ArticlePDF Available

Adopting a design approach to translate needs and interests of stakeholders in academic entrepreneurship: The MIT Senseable City Lab case

Authors:

Abstract

Recent research calls for greater consideration of design, by considering it further from the perspective of technology innovation management. In the attempt to cover this gap, the paper intends to explore how design can be used to support translational processes that connect and align different stakeholders in academic entrepreneurship. Insights from the investigation of the processes adopted by Senseable City Lab – an academic lab at MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA) – will demonstrate how various design artefacts – sketches, visualizations, prototypes – are used to support several semiotic translations aimed at multiple stakeholders. Findings will show that design can play a relevant role in fostering entrepreneurial activities and value creation in academia, by supporting the translation of the different needs and interests of stakeholders into a shared meaning that allows a coordinated way of working. The conceptualization of design as a form of translation allows bridging currently distinct research strands in design and entrepreneurship.
1
Adopting a design approach to translate needs and
interests of stakeholders in academic
entrepreneurship: The MIT Senseable City Lab case
POST-PRINT VERSION OF THE ARTICLE:
Luca Simeone, Giustina Secundo, Giovanni Schiuma, Adopting a design
approach to translate needs and interests of stakeholders in academic
entrepreneurship: The MIT Senseable City Lab case, Technovation, Volume 64,
2017, Pages 58-67, ISSN 0166-4972,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.technovation.2016.12.001.
This version of the article is released with a Creative Commons Attribution Non-
Commercial No Derivatives License
Abstract
Recent research calls for greater consideration of design, by considering it further from
the perspective of technology innovation management. In the attempt to cover this gap,
the paper intends to explore how design can be used to support translational processes
that connect and align different stakeholders in academic entrepreneurship. Insights from
the investigation of the processes adopted by Senseable City Lab an academic lab at
MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA) will demonstrate how various design
artefacts sketches, visualizations, prototypes are used to support several semiotic
translations aimed at multiple stakeholders. Findings will show that design can play a
relevant role in fostering entrepreneurial activities and value creation in academia, by
supporting the translation of the different needs and interests of stakeholders into a
shared meaning that allows a coordinated way of working. The conceptualization of
design as a form of translation allows bridging currently distinct research strands in
design and entrepreneurship.
Keywords Academic entrepreneurship, design, translation, semiotics, value creation.
2
1. Introduction
Over the past three decades, the university has seen its role changing from one where it
was considereda conserver and reproducer of knowledge” (Lu and Etzkowitz, 2008, p.
15) (i.e., engaging in teaching and research) to one here it is expected to take a proactive
role in the innovation and regional development through the engagement in
entrepreneurial activities (Urbano and Guerrero, 2013). This phenomenon stimulated
scholarly research into that entrepreneurial dimension that allows academia to pursue
innovation development and economic and social engagement with external stakeholders,
for example through intellectual asset management, university spin-offs creation and
technology transfer and brokering (Shane, 2004b; Wright et al., 2009). Whilst not
necessarily denying the importance of the economic outcomes generated by these forms
of academic entrepreneurship, some scholars argue for a view of academic
entrepreneurship also oriented toward creating societal value (Botes, 2005). Along this
line of thinking, Kingma suggests that the role of academics is precisely to be
entrepreneurial thinkers” and toseek new ways to engage with the community to create
value” (Kingma 2011, ix).
In this perspective, the interplay between academia and external stakeholders1 such as
industry, NGOs (Non-Governmental Organization), government institutions, investment
funds and technology transfer offices (TTOs) is of paramount importance to generate
jointly value. Value precisely emerges through joint collaborative endeavours, where
these different stakeholders bring together their assets, competences and specificities. In
these joint endeavours, the knowledge produced in academia, scientific organizations and
private research labs plays a crucial role for entrepreneurial innovation (for a review, see:
Powell and Snellman, 2004; Stam and Garnsey, 2008).
In the specific context of academic entrepreneurship, the term ‘valley of death’ is often
used to describe the difficulty of adapting and transferring knowledge from laboratory to
market. This concept was first coined by Merrifield (1995), referring to the transfer of
agricultural technologies towards lower-income countries, but has since then been
1 The term stakeholder is used in a broad sense (Harrison and Freeman, 1999; Freeman,
2010), as to include all the actors that somewhat affect or are affected by a specific
process or project or organization. In design, Krippendorff provided the following
definition: “Designers are surrounded by intelligent professionals who have an interest in
the outcome of a design process: clients, engineers, CEOs, financiers, sales people, and
the members of institutions that provide data in preparations for a design or do research
after prototypes are available” (Krippendorff 2006, 63).
3
adopted as a metaphor to describe the hurdles that exist between research and the
commercialisation of new products (Markham 2002) and the differences in terms of
needs, interests, languages and cultures of the various stakeholders involved in these
processes. One route to address this issue is acknowledging the key role of design, which
can provide a key ‘interface’ role (Boren et al., 2012) and enable a better collaboration.
As argued by Sainsbury: The use of design helps scientists to develop commercial
applications for their work while it is still at the research stage or at the outset of the
technology transfer process(Sainsbury, 2007, p 151).
In spite of the increasing research and compelling evidence for the value of design in
entrepreneurship, there has been little work exploring the potential impact that design
might have as a route to bridging this ‘valley of death’ in processes of knowledge creation
in an academic setting. In the attempt to cover this gap, the paper intends to study how
design can be used to support translational processes that connect and align different
stakeholders to create value in academic entrepreneurship. Design materials such as
sketches, data visualization and prototypes can be used at various stages to coordinate the
stakeholders: through the design process, ideas and concepts undergo semiotic
translations and are materialized into visual, audio, and tangible formats. As such, these
translations are a way of expressing meaning in different languages (e.g., translating state-
of-the-art scientific advances into the visual language of a sketch or the tangible language
of a physical prototype), which can be more easily understood by diverse stakeholders.
Design can even be employed to facilitate participatory design session where all the
stakeholders directly contribute to the design-as-translation process, jointly creating
visual representations and prototypes that translate the multiple perspectives of the
various stakeholders (Simonsen and Robertson, 2013).
To provide an empirical evidence to this perspective, this paper builds upon an
ethnographic analysis of Senseable City Lab an academic lab nested within the
Department of Urban Studies and Planning at MIT (Massachusetts Institute of
Technology, USA) – and its entrepreneurial dimension to demonstrate how design is used
as enabling factor to support academic entrepreneurship and its process of value creation.
The remainder of the paper is organised as follows: Section 2 introduces the literature
background around the topic of academic entrepreneurship and design as translation.
Section 3 describes the research approach and the research context. Section 4 presents the
4
findings of the study. Section 5 elaborates on the results. Finally, the last section
concludes the paper underlying the practical as well as the theoretical implications.
2. Literature review
2.1 Academic entrepreneurship and the collaboration of multiple stakeholders
According to Rothaermel et al (2007), academic entrepreneurship refers to activities and
assets of an entrepreneurial university, such as technology transfer, intellectual property
licensing, science parks, incubators, university spin-offs, and other processes aimed to
implement the third mission of the university (social and economic development). Some
studies (Gibb et al., 2013; Rothaermel et al., 2007; Wright et al., 2007) specifically look
at higher education institutions as entrepreneurial organizations with a key role within the
innovation system, both as human and as technology capital providers (Etzkowitz, 2003;
Mowery et al., 2001; Rosenberg and Nelson, 1994). Other studies (Oakey and Mukhter,
1999) see the entrepreneurial university as a place that can foster the growth of high-
technologies small firms, in a knowledge economy where the networked dimension is
articulated into ecosystems, which are globally and locally interconnected (Röpke, 1998).
Other authors specifically look at academic entrepreneurship in terms of businesses
started by academia as university spin-offs (Shane, 2004a; Wright et al., 2009). More
detailed taxonomies include the research-based entrepreneurship(Goel and Grimpe,
2011) or businesses started on the basis of academic research and technology.
Nowadays, academic entrepreneurship includes a large spectrum of entrepreneurial
activities: from large-scale science projects, creation of technology parks, contracted
research, industry consulting, patenting/licensing, spin-off firms, industry training, all the
ay up to the more traditional academic activities of publishing academic results and
producing highly qualified graduates (Cantaragiu, 2012; Klofsten and Jones-Evans,
2000), which can support entrepreneurial processes in a more indirect way.
From all these characterizations of academic entrepreneurship, the importance of
collaboration with internal and external stakeholders clearly emerges, as well as the
increasing accountability and responsiveness of higher education institutions in their
environment (Maassen, 2000). Universities need to assume a more proactive role in the
society by more directly engaging various stakeholders and their communities (Fayolle
and Redford, 2014; Jongbloed et al., 2008); academic entrepreneurship precisely unfolds
5
by intentionally developing a network of social contacts from which resources can be
obtained and with whom the university will work to convert these resources into added
value (Fayolle and Redford, 2014). From an entrepreneurial perspective, the multifaceted
performance that a university is required to achieve embraces a larger meaning of social
value creation through the management of stakeholder relationships (Post et al., 2002).
The literature includes many attempts to classify the stakeholders using various criteria;
according to Freeman (1984), two main groups can be identified for a university: the
internal stakeholders (alumni, faculty, administration and university staff) and external
stakeholders (industry, government and regional/local community, citizens). The problem
is that sometimes these stakeholders have different needs and interests, speak different
languages and might not be aligned in terms of which kind of value has to be created.
