrachten Modulen in, mit und durch digitale Medien erfolgt. Im Folgenden rücken die wissenschaftlichen Praktiken des Organisierens, Recherchierens, Reflektierens und Vernetzens und ihre Verschränkung mit digitalen Medien in den Fokus. Über einzelne Beispiele hinaus lässt sich schließlich festhalten, dass Medien immanenter und konstitutiver Teil von Forschung und Wissenschaft(-spraktiken) sind. Dafür ist eine Reflexion und Rahmung dieser Praktiken als Wissenschafts- und Medienpraktiken sowie ihre Aufnahme in Lehr-Lernveranstaltungen jedoch unerlässlich.
Article
Full-text available
Geringe akademische und soziale Integration sind Risikofaktoren für den Studienerfolg, die u. a. von Persönlichkeitsmerkmalen der Studierenden beeinflusst werden. Diesen wird in Situationen hoher Unsicherheit, wie einem Studium im Ausland, eine besondere Bedeutung zugemessen. Vor diesem Hintergrund wurden in der vorliegenden Studie Zusammenhänge zwischen Big-Five-Persönlichkeitsmerkmalen und Indikatoren sozialer und akademischer Integration an mehr als 2000 internationalen Studierenden im Längsschnitt mittels autoregressiver Mediationsmodelle untersucht. Die Big-Five-Persönlichkeitsdimensionen sagten mit Ausnahme von Offenheit für Erfahrungen und Gewissenhaftigkeit akademische und soziale Integration vorher, während sich die Integrationsmaße über die Zeit nicht wechselseitig beeinflussten. Daraus abzuleitende Implikationen für Hochschulen zur Steigerung der sozialen und akademischen Integration internationaler Studierender werden abschließend diskutiert.
Chapter
Full-text available
Der Beitrag geht anhand einer Befragung von 471 Lehrenden dreier Hochschulen im Sommer 2020 der Frage nach, welche strukturellen, persönlichen und lehrbezogenen Aspekte sich auf das Gelingen digitaler Lehre auswirkten. Es zeigt sich, dass Lehrenden ihre Lehre hinsichtlich der didaktischen Herausforderungen und der Interaktion mit den Studierenden weniger gut gelang, wenn sie vornehmlich vortragsbasierte Lehre anboten und seltener auf lernförderliche digitale Hilfsmittel zurückgriffen. Die Mehrheit der Lehrenden möchte Letzteres zukünftig stärker tun. Die Autor*innen sehen einen Bedarf, diesen Einsatz systematisch hochschuldidaktisch zu begleiten, damit er zum didaktischen Gelingen der Lehre und damit zum besseren Lernen Studierender beitragen kann.
Article
La procrastinación es un déficit motivacional que conduce a dificultades académicas, psicológicas y de salud en el alumnado. Se exploran las experiencias y emociones sobre la procrastinación en alumnado universitario con tres niveles de riesgo académico, y sus posibles implicaciones para la orientación académica en la educación superior. El estudio empleó grupos de discusión y analiza los discursos mediante un procedimiento de categorización progresiva. Participaron 21 universitarios en tres grupos de riesgo académico bajo (7), moderado (8) y alto (6); entre los 17 y 23 años, de cinco titulaciones y de segundo a cuarto curso. Se hallaron fuertes emociones negativas asociadas a la procrastinación y componentes motivacionales, como la falta de interés en las tareas, diferenciadas de acuerdo con el riesgo académico. Se discuten las posibles implicaciones para la orientación pedagógica ofreciendo pautas de cara al tratamiento de la procrastinación desde una perspectiva preventiva. Para ello diferenciamos factores internos del alumnado, tales como capacidad, motivación, organización y gestión el tiempo. Factores externos relativos a las situaciones en los que se desarrolla el aprendizaje, como el tipo y extensión de los trabajos, la generación de un reto óptimo o la hetero-regulación docente recordando el calendario de actividades. Se recomiendan diferentes estrategias de orientación, prestando atención a la interacción entre estudiantes y entre estudiantes y el docente.
Article
Full-text available
A deficiente articulação entre a teoria e a prática na formação inicial de professores constitui a crítica, que, de forma mais recorrente, é abordada na literatura sobre este domínio. No âmbito deste artigo iremos focar a nossa atenção nas abordagens pedagógicas dos formadores de professores. Com efeito, o modo como os futuros professores são ensinados no decurso da sua formação pode desempenhar um papel particularmente relevante na forma como irão assumir posteriormente o seu ofício de docentes. Partindo do conceito de isomorfismo pedagógico, que sustenta que a formação deve assentar nas mesmas estratégias que o docente em formação poderá utilizar futuramente com os seus próprios alunos, descreve-se o funcionamento de uma disciplina, comum a cinco mestrados em ensino da Universidade do Porto, que recorreu à aprendizagem cooperativa como principal modo de trabalho pedagógico, e analisa-se a forma como os estudantes percecionaram essa experiência recorrendo a uma metodologia qualitativa. Os resultados revelaram que a maioria dos estudantes considerou o trabalho de grupo organizado de forma cooperativa uma experiência positiva e que a classificação final obtida foi justa tendo em conta o investimento individual para o esforço coletivo. De igual forma, perspetivaram como viável a aplicação da aprendizagem cooperativa com alunos dos ensinos básico e secundário. Os resultados desta investigação permitem sustentar que a formação inicial de professores deverá privilegiar abordagens pedagógicas que tornem visível a articulação entre determinados quadros conceptuais e a sua aplicação concreta ao nível do ensino como estratégia para aproximar a teoria da prática na formação de docentes.
