Article

Profiles of Cyberpornography Use and Sexual Well-Being in Adults

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Abstract

Introduction Although findings concerning sexual outcomes associated with cyberpornography use are mixed, viewing explicit sexual content online is becoming a common activity for an increasing number of individuals. Aim To investigate heterogeneity in cyberpornography-related sexual outcomes by examining a theoretically and clinically based model suggesting that individuals who spend time viewing online pornography form three distinct profiles (recreational, at-risk, and compulsive) and to examine whether these profiles were associated with sexual well-being, sex, and interpersonal context of pornography use. Methods The present cluster-analytic study was conducted using a convenience sample of 830 adults who completed online self-reported measurements of cyberpornography use and sexual well-being, which included sexual satisfaction, compulsivity, avoidance, and dysfunction. Main Outcomes Measures Dimensions of cyberpornography use were assessed using the Cyber Pornography Use Inventory. Sexual well-being measurements included the Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction, the Sexual Compulsivity Scale, the Sexual Avoidance Subscale, and the Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale. Results Cluster analyses indicated three distinct profiles: recreational (75.5%), highly distressed non-compulsive (12.7%), and compulsive (11.8%). Recreational users reported higher sexual satisfaction and lower sexual compulsivity, avoidance, and dysfunction, whereas users with a compulsive profile presented lower sexual satisfaction and dysfunction and higher sexual compulsivity and avoidance. Highly distressed less active users were sexually less satisfied and reported less sexual compulsivity and more sexual dysfunction and avoidance. A larger proportion of women and of dyadic users was found among recreational users, whereas solitary users were more likely to be in the highly distressed less active profile and men were more likely to be in the compulsive profile. Conclusion This pattern of results confirms the existence of recreational and compulsive profiles but also demonstrates the existence of an important subgroup of not particularly active, yet highly distressed consumers. Cyberpornography users represent a heterogeneous population, in which each subgroup is associated with specific sexual outcomes.

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... Adolescents in the at-risk PPU group reported similar PPU scores as treatment-seeking and treatment considering individuals in previous studies (Bőthe, Lonza, et al., 2020;. In line with prior findings (Cho, 2016;Efrati & Dannon, 2019;Efrati & Gola, 2018;Vaillancourt-Morel et al., 2017), the at-risk PPU group included significantly more boys, but no sexual orientation-related differences were identified between the low-risk and at-risk PPU groups. Moreover, the at-risk PPU group started to use pornography from a younger age, had higher levels of PPU, greater sexual interest, arousal, and distress, and used pornography and masturbated more frequently than adolescents in the low-risk PPU group. ...
... Nevertheless, it should be noted that prior person-centered studies with adults identifying individuals with PPU Vaillancourt-Morel et al., 2017) and studies with adolescents examining compulsive sexual behaviors (Efrati & Dannon, 2019;Efrati & Gola, 2018) reported three potential groups of users, with one of them being the This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers. ...
... 10 problematic or compulsive user group. In these studies Efrati & Dannon, 2019;Efrati & Gola, 2018;Vaillancourt-Morel et al., 2017), approximately 3%-14% of the users belonged to the at-risk PPU group. Although only two groups of adolescents were identified in the present study based on their levels of PPU, a similar ratio, 10% of adolescents, belonged to the at-risk PPU group, as reported in prior studies. ...
Article
Objective: Despite the high prevalence of adolescents’ pornography use and increasing societal concerns about it, the examination of problematic pornography use (PPU) among this population is still scarce, potentially due to the lack of well-validated, reliable measures. The aims of the present study were to validate a short, theory-based measure of PPU in a diverse sample of adolescents and identify a potentially at-risk problematic pornography user group. Method: We used a sample of 802 adolescents (35% girls; 14% sexual minority; Mage = 15.4 years, SD = 0.6) who reported lifetime pornography use, collected as part of an ongoing longitudinal study on adolescents’ sexual health. To examine the psychometric properties of the short, six-item version of the Problematic Pornography Consumption Scale for adolescents (PPCS-6-A), we conducted confirmatory factor analysis, gender and sexual orientation measurement invariance testing, and assessed theoretically relevant correlates (e.g., masturbation frequency). We conducted latent profile analysis to identify adolescents at risk of PPU. Results: The PPCS-6-A demonstrated strong psychometric properties in terms of factor structure, measurement invariance (i.e., boys vs. girls, and heterosexual vs. sexual minority adolescents), and reliability, and correlated reasonably with the assessed variables. Ten percent of participants were identified as being at-risk of PPU. Conclusions: The PPCS-6-A can be considered a short, reliable, and valid scale to assess PPU in adolescents, and may distinguish between low-risk and at-risk problematic users. Its use in future studies could lead to a better understanding of the prevalence and characteristics of adolescents’ PPU.
... In other words, the justification for Pornography Addiction being a discrete diagnosis is significantly undercut by the seemingly obvious observation that compulsive pornography viewing could only ever be a subset of sex addiction or compulsive sexual behaviour, while the reverse cannot be so: either sex is the drug, or pornography is the drug, both cannot be true -or so it would seem. 10 Pertinently, here it is worth noting that a substantial proportion of the empirical psychological research on Pornography Addiction is now made up of research that avoids this theoretical and taxonomic quagmire by instead investigating the "perception" of being addicted to pornography (Grubbs, Exline, Pargament, Hook, & Carlisle, 2015;Vaillancourt-Morel et al. 2017;Wéry, et al. 2019;Wilt et al. 2016; see Grubbs & Perry, 2019 for review). ...
... Finally, other longitudinal survey research, by Grubbs, Exline, Pargament, Volk, & Lindberg (2017) has suggested that moral disapproval towards pornography is closely linked to a self-diagnosis of pornography addiction, which may in turn predict negative outcomes. For example, Grubbs et al. (2017) suggest that perceiving oneself as being a pornography addict is more closely related to psychological distress than the amount of pornography viewed (see also Vaillancourt-Morel et al. 2017;Wilt et al. 2016). ...
... Moreover, it is clear that pornography addiction can be used to explain a veritable cornucopia of morally and ethically distressing scenarios, with the apparently bona fide biological underpinnings of the label offering explanation, and therefore exculpation (Hacking, 1996). Accordingly, some recent evidence suggests that pornography addiction is often taken up in the wake of moral and religious experiences of transgression (see Vaillancourt-Morel et al. 2017;Wilt et al. 2016). Considering the wealth of moral issues that pornography addiction can explain, perhaps it is not surprising to see the uptake of such a versatile diagnosis. ...
Thesis
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Over the last five decades the landscape of pornography as a medium, and the way that pornography is researched and discussed, have shifted. In the first instance, the migration of pornography to more powerful delivery networks has created predictable waves of anxiety about pornography’s ubiquity, content, and consequences. However, in the second instance, the focus of these concerns have changed over time, from protests against pornography on political and sociocultural grounds, to become a battle of the pathological individual. In this thesis, I argue first that this shift represents a convergence of discourses, as old political agitation has given way to a sterile language of expertise and medicalisation. At the same time the unease which underpinned protests against pornography have remained, giving rise to an oxymoronic contemporary tension between pornography as both risky yet ubiquitous and largely unmoderated. Hereafter I argue that the concept of pornography addiction serves a reconciliatory function, as a way of delineating between acceptable and unacceptable pornography viewing. In turn, I argue that pornography addiction offers individuals – and society at large – a scapegoat upon which the excesses of pornography can be divested, while a widespread tolerance for pornography viewing remains intact. As I will explore, the actual experiences of viewing pornography rarely fit into the neat formula of addictive or not, leaving pornography viewers suspended in a discursive gulf between the promise of pleasure and the threat of pathology. Indeed, while viewers of pornography present a peculiar cohort – contradictorily stereotyped as both perverts and sexually adventurous – the experience of pornography viewing as complex, challenging, and ambiguous is rarely considered or investigated. Utilizing media and social media analyses, survey responses, and interview data, this thesis drills down into the ways that pornography, addiction, pornography viewing, and “Pornography Addiction” are made sense of by its viewership. Here I argue, not only that vague understandings of pornography as addictive have created a confusing environment for researchers and pornography viewers alike, but that such pervasive sense-making is fertile ground for the contemporary flourishing of the very pathology being described.
... That is, both frequency of pornography use and self-reported problematic pornography use did relate to functioning, but in opposite ways. In contrast, another study found that more compulsive users of pornography with lowto-moderate distress over their use (i.e., people who report excessive pornography use, and feel that their use is out of control, but do not report high levels of guilt or shame over their use) reported very low levels of physiological sexual functioning problems in comparison to infrequent but highly distressed users [6]. ...
... For example, among men, the use of pornography for sexual curiosityrelated motives was positively linked to greater sexual satisfaction [10]. Similarly, women seem less likely to report problematic pornography use and more likely to report higher sexual satisfaction associated with their pornography use than men [6]. Additional findings showed that, in heterosexual relationships, the female partner's use of pornography was associated with higher sexual desire [38,39], greater sexual satisfaction [11,35], and more frequent engagement in sexual encounters with their partner [10,35]. ...
... Additional findings showed that, in heterosexual relationships, the female partner's use of pornography was associated with higher sexual desire [38,39], greater sexual satisfaction [11,35], and more frequent engagement in sexual encounters with their partner [10,35]. In addition, for both men and women, some studies have found that watching pornography with a partner was associated with higher sexual satisfaction [6,31]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose of Review Pornography use is a common recreational activity in most developed nations with unrestricted internet access. As public awareness of pornography’s popularity has grown, so have concerns about potentially deleterious effects of pornography. One domain of particular concern has been the impact of pornography use and online sexual behaviors on sexual wellbeing. Over recent years, a number of studies have examined how pornography use relates to sexual wellbeing. The present work seeks to review such literature, with a particular focus on the effects of pornography on sexual functioning and sexual satisfaction. To this end, a systematic review of recent research (within the past 5 years) was conducted. Recent Findings A total of 44 articles were included in the systematic review. In some situations, pornography use is associated with greater sexual functioning and greater sexual satisfaction, and in other cases it seems to be associated with lower sexual functioning and lower sexual satisfaction. Specifically, mere pornography use itself was most often not associated with sexual functioning in either direction, but self-reported problematic use of pornography was consistently associated with more sexual functioning problems. Summary Collectively, results suggest a nuanced understanding of the effects of pornography on sexual wellbeing, with the context of and perceptions about pornography use being extremely important in predicting whether or not pornography has negative effects.
... That is, both frequency of pornography use and self-reported problematic pornography use did relate to functioning, but in opposite ways. In contrast, another study found that more compulsive users of pornography with low-to-moderate distress over their use (i.e., people who report excessive pornography use, and feel that their use is out of control, but do not report high levels of guilt or shame over their use) reported very low levels of physiological sexual functioning problems in comparison to infrequent but highly distressed users [33]. ...