Activists from an NGO, venture capitalists and academic researchers involved into a joint
project might have divergent interests: the academic researchers might want to further
develop their scholarly investigation; the venture capitalists might see the potential of the
project in terms of pure economic revenues and might want to patent some of this
technology and market it; the NGO might instead be interested in releasing the results of
the project as open source and open access in order to maximize societal benefits. These
diverse notions of value can be complementary or in conflict, agreed upon or contested by
the stakeholders. In all these cases, stakeholders engage in processes of negotiation and
responses to external factors (McAdam et al., 2012) and create value by improving the
socioeconomic environment (Fayolle and Redford, 2014). While interaction between the
institutional spheres of industry and academia is not a new phenomenon (Etzkowitz,
2001; Martin and Etzkowitz, 2000; Shinn, 2002), the extent to which entrepreneurship is
currently intertwined with academic activities and processes is unprecedented (Fayolle
and Redford, 2014; Lazzeroni and Piccaluga, 2003).
Among the challenges of collaboration involving multiple and diverse stakeholders,
Chiesa and Piccaluga (1998) note that given the different objectives and languages
prevalent in academic and industrial contexts there is a need for translators between these
groups. Consequently, it is necessary to recognise and balance the differing objectives of
each stakeholder, thus ensuring that their needs and interests are systematically addressed,
orchestrated and balanced (Fogelberg and Sanden, 2008; Garrett-Jones et al., 2005).
2.2 Design and entrepreneurship
6
Within technology innovation management, D’Ippolito (2014) provides a characterization
of the concept of design as articulated into three dimensions: the creative, the shaping and
the applicative dimension. According to the creative dimension, design can be seen as the
creation of artefacts stemming from the creative inputs of individuals or firms
(Krippendorff, 1989, 2006; Simon, 1969). Designers initiate, facilitate and monitor
various exchange and adaptation processes, not only to create new products and services,
but also to create value and meaning that can be appreciated by the actors involved
(Krippendorff, 1989, 2006). In this vein, design is oftentimes seen as a problem solving
activity, especially in new product development and innovation process, as such involving
the definition of the problem, the identification and generation of alternative solutions,
and the evaluation and selection of the most suitable one(s) (Buchanan, 1992; March and
Smith, 1995; Petroski, 1996). According to the shaping dimension, design can be
interpreted as a reflective, symbolic and meaning-making practice. By complementing
Simon׳s cognitive perspective, the designer is conceived as a practitioner focusing on the
relation between creation and reflection-upon-the-creation (Bousbaci, 2008; Dorst, 1996;
Schön, 1987; Rylander, 2009). Design can be interpreted as making sense of things,
oftentimes through designerly reflective processes and negotiations between problem and
solution, through activities such as analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. The designer can
play a prescriptive role as s/he describes how the world might be (Cross, 2006; Lawson,
2006). Finally, according to the applicative dimension, design provides a key input for the
strategy and is a means to achieve competitiveness of organizations (Gemser and
Leenders, 2001; Kotler and Rath, 1984).
In the attempt to combine these three dimensions and link them to entrepreneurship,
design can be seen as the cumulative development of an initial creative act, its further
elaboration within reflective and meaning-making practices (shaping dimension) and its
applicative dimension, which translates in the artefact playing a more explicit role in
strategy making and innovation practices (Ardayfio, 2000). Various authors have
explored the role of design to support innovative processes and, consequently, its possible
role for entrepreneurship and management (Filippetti, 2011;Verganti, 2003; Verganti,
2008). This opens up new challenges, as noted by Walker (1990) who, specifically
referring to a condition of increasing centrality of design in organizations, argues that
there is the need “to manage [design] more effectively” (Walker, 1990, p. 43).
7
Adopting a more specific focus, some authors praised the role of designerly-based
prototyping as a central element in innovation processes (Bogers and Horst, 2014; Gero,
1990; Jones and Jordan, 1998; Leonard and Rayport, 1997; Leonard and Sensiper, 1998).
Prototyping is also one of the components that Rust (2004, 2007) identified when
exploring the potential benefits of engaging designers in the scientific process. According
to Rust, design can support processes of knowledge creation and scientific research in
various ways, such as: visualising scenarios of use; early prototyping to quickly and
iteratively test ideas; producing artefacts to aid understanding and stimulate new ideas;
raising awareness of future applications; helping to communicate ideas between research
collaborators and potential investors in an exciting and credible way; speeding up the
process of commercialisation. In a similar vein, Moultrie (2015) explored how design
demonstrators can be used in translating scientific activity from the laboratory to the
market.
In line with the work of Rust (2004, 2007) and Moultrie (2015), this paper precisely
intends to understand whether design can help academic entrepreneurship to generate
added value involving multiple internal and external stakeholders. This appears to be a
perspective not thoroughly investigated in literature. In order to carry out this analysis,
this article adopts the concept of translation.
2.3 Design and translational processes for entrepreneurship
This paper builds upon a concept of translation that goes beyond its common use (i.e., the
translation of a literary text from English to another language). Petrilli and Ponzio (2003)
claim that “the problem of translation cannot be reduced to the problem of the relation
among texts in different languages. Each time there is a sign process, semiosis, there is
translation. Therefore, translation concerns the relation among signs in general" (in the
Preface of Petrilli 2003, p. 15). This view sees translation in light of its semiotic
dimension and highlights both the interpretive component of translational processes and
their generative, creative potential. According to this wider view, translation can also
refer to processes where, for example, a sketch or a visual diagram translate some
complex, technical ideas developed by some researchers in nanotechnologies into a
format that is easier to grasp for non-professional, non-academic audiences. Venture
capitalists or external companies interested in investing in nanotechnologies can be more
8
quickly engaged in collaborative academic entrepreneurship processes, if the researchers
translate their academic work - as originally published in written form into scientific
journals - into visually appealing and easy-to-understand formats. During such design
processes, ideas, concepts, project requirements and features undergo semiotic
translations and are materialized into various articulations:
visual articulations, in the case of sketches, diagrams, visual interfaces;
or material and tangible articulations, in the case of prototypes;
or other forms of articulations based on one or multiple dimensions (visual,
music, video, photography, performance, textual descriptions or stories).
Our interest here is not to state that all translational processes in academic
entrepreneurship are design-based. For example, imagine a scientific lab that, after having
described one of its innovative technologies in a scientific paper, creates some other texts
that present these same technologies using a language that could be more easily
understood by a layperson. Or imagine that this lab located in the US not only
routinely produces these descriptions in English, but also translates them into other
languages (e.g., Italian, French, Chinese). These are all examples of translations, which
do not involve design and which are aimed at engaging non-academic audiences and
keeping them informed in the work of the lab. Our specific interest is in studying
situations where, for example, the lab produces some new diagrams or sketches or motion
graphic videos or prototypes to further support these translational processes (Simeone,
2014, 2016; Simeone et al., 2015). In this sense, we refer to design specifically as a
symbolic, meaning-making practice (Krippendorff, 1989) and, in line with Buchanan
(2004), we believe that an approach focusing on user research and user testing, rapid and
frequent prototyping, visualization techniques, task-based scenario building, attention to
the brand experience mark a distinctive designerly way of thinking and operating
(Buchanan, 2004). In the paper, consequently, we specifically direct our attention towards
the design artefacts emerging from this meaning-making practice.
The concept of translation is not new in design research. Some scholars employ it in a
quasi-literary sense, to talk about translational processes among the languages of different
design methods or techniques, such for example Singh and Gu (2012), who investigate
generative design in architecture. Some other scholars adopt translation in another quite
commonly used connotation, as to describe design processes and outcomes (such as
9
sketches) in terms of ‘translation of ideas’ (see for example: Leblebici-Başar and
Altarriba, 2013; Yi-Luen Do et al., 2000). Reich et al. show how participation in design is
tied to “problems of interpretation and translation of varying user and expert
perspectives” and argue in favour of “increasing access to technical knowledge and its
translation for equal participation in a dialectical process” (Reich et al., 1996, p. 174).
Tomes and colleagues focus on the negotiation between graphic designers and the clients
and claim that "viewed in this light, the whole of the design process is directed towards
the achievement of a mutually acceptable visual `translation' of the brief, and it is
achieved through the medium of lesser translations from the verbal to the visual and back
again" (1998, p. 127). Designers act as brokers of languages in supporting managers in
their interactions and communication with designers (Dell’Era et al., 2011). A specific
research strand explores how semiotics can be used to look at the translational dimensions
of design (Baule and Caratti, 2016; Riccò, 2016; Zingale, 2016).
None of these studies specifically addresses the relationship between design, translation
and entrepreneurship. This article precisely intends to investigate if and how design can
be used to support translational mechanism to align the needs and interests of multiple
stakeholders in academic entrepreneurship.
3. Research method
Based on the logic of grounded theory (Glaser and Strauss, 1967) as recognized method
in research on managerial and organizational issues, this study adopts the qualitative
method of case study to identify meaningful insights through a limited number of
examples (Pettigrew, 1990). In general, case studies are the preferred strategy when ‘how’
or ‘why’ questions are being posed, and when the focus is on a contemporary
phenomenon within some real life context (Yin, 1994). As pointed out by Glaser and
Strauss (1967), the aim of case study research is to discover ‘grounded theory’, which can
be interpreted as a strategy to carry out research, involving an empirical investigation of a
particular contemporary phenomenon within its real life context by using multiple sources
of evidence (Robson, 2002).