Article
Online learning has recently replaced traditional offline learning as the mainstream learning model for Chinese college students owing to the COVID‐19 pandemic. This study examined the relationship between online self‐regulated learning and academic procrastination among 1149 Chinese undergraduates who participated in online learning. The effects of online self‐regulated learning on academic procrastination and whether it was mediated by attention control and moderated by peer support were investigated. Mediation analyses revealed that attention control partially mediates online self‐regulated learning and academic procrastination. Peer support moderated the direct effect of online self‐regulated learning and the mediating effect of attention control on academic procrastination. Our findings provide important ways to reduce academic procrastination and mitigate the adverse impacts of online learning. Low online self‐regulated learning predicts higher academic procrastination. Attention control mediates the relationship between online self‐regulated learning and academic procrastination. The direct effect of online self‐regulated learning and the mediating effect of attention control on academic procrastination is moderated by peer support. Low online self‐regulated learning predicts higher academic procrastination. Attention control mediates the relationship between online self‐regulated learning and academic procrastination. The direct effect of online self‐regulated learning and the mediating effect of attention control on academic procrastination is moderated by peer support.
Article
Online learning has become an essential part of acquiring academic and professional qualifications in higher education. Online learning recently gained attention as an effective instructional approach to enhance learning engagement, causing many universities to implement it. To promote learning engagement in online learning environments in higher education, this study collected data from 354 full-time undergraduate students in a large public Chinese university and examined the effects of teacher-student interaction, student-student interaction, and social presence on learning engagement. The research findings indicated that teacher-student and student-student interaction directly affected social presence and learning engagement in online environments. And social presence also directly affected learning engagement. Meanwhile, social presence also mediated the relationship between teacher-student interaction and learning engagement and student-student interaction and learning engagement. This study confirmed the significant effects of teacher-student interaction, student-student and social presence on students' learning engagement in online environments. The findings of this study have significant practical implications for teaching practices.
Article
A compreensão das variáveis que influenciam a adaptação e sucesso dos estudantes da educação superior é fundamental para definição de ações institucionais que favoreçam o sucesso e a permanência acadêmica, em especial dos estudantes de primeiro ano. Neste estudo, analisamos como o coeficiente de rendimento escolar de 715 estudantes do primeiro ano da Educação Superior do Instituto Federal da Paraíba, Brasil, está influenciado por variáveis pessoais, sociais, de adaptação acadêmica, de envolvimento em atividades obrigatórias e em não-obrigatórias dos estudantes. A par das classificações escolares dos estudantes no final do primeiro e do segundo semestre, convertidas no rendimento escolar, e das suas características sociodemográficas, foram aplicadas três escalas ao longo do primeiro ano: escala de satisfação com suporte social, questionário de adaptação ao ensino superior, e escala de envolvimento acadêmico. Os resultados da análise de regressão sugerem que as variáveis quantidade de horas semanais de estudo, sexo, envolvimento do estudante em atividades não-obrigatórias e se trabalha não contribuem de forma estatisticamente significativa para explicar a variância no coeficiente de rendimento dos estudantes. Por outro lado, o fator geral de suporte social, o projeto de carreira, a localização do campus, o envolvimento em atividades obrigatórias e o número de faltas ao longo do ano letivo apresentam um efeito estatisticamente significativo, estando associadas aos níveis de rendimento acadêmico dos estudantes no final do primeiro ano, com variância total explicado do rendimento escolar de 42.6 %.