... For example, among men, the use of pornography for sexual curiosity related motives was positively linked to greater sexual satisfaction [29]. Similarly, women seem less likely to report problematic pornography use and more likely to report higher sexual satisfaction associated with their pornography use than men [33]. Additional findings showed that, in heterosexual relationships, the female partner's use of pornography was associated with higher sexual desire [38,39] greater sexual satisfaction [30,40], and more frequent engagement in sexual encounters with their partner [29,30]. ...
... Additional findings showed that, in heterosexual relationships, the female partner's use of pornography was associated with higher sexual desire [38,39] greater sexual satisfaction [30,40], and more frequent engagement in sexual encounters with their partner [29,30]. In addition, for both men and women, some studies have found that watching pornography with a partner was associated with higher sexual satisfaction [28,33]. ...
Preprint
Purpose of the Review: Pornography use is a common recreational activity in most developed nations with unrestricted internet access. As public awareness of pornography’s popularity has grown, so have concerns about potentially deleterious effects of pornography. One domain of particular concern has been the impact of pornography use and online sexual behaviors on sexual well-being. Over recent years, a number of studies have examined how pornography use relates to sexual well-being. The present work seeks to review such literature, with a particular focus on the effects of pornography on sexual functioning and sexual satisfaction. To this end, a systematic review of recent research (within the past 5 years) was conducted. Recent Findings: A total of 44 articles were included in the systematic review. In some situations, pornography use is associated with greater sexual functioning and greater sexual satisfaction, and in other cases it seems to be associated with lower sexual functioning and lower sexual satisfaction. Specifically, mere pornography use itself was most often not associated with sexual functioning in either direction, but self-reported problematic use of pornography was consistently associated with more sexual functioning problems. Summary: Collectively, results suggest a nuanced understanding of the effects of pornography on sexual well-being, with the context of and perceptions about pornography use being extremely important in predicting whether or not pornography has negative effects.
... This method is subject to recall biases-a significant problem considering individuals underestimate their media use (Kahn et al., 2014). The associations with frequency of use may also be biased toward high frequency or excessive use, which from a conceptual and clinical standpoint is distinct from recreational pornography use (Vaillancourt-Morel et al., 2017). ...
... However, results are in line with those of experimental studies using one time exposure, which found no association between in-lab pornography viewing and relationship satisfaction or love for the partner (Balzarini et al., 2017;Staley & Prause, 2013). The negative association reported in retrospective studies for men's use may not be noticeable shortly after viewing pornography once, on the same or the next day, but perhaps a small cumulative effect is being picked up over time with repetitive or even compulsive use (Vaillancourt-Morel et al., 2017;Wright et al., 2019). The association with relationship satisfaction, a general subjective relational outcome, may also vary according to the dyadic context surrounding use, such as using alone or with the partner (Kohut et al., 2018;Willoughby & Leonhardt, 2020) or depending on the partner's acceptance of pornography (Maas et al., 2018;Willoughby et al., 2016). ...
Article
Pornography use is now considered a normative sexual activity, including for partnered individuals. Although there are documented positive and negative effects of pornography use on romantic relationships, studies to date suffer from key limitations, narrowing their clinical relevance. Most rely on vague recall measurement that may inadequately capture actual pornography use, and all are exclusively based on mixed-sex couples. This study used a 35-day dyadic daily diary design to examine the associations between an individual's daily pornography use and their own and their partner's relationship satisfaction, partnered sexual desire, and probability of partnered sexual activity in mixed-sex and same-sex couples (N ¼ 217 couples). For women, regardless of partner's sex, using pornography was associated with their own and their partner's higher sexual desire and with higher odds of partnered sexual activity. For men, regardless of partner's sex, using pornography was associated with their partner's lower sexual desire; for men coupled with women, with lower odds of partnered sexual activity, and for men coupled with men, with higher odds of partnered sexual activity. For all participants, pornography use was unrelated to relationship satisfaction. The current study demonstrated that an individual's pornography use is associated with same-day couple's sexual dynamics, with different associations according to users' and their partners' sex.
... Undoubtedly, some people use pornography more frequently than others, and some individuals report using pornography excessively. Even so, a number of studies have shown that high-frequency use of pornography is not always or even often problematic (Bőthe et al., 2020;Vaillancourt-Morel et al., 2017). People who report problems or impairment associated with pornography use may do so quite independently of the actual frequency or duration of their use (Grubbs, Lee, et al., 2020;Vaillancourt-Morel et al., 2017). ...
... Even so, a number of studies have shown that high-frequency use of pornography is not always or even often problematic (Bőthe et al., 2020;Vaillancourt-Morel et al., 2017). People who report problems or impairment associated with pornography use may do so quite independently of the actual frequency or duration of their use (Grubbs, Lee, et al., 2020;Vaillancourt-Morel et al., 2017). Thus, there is evidence that quantity or frequency may not be the only determining factor in whether a person reports feeling dysregulated or out of control in their use of pornography. ...
Article
Pornography use is both ubiquitous and controversial in developed nations. Although research related to pornography use has flourished in topical and special-interest journals for several decades, much of this work has remained in the periphery of mainstream interests. The current article reviews how pornography use is likely relevant to various domains within psychological science, particularly emphasizing its significance in relationship research, adolescent-development research, and clinical science. Specifically, pornography use is likely salient to research examining both sexual and romantic satisfaction. Additionally, it is also likely relevant to understanding adolescent sexual development, particularly among sexual-minority populations. Finally, a large body of research suggests that pornography use may become problematic, either because of excessive use or moral incongruence about such use, illustrating its salience in clinical psychological science. Collectively, the current research related to pornography use suggests that it is of interest to multiple domains in psychological science and that its effects can range from positive to neutral to negative.
... Not all studies have supported a straightforward interpretation between pornography use and sexual relationship satisfaction. In a convenience sample of 803 adults, cluster analyses revealed significant differences between participants using pornography primarily for recreation, those individuals emotionally or psychologically distressed about their pornography use, and compulsive users [21]. Recreational, non-compulsive users-with women comprising 78% of this cluster-reported greater sexual satisfaction and lower sexual avoidance compared to the other two profiles. ...
... Similar to prior reports on masturbation [36] and partnered sex [75,76], one might reasonably hypothesize that underlying motivations for and attitudes toward pornography use could differentially affect sexual response. Finally, our questionnaire did not distinguish between women who were satisfied with their pornography use and those who either felt distressed about using pornography or addicted to such materials (e.g., [21]). Multiple reports have demonstrated that the perception of pornography addiction or compulsivity, rather than pornography use frequency itself, may be a stronger predictor of sexual dysfunction among both men and women [77,78]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The effect of pornography on sexual response is understudied, particularly among women. A multinational, community-based sample of 2433 women at least 18 years of age completed a 42-item, opt-in questionnaire collecting information on demographic and sexual history characteristics, use of pornography during masturbation, frequency of pornography use, and sexual response parameters. Pornography use and average frequency were compared across demographic variables. We also examined how pornography frequency predicted differences in self-reported arousal difficulty; orgasmic difficulty, latency, and pleasure; and the percent of sexual activities ending in orgasm during both masturbation and partnered sex. On average, women using pornography were younger, and reported more interest in sex. Pornography frequency differed significantly by menopausal status, sexual orientation, anxiety/depression status, number of sexual partners, and origin of data collection. During masturbation, more frequent pornography use predicted lower arousal difficulty and orgasmic difficulty, greater pleasure, and a higher percentage of masturbatory events leading to orgasm. Frequency of pornography use predicted only lower arousal difficulty and longer orgasmic latencies during partnered sex, having no effect on the other outcome variables. Pornography use frequency did not predict overall relationship satisfaction or sexual relationship satisfaction. Overall, more frequent pornography use was generally associated with more favorable sexual response outcomes during masturbation, while not affecting most partnered sex parameters. Several demographic and relationship covariates appear to more consistently and strongly predict orgasmic problems during partnered sexual activity than pornography use.
... When the act of using Internet to view or interact with pornographic material [101] becomes excessively time consuming, distressing and difficult to resist, it indicates the potential presence of a pathological behaviour named Cyberpornograpy addiction (CPA). Around 12% of cyberpornography users tend to become compulsive, showing comorbid, recurring and uncontrollable sexual concerns that favour adverse consequences [102,103]. cyberpornography addicts were found to spend on average 110 minutes per day watching pornography and reported high levels of compulsivity and emotional distress, with sexual avoidance and low sexual gratification and impairment in several areas of functioning [103 -105]. ...
... The Cyber Pornography Use Inventory (CPUI), a 31-item questionnaire, is the most widely used instrument to assess the three dimensions of pornography use: compulsivity, intensity of efforts to access pornography and emotional distress associated with pornography use [103,106]. Another tool is the Internet Sex Screening Test (ISST) item, a 25 true-false item test that identifies low risk (1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7)(8), at risk (9)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18) and high risk (> 19) abnormal Internet sex behaviours [107,108]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Problematic Usage of the Internet (PUI) refers to a broad and likely heterogeneous group of Internet-related conditions associated with behavioural disturbances and functional impairment. Methods Within PUI several conditions have been reported, including Gaming Disorder, Shopping Addiction, Cyberchondria, Gambling Disorder, Cyberpornography Addiction and Cyberbullying. While increasing reports in the field try to define the epidemiologic and clinical boundaries of these conditions, the rapid and continuous evolution of Internet related behaviours as well as their problematic/pathological expressions are often difficult to diagnose, assess, approach with treatment interventions and follow-up. Results In addition, some of the PUI-related conditions show characteristics of addiction to the Internet as a preferential tool to engage in specific behaviours, while some others exclusively manifest on the Internet, making it necessary to find distinct assessment and treatment pathways. Conclusion The inclusion of Internet Gaming Disorder in Section III by the DSM-5 and the recognition of Gaming Disorder by the ICD-11 opened the way for a systematic clinical investigation of this and other PUI-related conditions, particularly in terms of preventive and therapeutic strategies. The present article is aimed at offering an updated clinical overview on the main expressions of PUI, focussing on the latest acquisitions in this evolving field.
... In a subsequent cluster analysis, they reported that 2.8% of their sample fit into a control/consequences cluster (6% men and 3% women). In a cluster analysis, Vaillancourt-Morel et al. [27] reported higher numbers for the compulsive cyberpornography user cluster (11.8%), with men being more likely to belong to this cluster. In a community sample, Castro-Calvo et al. [28] reported 7.8% of individuals meeting the CSBD cut-off (HBI). ...
... These groups were distinguishable according to their HBI scores, which verifies that there is such a thing as unproblematic high frequency pornography consumption and that it is not to be confused with CSBD. Vaillancourt-Morel [27] reported a similar finding in their study by using the SCS scores to differentiate between clusters (recreational pornography use, highly distressed non-compulsive use and compulsive use). ...
Article
The inclusion of Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder (CSBD) in the ICD-11 has sparked research interest on this topic in recent years. This review aims to investigate gender differences in Compulsive Sexual Behavior (CBD) and persons with CSBD. While impulsivity and psychiatric comorbidity play a role in persons with CSBD regardless of gender, some gender differences can be identified. CSBD is more prevalent in men, with a higher rate of reported sexual behaviors and higher scores on questionnaires measuring CSBD related symptoms. Neuroticism and stress vulnerability seem to play a more important role in the symptomatology of CSBD in women. While it seems plausible that childhood adversities play a role in the development of CSB, the manner with respect to how these adversities affect men and women differently is still to be explored. More clinical studies including the female CSBD population are required to infer clinical implications.