Specifically, we have chosen an extreme case study (Eisenhardt, 1989; Yin, 1994) of a
successful example of processes and environments where design is adopted to transform
the needs and interests of different stakeholders into valuable innovative solutions. By
10
selecting an extreme case, we can better understand the role and meaning of design to
support translational processes in academic entrepreneurship.
In order to generate, collect and analyze data for our case, we adopted a combination of
methods: ethnographic observations, interviews and archival research. A multi-year
ethnographic investigation was conducted (2011-2014) at the MIT Senseable City Lab in
Cambridge, MA. The application of an ethnographic approach with the direct
involvement of researchers in the field has proven to be a common element of a good
number of recent studies on organizations (Czarniawska, 2012).
Following a grounded theory approach, data emerging from the fieldwork was
subsequently analyzed in order to identify interpretation patterns. In the data analysis
phase, we also relied upon a semiotic conceptual framework built upon the work of Eco
(2003). In the following paragraphs, we provide further detail on the entire research
process.
3.1 The research context
Senseable City Lab is a research group nested within the City Design and Development
group at the Department of Urban Studies and Planning at Massachusetts Institute of
Technology (MIT, Boston, USA). Senseable City Lab acts as an initiative that coagulates
multiple creative streams and productive energies coming from in-house transdisciplinary
researchers and external collaborations with other stakeholders such as institutions,
laboratories, companies. Senseable City Lab's projects span from architectural
interventions, such as The Cloud, a responsive environment for the city of London, to
innovative product design, such as The Copenhagen Wheel, a concept that transforms
ordinary bicycles through a set of sensors/actuators that provide feedback on pollution,
traffic congestion and road conditions in real-time.
In 2011, the Senseable City Lab had been operating for 7 years and had already worked
on more than 50 projects with roughly 350 collaborators2. These collaborators represent a
wide variety of disciplines, from architecture, to computer science, engineering,
interaction design, up to theology, game programming, Russian studies, medieval studies,
2 Figures collected from an analysis of Senseable City Lab official website
(http://senseable.mit.edu/) and personal conversations with lab’s directors and members
carried out in Cambridge MA (USA) in March 2011.
11
space sciences, Asian arts, music and game programming. Projects are also widely
distributed in different geographic locations across all the continents. A high number of
stakeholders are involved in Senseable City Lab’s projects and some of them come from
different disciplinary perspectives and cultural viewpoints and have various agendas,
needs and interests. This is how the lab describes itself on the home page of its official
website: Senseable City Lab “speaks the language of designers, planners, engineers,
physicists, biologists and social scientists. Senseable is as fluent with industry partners as
it is with metropolitan governments, individual citizens and disadvantaged communities.
Through design and science, the Lab develops and deploys tools to learn about citiesso
that cities can learn about us”3. This paper, in a way, precisely intends to examine if
design as used by the lab, as an approach that relies on rapid and iterative visualization
and prototyping, user research and user testing, attention to the brand experience, service-
based scenario building and deploying, as well as on quite practical designerly skills in
product, interaction, architectural, urban, service design can support the lab in being
‘fluent’ with multiple stakeholders.
Senseable City Lab is pretty active across the different forms of academic
entrepreneurship proposed by Klofsten and Jones-Evans (2000):
Contract research: undertaking specific research projects with industry; many of
these projects have a strong commercial focus.
Grantsmanship: obtaining large-scale research grants from external sources for
basic research.
Publishing academic results: publishing a good number of books, chapters and
articles in high-impact venues or in popular media.
Consulting, by directly selling academic expertise to external organisations to
solve practical problems.
Industry-oriented training courses, including executive education.
Spin off formation, the creation of firms based on university research.
In a good number of cases, Senseable City Lab’s research projects are oriented to the
design and development of technologies or models that can have a commercial potential,
3 http://senseable.mit.edu/ accessed 25 July 2016.
12
and as such are either backed up by grantmanship (e.g., Live Singapore4, funded by the
Government of Singapore), contract research (from Coca-Cola, to ENEL, Ericsson,
Telecom Italia, GE and many others) or consulting activities (e.g., like in the project
Digital Water Pavilion5). Outcomes of these collaborations are generally theoretical
models or prototypes at different level of refinement, which can be evaluated by industrial
partners as technologies to be implemented, internally employed and/or commercialized.
In some other cases, Senseable City Lab’s research activities lead to the creation of start-
ups, such for example Superpedestrian, which produces and commercializes The
Copenhagen Wheel, a digitally-equipped bike that contains sensing technologies and that
is able to offer real-time advice to the biker on matters such as traffic, weather and
pollution conditions6.
The lab is very prolific and various kinds of publications are ways to disseminate the
results of the lab to a wide audience, not only academic.
Although Senseable City Lab does not directly offer industry-oriented courses, its team
members are included as faculty members in the wider educational offer provided by
MIT.!
3.2 Data collection and generation
In operational terms, data was collected and generated through archival research, direct
observation, the authors’ experience as participants and e-mail exchanges. Field source
data mainly consisted of notes, photographs and audio-video recordings. Some semi-
structured conversations with the labs’ directors, members and internal and external
collaborators in the period across January 2011 and April 2014 were conducted by one of
the authors. Multiple data collection methods were used to exploit the synergistic effects
of combining them via triangulation (Eisenhardt, 2002; Jick, 1979), which consists in the
combination of investigative techniques to reduce the bias of a single observation in
comparison of multiple data (Tarrow, 1995). During the first stage, secondary sources
such as archival records, documentary information, official corporate communication
tools, like the websites and other social network accounts such as the Senseable City
Lab’s YouTube channel have also been used.
4 http://senseable.mit.edu/livesingapore/ accessed 25 July 2016.
5 http://digitalwaterpavilion.com/ accessed 25 July 2016.
6 https://www.superpedestrian.com/ accessed 25 July 2016.
13
At a later stage, the case has been informed by 10 in-depth interviews with the directors
of the center and other stakeholders identified as key informants (Kumar, et al., 1993).
More specifically, the process of conducting in-depth interviews was articulated into the
following phases: planning, developing the instrument, collecting data, analyzing data and
disseminating the findings (Boyce and Neale, 2006). During the planning phase, we
conducted a web research to identify the stakeholders to be involved and we identified the
key informants: representatives of the Senseable City Lab (the directors and some
members), some external collaborators and representatives from other organizations
collaborating with the lab. Later, we developed the instruments in compliance with an
interview protocol. Then, we carried out processes of data reduction, data display and
conclusion drawing and verification (Miles and Huberman, 1994). As argued by Gilmore
and Pine (1997), in case studies methodology, this approach guarantees the highest degree
of reliability. Interviews have been based on semi-structured schemas using a flexible
approach. Myers (2008) states that interviews offer an excellent ‘window’ of achieving
the research objectives, either allowing to know the informant’s perspective on the issue
or to know whether the informant can confirm insights and information the researchers
already hold.
3.3 Data analysis
In order to examine the various instances of translation at play in Senseable City Lab, the
analysis of data followed an inductive and iterative process (Miles and Huberman, 1984;
Strauss and Corbin, 1998). The first step was a descriptive code resulting from the
consolidated framework of the categorization of translation modes offered by Eco (Eco,
2003). Diedrich used this categorization to analyse urban design (Diedrich, 2013). The
categorization adopted is inspired by Diedrich’s work, but it is slightly different as for the
way in which we define the key concepts and the boundaries among the categories.
Moreover, Eco states that there are infinite modalities of translation and that the richness
and unpredictability of this continuum cannot be represented by a rigid categorization
(Eco, 2003). In order to build his characterization of translation modes, Eco (2003) relies
on some key concepts:
Intrasystemic interpretation: it is a translational mode that happens within the
same semiotic system. Intrasystemic interpretations can be, for example, a copy
of a drawing with a different scale, the summary of a book or the paraphrasis or
14
reformulation of a sentence, a performance, like when the different actors read
the same text7.
Intersystemic interpretation with substance variation. It is a translational mode
that happens within different semiotic systems (e.g., like when we translate
between two different languages such as English and Italian or when a 3D render
translates an initial hand-draw sketch into a more refined design artefact).
Intersystemic interpretation with matter variation. In this case, the semiotic
systems are quite different and the translation only points to some elements of
the original work. For example, a choreography of Picasso’s Demoiselles
d’Avignon might translate the painting through grimaces and disarticulated
movements of the dancers. In this case, the translation points to some elements
of the original work (for example, the angular and disjointed body shapes), but
does not fully represents other elements (for example, the relationships among
the various colour nuances and the volumetric bidimensional rendering used in
the painting). Intersystemic interpretations happen in the case of adaptations,
when a novel becomes a movie, or some pieces of classical music become a
cartoon, like in the case of Walt Disney's Fantasia8.
This categorization helped us in the processes of data reduction and organization and in
the analysis of the findings.
Finally, as described by Eisenhardt (1989), a further series of iterations between the data,
both secondary and primary, and the literature has been conducted to better ground the
theoretical foundations of our investigation into current scholarly work.
3.4 Validity
There are no universal criteria that could fully assess the qualitative research (Eriksson
and Kovalainen, 2008). However, four types of methods proposed by Yin (2009) to
7 The three examples refer to three distinct sub-categories (intrasemiotic interpretation,
intralinguistic interpretation and performance). Performance is considered as a borderline
category between intrasystemic and intersystemic (Eco, 2003).