Book
Full-text available
Children and adolescents face many challenges in today’s fast changing society and constantly have to overcome increasing levels of adversity in order to achieve success. Enhancing the ability of young people to cope with adversity by training in resilience skills has been the objective of several interventions and programs in the past years. Resilience programs promote the development of protective and preventive factors, both at a personal and social level, that can help to overcome socio-emotional challenges in a positive and adaptive way. Past work has shown the importance of training resilience of youth by leveraging on relevant activities they typically perform in formal and informal learning environments. This Frontiers Research Topics eBook presents 20 peer reviewed papers published in Frontiers in Psychiatry on promoting resilience in young people, with a particular focus on evidence-based resilience programs in promoting mental well-being in youth, both in the short and long term. Several contributions present evaluations of existing and new resilience programs for children and young people.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Die fachliche Ausbildung von Physiklehrkräften ist häufig zu wenig an den physikalisch-fachlichen Anforderungen des zukünftigen Lehrerberufes ausgerichtet. Daher wurde an der PH Ludwigsburg die Lehre in Mechanik zu einer kumulativen Lehre weiterentwickelt, die sich auf mechanische Grundkonzepte, damit verbundene typische Alltagsvorstellungen und inhaltliche Schulbezüge fokussiert. Dieses Lehrkonzept wird evaluiert. Teil der Evaluation ist eine Inter-viewstudie mit 16 Studierenden, die untersucht, wie die Studierenden die kumulative Lehre wahr-nehmen und über welches Lernverhalten sie berichten. Die Studie zeigt erstens, dass die Studie-renden die kumulative Lehre unterschiedlich wahrnehmen, und zweitens, dass ein Zusammenhang zwischen den subjektiven Wahrnehmungen und dem Lernverhalten der Studierenden besteht. Studierende, die ‚tiefenorientiert' lernen nehmen die kumulative Lehre wahr. 'Oberflächenorientierte' Lerner nehmen dagegen Aspekte der Lehre wahr, die ihnen helfen, Wissen auswendig zu lernen.
Chapter
Currently, most educational centers have specific spaces where, depending on the technology available in them, specific practices are carried out. Some examples of these spaces are the computer labs, electronics, biology, chemistry, or maker spaces. The CreaSTEAM project aims to create STEAM spaces in schools, so that they are multidisciplinary and transversal spaces where elements and technologies of all kinds coexist, and above all, rather than being focused on technology, they are focused on the development of STEAM skills and vocations, especially to reduce gaps in diversity. This article focuses on the design of an instrument that allows the conceptualization of STEAM practices in these new educational environments, contemplating and relating both educational methodologies, technologies, and diversity gaps to be solved or studied.
Book
Full-text available
Die Coronapandemie stellt Hochschulen vor bisher ungeahnte Herausforderungen. Digitalisierung und Online-Lehre bestimmen das Bild, während Campus und Seminarräume verwaisen. Welche Auswirkungen haben diese Veränderungen auf Studierende und Lehrende? Werden Diskriminierung und Exklusion durch digitale Lehre verstärkt oder gemindert? Und wie können Hochschulleitungen auf das »New Normal« reagieren? Die Zusammenführung von Forschungsergebnissen, Lessons Learned und Best Practice-Beispielen zeigt, wie sich Hochschulen – und Hochschullehre – durch die Erfahrungen aus der Pandemie verändern, und bietet Impulse für eine nachhaltige Hochschulentwicklung.
Article
Full-text available
When we speak about heterogeneity in a meta-analysis, our intent is usually to understand the substantive implications of the heterogeneity. If an intervention yields a mean effect size of 50 points, we want to know if the effect size in different populations varies from 40 to 60, or from 10 to 90, because this speaks to the potential utility of the intervention. While there is a common belief that the I(2) statistic provides this information, it actually does not. In this example, if we are told that I(2) is 50%, we have no way of knowing if the effects range from 40 to 60, or from 10 to 90, or across some other range. Rather, if we want to communicate the predicted range of effects, then we should simply report this range. This gives readers the information they think is being captured by I(2) and does so in a way that is concise and unambiguous. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Full-text available
Cooperative learning is an example of how theory validated by research may be applied to instructional practice. The major theoretical base for cooperative learning is social interdependence theory. It provides clear definitions of cooperative, competitive, and individualistic learning. Hundreds of research studies have validated its basic propositions and demonstrated that cooperative learning (compared with competitive and individualistic learning) increases students' efforts to achieve, encourages positive relationships with classmates and faculty, and improves psychological health and well being. Operational procedures have been derived from the validated theory to implement cooperative learning in university classes, including those needed to implement formal cooperative learning, informal cooperative learning, and cooperative base groups.
Article
Full-text available
Reproducibility is a defining feature of science, but the extent to which it characterizes current research is unknown. We conducted replications of 100 experimental and correlational studies published in three psychology journals using high-powered designs and original materials when available. Replication effects were half the magnitude of original effects, representing a substantial decline. Ninety-seven percent of original studies had statistically significant results. Thirty-six percent of replications had statistically significant results; 47% of original effect sizes were in the 95% confidence interval of the replication effect size; 39% of effects were subjectively rated to have replicated the original result; and if no bias in original results is assumed, combining original and replication results left 68% with statistically significant effects. Correlational tests suggest that replication success was better predicted by the strength of original evidence than by characteristics of the original and replication teams.
