Article

Stop propagating the learning styles myth

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Abstract

We all differ from each other in a multitude of ways, and as such we also prefer many different things whether it is music, food or learning. Because of this, many students, parents, teachers, administrators and even researchers feel that it is intuitively correct to say that since different people prefer to learn visually, auditively, kinesthetically or whatever other way one can think of, we should also tailor teaching, learning situations and learning materials to those preferences. Is this a problem? The answer is a resounding: Yes! Broadly speaking, there are a number of major problems with the notion of learning styles. First, there is quite a difference between the way that someone prefers to learn and that which actually leads to effective and efficient learning. Second, a preference for how one studies is not a learning style. Most so-called learning styles are based on types; they classify people into distinct groups. The assumption that people cluster into distinct groups, however, receives very little support from objective studies. Finally, nearly all studies that report evidence for learning styles fail to satisfy just about all of the key criteria for scientific validity. This article delivers an evidence-informed plea to teachers, administrators and researchers to stop propagating the learning styles myth.

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... Despite widespread and appealing usage of learning style, there are arguments against learning style and its implementation in learning due to lack of empirical and scientific evidence. Several studies state that learning style is a myth (Furey, 2020;Kirschner, 2017;Newton, 2015;Newton & Miah, 2017). Some weaknesses that have been criticized in learning styles used in learning are (1) there is no adequate scientific evidence to support the effectiveness of using learning styles in learning (Kirschner, 2017;Pashler et al., 2009), (2) validity and reliability for the learning style measurement of often shows inconsistencies (Kirschner, 2017). ...
... Several studies state that learning style is a myth (Furey, 2020;Kirschner, 2017;Newton, 2015;Newton & Miah, 2017). Some weaknesses that have been criticized in learning styles used in learning are (1) there is no adequate scientific evidence to support the effectiveness of using learning styles in learning (Kirschner, 2017;Pashler et al., 2009), (2) validity and reliability for the learning style measurement of often shows inconsistencies (Kirschner, 2017). Some learning-style studies even use appropriate methods but have negative results (Constantinidou & Baker, 2002;Cook et al., 2009;Massa & Mayer, 2006;Rogowsky et al., 2015). ...
... Several studies state that learning style is a myth (Furey, 2020;Kirschner, 2017;Newton, 2015;Newton & Miah, 2017). Some weaknesses that have been criticized in learning styles used in learning are (1) there is no adequate scientific evidence to support the effectiveness of using learning styles in learning (Kirschner, 2017;Pashler et al., 2009), (2) validity and reliability for the learning style measurement of often shows inconsistencies (Kirschner, 2017). Some learning-style studies even use appropriate methods but have negative results (Constantinidou & Baker, 2002;Cook et al., 2009;Massa & Mayer, 2006;Rogowsky et al., 2015). ...
Article
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Personalised learning (PL) is learning in which the stage of learning and the instructional approach are optimised for the needs of each learner. The concept of PL allows e-learning design to shift from a ‘one size fits all’ approach to an adaptive and student-centred approach. This paper aims to provide a literature review of PL based on: the PL components used to analyse learner diversity, the PL features offered, the methods used in developing the PL model, the resulting model, the learning theories applied and the impact of PL implementation. Thirty-nine out of 1654 articles published between 2017 and 2021 which were found by Kitchenham method were studied and analysed. The results are derived from synthesized through qualitative synthesis using thematic analysis. The results reveal that most of the articles used knowledge level and learner characteristics to analyse learner diversity. The teaching materials and learning path were the most widely offered PL features in PL model. There is a trend in determining PL features using the knowledge graph method and the use of machine learning classification algorithms to analyse learner diversity. The results also show that PL implementation improves learning outcomes and increases learner’s satisfaction, motivation, and engagement. Research analysing the impact of PL implementation on learning is limited. In addition, only a few studies explicitly referred to learning theory in relation to PL model development. Further research topics are suggested.
... These memories illustrate some of the many negative experiences that 11 children with SEN/D face in mainstream primary schools. The challenges to 12 inclusion experienced by Aquennie were the result of Guyanese cultural 13 attitudes expressed and practiced by both his peers and teacherswho saw 14 ...
... should be held responsible for unpleasant experiences of children with SEN/D 38 placed in the mainstream schools. 39 40 Education, the government, society and other stakeholders responsible for their 10 experiences and socialization of children with SEN/D in mainstream education 11 (See Table 4). The Ministry of Education and its various sections like CPCE, 12 SEN/D Unit, Curriculum Unit and NCERD have been blamed for not given 13 teachers adequate training in SEN/D during the initial stages of their training; 14 nor have they provided any continuous support and CPD for the teachers. ...
... that he learnt that even in school, it is survival of the fittest. With his 10 impairment, he learnt to conquer or be conquered; trample or be trampled on 11 and many children with SEN/D felt trampled. 12 Some children with SEN/D who were also victims of abuse and 13 ...
Article
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This study investigated the learning and socializing experiences and opportunities of children with Special Education Needs and/or Disabilities (SEN/D) in two mainstream primary schools in Guyana. This study was conducted using an ethnographic approach over two semesters in 2018 employing participant observation and unstructured interviews. The data gathered was analyzed using situational analysis as posited by Adele Clarke. It revealed the experiences of children with SEN/D through their voices and their teachers. It showed how the barriers present in the two schools impact these children. The study also revealed that the children often find mainstream schooling more unpleasant than children without SEN/D. It suggests that the culture, discourses and discursive practices of the two schools are not accommodating for children with SEN/D. These children face multiple barriers in the condition, structure and organization of the two schools.
... This approach was termed collaborative by [3] and is often criticized as inconsistent. [22] denounces the reliability and validity of self-report based learning style detection as being dependent on a particular time point of self-reporting and the criteria used, which is supported by the empirical investigations of [33]. To overcome this shortcoming, the automatic approach as [3] aims at identifying the learning styles based on the actual behavior. ...
... A drawback of supervised methodologies is the requirement to provide some learning style reference as ground truth, normally obtained by filling out questionnaires, interviews, self-reporting, etc. These labels are not always available or reasonable and may be error prone [18,22]. [21] combine self-reported learning styles and those derived from data using data mining with a decision tree algorithm for content adaptation to compensate the disadvantages of questionnaires. ...
... As a result, PCA offers a generative model for the observed learners data, where each learner can exhibit preference to more than one dominating learning style. The later addresses another common criticism of learning style approaches [22]. However, because both principal component scores and loadings are allowed to be positive and negative, the resulting components are sometimes added and sometimes subtracted. ...
Article
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A data-driven model where individual learning behavior is a linear combination of certain stylized learning patterns scaled by learners’ affinities is proposed. The absorption of stylized behavior through the affinities constitutes “building blocks” in the model. Non-negative matrix factorization is employed to extract common learning patterns and their affinities from online learning data ensuring meaningful non-negativity of the result. The empirical learning patterns resulting from the actual course interaction data of 111 undergraduate university students are connected to a learning style system. Bootstrap-based inference allows to check the significance of the pattern coefficients. Dividing the learners in two groups “failed” and “passed” and considering their mean affinities leads to a bootstrap-based test on whether the course structure is well balanced regarding the learning preferences.
... Likewise, unconditionally relying on learning styles creates an atmosphere in which instructors are expected to provide each student with a 'perfectly adapted learning environment,' which is unrealistic and impossible. This view is later joined by studies such as (Aslaksen et al. 2020;Kirschner 2017;Kratzig and Arbuthnott 2006;Massa and Mayer 2006;Rogowsky et al. 2014). ...