8 Eco (2003) further distinguishes between adaptation (adattamento o transmutazione per
manipolazione) and adaptation as new work (adattamento o transmutazione per creare
una nuova opera), like in the case of a novel that tells the story of Scarlett O'Hara after
she says "After all tomorrow is another day" at the end of the movie Gone with the Wind.
15
improve the validity of a qualitative case research have been adopted: construct validity,
internal validity, external validity and reliability.
Firstly, the construct validity can be executed by utilizing a wide variety of
sources of evidence to establish reliable chains of evidence. In our case, we used
a combination of data collection methods, from ethnographic observation, to
documented interviews, up to different types of archival documents, such as web
sites, articles and printed report and materials. Using these different sources, it
has been possible to crosscheck the findings and, therefore, to create
trustworthiness.
Secondly, the internal validity is assured by identifying causal relationships and
patterns in the case research. This was executed by relating the empirical data
with existing research.
Thirdly, the external validity is proved by generalization of the study results. As
the research only contains one case and a narrow amount of interviews, the
generalization of the findings is limited. Awareness of these limitations improves
the external validity.
Finally, reliability has been improved in the following way: firstly, adopting a
consistent structure for the interviews; secondly, all the data utilized in the
research has been well documented into archival records eventually accessible
by other researchers.
4. Findings
4.1 Senseable City Lab and its translational modes
Following Eco’s characterization (2003), it is possible to analyse how Senseable City Lab
uses design to operate translational processes among different categories of stakeholders,
thus supporting academic entrepreneurship. In Table 1, various translational activities
carried out by the lab are reported. At this stage, it is important to consider that not all the
activities listed in the table are directly related to design processes.
Table 1. Design and translational activities carried out in Senseable City Lab
Mode of
translation
Examples in Senseable City Lab
Intrasemiotic: e.g.,
Operating within the architectural domain, Senseable City Lab
16
a copy of a drawing
with a different
scale
frequently works with maps and models at different scale. Most
of these models are kept at the lab and visitors/team members can
interact with them also after the conclusion of the project.
Stakeholders involved: internal team members, colleagues,
visiting researchers, external collaborators.
Intralinguistic:
e.g., the summary
of a book or a
paraphrasis of a
sentence; or a
sketch that
translates another
sketch
Generally, the lab produces abstracts or summaries of its projects
(intralinguistic translations), for example to be used as short
presentations for larger audiences or for archival documentation,
using different channels and different languages for a variety of
audience. All these descriptions are carefully reworded in order to
be accessible to different target groups. Out of the 436 items
listed as publications in the official website, more than 35% of
them are destined to venues such as El Pais, La Stampa, Il
Corriere della Sera, BBC, New York Times, Wired. Senseable
City Lab’s members also put great effort in disseminating (or
marketing) their work, by systematically creating dedicated
websites (or microsites) for each project, creating press kits and
press releases, actively communicating on Facebook, Twitter and
other social media channels.
Another example of intralinguistic translation is the quite frequent
situation when sketches translate other sketches, such as in some
brainstorming sessions where some of the participants draw
sketches and some other participants answer elaborating other
sketches that translate the original one (for example, representing
the same concepts from a different perspective). This happens
quite often when team members with different backgrounds are
collaborating on the same project (for example, some
representatives from industry working together with internal
Senseable City Lab’s researchers). In these occasions, sketches
are used to translate ideas and concepts among different
stakeholders.
Stakeholders involved: wide audience, from internal members to
external collaborators and sponsors, up to press representatives
and general public.
Performance: e.g.,
two different actors
reading the same
text
The senior members of the lab frequently give keynotes or public
lectures. In some cases, the same PowerPoint slides are used and
different speakers - sometimes the lab’s director, some other
times other lab members - present these same slides.
This performative dimension is another way to translate concepts
from quite technical academic research into a form that can be
more easily understood by a large audience.
Stakeholders involved: wide, but selected audience, depending
on the presentation (e.g., the same PowerPoint slides can be used
for a keynote at a scientific conference or for a TED Talk).
Mode of
Examples in Senseable City Lab
17
translation
Intersemiotic
interpretations:
e.g., a photo of a
painting
In this case, there is a sort of translation from one type of visual
representation into another one. For example, during a project, the
lab would start with some hand-drawn sketches and get to some
digital bidimensional images and then arrive to 3D renders. All
these material re-articulations can be considered as instances of
intersemiotic translations precisely because they go through
different semiotic systems. The progression of these design
artefacts through various translations was also related to the
stages of the process (at an initial stage, it was perfectly fine to
share hand-drawn sketches among team members; at a later
stages, for example in occasion of public presentations, these
sketches needed to be translated into more polished artifacts).
Stakeholders involved: internal team members, colleagues,
visiting researchers, external collaborators, wider audience.
Interlinguistic
interpretations:
e.g., the translation
of a novel from
English to Italian
Some of Senseable City Lab publications are translated in
multiple languages, especially those books for trade, which
illustrate specific projects, such as the Digital Water Pavilion at
Zaragoza (Nicolino and Ratti, 2008) published in Italian, French,
Spanish and English. Also in light of the geographically
distributed activities of Senseable City Lab, this mode of
translation is important to further disseminate and market the
results of the lab.
Stakeholders involved: geographically distributed academic
community, but also companies working in the design field
(architects, urban planners, etc.).!
Mode of
translation
Examples in Senseable City Lab
Adaptation: e.g., a
novel becomes a
movie, or some
pieces of classical
music become a
cartoon
Senseable City Lab frequently produces motion graphics videos
that illustrate the key components of its projects. Some of these
videos, posted on the YouTube channel of Senseable City Lab got
hundreds of thousands of view9 and got frequently re-posted and
linked from other websites, activating viral dynamics.
Stakeholders involved: wide audience, from internal members to
external collaborators and sponsors, up to press representatives
and general public.
Adaptation as new
work: e.g., a novel
that tells a story
Projects created by Senseable City Lab are all connected by some
sort of overarching thematic orientation, such as the idea of smart
cities or city operating system. In some specific cases, the projects
are also further connected by a common storyline.
Stakeholders involved: wide audience, from internal members to
9 Videos related to the already cited Copenhagen Wheel project got more than 5.000.000
views (figures collected 28 July 2016).
18
external collaborators and sponsors, up to press representatives
and general public.
Although not all the translational modes described in Table 1 relate to design (i.e., the
intersemiotic interpretation mostly refers to textual translations), the majority of the
translational modes were supported by design, for example through the creation of
sketches, architectural model, prototypes, motion graphics videos and visually appealing
PowerPoint files. Also in the case of textual translations - such as a paraphrasis of a
technical and academically-oriented description aimed at translating it into a language
that could be more easily understood by a layperson - Senseable City Lab tended to
accompany these textual descriptions with dedicated visualizations or motion graphics
videos that could better explain and communicate.
For example, while working on The Copenhagen Wheel -!the already cited project aimed
at creating a hybrid e-bike, which through a set of embedded sensors can detect various
parameters related to both the cycling activities of the owners (e.g., preferred routes,
cycling habits, etc.) and the external context (e.g., air pollution, traffic and weather
conditions) - Senseable City Lab created a design artifact (Figure 1) to provide a
simplified representation of some features of the hybrid bike.
Figure 1 Screenshot from The Copenhagen Wheel website
This representation is not a blueprint that offers enough technical detail to guide the
subsequent product development activities, but only an initial outline that translates some
underlying technological advances behind the Copenhagen Wheel into a visual
articulation that can be shared and potentially understood also by people without a
background in engineering and computer sciences. It is a representation that is spatially
19
dislocated outside the lab and its academic and technological domain and repositioned as
an external communication material that also speaks to non-expert and non-academic
target audiences. This and other design artefacts specifically created for the Copenhagen
Wheel e.g., various visual mock-ups, 3D renders, motion graphics videos and
prototypes - helped Senseable City Lab in translating the conceptual and technological
complexity behind its activities into forms, which were more accessible to stakeholders
with a different academic or technical background.
The use of all these translation modes from Senseable City Lab and the efforts invested in
creating design artefacts to be distributed to multiple audiences give an idea of how
important it was for the lab to communicate/interact/exchange ideas and collaborate with
external stakeholders.
5. Discussion
5.1 How design can support translation and thus enable academic entrepreneurship
A semiotic categorization built upon the work of Eco (2003) has been used as a
framework:
To show the extent and the breadth of the translational processes carried out by
Senseable City Lab
To show how design can be employed to support translation across almost all the
translational modes used by the lab.
We will now reflect upon how these processes of translation can be used as enabling
factor to support academic entrepreneurship (Table 2).
Table 2. How different modes of translation support academic entrepreneurship
Mode of translation
How different modes of translation support academic
entrepreneurship
Intrasemiotic: maps and
architectural models or
models for new products,
created at various phases
of the projects.
Aligning internal lab members and external
collaborators, thus leading to better team
coordination.
Models are also a way to translate early ideas into
formats, which can be shared with external
investors and sponsors.
Intralinguistic: a wide
variety of written
publications, which
present projects to
different audiences,
Translating the labs’ scientific results and activity
oftentimes originating from state-of-the-art
advancements in fields such a nanotechnologies or
robotics into a format that can be easily
understood by wide audiences.