Article
Full-text available
Many innovative approaches to education such as problem-based learning (PBL) and inquiry learning (IL) situate learning in problem-solving or investigations of complex phenomena. Kirschner, Sweller, and Clark (2006)45. Kirschner , P. A. , Sweller , J. and Clark , R. E. 2006. Why minimal guidance during instruction does not work: An analysis of the failure of constructivist, discovery, problem-based, experiential, and inquiry-based teaching. Educational Psychologist., 41: 75–86. [Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science ®]View all references grouped these approaches together with unguided discovery learning. However, the problem with their line of argument is that IL and PBL approaches are highly scaffolded. In this article, we first demonstrate that Kirschner et al. have mistakenly conflated PBL and IL with discovery learning. We then present evidence demonstrating that PBL and IL are powerful and effective models of learning. Far from being contrary to many of the principles of guided learning that Kirschner et al. discussed, both PBL and IL employ scaffolding extensively thereby reducing the cognitive load and allowing students to learn in complex domains. Moreover, these approaches to learning address important goals of education that include content knowledge, epistemic practices, and soft skills such as collaboration and self-directed learning.
Book
Full-text available
Hochschuldidaktik ist ein schwammiges Forschungsfeld ohne klare Befunde? Bei fachlich kompetenten Dozierenden ist die Lehrmethode unwichtig? Hochschulen brauchen eine völlig neue Lehrkultur? – Nichts davon ist wahr. Unbemerkt von den meisten Lehrenden ist in den letzten Jahrzehnten ein erfolgreiches internationales Forschungsfeld entstanden, in dem Fragen der Gestaltung effektiver Hochschullehre mit den Methoden der empirischen Lehr- und Lernforschung untersucht werden. Mit Hilfe quantitativ-empirischer Experimente werden Kausaleinflüsse auf den Lernerfolg Studierender identifiziert. Als entscheidend erwies sich dabei, wie Dozierende Vorlesungen, Seminare und Projekte im Detail gestalten und welche Denkprozesse dies in den Köpfen der Studierenden jeweils auslöst. In Metaanalysen über Einzelstudien wurden zahlreiche Gestaltungsprinzipien gefunden, die unabhängig von Hochschultyp und Studienfach den Lernerfolg erhöhen. Das vorliegende Buch gibt Dozierenden einen prägnanten und handlungsorientierten Überblick über empirisch gut belegte Gestaltungsprinzipien effektiver Lehre. Es richtet sich an junge ebenso wie an bereits erfahrene Dozierende. Die Kapitel gehen ein auf die Themenfelder Vorlesung, Seminar, Projekt, PowerPoint-Präsentation, Prüfung und Lehrevaluation. Ergänzende Interviews mit Lehrpreisträgern illustrieren in jedem Kapitel Möglichkeiten und vermeidbare Fallstricke bei der praktischen Umsetzung.
Article
Full-text available
It is assumed that serious games influences learning in 2 ways, by changing cognitive processes and by affecting motivation. However, until now research has shown little evidence for these assumptions. We used meta-analytic techniques to investigate whether serious games are more effective in terms of learning and more motivating than conventional instruction methods (learning: k = 77, N 5,547; motivation: k = 31, N 2,216). Consistent with our hypotheses, serious games were found to be more effective in terms of learning (d= 0.29, p d = 0.36, p d = 0.26, p > .05) than conventional instruction methods. Additional moderator analyses on the learning effects revealed that learners in serious games learned more, relative to those taught with conventional instruction methods, when the game was supplemented with other instruction methods, when multiple training sessions were involved, and when players worked in groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
Self-handicapping represents a frequently used strategy for regulating the threat to self-esteem elicited by the fear of failing in academic achievement settings. Several studies have documented negative associations between self-handicapping and different educational outcomes, inter alia academic achievement. However, studies on the relation between self-handicapping and academic achievement have yielded heterogeneous results, indicating the need to conduct meta-analytic investigations and to examine the relevance of several potential moderator variables. This meta-analysis integrates the results of 36 field studies with 49 independent effect sizes (N = 25,550). A random effects model revealed a mean effect size between self-handicapping and academic achievement of r = −.23 (p < .001, range: r = −.46 to r = .02). Moreover, moderator analyses showed that the type of self-handicapping scale, the school type (elementary, middle, high school, university), the level of mastery goals in the sample, and the reliability of the self-handicapping scale considerably influenced the mean correlation. Based on our findings, we conclude that educational interventions to enhance academic achievement should additionally focus on preventing self-handicapping. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract)
Article
Full-text available
This paper serves several purposes. First and foremost, it is devoted to developing a better understanding of the effectiveness of blended learning (BL) in higher education. This is achieved through a meta-analysis of a sub-collection of comparative studies of BL and classroom instruction (CI) from a larger systematic review of technology integration (Schmid et al. in Comput Educ 72:271–291, 2014). In addition, the methodology of meta-analysis is described and illustrated by examples from the current study. The paper begins with a summary of the experimental research on distance education (DE) and online learning (OL), encapsulated in meta-analyses that have been conducted since 1990. Then it introduces the Bernard et al. (Rev Educ Res 74(3):379–439, 2009) meta-analysis, which attempted to alter the DE research culture of always comparing DE/OL with CI by examining three forms of interaction treatments (i.e., student–student, student–teacher, student–content) within DE, using the theoretical framework of Moore (Am J Distance Educ 3(2):1–6, 1989) and Anderson (Rev Res Open Distance Learn 4(2):9–14, 2003). The rest of the paper revolves around the general steps and procedures (Cooper in Research synthesis and meta-analysis: a step-by-step approach, 4th edn, SAGE, Los Angeles, CA, 2010) involved in conducting a meta-analysis. This section is included to provide researchers with an overview of precisely how meta-analyses can be used to respond to more nuanced questions that speak to underlying theory and inform practice—in other words, not just answers to the “big questions.” In this instance, we know that technology has an overall positive impact on learning (g + = +0.35, p 2011), but the sub-questions addressed here concern BL interacting with technology in higher education. The results indicate that, in terms of achievement outcomes, BL conditions exceed CI conditions by about one-third of a standard deviation (g + = 0.334, k = 117, p