... -The choice of model for identification of learning tendencies is of great importance. As shown in (Kirschner 2017), an immeasurable number of known models have proven to be discredited or poorly validated, and therefore, anyone planning to include learning tendencies in their studies must carefully choose the appropriate model. ...
... In this way, the identification of learning tendencies is followed by the course adaptation. However, this practice in some cases is not applicable because the nature of the subject itself often does not allow for too much variety (e.g., mathematical theorems) (Kirschner 2017). In addition, it has already been proven that matching instructional design with learning tendencies does not lead to better learning outcomes (Lopa and Wray 2015). ...
Thesis
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This dissertation addresses decreased academic participation, low engagement and poor experience as issues often related to students’ retention in online learning courses. The issues were identified at the Department of Computer Science at RWTH Aachen University, Germany, although high dropout rates are a growing problem in Computer Science studies worldwide. A solving approach often used in addressing the before mentioned problems includes gamification and personalization techniques: Gamification is a process of applying game design principles in serious contexts (i.e., learning), while personalization refers to tailoring the context to users’ needs and characteristics. In this work, the two techniques are used in combination in the Personalized Gamification Model (PeGaM), created for designing an online course for learning programming languages. PeGaM is theoretically grounded in the principles of the Gamified Learning Theory and the theory of learning tendencies. Learning tendencies define learners’ preferences for a particular form of behavior, and those behaviors are seen as possible moderators of gamification success. Moderators are a concept explained in the Gamified Learning Theory, and refer to variables that can influence the impact of gamification on the targeted outcomes. Gamification success is a measure of the extent to which students behave in a manner that leads to successful learning. The conceptual model of PeGaM is an iterative process in which learning tendencies are used to identify students who are believed to be prone to avoid certain activities. Gamification is then incorporated in activities that are recognized as ‘likely to be avoided’ to produce a specific learning-related behavior responsible for a particular learning outcome. PeGaM model includes five conceptual steps and 19 design principles required for gamification of learning environments that facilitate student engagement, participation and experience. In practice, PeGaM was applied in an introductory JavaScript course with Bachelor students of Computer Science at RWTH Aachen University. The investigation was guided by the principles of the Design-Based Research approach. Through this approach, PeGaM was created, evaluated and revised, over three iterative cycles. The first cycle had an explorative character, included one control and one treatment group, and gathered 124 participants. The second and third cycle were experimental studies, in which 69 and 171 participants were randomly distributed along one control and two treatment groups. Through the three interventions, mixed methods were used to capture students’ academic participation (a measure of students’ online behavior in the course collected through activity logs), engagement (evaluated quantitatively through a questionnaire compiled to measure behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement), and gameful experience (quantitative measure of students’ experience with the gamified system). In addition, supporting data was collected through semi-structured interviews and open-ended survey questions. The empirical findings revealed that gamification with PeGaM contributes to learning outcomes and that the success of gamification is conditioned by the applicability of game elements with learners’ preferences and learning activities. Cross case comparisons supported the application of PeGaM design principles and demonstrated its potential. Even though limited support was found to confirm the moderating role of learners’ learning tendencies, the study demonstrated that the gamification of learning activities that students are likely to avoid can increase their participation - but must be carefully designed. Most importantly, it has been shown that educational gamification can support and enhance learning-related behavior but require relevant and meaningful learning activities in combination with carefully considered reward, collaborative and feedback mechanisms. The study provides practical and theoretical insights but also highlights challenges and limitations associated with personalized gamification thus offers suggestions for further investigation.
... In addition to culturally responsive and developmentally appropriate practices (Copple & Bredekamp, 2009), many institutions and classroom practitioners persistently push for a recognition of learning styles (Kirschner, 2017). In these environments, primary educators employ a learning styles approach despite emerging evidence from the fields of neuroscience and child development contradicting some commonly held beliefs among teachers and parents regarding what practices are crucial to shaping a healthy developing brain (Center on the Developing Child, 2016; Dekker et al., 2012;Howard-Jones, 2014). ...
... To date, well-known and prominent researchers in the fields of developmental and educational psychology, neuroscience, and learning have examined the existing literature on learning styles extensively and have found no credible evidence or quantifiable data to support claims that teaching to one specific learning style improves a child's learning outcomes (Husmann & O'Loughlin, 2018;Kirschner, 2017;Nancekivell et al., 2020;Pashler et al., 2008;Riener & Willingham, 2010;Tardif et al., 2015;Willingham et al., 2015;Yale Poorvu Center for Teaching and Learning, 2021). Additional findings reveal inconsistencies in learning styles research, as well as a lack of statistically significant relationships between the preference of a specific learning style and a child's learning. ...
... Additional findings reveal inconsistencies in learning styles research, as well as a lack of statistically significant relationships between the preference of a specific learning style and a child's learning. Further findings show low validity and test-retest reliability in the measurements of learning styles (Kirschner, 2017;Kirschner & van Merriënboer, 2013;Knoll et al., 2017;Rogowsky et al., 2015). In none of the previously cited research did any of the authors suggest that all learners learn the same way. ...
Article
The authors encourage primary educators to reevaluate learning styles and related literature, explore how the mind works in children’s learning, and consider the multimodal learning approach in their classroom practices.
... While it is often argued that learning styles research can inform practical implications for the field of management education, no extant review has verified whether this truly is the case. This is problematic when the efficacy of learning style models has been questioned in other fields of educational research (Fajnzylber et al., 2002;Kirschner, 2017). This study aims to systematically investigate how popular learning style inventories are utilised by management researchers and to understand the implications of applying learning style models to management teaching, learning, and research. ...
... A possible explanation is that the tasks associated with a research project involving meticulous analysis of information were more consonant with the analytic style of working. These observations are consistent with Kirschner's (2017) contention that students should receive instruction based on the demands of tasks and personal characteristics that have proven to affect learning outcomes. ...
... However, a review of learning style research in management education provides no evidence for this hypothesis. This result is consistent with the broader education literature that provides little credible evidence regarding students receiving instruction adopting different instructional methods that match their preferred styles (Aslaksen & Lorå s, 2018;Davis et al., 2018;Kirschner, 2017). ...
Article
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Learning style inventories have been extensively used by management scholars to understand the different ways in which students process information and respond to academic tasks. However, the implications of these studies on teaching, learning, and research are largely unknown. This review analysed and critiqued 78 empirical studies adopting one or more learning style instruments. The findings were fourfold: (1) the effects of environmental factors on style preferences have rarely been considered, and the interpretation of learning styles is often decontextualised; (2) researchers attempted to transform students into more balanced learners, although there was no evidence that individuals with a balanced learning style outperformed their counterparts who possessed a single, dominant style; (3) there was no concrete evidence that matching teaching to students’ dominant learning styles contributed to learning; and (4) studies employing the Study Process Questionnaire (SPQ) and Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST) showed relatively consistent results, but more research is required to understand their correlations with other personal and environmental factors. Overall, learning style inventories demonstrated limited usefulness in advancing teaching and learning in management education. Practical implications and future research directions are provided based on the discussion of key findings.
... After the publication of these works, there was a disbelief in the use of learning Styles and a reduction in the number of publications in the area, as shown in Figure 1. For Kirschner (2017), the classification of a student in a specific and distinct style can be exclusionary. Thus, differences between people in any dimension of style are gradual and not nominal. ...
... In addition, the Felder and Silverman Learning Styles Model ensures that the student's Learning Style is not nominal but gradual within the dichotomies of each dimension of the model, as suggested by Kirschner (2017). To enhance the personalization process, this work proposes that, just as Learning Styles are gradual, Learning Objects are also gradually related to Learning Styles. ...