20
different channels and
using a different
language. Oftentimes,
these written publications
included visual artifacts
such as diagrams, data
visualizations, 3D
renders, etc.
As such, it is not uncommon that Senseable City
Lab’s projects get mentioned in press and media
outlets, such as Wired, TIME, CNN, Fast
Company.
This helps the dissemination and marketing
activities of the lab and its ‘brand’. An external
sponsor might be more interested in investing into
the lab, if there are chances that the joint project is
going to be featured on a TV show or an
internationally distributed magazine.
Performance: the lab
members frequently give
public presentations in
several venues,
sometimes also adding a
performative dimensions
(such as in a talk for
TED).
The presentations developed for keynote addresses,
invited lectures and seminars are generally oriented
to different targets, depending on the type of event:
from an academic conference, to a technology fair
for industry, up to a TED talk.
These presentations are ways to translate and
summarize the lab’s activities into a 15-30 minute
easy-to-understand talk.
These venues are a good way for the lab members
to create and curate connections and forge alliances,
within and beyond academia.!
Intersemiotic
interpretations: the lab
frequently uses design
artifactssketches,
visualizations and early
prototypes - during
brainstorming sessions
and the concept and
development processes.
Design artifacts are frequently used in
brainstorming sessions, which see the participation
of teams that are distributed in diverse
organizations and different geographic locations.
Design artifacts translate ideas into formats that can
more easily circulate across these organizations and
locations, thus streamlining the concept and
production processes.!
Interlinguistic
interpretations: in some
cases, Senseable City Lab
documented his projects
through some books
translated in multiple
languages.
These multilingual translations give an idea of the
geographic articulation of the lab and its way of
operating, also involving actors that might not be
comfortable with reading/speaking in English.
The lab also has sponsors located in countries
where English is not the main language: e.g., Spain,
Germany, France, and so on. This collaboration is
in itself something that some sponsors consider
qualifying for their own brand and therefore they
tend to use it in their communication activities.
Adaptation: Senseable
City Lab frequently
produces polished and
professionally crafted
videos that illustrate the
key components of its
projects.
Professionally shot short videos and motion
graphics animations are generally produced by the
lab and distributed through social media channels
(such as Youtube).
These videos are important translation mechanisms
because:
o They document the project in a format that
is engaging and visually appealing
o They can be easily understood also by an
21
audience of non-professionals
o They can be easily re-shared. This is an
incentive for the sponsors to activate
partnerships with Senseable City Lab.
Adaptation as new
work: some Senseable
City Lab’s projects such
as ‘MoMA-followup’
can be seen as adaptions
of previous work, which
is translated in a way that
can travel to different
contexts, in this case an
art exhibition.
Senseable City Lab works in a way that his research
and development activities are translated into
multiple ways, from an academic paper to an
artwork to be exhibited at a Museum of Modern Art
in New York.
This is a way for Senseable City Lab to
strategically position itself as a lab that operates
across the borders of academia.
5.2 How do design-based translational processes support value creation in academic
entrepreneurship?
The previous paragraphs described various forms of academic entrepreneurship carried
out by Senseable City Lab (contract research, grantmanship, publications, consulting,
spin-off formation) and how design supported translational processes and, as such,
worked as enabling factor in academic entrepreneurship:
Streamlining research, concept and development processes
Creating a strong brand and a clear strategic positioning for Senseable City Lab
Presenting the activities of the lab to a wide variety of audiences in an engaging
way, also for communication and marketing purposes
Coordinating and aligning the lab’s internal team members and the external
collaborators and stakeholders and their convergent and divergent needs and
interests
Forging and managing connections and alliances
All these elements support academic entrepreneurship in processes of value creation.
What kind of value is created in these processes? This is a crucial question, especially
going back to the already presented and discussed notion of academic entrepreneurship by
Kingma (2011) defining academic entrepreneurship as a way to jointly create value with
external communities. As documented in literature (Rothaermel et al., 2007), academic
entrepreneurship contributes to building economic, social and cultural value in various
ways:
22
Knowledge produced in academia can lead to economic development of industry
and other external organizations.
Academic entrepreneurship enhances the reputation of the university, which
attracts industry to the region and may lead to production of further forms of
academic entrepreneurship. Engaging in contract research contributes to stronger
social relations between university and industry that can lead to deeper
interaction in the future.
When the results of research are accessible to external, non-academic audiences
and academics engage in conversations with external stakeholders, there is a
potential for more inclusive knowledge production processes that are oriented
towards the interests of multiple social groups.
Upskilling the national or regional workforce as regards the emerging state-of-
the-art in terms of theoretical models, practice and technology. This ensures that
regional industry and maintains its competitiveness by increasing its internal
skill-base.
Creation of new entrepreneurial ventures in an economy that transfers models
and technologies from the lab to the market, through several forms of intellectual
property management.
In short, a stronger interconnection between academia and external stakeholders operating
in the market sphere is generally seen in a positive light.
However, this interconnection can become problematic and open up a series of important
questions related to how and to what extent research should maintain some degrees of
independence from the market. This is an open point, frequently debated in academic
entrepreneurship literature (Kingma, 2011) and articulated into the following questions:
To what extent should researchers be granted some levels of independence in order to
have the freedom to follow their research trajectories and/or express critical positions? To
what extent is academic research accountable to external stakeholders (industry, NGOs,
government, citizens)? To what extent can or should these external stakeholders be an
active component in shaping the course of academic research?
These questions also impact more specifically on the notion of academic entrepreneurship
and how it is defined, measured and seen from many different viewpoints, such as the
23
ones strictly focusing on the importance of monetary outcomes or the ones supporting the
creation of long-term societal value, sometimes at the expense of more immediate
economic benefits. These are all important issues that need further debate.
6. Conclusions
This paper built upon a wide definition of academic entrepreneurship as a way to connect
academia with external stakeholders in order to jointly create value. The stakeholders’
value network centred on academic entrepreneurship can respond to different needs and
interests, not necessarily aligned, and can focus on various forms of value to be created.
Potential divergences in the involvement of various stakeholders in academic
entrepreneurship are a key issue, also in relation to the ‘valley of death’ that characterizes
the transition of knowledge from academic research to the external world.
In the attempt to cover this gap, this paper provided insights on how design can be used to
support translational processes and, consequently, connect and align different
stakeholders. Insights from the investigation of the processes adopted by MIT Senseable
City Lab demonstrated how design artefacts (e.g., sketches, data visualization and
interactive prototypes) were used at various stages across a wide variety of translation
modes. These design artefacts helped Senseable City Lab in translating the conceptual
and technological complexity behind its research activities into forms, which were more
accessible to stakeholders with a different academic or technical background. For
example, translating complex scientific outcomes of research projects into an easy-to-
understand motion graphics video was a mechanism frequently used by Senseable City
Lab to communicate with external stakeholders and negotiate a shared way of working.
The paper outlined several ways in which these translational processes support academic
entrepreneurship: coordinating and aligning the lab’s internal team members and the
external collaborators and stakeholders; streamlining research, concept and development
processes; creating a strong brand and a clear strategic positioning for Senseable City
Lab; presenting the activities of the lab to a wide variety of audiences in an engaging way.
Ultimately, these translational processes were, for Senseable City Lab, a way to forge and
manage connections and alliances among stakeholders, aligning their different needs and
interests.
Like MIT Senseable City Lab, other academic institutions are nowadays challenged to
follow entrepreneurial trajectories. The perspective offered by this paper can help these
24
institutions in reflecting upon their strategies for managing the interplay of various
stakeholders. When academic institutions are aware of the potential of design as a
translational mechanism, they might want to consider employing design approaches and
methods in their own activities.
Existing scholarly work investigating interplay between design and entrepreneurship is
sparse (Hobday et al., 2012; Sun and Linton, 2014). This paper offers an initial
contribution to this area of investigation, with a specific focus on entrepreneurial
activities carried out by academic institutions.
Further work is needed, also considering the limitations of this research, which only relies
upon a single case study. As such, this article can only pinpoint to the need of additional
studies to fully explore issues related to design, translation, entrepreneurship and
processes of value creation in academia.
References
Ardayfio, D.D., 2000. Principles and practices of design innovation. Technol. Forecast. Soc.
Change 64, 155169.
Baule, G. and Caratti, E. 2016. Towards Translation Design: A New Paradigm for Design Research.
In: Proceedings of Design Research Society Conference. Brighton, UK.
Bogers, M., and Horst, W., 2014. Collaborative prototyping: cross-fertilization of knowledge in
prototype-driven problem solving. Journal of Product Innovation Management 31: 744
764. doi: 10.1111/jpim.12121.
Boyce C., and Neale P., 2006. Conducting in-depth interviews: A Guide for Designing and
Conducting In-Depth Interviews for Evaluation Input, Pathfinder International Tool Series,
Monitoring and Evaluation 2.
Boren, et al. 2012. The path to improved returns in materials commercialization, McKinsey on
Chemicals. Spring 2012, McKinsey Company.
Botes, L., 2005. Beyond@ Ivory. TowerFrom Traditional University to Engaged University. In
Proceedings of United Nations Conference on Engaging Communities.
http://www.engagingcommunities2005.org/abstracts/Botes-Lucius-final.pdf.
Bousbaci, R., 2008. Models of man in design thinking: the “bounded rationality” episode. Design
Issues 24, 3852.
Buchanan, R., 1992. Wicked problems in design thinking. Design Issues 8, 521.