... Accordingly, compulsive sexual behavior disorder was included in the International Classification of Diseases, 11th Revision, 23 although hypersexual disorder was not included in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (DSM-5). 24,25 Conversely, some individuals may improve sexual experiences with pornography use, 10,14,21,26 or not experience notable effects on wellbeing or sexual health. 26,27 While frequent pornography use has emerged as a pressing research subject within public and sexual health, surprisingly little is known regarding its occurrence in the general population. ...
... Previous studies predominantly constitute online surveys and small samples with limited generalizability. 1,3,[18][19][20][21]28,29 Although reports on problematic pornography use describe individuals who view pornography daily or several times per week, 1,3,18−21 publications from population-based surveys have reported whether participants have viewed pornography during the past week, 30 month 28,30,31 or year 26,30,32 and not focused on sexual health outcomes. As such, there is a scarcity of detailed information on the occurrence of frequent pornography use and its associations with sexual health outcomes in large and recent population-based samples. ...
Article
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Background Little is known about pornography use and its relationship with sexual health outcomes in the general population. Aim To assess frequency of pornography use and the association of sexual health outcomes with frequent pornography use in Sweden. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of 14,135 participants (6,169 men and 7,966 women) aged 16–84 years in a Swedish nationally representative survey from 2017. We used logistic regression to assess the association of sexual health outcomes with use of pornography ≥3 times/wk. Outcomes Frequency of pornography use (never; less than once/mo to 3 times/mo; 1–2 times/wk; 3–5 times/wk; and daily or almost daily) and sexual health outcomes (eg, sexual satisfaction and sexual health problems). Results In total, 68.7% of men and 27.0% of women used pornography. Among men aged 16–24 years, 17.2% used pornography daily or almost daily, 24.7% used pornography 3–5 d/wk and 23.7% used pornography 1–2 d/wk. Among women aged 16–24 years, the proportions were 1.2% for daily or almost daily, 3.1% for 3–5 times/wk, and 8.6% for 1–2 times/wk. Frequency of pornography use decreased with age among both men and women. While 22.6% of all men and 15.4% of all women reported that their or a sex partner's pornography use predominantly had positive effects on their sex life, 4.7% of men and 4.0% of women reported that the effects were predominantly negative. Variables indicating sexual dissatisfaction and sexual health problems were associated with use of pornography ≥3 times/wk: for example, dissatisfaction with sex life (age-adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: men 2.90 [95% CI 2.40–3.51]; women 1.85 [95% CI 1.09–3.16]), not having sex in the preferred way (aOR: men 2.48 [95% CI 1.92–3.20]; women 3.59 [95% CI 2.00–6.42]) and erection problems (aOR: men 2.18 [95% CI 1.73–2.76]). Clinical Implications While frequent pornography use is common, potential effects on sexual health outcomes are likely to differ between individuals. Strength & Limitations We used a large and recent nationally representative survey with detailed information regarding frequency of pornography use. The temporality of associations of sexual health variables with frequency of pornography use could not be assessed. Conclusion In this analysis of a nationally representative survey in Sweden, we found that frequent pornography use was common among young men; that reporting predominantly positive effects of pornography use on the sex life was more common than reporting predominantly negative effects; and that sexual dissatisfaction and sexual health problems were associated with using pornography ≥3 times/wk. Malki K, Rahm C, Öberg KG, et al. Frequency of Pornography Use and Sexual Health Outcomes in Sweden: Analysis of a National Probability Survey. J Sex Med 2021;XX:XXX–XXX.
... Several studies have documented positive effects of OSA (e.g., fulfillment of sexual desires or entertainment; Castro-Calvo et al., 2018b;Daneback et al., 2013;Rissel et al., 2017;Vaillancourt-Morel et al., 2017); however, OSA may also result in a problematic behavior in a small subgroup of individuals (less than 15% of adult men; Ballester-Arnal et al., 2017;Rissel et al., 2017;Ross et al., 2012) who display an uncontrolled or compulsive Internet use for sexual purposes, associated with psychological distress and/or functional impairment (Cooper et al., 2001;Darshan et al., 2014;de Alarcón et al., 2019;Duffy et al., 2016;Garcia & Thibaut, 2010;Kafka, 2013;Ross et al., 2012;Wéry et al., 2018a;Young, 2008). At present, the inclusion of Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder as an impulse control disorder in the forthcoming eleventh edition of the International Classifications of Diseases has been approved (Kraus et al., 2018). ...
... Both sexual fantasizing motives (i.e., OSA as an anonymous means of satisfying sexual fantasies) and mood regulation urgency (i.e., engagement in OSA aimed at relieving negative mood in the short term) have been suggested as key predictors for this problematic involvement in OSA (Laier & Brand, 2017;Wéry et al., 2018a;. At the same time, several studies have already explored correlates of online sexual addiction in men, such as poor psychosocial functioning (Harper & Hodgins, 2016), insecure attachment style (Faisandier et al., 2011;Zapf et al., 2008), negative affect (e.g., loneliness; Butler et al., 2018;Tylka, 2015;Wéry et al., 2018a;Wéry et al., 2018b), dysfunctional coping style (Antons et al., 2019;Laier et al., 2015;Reid et al., 2008;Wéry et al., 2018b;, comorbid psychiatric disorders (e.g., substance abuse, mood and axiety disorders; Karila et al., 2014;Kowalewska et al., 2019;Starcevic & Khazaal, 2017;Wéry & Billieux, 2017;, sexual dissatisfaction (Daspe et al., 2018;Vaillancourt-Morel et al., 2017), or video game addiction (Harper & Hodgins, 2016). Along these lines, it is also important to note that the construct of online sexual addiction refers to non-paraphilic behaviors, although paraphilic disorders can exist concurrently with problematic OSA (Reid, 2016). ...
Preprint
Research has suggested that, in some cases, sexual offending might be a manifestation of an uncontrolled or compulsive online sexual activity, which may be conceptualized as a behavioral addiction. To deal with the lack of validated instruments to assess online sexual addiction, this study tested the psychometric properties of the Online Sexual Addiction Questionnaire (OSA-Q). To this end, a total of 100 men convicted of a sexual offense completed the Spanish version of the OSA-Q, along with the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) for the assessment of related areas of impairment. Once individuals with social desirability response bias (n = 34) were extracted from the sample, the exploratory factor analysis yielded a four-factor structure explaining 77.06% of the variance for the OSA-Q. Additionally, internal consistency of the total score was strong (α = .97), and correlations with related clinical scales were significant. Overall, individuals convicted of online sexual offenses showed significantly higher scores on the OSA-Q than contact-exclusive offenders. These results justify the use of the OSA-Q (if accompanied by a valid assessment of social desirability response bias) in the screening of online sexual addiction in Spanish forensic samples, which might, in turn, improve existing risk management plans.
... Most previous works on online pornography study the interaction between users and WP by leveraging the information included in surveys proposed to groups of volunteers. Vaillancourt-Morel et al. [16] examine the potential presence of different profiles of pornography users and their relation to sexual satisfaction and sexual dysfunction. The authors evaluate a poll involving 830 adults and group users' behaviors in three clusters according to the usage of web porn: recreational, highly distressed, and compulsive, each category associated with different reactions. ...
... We can compare these results with statistics from surveys, fortifying or confuting what the participants declare. For instance, Vaillancourt-Morel et al. [16] study the characteristics of WP users, showing that the majority of the chosen sample uses WP for recreation only, on average for 24 min per week. On our dataset, we find that, on average, a user accessing WP spend 37 min per week. ...
Article
Pornography is massively available on the Internet, often free of charge. It represents a significant fraction of the overall Internet traffic, with thousands of websites and millions of users. Studying web pornography consumption is useful to understand human behavior, and it is crucial for different disciplines, helping in sociological, statistical and behavioral research. However, given the lack of public datasets, most of the works build on surveys, limited by multiple factors, e.g., unreliable answers that volunteers may (even unconsciously) give. In this work, we analyze anonymized accesses to pornography websites using HTTP-level traces collected from an operational network. Our dataset includes anonymized traffic from about 15000 broadband subscribers over three years. We use it to provide quantitative figures on pornographic website consumption, focusing on time and frequency of use, habits, and trends. We also compare web pornography users’ interests with those who do not consume web pornography, showing notable differences.
... Esta diferencia con las chicas podría deberse a que ellas han realizado las conductas sexuales motivadas por su apetito sexual y, los chicos, en cambio, lo han realizado para gestionar sus emociones, se podría considerar que incluso de forma compulsiva. Varios estudios han observado que, conductas que se consideran compulsivas, como pasar mucho tiempo consumiendo pornografía, estaban relacionadas con una baja satisfacción sexual (Blais-Lecours et al., 2016;Vaillancourt-Morel et al., 2017). Sin embargo, un uso recreativo de la pornografía se relacionaba con mayor satisfacción sexual y menor compulsividad sexual, evitación y disfunción (Vaillancourt-Morel et al., 2017). ...
... Varios estudios han observado que, conductas que se consideran compulsivas, como pasar mucho tiempo consumiendo pornografía, estaban relacionadas con una baja satisfacción sexual (Blais-Lecours et al., 2016;Vaillancourt-Morel et al., 2017). Sin embargo, un uso recreativo de la pornografía se relacionaba con mayor satisfacción sexual y menor compulsividad sexual, evitación y disfunción (Vaillancourt-Morel et al., 2017). ...
Article
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Sexual frequency of Spanish adolescents during confinement by COVID-19. The confinement situation due to COVID-19 has brought a great change in the lifestyles of young people. However, little is known about the impact that isolation has had on adolescent sexuality. The objective of this work is to know the sexual frequency of adolescents during confinement and its possible consequences, including gender perspective. 134 Spanish adolescents, between 16-20 years old, responded to an ad hoc online survey on sexuality, being 59.7% girls. 67.2% of the participants considered themselves het�erosexual, 91.2% were confined to their parents, 59.7% were single and 40.3% had a stable partner. During confinement, an increase in the frequency of masturbation and online sexual activities has been observed, but these changes have only been statistically significant in boys. Among the causes of this increase, we find reasons such as “due to boredom”, “to relax”, or “due to an increase in sexual appetite”, with boys justifying it the most with emo�tional reasons. This higher sexual frequency generated a better mood and more relaxation, although many boys reported that sexual activities were less satisfactory. It would be necessary to continue studying the possible negative consequences that can arise from these changes in sexual frequency, and to analyze the role that emotions could be playing. All this to design campaigns to promote sexual health in times of confinement.