Article
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The automation of learning object recommendation and learning styles detection processes has attracted the interest of many researchers. Some works consider Learning Styles to recommend Learning Objects. On the other hand, other works automatically detect Learning Styles, analyzing the behavior of students in Intelligent Tutorial Systems in relation to the use of Learning Objects. Taking into account that advances in this field of research have been constantly presented in recent years, this paper analyzes the results of works discovered through a Systematic Literature Review. The main objective was to discover and document the relationships between Learning Styles and Learning Objects considered by researchers, in order to provide accurate content recommendations. The results show inconsistencies in the process, indicating that more and more in-depth research is still needed to allow a more accurate understanding of how to consider Learning Styles in the Learning Object recommendation process.
... The literature on this subject is, nevertheless, extensive on the reliability and value of learning styles for pedagogical and learning practices, which have been and continue to be the subject of decades-long arguments and discussions, as Poirier and Ally (2020) highlighted. Although some researchers (e.g., Kirschner, 2017) have criticised learning styles as a concept, others believe the idea should be abandoned. Learning style debunkers have mostly probed whether the techniques used to measure learning style actually measure what they claim to measure (Kirschner 2017;Newton & Miah 2017;Riener & Willingham 2010). ...
... Although some researchers (e.g., Kirschner, 2017) have criticised learning styles as a concept, others believe the idea should be abandoned. Learning style debunkers have mostly probed whether the techniques used to measure learning style actually measure what they claim to measure (Kirschner 2017;Newton & Miah 2017;Riener & Willingham 2010). Other scholars like Willingham (2005) and Willingham, Hughes, and Dobolyi (2015) have disputed the value of learning styles in educational practice, claiming that adapting instruction to learners' individual learning styles does not lead to better learner outcomes. ...
Article
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Recent studies have shown that learners receive and process information differently. As learners learn in various ways, it appears impossible to change each learner's learning style in the classroom. Instead, teachers might modify their teaching styles to be more consistent with their learners' learning styles. This study takes into account the following objectives: first to determine the learning styles of learners; secondly, to determine how much variance in academic performance in electricity and magnetism can be explained by the variation in learning styles when they receive learning style-based instructions; and lastly, to determine learners' experiences with learning style-based instructions. The study employs a theoretical framework to survey pertinent literature to review relevant literature and present various viewpoints on learning style-based instructions. A mixed-method sequential explanatory strategy was employed to achieve the intended objectives and to answer the research questions "what is the change in learners' achievement after experiencing learning style-based instruction?". In addition, a purposeful convenience sampling procedure was employed to select two schools from the target population. A total of 205 physical science learners took part in the study. Physical Science Achievement Test (PSAT), interviews and Index of Learning Style Questionnaire (ILSQ) were the primary instruments utilised to collect data. Data analysis was primarily conducted using descriptive and inferential statistics and framework analysis. The results indicate that the predominant learning styles preferences were active, sequential, visual, and sensing. In addition, the study found a significant difference between learners' achievement when they received learning style-based instruction in the physical sciences classroom. In light of the findings of this research, this study recommends that teachers assess the learning styles and modalities of their learners to create a teaching-learning plan that best suits their needs. Teachers must also consider that learning acquisition varies; instructions, activities, and learning materials must be altered to facilitate smooth delivery and effective instructional objectives. In addition, the study findings could help teachers become more sensitive to the differences learners bring to the classroom. Keywords: Electricity and magnetism, learner achievement, learning styles, learning-style based instructional strategies, physical sciences
... Such beliefs about multimedia learning are very common in teachers (e.g., Dekker et al., 2012;Krammer et al., 2019). However, research does not support such beliefs (Rohrer & Pashler, 2012;Kirschner, 2017). The conception that effective teaching should be adapted to stable differences in students' learning styles (e.g., "visualizer or verbalizer") qualifies as a misconception. ...
... In any case, misconceptions are incompatible with scientific findings (Chi & Roscoe, 2002;Hughes et al., 2013;Vosniadou, 1994). The idea that learning materials should be adapted to learning styles is such a misconception that is scientifically disproven (Kirschner, 2017). Further, the idea of adapting learning materials to learning styles may be acquired early in life, as students in school may be confronted with it through their teachers applying materials adapted to learning styles. ...
Article
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Lay Description What is already known about this topic? Teachers hold misconceptions about multimedia learning (e.g., learning materials should be adapted to students' individual learning styles, such as visualizers or verbalizers). Refutation texts, naming a commonly held misconception, disproving it and introducing a scientific explanation, are a common means to reduce misconceptions. Personalization fosters learning by drawing the learner's attention toward the discrepancy between their own beliefs and the learning material, further creating an impasse experience. Said impasse experience may trigger teachers' conceptual change, as, for teachers' conceptual change, a certain degree of discomfort is required. Yet, anger, caused by lessoning teachers on their topic may cause repulse and hamper learning. What this paper adds? With a computer algorithm, we can efficiently personalize refutation texts by automatically matching them to teachers' answers in a pre‐test. Such a personalized refutation instruction may especially foster conceptual change. Within a randomized experiment, the personalized refutation instruction worked best compared to common refutation texts and expository texts. Feelings of guilt and shame moderated the effect of a personalized refutation, as teachers felt more addressed in their misconceptions and thus experienced the required impasse experience. Feelings of anger did not play an important role within our experiment. The implications of study findings for practitioners Computer algorithms enable efficient personalization of instruction to better deal with heterogeneous groups of learners (e.g., with big differences in prior knowledge or experience, such as in the case of in‐service teachers). Refutation texts work better for teachers when they are personalized. Common refutation texts do not work better than expository texts. An advantage of digital instruction is the use of algorithms to efficiently personalize instructions even for larger groups.
... Pictographs with text have been found to reduce error of drug dosage administration to children among parents with low HL [39]. Pictures improve information recall, grab attention and promote health information understanding; especially simpler cartoon pictures complementing text [41]. ...
... Although little evidence has shown learning outcome differences based on a target learning styles teaching approach [41]; preferences may influence information delivery choice, whether visual, kinaesthetic or auditory. AV communication synthesises such preferences together forming videos. ...
Article
The translation of scientific evidence into guidelines and advice is a fundamental aspect of scientific communication within nutrition and dietetics. For communication to be effective for all patients, health literacy (HL) must be considered, i.e. an individual's capacity to obtain, comprehend and utilise information to empower decision-making and promote their own health. HL levels are varied and difficult to judge on an individual basis and have not been quantified, thus not giving a population mean HL competency indication. It has been evidenced that most of the working age population in England cannot comprehend healthcare materials due to complexity, thereby promoting a need for agreed readability thresholds for written healthcare information. A wide range of modalities within dietetics are used to communicate to a varied audience with the primary form written, e.g. journal articles, plain language summaries and leaflets. Audio/visual and digital communications are increasing in dietetic care and welcomed by patients; however, the effectiveness of such approaches has not been studied thoroughly and digital exclusion remains a concern. Communication considering a patient's HL level leads to empowerment which is key to effective management of chronic diseases with a high treatment burden. Therefore; this review will focus on the importance of modalities used to communicate science in nutrition to ensure they are appropriate in relation to Health Literacy.