Article
Full-text available
Letters of recommendation are used extensively in academic admissions and personnel selection. Despite their prominence, comparatively little is known about their predictive power for multiple outcomes. This meta-analysis combine the existing literature for college grade point average (GPA), academic outcomes of GPA, performance ratings, degree attainment, and research productivity for nonmedical school graduate programs, and GPA and internship performance ratings for medical school students. Intercorrelations with other commonly used predictors are also estimated and used to estimate incremental predictive power. Overall, letters of recommendation, in their current form, are generally positively but weakly correlated with multiple aspects of performance in post-secondary education. However, letters do appear to provide incremental information about degree attainment, a difficult and heavily motivationally determined outcome.
Article
Full-text available
Support for nontraditional students, team-based quality control, and assessment design are critical.
Article
Full-text available
Domain-general cognitive knowledge has frequently been used to explain skill when domain-specific knowledge held in long-term memory may provide a better explanation. An emphasis on domain-general knowledge may be misplaced if domain-specific knowledge is the primary factor driving acquired intellectual skills. We trace the long history of attempts to explain human cognition by placing a primary emphasis on domain-general skills with a reduced emphasis on domain-specific knowledge and indicate how otherwise unintelligible data can be easily explained by assumptions concerning the primacy of domain-specific knowledge. That primacy can be explained by aspects of evolutionary educational psychology. Once the importance of domain-specific knowledge is accepted, instructional design theories and processes are transformed.
Article
Prospects for higher education are discussed in the context of technologies and globalization sweeping over the world and affecting many of the world economy sectors. The report describes opportunities that will appear ahead of universities if they go for radical transformations in their key institutions, and analyzes the risks that may arise if such transformations lose to the challenges of the 21st century. The model of a traditional 21st century university and its functions are characterized. The authors examine the factors that can radically change the paradigm of a traditional university and points out that universities need to revise their existing business models and education patterns. Marketization of education has turned students into consumers dictating their own terms and has brought about a number of alternatives to universities for talented students. Therefore, universities need to define clearly what they can offer, differentiate themselves from competitors, and identify their target audience among potential student groups. The authors believe that universities of the future should rearrange functions performed by the existing universities. He also explains why the model of the future is more efficient than the existing one. It is supposed that the promising prospects proposed for higher education by the 21st century can only be reached if all players of the HE system, from students to the government, support the radical transformation initiative to tackle the challenges they are facing. The study defines the essential questions that all players should answer if they want a productive transformation in higher education.
Book
Pivotal to the transformation of higher education in the 21st Century is the nature of pedagogy and its role in advancing the aims of various stakeholders. This book brings together pre-eminent scholars from Australia, Canada, Europe, the Middle East, and the USA to critically assess teaching and learning issues that cut across most disciplines. In addressing long-standing and newly emerging issues, the researchers examine the scientific evidence on what constitutes effective teaching in college classrooms, on the psychometric integrity of measures of teaching effectiveness, and on the use of such measures for tenure, promotion, and salary decisions. Systematically explored throughout the book is the avowed linkage between classroom teaching and motivation, learning, and performance outcomes in students. In so doing, the book deals with the nexus between knowledge production by researchers and knowledge utility for end-users made up of classroom instructors, department heads, deans, directors, and policymakers. The book will appeal to researchers interested in teaching and learning, faculty members developing evidence-based pedagogical practices, academic administrators and policymakers responsible for instituting teaching and learning protocols, and faculty development officers promoting the effective teaching practices.
Chapter
This Introduction provides an overview of the book in terms of an historical framework underpinning the content of the book, the relevance of the content to stakeholders, and the structure of the chapters
Chapter
In this chapter, we review the current state of research on personality development across the lifespan with an emphasis on childhood and adolescence. We first provide a framework for discussing personality development across the life course by highlighting the fundamental personality traits observed across childhood and adolescence and into adulthood. We then discuss the various methods of assessing continuity and change of these traits, including rank-order stability, mean-level change, individual-level change, and ipsative continuity. In the context of each method, we offer a review of the findings to date concerning personality development. We next provide a brief overview of some possible explanations for the observed patterns of development then conclude with a discussion of the implications of these findings for educational research, theory, and practice.