... Pour la grande majorité des utilisateurs, la cybersexualité n'est ni problématique ni associée à des conséquences négatives tangibles, mais est davantage utilisée comme une activité récréative (Albright, 2008;Ballester-Arnal et al., 2014;Vaillancourt-Morel et al., 2017). Cependant, pour certaines personnes, cette consommation peut devenir incontrôlée et affecter diverses sphères de la vie quotidienne (par exemple les sphères relationnelle, sexuelle, professionnelle ; Cooper et al., 2004a;Grov et al., 2011;Philaretou et al., 2005;Vaillancourt-Morel et al., 2017). ...
... Pour la grande majorité des utilisateurs, la cybersexualité n'est ni problématique ni associée à des conséquences négatives tangibles, mais est davantage utilisée comme une activité récréative (Albright, 2008;Ballester-Arnal et al., 2014;Vaillancourt-Morel et al., 2017). Cependant, pour certaines personnes, cette consommation peut devenir incontrôlée et affecter diverses sphères de la vie quotidienne (par exemple les sphères relationnelle, sexuelle, professionnelle ; Cooper et al., 2004a;Grov et al., 2011;Philaretou et al., 2005;Vaillancourt-Morel et al., 2017). À l'heure actuelle, bien qu'il soit reconnu par une partie de la communauté scientifique (par exemple, The American Society of Addiction Medicine) et par l'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS) que l'utilisation de cybersexualité peut devenir dysfonctionnelle et être associée à des symptômes de type addictif (par exemple, perte de contrôle, incapacité de diminuer ou stopper le comportement problématique), aucun consensus n'existe concernant la conceptualisation et les critères diagnostiques du trouble Wéry & Billieux, 2017). ...
Article
Depuis l’apparition et le développement d’Internet, de nombreux sites à caractère sexuel ont vu le jour et sont utilisés par de multiples usagers. Une partie de ces utilisateurs présentent une utilisation problématique de cybersexualité et développent des comportements sexuels en ligne de nature excessive et/ou addictive. Un champ de recherche focalisé sur cette population a récemment émergé, notamment afin d’identifier les facteurs de risques impliqués et les processus psychologiques sous-jacents. Cependant, ces facteurs sont souvent étudiés isolement, ne permettant pas d’aboutir à une description exhaustive et intégrée de ce comportement problématique multi-déterminé. L’objectif central du présent article est dès lors de proposer, sur base de la littérature existante, un modèle intégratif et processuel des facteurs psychologiques impliqués dans l’utilisation problématique de cybersexualité et ce, afin de permettre d’une part de structurer les recherches futures sur la thématique en ciblant les processus centralement impliqués, et d’autre part de mieux évaluer et prendre en charge, en contexte clinique, les personnes présentant ce type de problématique.
... Indeed, POPU was found to be associated with psychological stress and this corroborates previous studies that pointed out that not so much of the average daily use of pornography itself, but rather the levels of compulsiveness and perceived uncontrolled use are significantly associated with emotional distress, 14,60 with difficulty in controlling the use of pornography related to severe negative consequences. 61 Consistently, other research also showed that the problematic use of online sexual activities was associated with an increase in symptoms of anxiety, depression, and dissociation (see Hermand et al 62 for a review). ...
... Individuals with POPU have in fact been described as having poor coping strategies and ineffective emotion regulation skills. 60,63 In this regard, although the literature highlights the etiological role of emotion dysregulation for both substance related 64,65 and behavioral addictions, 64,66,67 including the sexual one, 68 the data presented suggest that this can be further fueled by addictive behavior. The online pornography use can become problematic if used as a dysfunctional coping strategy for the regulation of affective states: this does not favor the development of more adaptive strategies in the subject, but on the contrary, stimulates a compulsive attitude towards cyberpornography feeding the state of dysregulation in the long term, in line with when the subject with sexual addiction is found. ...
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Purpose: Although a link between problematic online pornographic use (POPU) and insomnia symptoms has been established, psychological and psychopathological mechanisms underlying this relationship are still not clear. Psychological stress and emotion dysregulation have been pointed out as relevant in the development and maintenance of insomnia. This study aims to explore the associations between POPU, psychological stress, emotion dysregulation and insomnia symptoms and to understand the mediating role of psychological stress and emotion dysregulation in the relationship between POPU and insomnia symptoms. Participants and Methods: A sample of 776 Italian adults aged 19–48 years (51.4% female; M age = 28.49; SD = 7.33) completed questionnaires regarding demographics, COVID-19-related variables, POPU, psychological stress, emotion dysregulation, and insom- nia symptoms. Results: After controlling for demographic covariates and COVID-19-related variables, multiple mediation model showed that higher psychological stress and emotion dysregulation fully mediated the link between POPU and insomnia. Conclusion: The findings underscore the significance of the negative consequences of POPU and underline the importance of working on this and its effects on psychological stress and emotion dysregulation to limit insomnia. Keywords: addictive behaviors, online pornography, problematic online pornographic use, stress, emotion dysregulation, clinical psychology, insomnia
... Given the prevalence of pornography use, the potential negative psychological effects of pornography use have been the subject of increasing scientific attention in recent years. The available evidence generally indicates that although the majority of individuals who use pornography may do so without experiencing significant negative consequences, a subset of users may develop problems related to their pornography use (e.g., Bőthe, Tóth-Király, Potenza, Orosz, & Demetrovics, 2020;Vaillancourt-Morel et al., 2017). ...
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A growing number of individuals using online forums are attempting to abstain from pornography (colloquially termed “rebooting”) due to self-perceived pornography-related problems. The present qualitative study explored phenomenological experiences of abstinence among members of an online “rebooting” forum. A total of 104 abstinence journals by male forum members were systematically analyzed using thematic analysis. A total of four themes (with a total of nine subthemes) emerged from the data: (1) abstinence is the solution to pornography-related problems, (2) sometimes abstinence seems impossible, (3) abstinence is achievable with the right resources, and (4) abstinence is rewarding if persisted with. Members’ primary reasons for initiating “rebooting” involved desiring to overcome a perceived addiction to pornography and/or alleviate perceived negative consequences attributed to pornography use, especially sexual difficulties. Successfully achieving and maintaining abstinence was typically experienced to be very challenging due to habitual behavior patterns and/or cravings triggered by a multiplicity of cues for pornography use, but a combination of internal (e.g., cognitive-behavioral strategies) and external (e.g., social support) resources made abstinence attainable for many members. A range of benefits attributed to abstinence by members suggest that abstaining from pornography could potentially be a beneficial intervention for problematic pornography use, although future prospective studies are needed to rule out possible third variable explanations for these perceived effects and to rigorously evaluate abstinence as an intervention. The present findings shed light on what the “rebooting” experience is like from members’ own perspectives and provide insights into abstinence as an approach for addressing problematic pornography use.
... As males and females with compulsive-pornography-use profiles (likely PPU) reported lower levels of sexual functioning problems than individuals with a highly distressed non-compulsive profile (Vaillancourt-Morel et al., 2017), stress may impact sexual functioning problems (McCabe et al., 2016). Stress reduction and emotion regulation are frequently reported motivations in PPU, and interventions involving training in emotion regulation (e.g., mindfulness) may be effective in reducing PPU Levin, Lillis, & Hayes, 2012;Sniewski and Farvid, 2019). ...
Article
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There is much debate regarding whether pornography use has positive or negative associations with sexuality-related measures such as sexual functioning problems. The present study aimed to examine differential correlates between quantity (frequency of pornography use–FPU) and severity (problematic pornography use–PPU) of pornography use with respect to sexual functioning problems among both males and females. Multi-group structural equation modeling was conducted to investigate hypothesized associations between PPU, FPU, and sexual functioning problems among males and females (N=14,581 participants; females=4,352; 29.8%; Mage=33.6 years, SDage=11.0), controlling for age, sexual orientation, relationship status, and masturbation frequency. The hypothesized model had excellent fit to the data (CFI=.962, TLI=.961, RMSEA=.057 [95% CI=.056-.057]). Similar associations were identified in both genders, with all pathways being statistically significant (p<.001). PPU had positive, moderate associations (βmales=.37, βfemales=.38), while FPU had negative, weak associations with sexual functioning problems (βmales=-.17, βfemales=-.17). Although FPU and PPU had a positive, moderate association, they should be assessed and discussed separately when examining potential associations with sexuality-related outcomes Given that PPU was positively and moderately and FPU negatively and weakly associated with problems in sexual functioning, it is important to consider both PPU and FPU in relation to sexual functioning problems.
... Thus, it remains unclear whether reduced attention to sexual cues is a risk factor for or a consequence of sexual dysfunction. Furthermore, factors that were not assessed in this study (eg, sexual excitation and inhibition, 36,47 religiosity, 48 or cyberpornography) 49 may also play a role, and future studies should investigate whether these may mediate the relationship between visual attention to sexual stimuli and sexual functioning. While we were able to recruit a sample of women of different ethnicities, most participants were young and highly educated. ...
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Background Visual attention to sexual stimuli is an important means to facilitate sexual arousal and is thereby relevant for healthy sexual functioning. Experimental studies suggest that sexual dysfunction is associated with less attention toward sexual stimuli. Aim The goal of this study was to use an eye-tracking-based free-viewing paradigm to investigate whether women in the clinical range of sexual function attend to a genital area in visual sexual stimuli differently than women with subclinical sexual function or those with normal sexual functioning. Methods Toward this goal, 69 women (Mage = 27.77, SD = 8.00, range = 19–54) with clinical (n = 30), subclinical (n = 23), and normal (n = 16) levels of sexual functioning watched a series of 10 pictures depicting heterosexual couples during vaginal intercourse while their eye movements were recorded. Each picture was presented twice—once with a distracting object (eg, a to-do list or household appliance) present in the picture and once without—for 8 seconds, each. Outcomes 5 eye-tracking measures indicative of different aspects of initial and sustained attention were analyzed. Results As hypothesized, 3 out of 5 eye-tracking measures (ie, first fixation duration, number of first fixations, and total fixation duration) indicated that women in the clinical group attended less to the genital area in the pictures than women with normal sexual functioning. For 2 indices (ie, first fixation duration and total fixation duration), women with subclinical (vs normal) sexual functioning also attended less to the genital area. In contrast to our hypothesis, the presence of a distracting object did not influence attention to the genital area in either of the sexual function groups. Clinical Implications This study provides further evidence of the role of attentional biases in sexual dysfunction in women. Strengths and Limitations Eye-tracking methodology allows for a continuous measurement of visual attention; this is one of the first studies using this methodology to assess differences in visual attention in women with and without sexual dysfunction. However, the cross-sectional nature of this study prevents causal interpretation of findings. Conclusion Future studies should use experimental paradigms to determine the causal role of visual attention for the development or maintenance of sexual dysfunction. Velten J, Milani S, Margraf J, et al. Visual Attention to Sexual Stimuli in Women With Clinical, Subclinical, and Normal Sexual Functioning: An Eye-Tracking Study. J Sex Med 2020;XX:XXX–XXX.