... The framework was also seen as a robust model for learning design and inquiry (Nolan-Grant, 2019). Furthermore, as student socio-economic conditions, cognitive styles (Koć-Januchta, Höffler, Thoma, Prechtl, and Leutner, 2017) and cognitive abilities (Kirschner, 2017) differ, it is therefore important that the community of inquirers (lecturers) agrees with the teaching methods and learning technologies to be used when applying the CoI framework to hybrid learning (Wicks, Craft, Mason, Gritter, and Bolding, 2015). ...
... This juxtaposition of realities for students is consistent with various submissions that cognitive styles (Koć-Januchta et al., 2017) or cognitive abilities (Kirschner and van Merrienboer, 2013;Kirschner, 2017) differ. The challenge of balancing the needs of students with different cognitive abilities appeared overwhelming for some lecturers in the case of a business school when hybrid learning was first adopted. ...
Chapter
COVID-19 is reshaping the delivery of higher education on a global scale. With universities closing their campuses, online and remote learning has become a necessity. This article reports on the research findings on various initiatives taken by a business school in the United Kingdom to support hybrid learning. The initiatives were underpinned largely by a Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework to enhance student learning experiences and outcomes. Using a case study design, data was gathered from a variety of sources, including a university-wide survey, accounts of lecturers’ experiences, and the case school’s social media and other online sources. The significance of this study is that it explores specifically how to create a collaborative community of inquiry in a hybrid learning environment and articulates the major challenges of using the CoI framework to achieve positive learning experiences and outcomes in these challenging times. The findings suggest that communication, empowerment, and technology are the key enablers that drive and support the implementation of CoI’s three core elements: cognitive, social, and teaching presence. The findings also demonstrate that engagement, well-being, and technology issues are the biggest challenges for hybrid learning and CoI in the wake of COVID-19. These challenges go far beyond academic and pedagogical boundaries, and thus, warrant future investigation.
... Addressing the question of specific ways of learning for the different laboratories, students might prefer RLs and be disinclined to complete VLs in the belief that they do not match their preferred learning style which they believe is conducive to better outcomes. However, the concept of individual learning styles has been questioned [21] According to Claxton and Ralston [22], a learning style is the consistent way a student responds to and uses stimuli for learning [22]. While many students identify with a particular 'style' of learning and may believe that this is linked to better outcomes, it would appear that most students use multiple learning strategies. ...
... When using the VARK questionnaire to identify the way students learn, Hussman [23] reported that despite identifying a personal style, over two-thirds of the 400 students involved in the study used multiple learning styles, and that no style or combination of styles resulted in better outcomes [23]. Additionally, for the one-third of students who did use their identified personal style for learning, there was no apparent academic benefit [23] Studies have not shown that students learn better using a self-reported learning style [21]. ...
Article
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New approaches to teaching and learning in the tertiary setting offer students flexibility for learning and, in a pandemic, suggests ways to provide learning when face-to-face delivery cannot be conducted. Courses that contain a hands-on laboratory component can be resource intensive in terms of equipment, staff, and facilities, thus more difficult to deliver when hands-on laboratory work is precluded. This study developed two virtual laboratories that could be completed online and, using a crossover design, evaluated student learning outcomes from virtual and real laboratory activities for 57 students. It also gained student feedback on their learning experiences. Overall, student knowledge increased significantly for each topic after completing either the virtual or real laboratory activities. However, no significant difference in learning was observed when outcomes from virtual or real laboratories were compared. Feedback from students indicated that most students found online modules easier to follow, they provided better background information, and would be revisited, but real laboratories were more interesting. Reinforcing learning, understanding, and remembering processes were reportedly similar for both, indicating no negative impact when a virtual laboratory was used. This study provides supporting evidence for the use of virtual laboratories where the focus is on learning concepts and not on student proficiency at operating laboratory equipment.
... Even though the offer of different learning modalities represented a prevalent personalisation approach in early attempts to create adaptive systems, it has been hugely criticised in recent years [158,205]. This approach is based on apparent differences in the learning styles of users, describing the attitudes and behaviours that determine their preferred way of learning [147]. ...
... Hattie [120] thinks that learning styles could label students in such a way as to limit their potential for learning [168]. Kirschner [158] criticises learning styles because he considers that 'there is no real scientific basis for the proposition that (1) a learner has a certain optimal learning style, (2) he/she is aware of what that personal learning style is and there is a reliable and valid way to determine this style, and (3) optimal learning and instruction entails first determining this learning style and then aligning instruction accordingly'. ...
Article
Over the years, personalisation in e‐learning has evolved as a promising paradigm for matching learners' specific requirements. Although many literature reviews on personalised e‐learning have been conducted, there are still voids and limitations in the comprehensive literature survey regarding how personalisation might occur in e‐learning environments and benefit the teaching and learning process. In addition, no design guidelines, frameworks, or tools to guide its implementation exist, so practice can vary widely. The principal purpose of this literature review is to examine the subject, provide insights into the use of personalised techniques and systems in e‐learning, and investigate its impact on the engagement and success of the students. This study applies methods of precise selection criteria to determine which of the selected publications have the strongest interconnection and relevance with the topic of e‐learning personalisation. It also categorises the personalisation techniques employed by each identified system and highlights new perspectives and advances in the area.
... While the evidence for individual learning styles remains inconsistent and controversial (Lujan and DiCarlo, 2006;Samarakoon et al., 2013;Kirschner, 2017;Husmann and O'Loughlin, 2019), it is more likely that we engage with, and learn more effectively during, some activities rather than others. If we know our preferred learning strategy, we can select strategy-specific activities to improve our overall learning efficacy. ...
Article
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Background As medical knowledge continues to expand at an accelerated rate, healthcare professionals face a significant challenge in remaining up-to-date. The goal of this narrative review was to present evidence-based learning strategies that could aid postgraduate clinical education. Design Articles were sought for using PubMed, Ovid, PsychINFO, ERIC databases and only included if relevant to the review objective. Results A total of 103 articles, chapters, and books were used to compose this narrative review. An additional 135 articles and chapters were examined in full for context. The review is divided into two sections: (1) strategies that can help foster a learning mind-set; and (2) high-yield practical tools that are effective in formal or informal learning domains. Conclusion Individual learning is a cornerstone of clinical performance, which influences the quality of care that one can deliver. This review offers a comprehensive set of learning tools for individuals across a variety of settings.
... Por otra parte, reseñar que la temática de estilos de aprendizaje ha sido objeto de diversas críticas (Coffield et al., 2004;Pashler et al., 2009;Riener y Willingham, 2010;An y Carr, 2017;Kirschner, 2017;Husmann y O'Loughlin, 2018), sin embargo, dichas críticas se refieren casi exclusivamente a la taxonomía VARK, una de las más de un centenar de taxonomías publicadas hoy en día. Estos autores críticos no parece que hayan tenido en cuenta la larga historia de la investigación en estilos de aprendizaje y desconocen totalmente las investigaciones en español y portugués sobre estilos de aprendizaje, muchas de ellas presentadas en la Revista de Estilos de Aprendizaje desde 2008. ...
Article
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La siguiente investigación fue efectuada durante el curso 2020-2021, en el que se ha planteado la caracterización de los estilos de aprendizaje y, una vez obtenidos, una metodología de gamificación con alumnos de 1º de Bachillerato de la asignatura de Física y Química en la modalidad de Ciencias. Los objetivos principales de la indagación han sido la determinación de las preferencias de los estilos de aprendizaje y el fomento del aprendizaje significativo de la materia a través de una metodología innovadora. Esta ha consistido en la implementación de un breakout y en la realización de una encuesta de percepción estudiantil. Los resultados más destacados han sido la obtención de un porcentaje significativo de preferencia en estilos adecuados para el aprovechamiento de la asignatura, la valoración elevada de muchas de las actividades planteadas en el breakout y el aumento de la motivación de los discentes. De los resultados obtenidos se infiere que los estilos han supuesto el marco adecuado para el uso del breakout, pues han favorecido la participación del alumnado y han colaborado con la gestión de su aprendizaje. Como conclusión principal se revela el potencial que presenta la gamificación en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje de los estudiantes.