Buchanan, R. 2004. Management and design. In R. J. Boland & F. Collopy (Eds.), Managing as
Designing. Stanford, Ca.: Stanford University Press, (1st ed., pp. 5463).
Cantaragiu, R., 2012. Towards a conceptual delimitation of academic entrepreneurship,
Management & Marketing Challenges for the Knowledge Society, 7 ( 4), 683-700.
Chiesa, V. and Piccaluga, A., 1998. Transforming rather than transferring scientific and
technological knowledge the contribution of academic ‘spin out’ companies: the Italian
way. In: Oakey, R.P. and During, W.E. (eds), New Technology-Based Firms in the 1990s,
Vol. 5. London: Paul Chapman Publishing.
Cross, N., 2006. Designerly Ways of Knowing. Springer-Verlag, London.
25
Czarniawska, B., 2012. Organization Theory Meets Anthropology: A Story of an Encounter.
Journal of Business Anthropology 1 (1), 11840.
Dell' Era, C., Buganza, T., Fecchio, C. and Verganti, R., 2011. Language Brokering: stimulating
Creativity During The Concept development Phase. Creativity and Innovation Management,
20, 1, 36-48
D' Ippolito, B., 2014. The importance of design for firms' competitiveness: A review of the
literature, Technovation, 34, 716730.
Diedrich, L., 2013. “Translating Harbourscapes.” Frederiksberg: Department of Geosciences and
Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen.
Dorst, K., 1996. Describing Design: A Comparison of Paradigms. Doctoral dissertation, Technical
University of Delft, Delft Institute of Technology, Delft.
Eco, U., 2003. Dire quasi la stessa cosa: Esperienze di traduzione. Milano: Bompiani.
Eisenhardt K.M. 1989. Building Theories from Case Study Research. Academy of Management
Review (14.4), 532-550.
Eisenhardt K.M., 2002. Building theories from case study research. In: Huberman A.M., Miles
M.B. (Eds.), The Qualitative Researchers’ Companion. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
Publications.
Eriksson, P. and Kovalainen, A. 2008., Qualitative Methods in Business Research, London: Sage.
Etzkowitz, H., 2001.The second academic revolution and the rise of entrepreneurial science. IEEE
Technology and Society Magazine 20 (2),1829.
Etzkowitz, H. 2003. Research groups as ‘quasi-firms’: the invention of the entrepreneurial
university. Research Policy, 32, 109121.
Fayolle, A. and Redford, S. T., (Eds) 2014. Handbook on the Entrepreneurial University, Edward
Elgar, London.
Filippetti, A., 2011. Innovation modes and design as a source of innovation: a firm-level analysis.
European Journal of Innovation Management 14, 526.
Fogelberg, H. and Sanden, B., 2008. Understanding reflexive systems of innovation: an analysis of
Swedish nanotechnology discourse and organization. Technology Analysis & Strategic
Management, 20 ( 1), 6578.
Freeman, R.E., 1984. Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach. Boston, MA: Pitman.
Freeman, R. E., 2010. Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press.
Garrett-Jones, S., Turpin, T., Burns, P. and Diment, K., 2005. Common purpose and divided
loyalties: the risks and rewards of cross-sector collaboration for academic and government
researchers. R&D Management, 35 (5), 535544.
Gemser, G., Leenders, M.A., 2001. How integrating industrial design in the product development
process impacts on company performance. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 18,
2838.
Gero, J. S., 1990. Design prototypes: a knowledge representation schema for design. AI Mag.11:
2636.
Gibb, A., Haskins, G., and Robertson, I., 2013. Leading the Entrepreneurial University: Meeting the
Entrepreneurial Development Needs of Higher Education Institutions, In A. Altmann and B.
Ebersberger (eds.), Universities in Change: Managing Higher Education Institutions in the
Age of Globalization, New York: Springer, pp. 9-45.
Gilmore J. H., Pine B. J., 1997. Beyond Goods and Services. Strategy & Leadership, 25 (3), 10-17.
Glaser, B. G. and Strauss, A. L., 1967. The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for
Qualitative Research, Chicago, Aldine Publishing Company.
26
Goel, R.K. and Grimpe, C., 2011, Are all Academic Entrepreneurs created alike? Evidence from
Germany, Fourth Annual Conference on Entrepreneurship and Innovation, Northwestern
University School of Law, Chicago, June 16-17.
Harrison, J.S. and Freeman, R.E., 1999. Stakeholders, social responsibility, and performance:
Empirical evidence and theoretical perspectives, Academy of Management Journal, 42 (5),
479485.
Hobday, M., Boddington, A., Grantham, A., 2012. Policies for design and policies for innovation:
contrasting perspectives and remaining challenges, Technovation, 32, 272281.
Jick, T.D., 1979. Mixing qualitative and quantitative methods: triangulation in action.
Administrative Science Quarterly, 24, 602611.
Jones, P. and Jordan, J., 1998. Knowledge orientations and team effectiveness. International Journal
of Technology Management 16,152161.
Jongbloed, B., Enders, J. & Salerno, C., 2008. Higher education and its communities:
Interconnections, interdependencies and a research agenda. Higher Education, 56, 303-324.
Kingma, B. R., ed., 2011. Academic Entrepreneurship and Community Engagement: Scholarship in
Action and the Syracuse Miracle. Cheltenham, UK; Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar
Publishing.
Klofsten, M., Jones-Evans, D., 2000.Comparing academic entrepreneurship in Europe: the case of
Sweden and Ireland, Small Business Economics 14, 299309.
Kotler, P. and Rath, G.A., 1984. Design: a powerful but neglected strategic tool. Journal of
Business Strategy, 5 (2),1621.
Krippendorff, K., 1989. On the essential contexts of artifacts or on the proposition that design is
making sense (of things)”. Design Issues 5, 939.
Krippendorff, K., 2006. Semantic Turn: New Foundations for Design. Boca Raton, FL; London:
CRC Taylor and Francis.
Kumar, N., Anderson, J, & Stern, L., 1993. Conducting interorganizational research using key
informants. Academy of Management Journal, 36 (6), 1633-1641.
Lawson, B., 2006. How Designers Think: the Design Process Demystified. Architectural Press,
Oxford.
Lazzeroni, M. and Piccaluga, A., 2003.Towards the entrepreneurial university. Local Economy 18
(1), 38-48.
Leblebici-Başar, D., and Altarriba, J., 2013. The Role of Imagery and Emotion in the Translation of
Concepts into Product Form. The Design Journal 16 (3), 295314.
Leonard, D., Rayport, J.F., 1997. Spark innovation through tempathic design. Harvard Business
Review75,102113.
Leonard, D., Sensiper, S., 1998.The role of tacit knowledge in group innovation. California
Management Review 40,112132.
Lu, L. and Etzkowitz, H., 2008 Strategic challenges for creating knowledge-based innovation in
China: transforming triple helix university-government-industry relations. Journal of
Technology Management in China, 3, 5–11.
Maassen, P., 2000. Editorial, European Journal of Education, 35 (4), 377383.
March, S.T., Smith, G.F., 1995. Design and natural science research on information technology.
Decision Support System15, 251266.
Markham, S., 2002. Moving technologies from lab to market, Research Technology Management,
November-December.
27
Martin, B., Etzkowitz, H., 2000. The origin and evolution of the university species. VEST 13 (34),
9–34.
McAdam, R., Miller, K., McAdam, M., and Teague, S., 2012. The development of University
Technology Transfer stakeholder relationships at a regional level: lessons for the future.
Technovation, 32, 5767.
Merrifield, B. D. 1995. Obsolescence of core competencies versus corporate renewal. Technology
Management, 2 ( 2), 73-83.
Miles, M. B. and Huberman, A. M., 1994. Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook (2nd
ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Moultrie, J. (2015) Understanding and classifying the role of design demonstrators in scientific
exploration, Technovation, 43-44, 116.
Mowery, D.C., 2001. The United States national innovation system after the cold war, in P. Larédo
and P. Mustar (eds), Research and Innovation Policies in the New Global Economy,
Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar.
Myers M.D., 2008. Qualitative Research in Business & Management. London: Sage.
Nicolino, W., & Ratti. C. 2008. Digital Water Pavilion at Zaragoza’s Milla Digital and Expo 2008.
Milano: Electa.
Oakey, R. and Mukhter, S., 1999. United kingdom high-technology small firms in theory and
practice: a review of recent trends. International Small Business Journal, 17 (1), 728.
Petrilli, S., and Ponzio, A . 2003. Translation, Encounter among Peoples and Global Semiotics. In
Petrilli, S, (ed.) Translation Translation. Amsterdam; New York: Rodopi.
Petroski, H., 1996. Invention by Design: How Engineers get from Thought to Thing. Harvard
University Press, Cambridge, MA.
Pettigrew, A, 1990. Longitudinal field research on change: theory and practice. Organization
Science 1 (3), 267292.
Post, J., Preston, L. and Sachs, S., 2002 Managing the extended enterprise: The new stakeholder
view. California Management Review 45 (1), 6-28.
Powell, W. W., and Snellman, K., 2004. The Knowledge Economy. Annual Review of Sociology
30 (1), 199220.
Reich, Y., Konda, S. L., Monarch, I. A., Levy, S. N., and Subrahmanian, E., 1996. Varieties and
Issues of Participation and Design. Design Studies 17 (2), 16580.