... Chronic or acute non-communicable conditions can lead to health impairment, sudden death, and/or premature mortality (Brownson et al., 2017). Pornography use is not inherently addictive, with most users reporting no negative consequences, distress, or functional impairment (Hald & Malamuth, 2008;McKee, Byron, Litsou, & Ingham, 2020;Vaillancourt-Morel & Bergeron, 2019;Vaillancourt-Morel et al., 2017;Willoughby, Busby, & Young-Petersen, 2019;Willoughby, Carroll, Busby, & Brown, 2016). ...
... Research shows that SEOM exposure possesses a significant association with several variables, such as relationship quality [11], personality factors (anxiety, fear of rejection and low self-esteem) [12], risky sexual behaviors [1,2,4,5,9], mental health and body image [13], and aggressive and degrading behaviors [14], showing that motivations behind SEOM use can be broken down into four factors-relationship, mood management, habitual use, and fantasy. The fact that viewing SEOM online has become common for an increasing number of individuals has motivated researchers to document the different profiles of SEOM consumers, finding that some 3% to 12% of users possess compulsive profiles associated with lower levels of sexual satisfaction and performance and higher levels of sexual compulsivity and avoidance [15,16]. ...
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Introduction: This study aimed to describe sexually explicit online media (SEOM) use among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Portugal and to examine any associations between exposure to SEOM depicting unprotected anal intercourse and engaging in unprotected anal sex. Methods: This study recruited 1577 MSM living in Portugal with Internet access, who ranged in age from 18 to 74 years old (Mage = 35.69, SDage = 11.16). Participants were recruited via websites, e-mail, and social media. 67.3% (n = 1061) of sample participants self-identified as gay, and 32.7% (n = 516) claimed to be bisexual. The survey included four categories of questions/measurements, encompassing demographic information, SEOM use, explicit imagery of protected/unprotected anal sex, and sexual behavior. Results: The study results suggest that Portuguese MSM frequently use SEOM and that they possess a stated preference for SEOM displaying unprotected anal sex. Furthermore, this study’s findings indicate that self-identified gay men more frequently engage in unprotected sex than self-identified bisexual men. Finally, the study revealed that a preference for viewing SEOM displaying unprotected sex and higher levels of arousal attributed to direct SEOM exposure are significant predictors of having receptive anal sex without condoms.
... Consistently, in the study of Kraus, Martino, et al. (2016), around 17% of men interested in treatment did not meet the clinical cut-off of hypersexual disorder's proposed criteria for DSM-5 (Kafka, 2010). In another study, 25% of individuals perceived their use as problematic and experienced high distress concerning their pornography use but did not report excessive or compulsive use (Vaillancourt-Morel et al., 2017). In sum, these findings may indicate that it is essential to assess for objective indicators of PPU (such as impaired control) that may distinguish between self-perceived PU and dysregulated pornography use. ...
Article
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In help- or treatment-seeking people, there may be a portion of individuals with self-perceived addiction; however, how to distinguish these individuals from help-seeking patients with dysregulated pornography use remains unclear. The present study sought to examine the specific role of impaired control in identifying individuals with self-perceived problems when screening problematic pornography use (PPU) in a large help-seeking male sample (N = 8,845; Mage = 25.82 years, SD = 7.83). Based on the results of latent profile analysis, three groups were identified in the help-seeking sample: Self-perceived PPU group (n = 2,089; 23.6%), impaired control group (n = 4,180; 47.3%), and PPU group (n = 2,576; 29.1%). The self-perceived PPU group was characterized by the highest moral incongruence, but not objectively dysregulated in pornography use. The other two groups met the criteria of impaired control, suggesting that, impaired control may distinguish between self-perceived PPU and dysregulated use in help-seeking men. Six months later, self-reported data were collected again from 972 of these help-seeking men. The longitudinal cross-lagged analysis showed that impaired control at baseline positively predicted PPU at the 6-month follow-up; simultaneously, the reverse association was also significant and positive. In sum, impaired control functioned as a criterion to differentiate between self-perceived PPU and dysregulated pornography use. Impaired control might be used as a robust and reliable predictor of PPU, but it may not be a sufficient criterion of PPU in itself.
... Internetpornographie: ist das Ergebnis von professionell produziertem oder von Nutzern selbst erstelltem (audio-)visuellen Material im/aus dem Internet, welches dazu dient, sexuelle Erregung bei den Betrachtenden hervorzurufen . Das Material kann (Nah-)Aufnahmen (erregter) Genitalien und explizite Darstellungen von sexuellen Aktivitäten mit Schwerpunkt auf oraler, analer oder vaginaler Penetration zeigen [83,84] . ...
Article
Crime scene Internet: Cybergrooming as sexual violence against children and adolescents The use of digital information and communication technologies is an important part of children's and youth’s lives. It has increased once again during the wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Along with this, cybercrime is also on the rise, including cybergrooming, which has become and continues to become a serious problem among children and adolescents. Cybergrooming refers to the establishment of personal relationships with minors using a step-by-step manipulative strategy for the purpose of sexual abuse or producing pornographic images of children. The abuse is perpetrated by the use of the chat function of digital media or online games. This gives adult perpetrators as well as older adolescent perpetrators the opportunity to act anonymously in order to establish a relationship of trust and dependence. The article aims to present existing knowledge of digital sexual grooming in terms of risk factors, perpetrator typologies, manipulative techniques, psychological consequences, prevention programs, recommendations for professionals, and legal principles. The dangers of digital sexual abuse are still largely unknown. Therefore, Cybergrooming should be considered stronger in schools and by professionals in order to adequately protect children and adolescents, educate them about their rights, and enable a healthy development. Die Nutzung von digitalen Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien ist ein wichtiger Bestandteil des Lebens von Kindern und Jugendlichen, die im Zuge der COVID-19-Pandemie nochmals zugenommen hat. Damit einhergehend nimmt auch die Cyberkriminalität zu, einschließlich Cybergrooming, das sich zu einem ernsten Problem unter Kindern und Jugendlichen entwickelt hat und weiterhin entwickelt. Cybergrooming bezeichnet das Herstellen persönlicher Beziehungen zu Minderjährigen mit Hilfe einer schrittweisen manipulativen Strategie zum Zwecke des sexuellen Missbrauchs oder zur Anfertigung kinderpornografischer Aufnahmen. Der Missbrauch wird über die Chat-Funktion von digitalen Medien oder Online-Spielen ausgeübt und gibt sowohl erwachsenen TäterInnen als auch älteren jugendlichen TäterInnen die Möglichkeit anonym zu agieren, um ein Vertrauens- und Abhängigkeitsverhältnis herzustellen. Der Artikel zielt auf die Darstellung bestehenden Wissens des digitalen sexuellen Groomings in Bezug auf Risikofaktoren, TäterInnen-Typologien, manipulative Techniken, psychische Folgen, Präventionsprogramme, Empfehlungen für Fachleute und rechtliche Grundlagen. Die Gefahren des digitalen sexuellen Missbrauchs sind noch weitgehend unbekannt. Cybergrooming sollte in Schulen und von Fachpersonal stärker fokussiert werden, damit Kinder und Jugendliche adäquat geschützt werden, ihre Rechte erfahren und eine gesunde Entwicklung nehmen.
... Sexual function was evaluated with the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX) in this survey. It is an effective, short, easy to use, reliable, non-invasive and unisex instruments to assess sexual functioning [24][25][26] . The translated version of the ASEX contains 5 items, providing a total score ranging from 5 and 30, items on the ASEX query sexual drive, ease of sexual arousal, penile erection or vaginal lubrication, ...
Article
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To our knowledge, little attention has been paid to the sexual function of health workers. The aim of the present study was to assess the frequency of sexual dysfunction among Chinese doctors. In addition, the risk factors for sexual dysfunction were analyzed. This was a questionnaire-based multicenter cross-sectional survey performed in five large academic medical centers in China. A total of 539 male doctors, 547 female doctors were evaluated. We analyzed doctors' demographic characteristics, quality of life, sexual function and attitudes towards sexual problems. Chinese doctors are at high risk of sexual dysfunction and poor health. The prevalence of sexual dysfunction appears to increase with age, and is associated with various social and demographic factors including monthly income, physical exercise, working hours, night shift and health-related quality. The quality of life and sexual health of doctors deserves special attention as a significant public health concern. Alleviating work pressure, increasing income, improving quality of life and therapeutic sexual problems should be considered comprehensively.
... Computernetze -Personen mit Expertise und Interesse an der Erstellung bzw. Veränderung von Software suchen und nutzen die Sicherheitslücken für eigene, zumeist kriminelle Zwecke wie das Ausspionieren von Informationen oder Erpressung mittels Malware oder IT-Angriffe auf kritische Infrastrukturen -Problembereiche der Datensicherheit Cyberpornografie: im Internet aufzurufende Bilder oder Videos mit explizit sexuellen Darstellungen, die geeignet sind, den Betrachter erotisch anzuregen/zu erregen [33] Cyberstalking: elektronische Kommunikation, bei der Täter ihre Opfer wiederholt mit der Absicht kontaktieren, sie zu beschimpfen, auszubeuten, zu schikanieren, zu bedrohen, zu beleidigen, in Schrecken zu versetzen oder bloßzustellen [34] Cybermobbing/Cyberbullying: "jedes Verhalten, das von Einzelnen oder Gruppen unter Verwendung elektronischer oder digitaler Medien feindliche oder aggressive Botschaften verbreitet, mit dem Ziel, andere zu verletzen oder zu beunruhigen" [4] Fake news: nicht auf Tatsachen oder überprüfbare Quellen beruhende oder verfälschende Informationen oder Gerüchte, die von privaten Personen oder kommerziellen und nicht-kommerziellen Medienanbietern als Fakten [37] Shitstorm: Kumulierung von Nachrichten in einem Kommunikationsmedium des Internets, auch mit moralisierenden oder beleidigenden Äußerungen einhergehend, um einen "Sturm der Entrüstung" zu entfachen und die Bedeutung eines Themas künstlich zu erhöhen und emotional zu beeinflussen Trolling: vorsätzliche, unsachliche, irreführende, betrügerische und bösartige Versuche, Reaktionen anderer Internetnutzer zu provozieren, ohne dass vom Verursacher seine echte Identität oder realen Interessen offenlegt werden [38] Nutzungsdaten und Ereignisse Kommunikation ist für Kinder und Jugendliche ein wichtiger Aspekt, wenn sie online gehen. Dabei können sie freiwillig über eigene, gezielte Suche im Internet oder unfreiwillig per Zufall oder unfreiwillig durch gezielte Kontaktaufnahme Dritter mit ungeeigneten Inhalten in Kontakt kommen. ...
