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The Partial Least Squares Approach to Structural Equation Modeling

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Provides a nontechnical introduction to the partial least squares (PLS) approach. As a logical base for comparison, the PLS approach for structural path estimation is contrasted to the covariance-based approach. In so doing, a set of considerations are then provided with the goal of helping the reader understand the conditions under which it might be reasonable or even more appropriate to employ this technique. This chapter builds up from various simple 2 latent variable models to a more complex one. The formal PLS model is provided along with a discussion of the properties of its estimates. An empirical example is provided as a basis for highlighting the various analytic considerations when using PLS and the set of tests that one can employ is assessing the validity of a PLS-based model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
... Two items from the original scale of five items were removed because of their loading below 0.7. We used a bipolar scale from Gupta and Bostrom (2013) to measure the learners' learning process satisfaction concerned with the use of internet technology (IT) (Chin, 1998) instead of relying on typical measures for affective outcomes and reactions of learners (Brown, 2005). We used four out of five items to measure satisfaction with the learning process. ...
... Lastly, to analyze our outer model, we analyzed cross-loadings (Chin, 1998) that show all indicators load the highest on their constructs, (see loadings in bold in Table 5) (Hair et al., 2014); this can be seen in Table 5. Simply (Henseler et al., 2015). ...
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