Riccò, D. 2016. The Ways of Synesthetic Translation: Design models for media accessibility. In:
Proceedings of Design Research Society Conference. Brighton, UK.
Rylander, A., 2009. Design thinking as knowledge work: epistemological foundations and practical
implications. Design Management Journal.5,719.
Robson, C., 2002. Real World Research, 2nd edn. Oxford: Blackwell.
Röpke, J., 1998 The Entrepreneurial University Innovation, academic knowledge creation and
regional development in globalized economy, Phillips-Universität, Marburg.
Rosenberg, N. and Nelson R., 1994. American universities and technical advance in industry,
Research Policy, 23, 323-348.
Rothaermel, F. T., Agung, S. D., and Jiang, L., 2007. University entrepreneurship: a taxonomy of
the literature, Industrial and Corporate Change, 16 (4), 691-791.
Rust, C. 2004. Design enquiry: Tacit knowledge and invention in science. Design Issues, 20 (4),
7685
Rust, C. 2007. Unstated contributions: How artistic inquiry can inform interdisciplinary research
International Journal of Design, 1 (3), 6976.
28
Sainsbury, D. 2007. The race to the top: A review of government’s science and innovation policies,
HM Treasury, London.
Schön, D. A., 1987. Educating the reflective practitioner. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Shane, S. A., 2004a. “Encouraging University Entrepreneurship? The Effect of the Bayh-Dole Act
on University Patenting in the United States.” Journal of Business Venturing 19 (1), 127
51.
———. 2004b. Academic Entrepreneurship: University Spinoffs and Wealth Creation.
Cheltenham, UK; Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Shinn, T., 2002. The triple helix and the new production of knowledge. Social Studies of Science 32
(4),599 - 614.
Simeone, L. 2014. The potential of design to foster academic entrepreneurship: An ethnographic
study of metaLAB at Harvard. In: Proceedings of NordDesign 2014, Espoo, Finland.
Simeone, L. 2016. Design moves. PhD Dissertation, Malmö University
Simeone, L., Secundo, G., Schiuma, G. 2015 Design-as-translation as enabling factor in academic
entrepreneurship: An analysis of MIT SENSEable City Lab. Proceedings of IFKAD, Bari
(Italy), 10-12 June 2015.
Simon, H.A., 1969. The Sciences of the Artificial. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Simonsen, J., and Robertson, T., eds., 2013. Routledge International Handbook of Participatory
Design. New York: Routledge.
Singh, V., and Ning Gu. 2012. Towards an Integrated Generative Design Framework. Design
Studies 33 (2), 185207.
Stam, E., and Garnsey, E., 2008. Entrepreneurship in the Knowledge Economy. In Creating Wealth
from Knowledge. Meeting the Innovation Challenge, by John Bessant and Tim Venables,
14573. Cheltenham, UK; Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Strauss, A., and Corbin, J., 1998. Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for
developing grounded theory (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Sun, H. and Linton, J. D., 2014. Value of design for competitiveness Introduction to the special
issue. Technovation, 34 (11), 647648.
Tarrow, S., 1995. Bridging the Quantitative-Qualitative Divide in Political Science. American
Political Science Review 89 (June), 471-4.
Tomes, A., Oates, C., and Armstrong, P., 1998. Talking Design: Negotiating the Verbalvisual
Translation. Design Studies 19 (2), 12742.
Urbano, D. and Guerrero, M., 2013. Entrepreneurial universities: socioeconomic impacts of
academic entrepreneurship in a European context. Economic Development Quarterly, 27,
4055.
Verganti, R., 2003. Design as brokering of languages: innovation strategies in Italian firms. Design
Management Journal14, 3442.
Verganti, R., 2008. Design, Meanings, and Radical Innovation: A Metamodel and a Research
Agenda. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 25, 43656.
Yi-Luen Do. E., Gross, M. D., Neiman, B, and Zimring, C., 2000. Intentions in and Relations
among Design Drawings. Design Studies 21 (5), 483503.
Yin R.K., 1994. Case Study Research. Design and Methods (2nd ed.). Newbury Park: Sage
Publications.
Yin, R. K., 2009. Doing case study research. 4th ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Walker, D. 1990. Managers and designers: two tribes at war? In M. Oakley (ed.) Design
management, a handbook of issues and methods. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 145-154.
Wright, M., Clarysse, B., Mustar, P., and Lockett, A., 2007. Academic Entrepreneurship in Europe.
Cheltenham, UK; Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing.
29
Wright, M., Piva, E., Mosey, S., and Lockett, A., 2009. Academic Entrepreneurship and Business
Schools. The Journal of Technology Transfer 34 (6), 56087.
Zingale, S. 2016. Design as translation activity: a semiotic overview. In: Proceedings of Design
Research Society Conference. Brighton, UK.
... Commonly, scientists struggle to communicate with the general public and potential investors (Zappe, 2013). It has been shown that designers can help convey complex scientific research findings in a language that can be understood by multiple stakeholders (Simeone et al., 2016). ...
... A crucial contribution found across most of the studies exploring designer-scientist collaborations is that the designers' ability to simplify complex information facilitates the dissemination of research; this is usually done through translational objects. A sketch, prototype, poster or visual diagram is a translational tool if it helps to reach an audience that, without it, would not have been able to understand the concept being presented (Simeone et al., 2016). ...
... According to Simeone et al. (2016) and Muller (2017), design demonstrations and creations can transform complex scientific data into simple graphic and visual representations. Designers can 'speak' the language of users and their ability to tailor their models for specific targets can breach the scientist-audience knowledge barrier (Simeone et al., 2016). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Although extensive resources are spent each year on university scientific research, the migration of this knowledge to the market remains low; only a few university research projects manage to generate the expected impact on nations' economies. This thesis proposes a framework that combines best practices from technology innovation management and product development to steer university scientific research projects towards commercialisation. A case study of a collaboration between designers and scientists showed several contributions of utilising such a framework, mainly in the early recognition of commercial opportunities for new technologies and creating market-oriented technology demonstrators.
... According to the RBV, firms are heterogeneous because they possess heterogeneous resources, and the resources possessed by firms determine their strategies, performance, and sustainable competitive advantages [2], [63]. As an important intangible resource, knowledge can be interpreted according to the needs and interests of firms and act as a fundamental factor behind innovation [64]. ...
... Although transport infrastructure improvements can shorten the time distance between firms and their potential cooperators, it is unlikely that transport infrastructure can help firms establish new ties with other firms in unrelated industries. Third, there are significant differences in terms of interests, needs, and languages among the various organizations and stakeholders [64]. Thus, firms may have difficulties in learning and taking advantage of the knowledge obtained from other organizations and stakeholders. ...
Article
Transport infrastructure has been found to shape various outcomes of economic organizations by lowering travel costs and improving market access. In this article, we examine the spillover effect of highways on firm-level productivity and introduce innovation as a potential underlying mechanism. We argue that connection to national highways overcomes the localization of knowledge spillover by connecting ideas, information, knowledge, and talent across regions, which further improves firm productivity. Using a manufacturing sample from 1998 to 2007 in the context of China, we find a positive relationship between connection to the highways and firm productivity, and this relationship is mediated by innovation performance. Our results also suggest that such a mediating effect is strengthened when a firm is located in a region with greater market liberalization or intermediary development. Our findings add to the knowledge of economic geography by providing new insights into the interplay between infrastructure and organizational outcomes.
... Designers' understanding of user needs, ideation skills and ability to communicate with multiple stakeholders throughout the technology commercialisation process can obtain funding for further technology development (Design Council, 2015). Thus design outcomes can act as translators of complex information between multiple stakeholders and facilitate multidisciplinary research and collaboration (Simeone et al., 2016, Simeone et al., 2017. Finally, design demonstrates value beyond the advancement of science. ...
... These design outcomes further support prior research (Thong and Kuys, 2012) that design methods help explore potential applications for new materials and demonstrate the technical feasibility of specific applications (Moultrie, 2015). In addition, the process of producing these outcomes, from sketches to prototype, also support prior research (Simeone et al., 2017, Simeone et al., 2016, Lüneburg et al., 2020 about the ability of design techniques to translate complex information. In this case, the communication of the working principle of the graphene-based material to the general public. ...
Article
Full-text available
Universities struggle to commercialise scientific research. However, designers can help scientists bridge the research-market gap in different ways. Although the value design can bring to science is understood, how design outputs deliver value to scientific research remains unexplored. Our paper reports findings from a designer-scientist collaboration developing a graphene-based water desalination technology. By reflecting on this case study, we found that design outputs serve different purposes in developing technology and assist in progressing technology maturation efficiently.
... La letteratura ha evidenziato come la Kt possa essere agevolata dall'utilizzo di strumenti operativi . Precedenti studi hanno individuato, tra gli strumenti utilizzati, la diffusione tramite pubblicazioni scientifiche (Olson et al, 2010), l'uso di dispositivi web e mobile per le cartelle cliniche (Baigorri et al, 2013), i social media Presch et al, 2020), riunioni e incontri periodici (Barcellini et al, 2020), la creazione di gruppi di lavoro multidisciplinari , l'utilizzo di un linguaggio semplice e comprensibile (Angelos, 2020), le competenze trasversali delle persone quali l'empatia (Wallace, 2012), la leadership, la capacità di lavorare in gruppo , la creatività, l'uso di elementi e strumenti visivi collegati al design, come vignette, grafici, bozzetti, immagini (Simeone et al, 2017;Dal Mas et al, 2020a). ...