Article
ZUSAMMENFASSUNG Mobbing beinhaltet aggressive Handlungen mit dem Ziel, eine andere Person zu verletzen, zu demütigen oder einzuschüchtern. Die digitale Revolution hat die Möglichkeiten des klassischen Mobbings erweitert. Täter können anonym bleiben, körperliche Überlegenheit ist nicht notwendig, ein größeres Publikum kann erreicht werden, Nachrichten sind unbegrenzt speicherbar und nicht zurücknehmbar. Cybermobbing hat schwerwiegende Probleme für Opfer bzw. Täter zur Folge und beeinträchtigt deren physische und psychische Gesundheit, ihre sozialen Beziehungen und ihre Lebensqualität. Folgen können bei Opfern Depressionen, Ängste, PTBS, intensiver Stress, Schlafstörungen, Selbstverletzungen, Suizidalität und Suizid sein. Die komorbiden psychischen Störungen sind so früh wie möglich zu erkennen und angemessen zu behandeln. Wirksame Maßnahmen zur Prävention sind verfügbar, werden jedoch nicht ausreichend intensiv und flächendeckend durchgeführt. Anti-Mobbing-Maßnahmen verhindern nicht nur (Cyber-)Mobbing, sondern tragen auch zu einem besseren schulischen und innerfamiliären Klima bei und begünstigen Einstellungen gegen Mobbing und die Lebensqualität von Beteiligten.
... Forty-six percent of men and sixteen percent of women report using pornography (e.g., on a weekly basis, Regnerus et al., 2016), which may be driven in part by sex differences in dyadic and solitary sexual desire (Dosch et al., 2016;Hald, 2006). Men primarily consume pornography for masturbation while women primarily consume pornography as part of lovemaking with their partner (Bridges & Morokoff, 2011;Vaillancourt-Morel et al., 2017), with men far more likely to pay for access to pornographic content than women (Ogas & Gaddam, 2011). Men who consume pornography are particularly oriented toward amateur content, while women who consume pornography are particularly oriented toward content involving more than two people (Hald & Stulhofer, 2016). ...
Article
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Pornography has become widely accessible in recent years due to its integration with the Internet, generating social scientific and moralistic debate on potential “media effects,” given correlations between consumption and various sexual traits and behaviors. One popular public debate (Wilson, 2012) claimed that exposure to Internet pornography has addictive qualities that could impact men’s sexual relationships, underpinned by the “Coolidge effect,” where males are sexually motivated by the presence of novel mates. As claims about Internet and sexual addictions are scientifically controversial, we provide a direct experimental test of his proposal. Adapting a paradigm used to examine “Coolidge-like” effects in men, we examined the extent to which exposure to images of pornographic actresses altered men’s attractiveness ratings of (1) familiar faces/bodies on second viewing and (2) familiar versus novel women’s faces/bodies. Independent of slideshow content (pornographic versus clothed versions of same actress), heterosexual men were less attracted to familiar bodies, and homosexual men were less attracted to familiar women (faces and bodies), suggesting that mere visual exposure to attractive women moderated men’s preferences. However, consistent with one of our preregistered predictions, heterosexual but not homosexual men’s preferences for familiar versus novel women were moderated by slideshow content such that familiar women were less salient on the attractiveness dimension compared to novel women when sexual arousal was greater (pornographic versus clothed slideshows). In sum, our findings demonstrate that visual exposure/sexual arousal moderates attractiveness perceptions, albeit that much greater nuance is required considering earlier claims.
... While these studies advanced understanding of how motives relate to use, they are limited in that frequency of pornography use does not always mean that the use is problematic, that is, associated with negative outcomes or distress. Other studies have focused on problematic use but have not assessed individual's motives for consuming pornography (Bőthe et al., 2018, Vaillancourt-Morel et al., 2017 or assessed potential motives without asking if they were the reason for pornography viewing (Bőthe et al., 2020), such as asking about the tendency to become bored but not if pornography was viewed to reduce boredom. Through use of latent profile analysis, these studies suggest that three profiles of pornography users may exist. ...
Preprint
Most individuals can view pornography without their use becoming problematic, others engage in viewing patterns that are distressing and cause functional impairment. Research has indicated that the frequency of pornography viewing is not a robust predictor of who will engage in problematic viewing. Consequently, researchers have investigated other variables, such as motivation for viewing and social factors, to predict those whose pornography use will be problematic. The aims of the present study were to (1) identify profiles of pornography viewers based on motivations and problematic outcomes of use and (2) assess differences between the identified profiles on measures of loneliness, fear of intimacy, and social support. A latent profile analysis was conducted using data from a cross-sectional survey administered to college students (N = 428). Follow-up analyses assessed differences on social variables between profiles and non-pornography users via BCH method and ANOVA and t-tests. Results indicated three profiles: low motivation/average guilt, porn for enjoyment, high motivation/average guilt. Those in the high motivation/average guilt profile reported more social difficulties across variables relative to non-users and more loneliness relative to participants within the low motivation/average guilt profile. These results are discussed in the context of understanding and intervening upon problematic pornography use.
... Thus, most researchers consider PPU as persistent, repetitive engagement in pornography use that results in impairment in one's life in addition to failed attempts to reduce or stop such behaviors Chen, Yang et al., 2018;Cooper et al., 2004;Efrati & Gola, 2018;Kraus, Martino et al., 2016;Young et al., 2000). Quantity of pornography (QPU) was identified as a peripheral symptom (i.e., symptoms that might not belong to the core symptoms of problematic behaviors and might be present in the case of nonproblematic, highly engaged users) in PPU (Bőthe, Lonza et al., 2020), and it may not be a sufficient indicator of PPU (Bőthe, Lonza et al., 2020;Vaillancourt-Morel et al., 2017). Yet, it can reflect the degree of PPU to some extent , as previous studies have found that QPU has been positively associated with PPU. ...
Article
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Although the quantity of pornography use (QPU, i.e., frequency/time spent on pornography use) has been positively associated with the severity of pornography use (i.e., problematic pornography use, PPU), the magnitudes of relationships have varied across studies. This meta-analysis aimed to assess the overall relationships and identify potential moderating variables to explain the variation in these associations between QPU and PPU. We performed a literature search for all published and unpublished studies from 1995 to 2020 in major online scientific databases up until December 2020. Sixty-one studies were identified with 82 independent samples involving 74,880 participants. Results indicated that there was a positive, moderate relationship between QPU and PPU (r = 0.34, p < .001). The strength of relationship significantly varied across measures of PPU based on different theoretical frameworks, indicators of QPU, and sexual cultural contexts (conservative vs. permissive sexual values). Frequency was a more robust quantitative indicator of PPU than time spent on pornography use. In conservative countries, QPU showed more robust association with self-perceived PPU. Future studies are encouraged to select the measurement of PPU according to research aims and use multi-item measures with demonstrated content validity to assess pornography use. Cross-cultural (conservative/permissive) comparisons also warrant further research.
... Findings of nationally representative studies from Australia (Rissel et al., 2017), Europe (Lewczuk, Glica, Nowakowska, Gola, & Grubbs, 2020), and the US (Grubbs, Kraus, & Perry, 2019;Herbenick et al., 2020) suggest that 84-94% of men and 54-87% of women report lifetime pornography use. Most individuals using pornography do not report distress or negative consequences deriving from their pornography use (B} othe, T oth-Kir aly, Potenza, Orosz, & Demetrovics, 2020;Vaillancourt-Morel et al., 2017). Nevertheless, a small but significant ratio of people (1-3% of women and 4-11% of men) report problematic pornography use (PPU) Grubbs, Kraus, & Perry, 2019;Rissel et al., 2017). ...
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Background and Aims Despite problematic pornography use (PPU) being prevalent, no previous study has examined the effectiveness of evidence-based interventions for PPU, using rigorous methods. Using a two-armed randomized controlled trial study design, we examined the feasibility and initial effectiveness of a six-week online PPU intervention. Methods We recruited 264 participants (3.8% women, M age = 33.2, SD = 10.6) who were randomized and assigned to either the self-help intervention ( n = 123) or waitlist control condition ( n = 141), and completed self-report questionnaires at baseline and after the end of the intervention (six-week follow-up). Multivariable linear regression models were generated and tested on a complete case basis to investigate possible treatment effects. Participants provided quantitative and qualitative feedback regarding the intervention’s content and appearance. Results Participants evaluated all modules positively in the intervention in general. There were differential dropout rates (89.4% in intervention vs. 44.7% in control group) with an overall follow-up rate of 34.5%. The intervention group reported significantly lower levels of PPU ( P < 0.001, d = 1.32) at the six-week follow-up. Moreover, they reported lower pornography use frequency ( P < 0.001, d = 1.65), self-perceived pornography addiction ( P = 0.01, d = 0.85), pornography craving ( P = 0.02, d = 0.40), and higher pornography avoidance self-efficacy ( P = 0.001, d = 0.87) at the six-week follow-up. Discussion and Conclusions The present study was only a first step in rigorous treatment studies for PPU, but the findings are promising and suggest that online interventions for PPU might help reduce PPU in some cases, even without the guidance of therapists, by reducing treatment barriers.
... Contemporary porn performers foster the parasocial interactions and relationships with their viewers and fans by presenting themselves not only in pornographic videos but also on social media platforms such as Twitter to appear more approachable and real (Gorissen, 2020). Current studies show that people of different genders and sexual orientations voluntarily use traditional digital pornography that they can access discreetly and often costfree on digital platforms (Vaillancourt-Morel et al., 2017). Issues of consent come up when adults and minors experience unwanted exposure to digital pornography (e.g., confrontation with pornographic pop-up adverts on the Internet or with forwarded porn images on social media) and when people are using sexually explicit content that depicts real life child sexual abuse (e.g., so-called "child pornography"; Eggestein and Knapp, 2014;Henshaw et al., 2017). ...
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Based on its prevalence, there is an urgent need to better understand the mechanisms, opportunities and risks of sexual interaction in digital contexts (SIDC) that are related with sexual arousal. While there is a growing body of literature on SIDC, there is also a lack of conceptual clarity and classification. Therefore, based on a conceptual analysis, we propose to distinguish between sexual interaction (1) through, (2) via, and (3) with digital technologies. (1) Sexual interactions through digital technologies are face-to-face sexual interactions that (a) have been started digitally (e.g., people initiating face-to-face sexual encounters through adult dating apps) or (b) are accompanied by digital technology (e.g., couples augmenting their face-to-face sexual encounters through filming themselves during the act and publishing the amateur pornography online). (2) Sexual interactions via digital technology are technology-mediated interpersonal sexual interactions (e.g., via text chat: cybersex; via smartphone: sexting; via webcam: webcam sex/camming). (3) Sexual interactions with digital technology occur when the technology itself has the role of an interaction partner (e.g., sexual interaction with a sex robot or with a media persona in pornography). The three types of SIDC and their respective subtypes are explained and backed up with empirical studies that are grouped according to two major mediators: consent and commerce. Regarding the causes and consequences of the three types of SIDC we suggest a classification that entails biological, psychological, social, economic, and technological factors. Regarding implications of SIDC we suggest to focus on both opportunities and risks for sexual health. The proposed conceptual framework of SIDC is meant to inform future research.