... In the 1970s, a range of competing and contested theories emerged that aim to profile learners based on their "learning styles" (Coffield et. al 2004, Kirschner, 2017. These theories invited teachers to use survey instruments to assess the learning style of their students and to adapt their teaching methods to best fit the needs of their students. ...
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The educational data revolution has empowered universities and educational institutes with rich data on their students, including information on their academic data (e.g., program completion, course enrolment, grades), learning activities (e.g., learning materials reviewed, discussion forum interactions, learning videos watched, projects conducted), learning process (i.e., time, place, path or pace of learning activities), learning experience (e.g., reflections, views, preferences) and assessment results. In this paper, we apply clustering to profile students from one of the largest Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) in the field of Second Language Learning. We first analyse the profiles, revealing the diversity among students taking the same course. We then, referring to the results of our analysis, discuss how profiling as a tool can be utilised to identify at-risk students, improve course design and delivery, provide targeted teaching practices, compare and contrast different offerings to evaluate interventions, develop policy, and improve self-regulation in students. The findings have implications for the fields of personalised learning and differentiated instruction.
... 19 Learning-style instruments exhibit low reliability due both the need for unreliable participant self-reporting and many of the instruments' lack of internal consistency, test-retest reliability, construct validity, and predictive validity. 20,21 While over 70 types of learning style identification instruments exist, one widely used model is David Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (LSI). 22 Kolb's LSI differs from other learning style tests because it is grounded in Experiential Learning Theory-a comprehensive theory of learning in which education is viewed as a continuous, dynamic process in which the learner synergistically interacts with their environment. ...
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Purpose/objective: This study sought to assess the predominant learning mode of second-year dental students, investigate the possible relationship between learning mode, age, and gender, and evaluate if there are quantitative and qualitative differences in predoctoral endodontic lab performance/student perception when learning-mode-specific materials are provided. Methods: Study participants were 101 dental students from Marquette University. Student learning mode was derived from the Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (LSI) 4.0 and students were assigned to one of three groups: (1) learning-mode-aligned supplemental material, (2) unaligned supplemental material, or (3) no supplemental material. Performance on non-surgical root canal treatment of typodont tooth #9 was collected over two lab exercises, with supplemental material provided in between exercises. Students responded to a satisfaction survey at the study's conclusion. The responses for three groups of learning mode were compared using analysis of variance for continuous numeric variables followed by Bonferroni test for multiple comparison. Categorical variables were compared using chi square and/or Fisher exact tests. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between learning modes (p < 0.001). No association was found between gender or age and learning mode preference. Comparing score change between lab exercises, mean score improvement was highest for Group 1 (p < 0.05). While all students valued receiving supplemental learning materials, students provided with aligned materials reported statistically significantly higher perception of the materials' role in their improved performance/heightened understanding. Conclusion: Providing supplemental material aligned with students' learning mode significantly improved their learning experience objectively and subjectively.
... Although some studies have found positive relations between learning style preference on outcomes (e.g. Lauria, 2010 andHonigsfeld, 2013), Kirschner (2017) points out that there is no objective evidence that a student has a certain optimal learning style; that there is a valid and reliable way to measure/determine this style; or an optimal instructional method to align with this learning style. Learning strategies on the other hand can help students increase their self-regulation abilities and overall metacognition to improve learning. ...
Article
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This study analyses the effects of group differentiation by students’ learning strategies of around 1200 students in 46 classes from eight secondary schools in the Netherlands. In an experimental setup with randomization at the class level, division of students over three groups per class (an instruction-independent group, an average group, and an instruction-dependent group) is based on learning strategies, measures using the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ). Each group is offered instruction fitting their own learning strategy. The results show that student performance is higher in classes where the differentiation was applied, and that these students score higher at some scales of the posttest of the questionnaire on motivation, metacognition and self-regulation. However, there are differences between classrooms from different teachers. Additional teacher questionnaires confirm the discrepancy in teacher attitudes towards the intervention.
... It is important to note that the way which students prefer to learn or complete a task often does not correspond to the way that they actually perform most effectively in that task [24]. Therefore, while student preference is important to consider, educators need to consider a wider range of factors when considering transitioning from PBT to CBT. ...
Conference Paper
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In the past two decades, there has been a considerable increase in use of computer-based exams. Currently there is a lack of comprehensive understanding about equivalence between paper-based and computer-based exams in engineering and computing education. This study utilised a systematic literature review (using PRISMA) to synthesise the literature regarding paper and computer-based testing in engineering and computing education between 2010-2020 (inclusive). The research database that was used was Scopus. Publications were first screened by title, abstract and keywords. This was followed by screening the full text of each publication. Twenty-four papers were included in the final analysis. Outcomes demonstrated no clear result regarding equivalency between computer-based and paper-based exams. Similarly, many studies reported that students preferred computer-based exams, but this was not ubiquitous. Educators should consider these factors when considering transitioning from paper to computer-based testing.
... Nesse contexto, é necessário diferenciar entre as preferências por determinadas formas de estudo e as estratégias que levam uma pessoa a aprender efetivamente (Espig & de Souza Domingues, 2020;Kirschner, 2017). Isso é também importante na Educação a Distância (EAD), que tem como um dos desafios, a personalização da aprendizagem para reduzir a evasão dos cursos (Souza & Perry, 2020). ...
Article
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Ensinar não é uma tarefa trivial, especialmente, para turmas heterogêneas, formadas por alunos com perfis de aprendizagem e histórico escolar diferentes. Para minimizar essa dificuldade, diferentes estudos têm desenvolvido estratégias para modelar e identificar estilos de aprendizagem. Nesse contexto, este trabalho contribui para avançar na identificação dos estilos de aprendizagem de alunos dos cursos de uma instituição, por meio de um sistema de apoio educacional que realiza o cálculo dos estilos de aprendizagem a partir dos inventários N-ILS e Kolb. Assim, é realizado um estudo de caso com estudantes dos cursos técnicos integrados ao ensino médio, com faixa etária entre 15 e 19 anos. Os resultados mostram estilos de aprendizagem distintos entre as turmas e os alunos e, a maioria dos respondentes relataram que estão habituados a terem aulas expositivas, mas que aprendem mais com tempo maior para escrita durante as aulas, uso de exemplos e atividades práticas.
... Commonly held beliefs about teaching and learning that do not find empirical support in the experimental literature are often referred to as "educational myths", "edu-myths", or "neuro-myths" (de Bruyckere, Kirschner & Hulshof 2015;McAfee, 2018). Such misconceptions have been conceptualized to be fallacious knowledge that needs to be "unlearned" (McAfee, 2018, p. 8) and include, for instance, "the Mozart effect", i.e., that playing classical music to children will increase their intelligence, brain hemispheric effects on teaching and learning (i.e., rightversus left-brained learners), and Visual-Auditory-Kinesthetic (VAK) learning styles (Husmann & O'Loughlin, 2019;Kirschner, 2017;Pashler, McDaniel, Rohrer, & Bjork, 2008; see Table 1). Belief in such myths is myriad and widespread, despite the fact that their empirical basis is commonly discussed in educational course books (Im, Cho, Dubinsky, & Varma, 2018) as well as covered in a number of publications aimed toward the general public (e.g., de Bruyckere et al., 2015). ...