... In particolare, gli elementi e gli artefatti di design risultano particolarmente interessanti quali facilitatori della Kt, in quanto proprio tali strumenti appaiono in grado di agevolare il dialogo tra le parti interessate, permettendo di trasformare le idee e i concetti in un format più visivo e tangibile, condivisibile e comprensibile dalle parti coinvolte nel processo di Kt (Simeone et al, 2017;Dal Mas et al, 2020a). ...
Article
The knowledge translation stands as a topic of primary importance in the healthcare sector, characterized by the presence of several stakeholders with different skills, needs, and expectations. The transfer of knowledge can take place effectively only following a translation process, through the use of appropriate tools. Among these tools, the contribution of the design elements appears attractive, especially in the case of co-production processes, with significant patient engagement. The case study is about the ‘Oncology in Motion’ project, created by the Irccs Oncological reference center Institute of Aviano (Pordenone) to support and improve the physical and psychological recovery of breast operated patients. The information sources for data collection are manifold, including interviews, direct observations, and materials produced within the project. The use of design elements such as graphics, sketches, images, photographs has helped to support all the stakeholders involved in translating knowledge in all the phases of the co-production project: conception, execution, and external communication. The ‘Oncology in Motion’ experience demonstrates how design elements can constitute strong support for co-production processes in their phases, facilitating the interaction among the various people involved, especially when it comes to the active engagement of patients.
... Tasked with developing conceptual and practical tools to engage with, and occasionally steer, urban change and development, the organisational structures of such laboratories vary between locations but associate regularly with pre-existing university structures. From MIT's justly famous and globally operating 'Senseable City Lab' (Simeone et al., 2017) to San Raffaele Scientific Institutes's (FCSR) City of the Future Living Lab in Milan (Vicini & Sanna, 2013, pp. 254-259) or its off-beat, culturally focussed local twin Macao (Valli, 2015;D'Ovidio & Cossu, 2016) and from the privately financed 'smart city' focused City Lab Graz, Maastricht's M-LAB (Scholl & Kemp, 2016) to the postulation of entire urban quarters or even cities as 'laboraties' (Juujärvi & Pesso, 2013), the concept of the 'lab' has gained considerable currency and traction since the turn of the millennium. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper details the contextual and conceptual elements involved in setting up an Urban Lab in the city of Galway, Ireland. The paper specifies the set-up of a lab in the post-industrial area of Nuns' Island, through a detailed reading of pertinent ‘lab-centred’ literatures. It contributes to this literature by (1) analysing a lab in the explicit context of an urban regeneration project and (2) exploring ways in which co-production may be put into practice. Urban Lab Galway is anticipated initially to play a major role supporting the urban regeneration of an area adjacent to a major university, which also owns substantial buildings and land on the site, and is thus not surprisingly supported by the local university in question. The paper motivates and details the reasons supporting co-produced initiatives, critically exploring the potential and difficulties attaching to such practices. The paper ends in a sustained engagement with the concept of ‘creative destruction’ in the context of lab-based engagements.
... Self-reflection in SCT enables individuals to analyse their experiences and develop their thought about how technology can enhance healthcare processes to derive knowledge about themselves and their patients. This is in line with Rippa and Secundo's (2019) findings concerning the substantial role of digital technologies in shaping academic entrepreneurship through which universities employ a variety of actions relying upon the collaboration of diverse stakeholders (Secundo, Toma, Schiuma, & Passiante, 2019;Simeone, Secundo, & Schiuma, 2017) to accomplish their entrepreneurial goals (Rippa & Secundo, 2019), including cooperation agreements with industry and research ambidexterity (Chang, Yang, Martin, Chi, & Tsai-Lin, 2016;Rasmussen, Mosey, & Wright, 2011), patent registrations (Llopis, D'Este, McKelvey, & Yegros, 2021), concept spinoffs into new enterprises, entrepreneurial teaching of highly trained personnel, and business incubators (D'Este, Mahdi, Neely, & Rentocchini, 2012;Muscio & Ramaciotti, 2019;Ndonzuau, Pirnay, & Surlemont, 2002;Pauwels, Clarysse, Wright, & Van Hove, 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
The phenomenal development of healthcare practice in the past few decades has reinforced the view that technology could potentially be the third healing triad element. This study, using data from Australia and the United Kingdom, explores resilience in nursing education through the lens of emerging digital technologies and enhanced emotional training. The study employed a mixed-method approach. A pretest-posttest was used to collect data from 54 nursing students during the lectures and tutorials, whilst the qualitative consisted of interviews with 20 health professionals, including nurse teachers and doctors. We found that students' confidence in mental health nursing practice improved substantially after mental health placement. Besides, the effectiveness of the training offered was not compromised by variances in the demographic groups (e.g. age and gender) amongst the participants. The interview findings revealed that nurses could develop more outstanding modern capabilities with exposure to increasingly used technologies in the healthcare sector; thus, AI and digital technology and health-related engineering equipment can help reduce stress in the profession as machines become critical aid. Technology is, thus, not a threat but a necessary complement that can upskill nurses for contemporary practice.
... However, people involved may have different education, skills, expertise, needs and ages, representing a powerful barrier that prevents effective knowledge sharing and transfer (Dal Mas et al., 2020b). Recent literature has coined the term "knowledge translation", which recalls the idea of a foreign language translated into a different language in another context to describe the process of knowledge transformation required to share and transfer knowledge amongst people of different backgrounds (Cobianchi et al., 2021;Dal Mas et al., 2020d;Savory, 2006Savory, , 2009Simeone et al., 2017). ...
Article
Purpose: The paper aims at analysing the role of business plan development as a knowledge translation tool, especially for the creation of start-ups. In a complex knowledge ecosystem populated by multiple diverse and autonomous actors (like potential entrepreneurs, local companies, local public entities, and business consultants) bonded together by a joint search for valuable knowledge, business plan development can work as a powerful enabler for the translation of knowledge. Design/methodology/approach: The study employs a qualitative multi-case study approach by examining the results of a public program devoted to the creation of new entrepreneurial ventures. We analysed 418 complete business plans and followed up all the participants with an interview. 40 cases were investigated more in detail. Findings: Results show how business plan development can function as a bridge between academic, theoretical and general knowledge on start-up creation on the one hand, and practical contextualised activities of potential entrepreneurs on the other. Originality/Value: The paper contributes to knowledge management and knowledge translation literature by demonstrating the role of business plan development as an effective knowledge translation enabler. It also adds to the understanding of innovation management and entrepreneurial education by proving the relevance of the translation of knowledge for the creation of new business ventures. Practical implications: The process of knowledge translation is crucial to ensure that relevant knowledge coming from both the inside (the entrepreneur) and outside (the stakeholders) of the organization is effectively applied. To facilitate the translation process, key knowledge users should be supported in contextualising and making sense of the research knowledge. Initiatives carried out by local entities and other actors, gathering several stakeholders to develop business plans, can become valuable opportunities to facilitate the translation process for start-up development.
... It has been well recognized that design can add or create value in business, especially entrepreneurial business (Simeone, Secundo, and Schiuma 2017). According to the 2015 Design Value Index reported by the Design Management Institute, 'design-centric companies selected from six publicly traded stocks that reflect best practices in design management show a 211% return over the Standard & Poor's 500 (Rae 2016). ...
Article
University. Her research areas are design-driven entrepreneurship, design management capability and design policy. The intersection between design and entrepreneurship is an emerging research field. Design is stated as an approach, process or method for entrepreneurship. This overlaps with the concept of design management, especially the entrepreneurial mode of design management. However, we argue that the way of bringing design function into a tech start-up organization was ignored. As a new venture, there is a process of introducing and applying the design function. This implies a changed relationship between design function and the tech start-ups, which are in different stages of design management maturity. To fill this gap, an online survey of 123 tech start-ups in Hong Kong Science Park was conducted. Three main findings are obtained: 1) heterogeneous design demands according to the design management maturity; 2) a process-based view of bringing design function into tech start-ups; 3) four main barriers to bringing design function.
Chapter
This chapter focuses not only on learning methods about the adoption of sustainable practices in architecture but also on harnessing innovative approaches in architectural concepts.
Chapter
The purpose of this chapter is to outline the development of the idea of "stakeholder management" as it has come to be applied in strategic management. We begin by developing a brief history of the concept. We then suggest that traditionally the stakeholder approach to strategic management has several related characteristics that serve as distinguishing features. We review recent work on stakeholder theory and suggest how stakeholder management has affected the practice of management. We end by suggesting further research questions.
Book
This insightful Handbook offers a lens through which to view entrepreneurship strategy for higher education institutions, as it becomes increasingly necessary for universities to consider changing their strategies, culture and practices to become more entrepreneurial.
Article
- This paper describes the process of inducting theory using case studies from specifying the research questions to reaching closure. Some features of the process, such as problem definition and construct validation, are similar to hypothesis-testing research. Others, such as within-case analysis and replication logic, are unique to the inductive, case-oriented process. Overall, the process described here is highly iterative and tightly linked to data. This research approach is especially appropriate in new topic areas. The resultant theory is often novel, testable, and empirically valid. Finally, framebreaking insights, the tests of good theory (e.g., parsimony, logical coherence), and convincing grounding in the evidence are the key criteria for evaluating this type of research.