... Yet, it is important to note that pornography use in general, or even frequent pornography use, may not be considered problematic in itself (Bőthe et al., 2020a, b;Grubbs et al., 2019a, b, c;Kraus & Sweeney, 2019;Vaillancourt-Morel et al., 2017). Motivations underlying pornography use, such as coping with negative emotions (Bőthe et al., 2021d), and out-of-control or compulsive use (i.e., PPU; Bőthe et al., 2018;Kraus et al., 2020) should also be considered when examining pornography use characteristics in adolescents, as the context of pornography use (e.g., pornography use motivations) may also play an essential role in favorable and less optimal outcomes (Bőthe et al., 2021a(Bőthe et al., , 2021cCampbell & Kohut, 2017). ...
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Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, an increase in pornography use has been reported based on cross-sectional findings , raising concerns about associated adverse outcomes, such as problematic pornography use (PPU). The aims of the present study were to document potential changes in adolescents' pornography use frequency, motivations, and PPU before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. As part of an ongoing study on adolescents' sexual health, we used a large sample (N Time 1 = 1771; 47.6% girls, M age = 15.42 years, SD = 0.59) to examine changes from baseline (before the COVID-19 pandemic) to one year later (during the COVID-19 pandemic) in adolescents' self-reported pornography use frequency, motivations, and PPU, using latent change models and examining potential gender differences. No significant changes were observed in adolescents' pornography use frequency and pornography use motivations, and no gender differences were present in these trends. Although statistically significant, slight decrease was observed in boys' PPU levels, and a statistically significant, slight increase was observed in girls' PPU levels, these changes were very small, providing no practical or clinical relevance. In sum, despite previous propositions, concerns, and cross-sectional findings, longitudinal results suggest that adolescents' pornography use characteristics were rather stable between November 2019 and June 2021, and the COVID-19 pandemic and related lockdowns might not have led to general increases in adolescents' pornography use as it was expected.
... Solitary arousal OSAs, which typically involve viewing pornography, have separated sexual pleasure from intimacy in relationships and allow people quickly to focus on pleasure-motivated goals such as sexual fantasies [35,38], which had been suggested as a safe approach during the pandemic [105]. Although high-frequency pornography use might not be a sufficient indicator of PPU [65,106,107], it could reflect the degree of PPU to some extent [80]. ...
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Many researchers have considered whether online sexual activities (OSAs) increased over the course of the COVID-19 pandemic and whether these have led to an increase in problematic pornography use (PPU). This study investigated the impact of COVID-19 on PPU through pornography use motivations (PUMs) and OSAs to develop a better understanding of the mechanism and changes affecting PPU. Two groups of Chinese adults were recruited during the initial months of the pandemic (April 2020, n1 = 496) and the post-pandemic period (October 2021, n2 = 504). A network analysis was conducted to compare the structures of PPU symptoms among the two groups. The results showed that PUMs and OSAs were stronger predictors of PPU during the pandemic than post-pandemic (R2pandemic = 57.6% vs. R2post-pandemic = 28.7%). The motives of fantasy, sexual pleasure, stress reduction, and self-exploration were the prominent motivations during these two periods, but we found distinct PPU-related communities. PPU, sexual pleasure, and viewing sexually explicit materials (a type of OSAs) constituted a community during the pandemic but not in the post-pandemic’s network. The present study indicated that the pandemic may not have been the only factor impacting the higher rate of PPU. Instead, the higher frequency of OSAs during the pandemic may have been a strategy to cope with stress and to safely satisfy sexual desire.
... Several studies have supported a more qualified interpretation of the relationship between pornography use and sexual relationship satisfaction. In a convenience sample of 803 adults, cluster analyses revealed significant differences among participants using pornography primarily for recreation, those individuals emotionally or psychologically distressed about their pornography use, and compulsive users [22]. Recreational, noncompulsive users-with women comprising 78% of this cluster-reported greater sexual satisfaction and lower sexual avoidance compared to the other two profiles. ...
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The role of masturbation frequency and pornography use on sexual response during partnered sex has been controversial, the result of mixed and inconsistent findings. However, studies investigating this relationship have often suffered from methodological shortcomings. We investigated the role of masturbation frequency and pornography use on both the occurrence and severity of delayed/inhibited ejaculation (DE), an increasingly common sexual problem among men. We did so in a large (nonclinical) multinational sample of cisgender men (N = 2332; mean age = 40.3, SE = 0.31) within a multivariate context that relied on multiple (and, when possible, standardized) assessments of sexual dysfunctions while controlling for possible confounding variables. Results indicated a weak, inconsistent, and sometimes absent association between the frequency of pornography use and DE symptomology and/or severity. In contrast, both poorer erectile functioning and anxiety/depression represented consistent and strong predictors of DE and, to a lesser extent, DE severity. Other factors, including relationship satisfaction, sexual interest, and masturbation frequency, were significantly though moderately to weakly associated with DE. In conclusion, associations (or sometimes lack thereof) between masturbation frequency, pornography use, and delayed ejaculation are more clearly understood when analyzed in a multivariate context that controls for possible confounding effects.
... Contemporary porn performers foster the parasocial interactions and relationships with their viewers and fans by presenting themselves not only in pornographic videos but also on social media platforms such as Twitter to appear more approachable and real (Gorissen, 2020). Current studies show that people of different genders and sexual orientations voluntarily use traditional digital pornography that they can access discreetly and often costfree on digital platforms (Vaillancourt-Morel et al., 2017). Issues of consent come up when adults and minors experience unwanted exposure to digital pornography (e.g., confrontation with pornographic pop-up adverts on the Internet or with forwarded porn images on social media) and when people are using sexually explicit content that depicts real life child sexual abuse (e.g., so-called "child pornography"; Eggestein and Knapp, 2014;Henshaw et al., 2017). ...
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The Corrigendum only concerns the addition of the second first author also as a corresponding author. See full paper below.
... to .91;McGahuey et al., 2000;Vaillancourt-Morel et al., 2017). In the present study, Cronbach α was .76. ...
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... Body image and sexual well-being exist at the intersection of feelings, thoughts, and behaviors relevant to the body (Cook-Cottone, 2019; Gillen & Markey, 2018). Body image can encompass sexual well-being insofar as it denotes the subjective (e.g., sexual satisfaction) and objective (e.g., sexual dysfunction and behaviors) connections to people's sex lives (Alatartseva & Barysheva, 2015;Cash, Maikkula, & Yamamiya, 2004;Oakley et al., 2014;Tylka & Piran, 2019;Vaillancourt-Morel et al., 2017;Yamamiya, Cash, & Thompson, 2006). Further, sexual self-concept, a subjective sense of self as a sexual being, includes feelings and perceptions about the body within the context of sex. ...
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Introduction The way men consume pornography changed over the last decade, with increased numbers of men presenting with self-perceived Internet pornography (IP) addiction and related sexual dysfunction. A lack of consensus and formal recognition in the DSM-5 lead to a variety of definitions of IP addiction. Currently, the majority of evidence linking IP addiction and sexual dysfunction was derived from consumers, case studies, and qualitative research. Where empirical measures were used, researchers found mixed outcomes in sexual response. Inconclusive data appeared to relate to the conflation of IP use and self-perceived IP addiction, and normal variations in sexual response with clinical diagnosis of sexual dysfunction. Thus, further empirical clarification is required to assess the impact of both IP use and self-perceived IP addiction, on men's sexual function. Aims This study has 3 aims: First, to assess if there is an association between IP use alone and erectile dysfunction (ED), premature (early) ejaculation (EE) and sexual satisfaction (SS); Second, to assess whether there is an association between self-perceived IP addiction and ED, EE and SS. Third, to assess whether IP use or self-perceived IP addiction uniquely predicts ED, EE, SS in men. Method Correlation and regression analysis was conducted on a cross-sectional sample of 942 heterosexual men aged 18-44 years who participated in an online survey sourced from Reddit IP subgroups. Main Outcome Measures Cyber-Pornography Use Inventory; International Index Erectile Dysfunction; The Checklist for Early Ejaculation Symptoms; New Sexual Satisfaction Scale; Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21. Results There was no evidence for an association between IP use with ED, EE, or SS. However, there were small to moderate positive correlations between self-perceived IP addiction and ED, EE and sexual dissatisfaction. Further, self-perceived IP addiction uniquely predicted increased ED, EE and individual sexual dissatisfaction. Contrary to expectations, self-perceived IP addiction did not predict sexual dissatisfaction with one's sexual partner. Conclusion These results suggest that IP use alone does not predict sexual dysfunction. Rather, self-perception of increased IP addiction was related to negative sexual outcomes. Thus, we concluded that subjective interpretation of ones IP use was a contributor to IP related sexual problems in our sample of males who share IP on social media sites. We recommend that clinicians consider self-perceived IP addiction as a possible contributing factor to sexual dysfunction. Whelan G, Brown J. Pornography Addiction: An Exploration of the Association Between Perceived Addiction, Erectile Dysfunction, Premature (Early) Ejaculation, and Sexual Satisfaction in Males Aged 18-44 Years. J Sex Med 2021;XX:XXX–XXX.
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Purpose of review: World Health Organization recently included compulsive sexual behavior disorder (CSBD) to the upcoming 11th edition of International Classification of Diseases (6C72). Despite the potential benefits of this decision (eg, the acceleration of research in the field will allow the development of effective treatments), previous research focused mainly on men, and as a result, we do not have an accurate clinical picture of compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) among women. Therefore, in this systematic review, we aim to present available knowledge on this topical subject. Literature search was conducted in the guideline of PRISMA methodology. Studies were identified from multiple databases including Academic Search Ultimate, SocINDEX, PsycARTICLES, PsycINFO, PubMed, and MEDLINE. Out of a total of 10,531 articles identified and screened, 58 were included in this review. Included studies covered the following topics: prevalence and etiology of CSB, behavioral and cognitive processes involved, comorbidities, personality traits, psychosocial and interpersonal difficulties, traumatic experiences, and treatments. Recent findings: Available studies indicate that CSB symptom severity is lower in women than in men. Overall, women reported consuming pornography less often than men and exhibit lower rates of feeling urges to these materials. CSB symptoms (including problematic pornography use) have been found to be positively related to trait psychopathy, impulsivity, sensation seeking, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms, obsessive-compulsive disorder, pathological buying, sexual dysfunctions, general psychopathology, child sexual abuse, while negatively related to dispositional mindfulness. Summary: Conclusions that can be drawn from prior studies are considerably limited. There are no accurate estimates of the CSB prevalence or severity among women, and studies have been mostly conducted on non-clinical populations, which has limited application for women diagnosed with CSBD.
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Background and aims Problematic pornography use can be conceptualized as an impulse control disorder or alternatively as a behavioral addiction. Stress is an important trigger in addiction, but less is known about the neural effect of stress in problematic pornography use. Therefore, we aimed at investigating the effect of stress during the anticipation and viewing of sexually explicit material while considering person characteristics related to potentially being at risk for developing problematic pornography use. Methods In an fMRI study ( n = 157 men, age: mean = 25.46, SD = 4.11) we used a sexual incentive delay task. A social stress test was used to induce stress in half of the participants. Salivary cortisol was repeatedly measured and person characteristics were considered moderating the effects of cortisol response. Results We found no group differences in the neural responses during the anticipation phase, but a higher reactivity to sexual stimuli in the dACC in the stress group. Acute stress activated a pronounced cortisol response, which positively correlated with neural activations in the reward system (NAcc, dACC) to sexual cues. Further, the individual time spent on pornography use moderated the effect of cortisol in some regions of the reward system (dACC, mOFC). Discussion and conclusions Our results suggest that acute stress related increases in cortisol can enhance the incentive value of cues announcing sexual stimuli. This might explain why acute stress is considered a trigger of pornography use and relapse and why individual stress response might be a risk factor for developing a problematic pornography use.