... Öğrenme stilleri miti, öğrencilerin kendine has bir öğrenme stili olduğunu ve bu öğrenme stillerine uygun öğretim ile desteklendiklerinde daha başarılı olacaklarını söylemektedir (De Bruyckere vd., 2015Kirschner, 2017;Newton ve Miah, 2017;OECD, 2002OECD, , 2007Riener ve Willingham, 2010;Ritchie vd., 2012). 1950'li yıllarda ortaya atılan ve 1970'li yıllardan itibaren popülerliğini koruyan öğrenme stilleri, eğitim bilimciler tarafından yoğun bir şekilde eleştirilmesine rağmen, günümüzde hala en çok kabul gören nöromitlerin başında yer almaktadır (Papadatou-Pastou vd., 2020). ...
... They also emphasize that "theoretical basis for the assumed interactions between learning styles and instructional methods is very thin and significant empirical evidence for the learning-styles hypothesis is almost non-existent." 23,24 Keeping in view some educationists favour alternative approaches to learning style theories which are "grounded in research and based on solid theoretical frameworks in cognitive and developmental psychology." 25 These observations warrant further studies in to learning styles and their interaction with the teaching methods. ...
Article
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Objective: To determine the preferred learning styles of undergraduate dental students at the Foundation University College of Dentistry, Islamabad. Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted at Foundation University College of Dentistry, Islamabad in January 2020 over a period of 2 weeks. On the basis of VARK questionnaire, learning styles of first to final year undergraduate dental students were analysed. The questionnaire consisted of 16 items and identified four different learning styles: visual, aural, reading/writing and kinaesthetic. A total of 132 students were included in this study. The filled out questionnaires were scored according to the VARK tool and then statistically analysed to determine the distribution of different learning styles among students. Results: A total of 126 students out of 132 responded with the response rate of 95.5%. The results showed that the frequency of a single learning style (unimodal) in the study population was 63.5% while the frequency of a combination of different learning styles (multimodal) was 36.5%. The frequencies of bimodal, trimodal and quadmodal learning styles were 26.1%, 6.9% and 3.5% respectively. Among the unimodal learning style kinaesthetic topped the list with a frequency of 27.9% while among the bimodal learning styles auro-kinaesthetic was more frequent accounting for 10.9%. Conclusion: The predominant learning style in our study population was unimodal and had a frequency of 63.5% with kinaesthetic being the chief preference making a major chunk of 27.9% followed by aural learners making up to 20.4%. In bimodal learning styles the most frequent in our study population was auro-kinaesthetic with a frequency of 10.9%.
... Still, the learning styles theory of matching is deeply engrained in the educational system. Ninety percent (90%) to ninety-five percent (95%) or more of educators believe matching increases [4][5][6][7], and this belief is also true for learning and development professionals in the workplace (e.g., [8,9]). In the last quarter century, especially in the workplace, the learning styles theory has been transferred to groups of learners, and a very popular grouping is the learner's membership in "generations." ...
Article
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There is little to no empirical evidence that designing instruction to match individual learning styles increases learning. Similarly, the same is true when people are grouped into “generations”. If generational differences exist, the size of their effect is small and does not affect the effectiveness of training. Still, educators and trainers overwhelmingly think differentiated design based on learning styles and generational differences cause students to learn more. Why? I argue that there are other outcomes to instruction besides effectiveness. If instruction matches an individual’s preferences, content and skills can often be learned more efficiently and certainly appeal more to the learner than if it does not match their preferences. Both efficiency and appeal outcomes are important design outcomes, even if effectiveness is not significantly affected.
... In one of the included articles, John and Boucouvalas (2002) sought to identify two things: which tasks completed using a multimedia computer system were performed well or poorly; and if those differences could be attributed to the participants' cognitive styles. Not only was the interest in cognitive styles or brain-based learning and its application to the classroom critiqued even at the time (Jensen, 2000), much of the educational field currently views cognitive and learning styles as a myth, if a prevalent one (Kirschner, 2017). In another article from the research-base, Sinatra (1990) was interested in examining the commonly held belief that auditory and visual channels of linguistic information were completely separate. ...
Article
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This paper provides a brief overview of the history of Universal Design for Learning (UDL), its prominence in the literature, and its use within the educational community. It then provides a critical analysis of the literature base linked to UDL checkpoint 1.2 by examining the relevance to the current trends in education and technology and alignment with checkpoint 1.2 and/or UDL as a whole. Using these criteria, the paper reports how much of the literature base was out-of-date or disconnected to UDL. Given UDL’s prominent position in educational policy, further research into its effectiveness is necessary. Implications are discussed.
... RNR provides part of a strategy to address unmet needs that are correlated to reoffending. Considering recent research in education finds humans learn through a variety of styles however, a focus on unique learning styles may be unnecessary (Kirschner, 2017;Westby, 2019). Feeney (2008) has pointed out that evaluation results regarding whether vocational reentry programs improve outcomes of interest are varied and tend to be program specific. ...
Article
This study utilized life story interviews with 21 formerly incarcerated individuals to examine the role vocational reentry programming played in the desistance process. We begin with a review of theories of desistance and the state of reentry programs. A thematic analysis revealed that providers assisted individuals to understand their behavioral trajectories and to take steps toward desistance. Further, participants felt empowered by program provided social support, developed strategies to overcome employment barriers, and held resilient and optimistic attitudes in changing their identities and behavioral trajectories. We conclude with a discussion on how these findings can inform desistance theory and reentry policy.
... Also, since most testing is done with words, "to give students as much experience with written material as possible to help them build these skills, regardless of their preferred learning style". Kirschner, (2017), in the abstract of his Stop propagating the learning styles myth article summarizes: "First, there is quite a difference between the way that someone prefers to learn and 86 | Know Your Learning Styles that which actually leads to effective and efficient learning. Second, a preference for how one study is not a learning style. ...
Book
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Education causes enlightenment and emancipation and is the major key to national development. It is the only panacea for the ills and evils of the country. The process of acquisition of knowledge continues from individual’s birth to death through different ways. One of the most important processes of one’s life is learning, which is a multi-sided phenomenon in nature. By providing purposeful education, we can easily raise the general level of intelligence of students and develop clear and sound thinking. Through education, we can enable them to appreciate new values and turn their acquisitive impulse to the direction of truth, as it enables the person to bring dynamic and constructive changes in society. Every individual has its own natural or habitual pattern of acquiring and processing information in learning situations. The common ways or patterns by which people learn are known as their learning styles. Learning styles are set of cognitive, emotional and psychological factors that serve as relatively stable indicators of how a learner perceives, interacts with and responds to the learning environment. Everyone has a combination of various learning styles. Some people may find that they have a dominant style of learning, with far less use of the other styles while others find that they use different styles in different circumstances. A core concept is that individuals differ in the ways they learn. The idea of individualized learning styles was initiated in 1970s and since then has influenced education remarkably. It was recommended by the proponents of the use of learning styles in education that teachers should identify the learning styles of their students and adapt their teaching methods to best fit learning style of each student. The present book deals with various learning styles adopted by the learners of the reserved and non-reserved cast category. It consists of five chapters which have been described in detail along with the corresponding researches carried out in the related fields. I am pleased to present this book with an earnest hope that the reflections of this book will unfold the mystery of various learning–styles adopted by the pupils in the context of their variation on caste category, sex, locality and academic achievement level. It will motivate the teachers, administrators, students, academicians, future researchers and the policy framers to know more and more in this field. They may also even make their best effort in preparing the pupils for adopting the learning-style most suitable to pupil’s age, sex, locality, academic achievement and other aspects of the personality. It may certainly result in better learning achievement of the pupils and in creating the effective teaching learning situations in the schools.