Article
This article discusses the relationship between the use of presentation software and the maintenance of student interest in university lectures. The evidence of surveyed university students suggests that PowerPoint, used as a presentation tool in university lectures, is pedagogically effective only while it provides variety and stimulates interest in the learning environment. That stimulation can be increased if PowerPoint is used to bridge the direct and constructivist teaching models.
Article
A meta-analysis of findings from 108 controlled evaluations showed that mastery learning programs have positive effects on the examination performance of students in colleges, high schools, and the upper grades in elementary schools. The effects appear to be stronger on the weaker students in a class, and they also vary as a function of mastery procedures used, experimental designs of studies, and course content. Mastery programs have positive effects on student attitudes toward course content and instruction but may increase student time on instructional tasks. In addition, self-paced mastery programs often reduce the completion rates in college classes.
Chapter
Robert Slavin reviews the substantial body of studies of co-operative learning in schools, in particular those using control groups being taught with more traditional methods. There are two main categories – "Structured Team Learning" and "Informal Group Learning Methods" – each reviewed and illustrated. As regards affective outcomes, co-operative learning overwhelmingly shows beneficial results. For achievement outcomes, positive results depend heavily on two key factors. One is the presence of group goals (the learner groups are working towards a goal or to gain reward or recognition), the other is individual accountability (the success of the group depends on the individual learning of every member). The chapter presents alternative perspectives to explain the benefits of co-operative learning – whether it acts via motivations, social cohesion, cognitive development, or "cognitive elaboration". Despite the very robust evidence base of positive outcomes, cooperative learning "remains at the edge of school policy" and is often poorly implemented.
Article
This article reviews research on the achievement effects of cooperative learning instructional methods, in which students work in small groups to learn academic materials. Methodologically adequate field experiments of at least 2 weeks' duration in regular elementary and secondary schools indicate that among cooperative learning methods in which students study the same material together) only methods that provide group rewards based on group members' individual learning consistently increase student achievement more than control methods. Cooperative learning methods in which each group member has a unique subtask have positive achievement effects only if group rewards are provided. Group rewards and individual accountability are held to be essential to the instructional effectiveness of cooperative learning methods. Over the past 30 years there has been a considerable quantity of research concerning the effects of cooperative, competitive, and individualistic incentive structures on individual and group productivity. A cooperative incentive structure is one in which two or more individuals are rewarded based on their performance as a group; a competitive incentive structure indicates that two or more individuals are compared with one another, and those performing best are rewarded; and an individualistic incentive structure is one in which individuals are rewarded based on their own performance, regardless of others' performances. The research on these incentive structures has been reviewed on several occasions (e.g., Johnson & Johnson, 1974; Michaels, 1977; MillerHSlavin, 1977). All of these reviewers agreed that research relating different incentive structures to performance produces inconsistent findings. Some studies find that cooperative incentive
Article
Reproducibility is a defining feature of science, but the extent to which it characterizes current research is unknown. We conducted replications of 100 experimental and correlational studies published in three psychology journals using high-powered designs and original materials when available. Replication effects were half the magnitude of original effects, representing a substantial decline. Ninety-seven percent of original studies had statistically significant results. Thirty-six percent of replications had statistically significant results; 47% of original effect sizes were in the 95% confidence interval of the replication effect size; 39% of effects were subjectively rated to have replicated the original result; and if no bias in original results is assumed, combining original and replication results left 68% with statistically significant effects. Correlational tests suggest that replication success was better predicted by the strength of original evidence than by characteristics of the original and replication teams.
Article
Overviews, or syntheses of research syntheses, have become a popular approach to synthesizing the rapidly expanding body of research and systematic reviews. Despite their popularity, few guidelines exist and the state of the field in education is unclear. The purpose of this study is to describe the prevalence and current state of overviews of education research and to provide further guidance for conducting overviews and advance the evolution of overview methods. A comprehensive search across multiple online databases and grey literature repositories yielded 25 total education-related overviews. Our analysis revealed that many commonly reported aspects of systematic reviews, such as the search, screen, and coding procedures, were regularly unreported. Only a handful of overview authors discussed the synthesis technique and few authors acknowledged the overlap of included systematic reviews. Suggestions and preliminary guidelines for improving the rigor and utility of overviews are provided.
Article
A meta-analysis was conducted to determine the effectiveness of direct academic motivation enhancement interventions (interventions with students as the primary beneficiaries). Seventeen studies were included, the total sample size being 3720 (91.85% of the participants in the studies were university/college students). The overall weighted effect size (Cohen's d) for all studies was 0.33 (95% confidence interval = [0.26, 0.40]), a significant, but small to moderate effect. Interventions were coded as achievement motivation training program or attributional retraining. Analyses based on these subgroups suggested that intervention type played a moderating role, with achievement motivation training programs producing larger effects. The examination of outcome variables as moderators did not reveal significant variations in effect size, although the effects were largest for motivation measures.