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In 1998, Gold and Heffner authored a landmark review in Clinical Psychology Review on the topic of sexual addiction that concluded that sexual addiction, though increasingly popular in mental health settings, was largely based on speculation, with virtually no empirical basis. In the more than two decades since that review, empirical research around compulsive sexual behaviors (which subsumes prior research about sexual addiction) has flourished, ultimately culminating in the inclusion of a novel diagnosis of Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder in the eleventh edition of the World Health Organization’s International Classification of Diseases. The present work details a systematic review of empirical research published between January 1st, 1995 and April 1st, 2020 related to compulsive sexual behaviors. This review yielded 333 papers detailing 371 individual studies. In general, the present review finds that, although research related to compulsive sexual behaviors has proliferated, much of this work is characterized by simplistic methodological designs, a lack of theoretical integration, and an absence of quality measurement. Moreover, the present review finds a virtual absence of high-quality treatment-related research published within this time frame. Implications of these findings for both clinical practice and future research are discussed.
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Background Pleasure-seeking reasons are the main drivers of pornography use (PU), but the regulation of unpleasant states, namely distraction from or suppression of negative emotions and stress relief, are other potential predictors of this behavior. Aim Our main objective is to develop an explanatory model of problematic PU, assessing difficulties in emotion regulation, loneliness, perceived stress, as well as age and gender as predictors. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted that included a total of 340 participants (M = 28.50 years, SD = 10.32). Self-report inventories were administered that measured problematic PU (PPCS), difficulties in emotion regulation (DERS-SF), loneliness (UCLALS-3), and perceived stress (PSS-10). Results The findings were indicative of recreational PU, with only a small number of participants (4.6%) reporting a possible problematic PU. There were statistically significant gender differences (F(1,337) = 33.306, P ≤ .001), namely that men were more likely to report problematic PU (M = 36.03, SD = 21.30) than women (M = 25.32, SD = 9.24). Problematic PU was significantly and positively correlated either with difficulties in emotion regulation, loneliness, perceived stress and age. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis showed that difficulties in emotion regulation (β = 0.259, P ≤ .001), loneliness (β = 0.209, P = .001), and gender (β = -0.377, P ≤ .001) define the best subset of predictors of problematic PU. Age and perceived stress were not selected as predictors in this subset. Clinical Translation The promotion of better emotion regulation abilities and strategies for adaptive coping with loneliness must be taken into consideration, namely in cases of problematic PU or compulsive sexual behavior disorder. Strengths & Limitations Being a cross-sectional study with a convenience sample and the fact that these variables explain only a part of the explained variance of the problematic PU are the main limitations. Despite the limitations, the principal contribution of this study is the understanding that gender, difficulties in emotion regulation, and loneliness remain as main predictors of problematic PU, even when combined in the explanatory model. Conclusion The current study provides a better understanding of the predictors of problematic PU related with the reduction or avoidance of unpleasant states. Emotion regulation, loneliness, and perceived stress, studied simultaneously, provide a better understanding of the complex relationships between these factors and problematic PU. Difficulties in emotion regulation and loneliness are predictors of higher problematic PU, as well as the expected gender effect. Cardoso J, Ramos C, Brito J, et al. Predictors of Pornography Use: Difficulties in Emotion Regulation and Loneliness. J Sex Med 2021;XX:XXX–XXX.
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Chapter
Online behavior varies according to the purpose and situations and many get involved in intimate relations, like in online dating, which have an impact on the person and his mental health. The chapter focused on the impact of online dating, cyber stalking, cybersex, and pornography on mental health. Though many studied the online dating among adolescents and adults, that of old age group is not yet fully explored especially about their sexual needs. It is worth exploring factors related to risky sexual behaviors among gay and bisexual individuals. Online dating for mentally ill people is an under-researched area. Cyberstalking is an important issue, especially among adolescents and young adults, and cybersex and cyber pornography threatens the safety and mental health in addition to the problems of addiction and child trafficking, and it is linked with high sexual risk behaviors and sex crimes. It is necessary to develop tailored psychotherapeutic and pharmacological interventions by taking into account the complexity and heterogeneity of the problems.
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This study explored the psychometric properties of the Online Sexual Addiction Questionnaire (OSA-Q). In total, 100 sexual offenders completed the OSA-Q Spanish version, along with the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) for the assessment of related impairment. Thirty-four individuals with social-desirability bias were extracted from the sample. A four-factor structure accounted for 77% of the variance and internal consistency was strong (α = .97). Additionally, correlations with related clinical scales were statistically significant. Overall, online sexual offenders showed higher scores on the OSA-Q than contact-exclusive offenders. According to our results, the OSA-Q shows promise as a screening in forensic samples.
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Background Several behaviors produce short-term reward and may become excessive because of diminished control despite knowledge of adverse consequences. Due to similarities with substance use disorders, certain excessive behaviors may be conceptualized as behavioral addictions.Objective To provide information about the definition, classification and specific manifestations of behavioral addictions.Material and methodsNarrative literature review and expert opinions.ResultsGambling and gaming disorders have been included as “disorders due to addictive behaviours” in the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). Other specific poorly controlled behaviors, which may be considered as behavioral addictions are sex addiction, buying-shopping disorder and excessive social network use if enough empirical evidence is available.Conclusion Gambling and gaming disorders are recognized as behavioral addictions. Future research should address the question which other specific poorly controllable and therefore problematic activities are of clinical importance and warrant consideration as behavioral addictions.
Thesis
Previous studies have revealed complex associations between sexual dysfunction, depressive symptoms, and treatment with antidepressant drugs, and provide evidence linking depression, neuroinflammation and hypothalamo-pituitary-axis (HPA) dysregulation. However, little is known about the prevalence of sexual dysfunction or incidence of treatment-emergent sexual dysfunction in patients with anxiety disorders. Published studies have found contrasting evidence of the association between anxiety symptoms and disrupted levels of inflammatory markers, and investigations of HPA function in anxiety disorders have produced inconsistent findings. Augmentation with COX-2 inhibitors in patients with depression can reduce depressive symptoms and improve quality of life, but the potential therapeutic benefit of COX-2 inhibitors in patients with anxiety disorders is uncertain. This thesis includes a systematic review of the utility of the Arizona Sexual Experiences scale (ASEX) and a series of investigations in patients with anxiety disorders (n=35), with exploration of sexual function, anxiety symptoms, neuroinflammation and HPA dysregulation, at baseline, after six weeks of treatment, and after six weeks of augmentation with the COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib. The ASEX appears reliable, valid, and sensitive to change, and acceptable in a broad range of clinical settings. Cross-sectional findings indicate a point prevalence of sexual dysfunction of 57.1% at Baseline, 75.1% at Week 6 and 39.3% at Week 12. Sexual dysfunction was significantly positively correlated with the severity of anxiety symptoms, and significantly negatively correlated with mental wellbeing at Baseline, Week 6 and Week 12. There were low levels of IL-12p70 and low IL-2 but a high level of TNF-α at Week 6. At Week 12, there were low levels of IL-1β, low IL-12p70 and IL-13, a high level of TNF-α (regardless of augmentation with celecoxib) but low IL-2 levels in the nonaugmentation group. At Baseline, patients with panic disorders with agoraphobia had a high hair cortisol concentration (HCC). Longitudinal analysis found worsening of sexual function at Week 6, but significant improvement in anxiety symptoms, wellbeing and sexual function at Week 12 in the celecoxib augmentation group. There was a significant reduction in IL-2 level from Week 6 to Week 12 in the augmentation group, a reduction of HCC from Baseline to Week 6, and a slight elevation at Week 12, although changes in HCC were not statistically significant. Investigating sexual dysfunction as part of the clinical assessment of patients with anxiety disorders, is important to facilitate better management and well-being. Augmentation with celecoxib can improve clinical outcomes, yet further research is needed to retest this. More research is needed to explore HCC in anxiety disorders in larger clinical samples.
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Objectives: In spite of growing concerns about adolescents’ pornography use, research on problematic pornography use (PPU) in this population is scarce. Method: We examined the structure and prevalence of PPU symptoms across six months in 337 male Croatian adolescents. Results: Network analysis indicated that associations among PPU symptoms were highly stable, which was not the case with being at risk for PPU. Less than 5% of the panel participants appeared to be at risk for PPU. Conclusions: This study’s findings may help increase awareness and reduce moral panic about PPU among parents and teachers, and inform emerging pornography literacy programs.
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The Multidimensional Sexual Self-Concept Questionnaire (MSSCQ) was designed to measure multiple aspects of the sexual self-concept. Researchers may feel free to download and quote the manuscript, and to use the MSSCQ in their research. Please notify me if you use the MSSCQ; thank you. Bill Snell (wesnell@semo.edu)
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Aims: To review the evidence base for classifying compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) as a non-substance or 'behavioral' addiction. Methods: Data from multiple domains (e.g. epidemiological, phenomenological, clinical, biological) are reviewed and considered with respect to data from substance and gambling addictions. Results: Overlapping features exist between CSB and substance use disorders. Common neurotransmitter systems may contribute to CSB and substance use disorders, and recent neuroimaging studies highlight similarities relating to craving and attentional biases. Similar pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatments may be applicable to CSB and substance addictions, although considerable gaps in knowledge currently exist. Conclusions: Despite the growing body of research linking compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) to substance addictions, significant gaps in understanding continue to complicate classification of CSB as an addiction.
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Pornography has been a major source of public concern for decades. In recent years, apprehension about the deleterious impact of pornography on romantic and marital relationships has joined a list of previously asserted harms, including claimed associations of pornography with communism, organized crime, aggression against women, and sex addiction. The current research systematically sampled public discourse in the media concerning the impact of pornography on the couple relationship and compared media assertions and conclusions with available evidence of academic research in this area. Magazine features, newspaper articles, and Internet postings mentioning the impact of pornography on heterosexual couples were systematically sampled and analyzed with Thematic Analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2006). Five prominent themes emerged in media discussions of the impact of pornography on relationships: (1) pornography addiction; (2) pornography is good for sexual relationships; (3) pornography use is a form of adultery; (4) partner's pornography use makes one feel inadequate; and (5) pornography use changes expectations about sexual behaviour. Academic research was then reviewed that addressed these identified themes. Two of five identified popular media themes were in accord with the academic literature. The extent to which popular media and academic research are having the same discussions and reaching the same, or different, conclusions was explored, and we discuss implications for future research.
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