... The discarded factors for the first step regard the learning style research: ( PF5 -Learning Style and PF6-Learning Motive and PF7 -Learning Strategy). The assumption that people can be grouped into different learning style categories has scarce support from objective studies [12]. These elements are scratched in orange in Figure 1. ...
Article
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Different factors affect the understandability of business process models, which depends both on the characteristics of the model but also on the model users' knowledge and skills. Researchers have conducted experiments to find the relationships among factors and indicators, collecting data using surveys and quizzes in problem-solving experimental tasks. However, in order to collect data from a critical number and variety of model users, experimental replications can be an expensive approach. This article proposes an understandability measurement approach to collect data through a survey. The proposal is based on existing quality models and instruments, which are analysed to design a minimal instrument that allows jointly collecting information from various understandability factors. The proposed measurement approach is part of ongoing research on discovering relationships between the multiple factors and business process model understandability indicators using data analytics and machine learning techniques.
... Learning styles-the belief that people learn better when presented with an instruction that is in accordance with their dominant way of learning is one of the most pervasive myths about cognition (Nancekivell et al., 2020). There are couple of issues with the notion of learning styles (Kirschner, 2017): a) there is a difference between how someone prefers to learn and what leads to effective learning; b) preference for how someone is studying is not a learning style, and c) empirical evidence for learning styles is almost non-existing. Despite these issues, there is a massive industry still supporting learning styles and making profit from selling books and programs related to learning styles. ...
Article
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Neuromyths are prevalent in all spheres of life and can be found in all professions. The teaching profession is especially susceptible to neuromyths as teachers want to provide the most effective, science based instruction to their students. Sometimes these instructions are not based on scientific studies but on a misinterpretation of scientific findings or neuromyths. The goal of the present paper was to examine the prevalence of seven popular neuromyths in teachers in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BIH). The research study comprised 300 teachers from all parts of BIH. The research material comprised 300 teachers (232 females and 62 males) from all parts of BIH. Participants were either personally invited to the study or recruited through an online survey sent to schools throughout BIH and teacher organizations. As a me thod we used the Questionnaire consisting of basic demographic information on the participants (gender, working experience, type of teacher) and 7 neuromyths statements on which participants were asked to answer whether they think the statement is true, not true, or they do not know, The results of this study indicate a wide prevalence of neuromyths in BIH teachers. The prevalence ranged from 17% to 82%. The most prevalent myth is about learning styles, while the least prevalent was that drinking less than 8 glasses of water causes a brain to shrink. There were statistically significant differences in the prevalence of neuromyths in relation to the teachers' gender for every statement. However, the trend is not uniform. Although, overall the neuromyths were more prevalent in female teachers (for 5 items), for two neuromyth statements, male teachers had a higher prevalence. Additionally, the prevalence of neuromyths was more frequent in early-grade teachers. It should be noted that there are also differences in the results obtained for the different types of neuromyths. Neuroscience is important for education and for the teachers. Thus, more attention should be given to the process of translating neuro-scientific findings into useful facts for teachers. One way to improve this process is through the continual professional development of teachers in the field of neuroscience.
... Artículo/Article individuales de los aprendices. Sin embargo, durante las últimas décadas han surgido investigaciones y revisiones sistemáticas de la literatura disciplinar que han puesto en duda la fortaleza de estas propuestas y metodologías, como así han propuesto nuevas perspectivas de análisis e interpretación de los resultados de los diversos instrumentos desarrollados bajo el enfoque de estilos de aprendizaje (Kirschner, 2017;Safari y Hejazi, 2017). ...
Article
El sistema escolar chileno adolece de un problema de segregación socioeconómica y académica, que determina que estudiantes de contextos vulnerables presenten dificultades para el éxito académico por la brecha entre conocimientos y habilidades desarrolladas en la educación escolar y las requeridas en educación superior. El apoyo metacognitivo es efectivo en abordar esta problemática, donde el enfoque de estilos de aprendizaje entrega información relevante. Esta investigación planteó caracterizar los Estilos de Aprendizaje de estudiantes ingresantes en 2017 a la carrera de Odontología de la Universidad de Chile, mediante la aplicación del Cuestionario de Honey y Alonso (CHAEA) y evaluar su relación con indicadores socioeducativos (región de procedencia, vía de ingreso, promedio de notas de enseñanza media y dependencia del establecimiento escolar). Se caracterizó una muestra de 66 participantes, mostrándose predominancia del estilo de aprendizaje reflexivo (62,8%). No se hallaron relaciones estadísticamente significativas entre estilos de aprendizaje y los indicadores socioeducativos evaluados.
... According to Rebenitsch and Owen (2021), at least fifty factors could influence cybersickness. It should be noted that perceptual style, which is listed under mental attributes in individual factors (see Table 1), is linked to learning style and is criticized as a neuromyth (Willingham et al. 2015;Kirschner 2017). The documented higher risks of symptoms in women, which is the Gender factor listed in Individual factors (see Table 1), in past works could be due to the general ergonomics of current HMDs and higher average motion sickness susceptibility (Stanney et al. 2020a). ...
Article
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This narrative review synthesizes and introduces 386 previous works about virtual reality-induced symptoms and effects by focusing on cybersickness, visual fatigue, muscle fatigue, acute stress, and mental overload. Usually, these VRISE are treated independently in the literature, although virtual reality is increasingly considered an option to replace PCs at the workplace, which encourages us to consider them all at once. We emphasize the context of office-like tasks in VR, gathering 57 articles meeting our inclusion/exclusion criteria. Cybersickness symptoms, influenced by fifty factors, could prevent workers from using VR. It is studied but requires more research to reach a theoretical consensus. VR can lead to more visual fatigue than other screen uses, influenced by fifteen factors, mainly due to vergence-accommodation conflicts. This side effect requires more testing and clarification on how it differs from cybersickness. VR can provoke muscle fatigue and musculoskeletal discomfort, influenced by fifteen factors, depending on tasks and interactions. VR could lead to acute stress due to technostress, task difficulty, time pressure, and public speaking. VR also potentially leads to mental overload, mainly due to task load, time pressure, and intrinsically due interaction and interface of the virtual environment. We propose a research agenda to tackle VR ergonomics and risks issues at the workplace.
... Sobre los estilos de cognición, mal llamados estilos de aprendizaje se han realizado multitud de estudios que plantean cómo entenderlos y analizarlos. Planteamientos críticos como los de Kirschner (2016) nos dicen claramente que la clasificación no es la mejor aportación que podemos hacer sobre nuestra cognición, pero saber sobre cómo nuestra mente aprende, si que nos puede ayudar a la orientación, las estrategias, la organización de procesos de pensamiento o cuál es la mejor forma en la que integramos y expresamos lo que conocemos. El propio Kirschner plantea que trabajos como los de Allison and Hayes (1996), o de Vermunt and Vermetten (2004) tienen cierta lógica en el uso de los conocimientos que tenemos sobre la cognición. ...
Conference Paper
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The following work presents a research experience, which was torn with a teaching group from the Social Studies and Civic Education Teaching.It was executed at the National University of Costa Rica, as an initiative since the aforementioned career accreditation. This teaching staff worked with the digital knowledge of their discipline, which allowed them to learn about different proposals for the use of technology and to reflect theoretically on the meaning of incorporating them in the educational context.This proposal was developed in a workshop format, where a series of tools were used, with the objective that the participants develop their own mediation activities in their different educational contexts, basing on innovative approaches from active learning.