Article
The heterogeneity statistic I(2), interpreted as the percentage of variability due to heterogeneity between studies rather than sampling error, depends on precision, that is, the size of the studies included. METHODS: Based on a real meta-analysis, we simulate artificially 'inflating' the sample size under the random effects model. For a given inflation factor M = 1, 2, 3,... and for each trial i, we create a M-inflated trial by drawing a treatment effect estimate from the random effects model, using s(i)(2)/M as within-trial sampling variance. RESULTS: As precision increases, while estimates of the heterogeneity variance tau(2) remain unchanged on average, estimates of I(2) increase rapidly to nearly 100%. A similar phenomenon is apparent in a sample of 157 meta-analyses. CONCLUSION: When deciding whether or not to pool treatment estimates in a meta-analysis, the yard-stick should be the clinical relevance of any heterogeneity present. tau(2), rather than I(2), is the appropriate measure for this purpose.
Article
The purpose of this article is to identify and estimate the influence of educational, psychological, and social factors on learning. Using evidence accumulated from 61 research experts, 91 meta-analyses, and 179 handbook chapters and narrative reviews, the data for analysis represent over 11,000 relationships. Three methods—content analyses, expert ratings, and results from meta-analyses—are used to quantify the importance and consistency of variables that influence learning. Regardless of which method is employed, there is moderate to substantial agreement on the categories exerting the greatest influence on school learning as well as those that have less influence. The results suggest an emergent knowledge base for school learning. Generally, proximal variables (e.g., psychological, instructional, and home environment) exert more influence than distal variables (e.g., demographic, policy, and organizational). The robustness and consistency of the findings suggest they can be used to inform educational policies and practices.
Book
“This is a very exciting project…[a]part from being helmed by two exemplary teachers, there is a strong line-up of authors. This will be the most up-to-date book of its kind as it takes the perspective of educating GTA supervisors and is not just a ‘tips’ book.” Regan A. R. Gurung, University of Wisconsin, Green Bay Using empirical research, Effective College and University Teaching gives faculty and graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) effective strategies and tactics for pursuing excellence in their teaching, be it in the classroom or online. Whereas the majority of books on college and university teaching are how-to books, this volume provides both the rationale and a detailed guide for how to use these practices and teach them to others. Written by leading scholars and master teachers, this book outlines, reviews, and discusses best practices for becoming an effective undergraduate teacher. Aimed at the professional development of professors and graduate students, this text provides full coverage of those topics central to effective teaching practices such as developing a teaching philosophy, becoming an ethical teacher, and fostering active learning in the classroom.
Article
Background/Context Earlier research on various forms of distance learning concluded that these technologies do not differ significantly from regular classroom instruction in terms of learning outcomes. Now that web-based learning has emerged as a major trend in both K–12 and higher education, the relative efficacy of online and face-to-face instruction needs to be revisited. The increased capabilities of web-based applications and collaboration technologies and the rise of blended learning models combining web-based and face-to-face classroom instruction have raised expectations for the effectiveness of online learning. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study This meta-analysis was designed to produce a statistical synthesis of studies contrasting learning outcomes for either fully online or blended learning conditions with those of face-to-face classroom instruction. Population/Participants/Subjects The types of learners in the meta-analysis studies were about evenly split between students in college or earlier years of education and learners in graduate programs or professional training. The average learner age in a study ranged from 13 to 44. Intervention/Program/Practice The meta-analysis was conducted on 50 effects found in 45 studies contrasting a fully or partially online condition with a fully face-to-face instructional condition. Length of instruction varied across studies and exceeded one month in the majority of them. Research Design The meta-analysis corpus consisted of (1) experimental studies using random assignment and (2) quasi-experiments with statistical control for preexisting group differences. An effect size was calculated or estimated for each contrast, and average effect sizes were computed for fully online learning and for blended learning. A coding scheme was applied to classify each study in terms of a set of conditions, practices, and methodological variables. Findings/Results The meta-analysis found that, on average, students in online learning conditions performed modestly better than those receiving face-to-face instruction. The advantage over face-to-face classes was significant in those studies contrasting blended learning with traditional face-to-face instruction but not in those studies contrasting purely online with face-to-face conditions. Conclusions/Recommendations Studies using blended learning also tended to involve additional learning time, instructional resources, and course elements that encourage interactions among learners. This confounding leaves open the possibility that one or all of these other practice variables contributed to the particularly positive outcomes for blended learning. Further research and development on different blended learning models is warranted. Experimental research testing design principles for blending online and face-to-face instruction for different kinds of learners is needed.
Article
A meta-analytic review of the relationship between control expectancies and academic achievement was conducted for studies published between 1983 and 1994. The purpose of this investigation was to replicate the results from a meta-analysis completed in 1983 and to use Rotter's (1954) social learning theory to generate predictions regarding the relations between generalized and specific control expectancies and academic achievement. Consistent with the results of Findley and Cooper's (1983) analysis, both generalized and specific control expectancies were related to academic achievement, but in no instance did specific control expectancies predict academic achievement better than generalized control expectancies. The control expectancy-academic achievement relation was not moderated by variables such as gender or type of dependent measure. Age moderated the relationship so that it was significant and similar for elementary- and college-aged individuals but significantly greater for secondary school-aged children. The implications of these findings with regard to the validity of assumptions made by Rotter are discussed.
Book
Education at a Glance 2013: Highlights summarises the OECD’s flagship compendium of education statistics, Education at a Glance. It provides easily accessible data on key topics in education today, including: • Education levels and student numbers: How far have adults studied, and how does early childhood education affect student performance later on? • Higher education and work: How many young people graduate from tertiary education, and how easily do they enter the world of work? • Economic and social benefits of education: How does education affect people’s job prospects, and what is its impact on incomes? • Paying for education: What share of public spending goes on education, and what is the role of private spending? • The school environment: How many hours do teachers work, and how does class size vary? Each indicator is presented on a two-page spread. The left-hand page explains the significance of the indicator, discusses the main findings, examines key trends and provides readers with a roadmap for finding out more in the OECD education databases and in other OECD education publications. The right-hand page contains clearly presented charts and tables, accompanied by dynamic hyperlinks (StatLinks) that direct readers to the corresponding data in Excel™ format.
Article
This article examines the statistical correction for attenuation and the controversies surrounding the procedure. Although originally developed for test construction purposes, the correction for attenuation is also used in meta-analysis and assessments of validity generalization. Since Spearman's classic article in 1904, correct use and interpretation of the correction for attenuation has been debated. The logic of the double and single correction formulae is discussed as well as the correction producing validity coefficients greater than 1.00. Three types of misapplications and misinterpretations of the correction in published literature are presented. The article concludes with arguments pertaining to the use of the correction formula, and it attempts to sharpen the focus of issues that have led to differences of opinion about its meaning and purpose.
Article
Hanna Dumont and David Istance set out the reasons why, over recent years, learning has moved increasingly centre stage politically. These include the nature of knowledge economies and societies, the demands of 21st century competences, the ubiquity of ICT, frustration with the lack of success of repeated education reforms and the burgeoning learning research base. They call for harnessing knowledge about learning and applying it more systematically to education. The chapter argues why these developments call for a particular focus on innovative "micro" arrangements – "learning environments" – which are conceptualised in this OECD work at a level between individual learners and conventional educational parameters. The chapter locates the book as seeking to address the "great disconnect" (as it has been called) between research, on the one hand, and policy and practice, on the other.
Article
There are 2 families of statistical procedures in meta-analysis: fixed- and random-effects procedures. They were developed for somewhat different inference goals: making inferences about the effect parameters in the studies that have been observed versus making inferences about the distribution of effect parameters in a population of studies from a random sample of studies. The authors evaluate the performance of confidence intervals and hypothesis tests when each type of statistical procedure is used for each type of inference and confirm that each procedure is best for making the kind of inference for which it was designed. Conditionally random-effects procedures (a hybrid type) are shown to have properties in between those of fixed- and random-effects procedures.
Chapter
In any meta-analysis, we start with summary data from each study and use it to compute an effect size for the study. An effect size is a number that reflects the magnitude of the relationship between two variables. For example, if a study reports the mean and standard deviation for the treated and control groups, we might compute the standardized mean difference between groups. Or, if a study reports events and nonevents in two groups we might compute an odds ratio. It is these effect sizes that are then compared and combined in the meta-analysis. Consider figure 12.1, the forest plot of a fictional metaanalysis to assess the impact of an intervention. In this plot, each study is represented by a square, bounded on either side by a confidence interval. The location of each square on the horizontal axis represents the effect size for that study. The confidence interval represents the precision with which the effect size has been estimated, and the size of each square is proportional to the weight that will be assigned to the study when computing the combined effect. This figure also serves as the outline for this chapter, in which I discuss what these items mean and how they are computed. This chapter addresses effect sizes for continuous outcomes such as means and correlations (for effect sizes for binary outcomes, see chapter 13, this volume).
Article
In this article, the authors examined the evidence for linkages among 3 variables: schooling, intelligence, and income. They concluded that intelligence and schooling have a bidirectional relationship, with each variable influencing variations in the other. Moreover, changes in both schooling and intelligence influence variations in economic outcomes. Although any single study of the interdependency of these 3 variables can be criticized on the grounds that the data are correlational - and consequently are open to alternative interpretations - when viewed together, the evidence for their linked causality is quite convincing: Each increment in school attendance appears to convey significant increases not only in economic and social returns but also in psychometric intelligence. Thus, the value of schooling appears to extend beyond simply schooling's direct effect on income.