... Aynı şekilde oyunlarında bir takım sınırlılıkları da söz konusudur (Uskan & Bozkuş, 2019). Genel olarak öğrenme stillerinin kazanımlarına ilişkin sınırlılıkları eleştiri konusu olabilmektedir (Kirschner, 2017). İşbirliğine dayalı öğrenme ve oyunla öğrenme tasarımlarının birleşmesi ile bu sınırlılıklar en aza indirgenebilir. ...
Article
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Bu araştırmada İşbirliğine Dayalı Oyunla Öğrenme Stratejileri İçin Motivasyon Ölçeği’nin Türkçeye uyarlanması, geçerlilik ve güvenilirlik çalışmasının yapılması amaçlanmıştır. Araştırmada Manzano-León vd. (2021) tarafından geliştirilen ve Türkçeye “İşbirliğine Dayalı Oyunla Öğrenme Stratejiler İçin Motivasyon Ölçeği” olarak çevirilen ölçek kullanılmıştır. Ölçek “Görev Motivasyonu” , “Öğrenme” , “Takım Çalışması” ve “Akış” olmak üzere 4 alt boyuttan oluşmaktadır. Orijinal formu 16 madde 5’li likert tipinde hazırlanmış ölçek; İspanya’da uygulanmıştır. Ölçeğin diğer dil ve kültürlerde uyarlanması için gerekli çalışma ve kullanma izinleri alınmıştır. Ölçeğin orijinal anlamı ile Türkçe ifadelerinin aynı olmasını sağlamak için çeviri tekrar çeviri yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Türkiye’de gerçekleştirilen araştırmaya, 788 ortaokul ve lise (yaş ortalaması 14.04±2.26), 312 üniversite öğrencisi (yaş ortalaması 21.97±3.56 ) olmak üzere toplam 1100 gönüllü katılmıştır. Veriler iki grup (1.ortaokul-lise öğrencileri, 2.üniversite öğrencileri) için ayrı ayrı değerlendirilmiştir. Analizler sonucunda 15 madde ve 4 alt boyuttan oluşan bir ölçme aracı elde edilmiştir. DFA sonucunda elde edilen uyum indeks değerlerine göre ölçeğin her iki grupta iyi derecede uyum sağlayan bir yapı ortaya koyduğu da gözlenmiştir. Ölçeğin Cronbach Alpha iç tutarlılık katsayıları incelendiğinde ise tüm değerlerin 0.70’in üzerinde olduğu belirlenmiştir. Elde edilen sonuçlar ölçeğin Türkçe formunun her iki grupta geçerli ve güvenilir bir ölçme aracı olduğunu göstermektedir.
... Auch wenn Personen von sich häufig berichten, sie seien zum Beispiel eher visuelle Lernende, gibt es für die Bedeutsamkeit solcher Selbstbeschreibungen für Lernstile keine verlässliche wissenschaftliche Evidenz (Pashler et al., 2008). Die oben gemachten Ausführungen zur dualen Kodierung von Wissen rechtfertigen also keinesfalls die Annahme von visuellen oder verbalen Lernstilen, die eher dem Bereich der bildungsbezogenen Mythen zuzuordnen sind (Kirschner, 2017). ...
Chapter
Die empirische Lehr-Lern-Forschung geht davon aus, dass eine lernförderliche Gestaltung digitaler Lern- und Lehr-Medien auf die Art und Weise abgestimmt sein muss, wie Menschen Informationen verarbeiten und im Gedächtnis speichern.
... Many other studies have shown significant relationships between LSs and learners' learning (e.g., Gokalp, 2013;JilardiDamavandi et al., 2011). However, a number of other studies challenged the pivotal role of considering LSs in greater learning achievements (e.g., Gappi, 2013;Kirschner, 2017;Knoll et al., 2017;Rogowsky et al., 2020). It is worth mentioning that none of these studies called having preferred LSs into question. ...
Article
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Despite the widespread recognition of learning styles (LSs) in online language learning contexts, there seems to be a paucity of research on their direct role in learners’ task preferences. Therefore, this article aims to investigate the role of LSs in learners' preferences for the specific tasks added to the typical online English learning classrooms. To accomplish this objective, data were collected through a questionnaire of LSs, task ratings and semi-structured interviews. The quantitative data revealed learners with certain dominant LSs had preferences for tasks with features consistent with their individual characteristics. The thematic data analyses went further by showing that an awareness of LSs could help learners better select their preferred tasks. It is concluded that online instructors could use tasks with specific features based on the learners’ LSs and help them have an awareness of their individual characteristics in order that they can benefit more from the instructional materials.
Article
Background Business simulation as an instructional tool helps in developing integrative thinking and decision making skills. It is being taught to audiences who differ considerably in age, work experience (learner characteristics) and learning styles. The use of simulations is likely to grow further with advancements in internet technology and the fact that simulations are very amenable to remote modes of instruction. Aim This study aims to assess how learner characteristics and learning styles impact business simulation performance. It further assesses the combined effect of learner characteristics and learning styles on performance in business simulations, we specifically consider the manner in which learning styles moderate the impact of learner characteristics (age) on simulation performance. Method The study was conducted with 605 students of full time MBA and executive MBA programs with age group varying from 21 years to 53 years. They were taught using the same business simulation by CAPSIM. The learning styles were measured using Felder-Solomon’s instrument ‘Index of learning style’. Regression analysis was conducted with predictor variables of learner characteristics and learning styles and outcome variable of simulation performance. The moderating effect of specific learning styles on learner characteristics was identified. Results The findings indicate that age is a significant predictor of simulation performance (younger, tech savvy students do better). Also, the use of reflective learning style enables better performance in business simulations. Older students are able to draw on experience and benefit more from reflective learning, for business simulations which involve integration across functions. Conclusion The study enhances our conceptual understanding of the factors enabling performance in business simulations and provides specific direction on how instructors must adapt facilitation approaches for different age groups of participants. Reflection is important for learning with business simulations; hence, the reflective learning style should be encouraged particularly among older students.
Article
Notwithstanding the neuromyth controversy, the malleability of learning style preferences impacts the validity of the measurement instrument and the effectiveness of the associated model of learning. This study investigates the test–retest reliability and underlying dynamics of Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory (KLSI). It surveys 245 college-level students in Australia, over three rounds of data collection at 7-week intervals. Results show that over 75% of participants are incorrectly categorised, and more than 50% materially changed their category of learning style between rounds. The study reveals that individuals roam freely, rapidly, and extensively across learning style categories. Thus, the categorical differences measured by the KLSI lack meaningful purpose. Whether or not learning styles are a neuromyth, this study indicates that the act of learning, as an act of agency, is fluid with potentiality and choice. The more meaningful focus for teaching and learning practice would then be on student commonalities, not categorical difference.
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In this chapter, self-directed learning (SDL) and the competency to transfer knowledge between different contexts are positioned as essential competencies for the 21st century. Being able to transfer knowledge, especially between different contexts, has increasingly been indicated as essential competency for the 21st century. Transfer of knowledge and skills has however been neglected in SDL research. It is therefore argued that students should be deeper self-directed learners, who can take responsibility for their learning to obtain transferable competencies. Learners should be able to apply their knowledge and SDL skills to new and unknown situations in order to succeed in the 21st century and beyond. Social constructivist theory is suggested as theoretical basis for deeper self-directed learning (DSDL). In this chapter, the concept of DSDL will be defined, and various competencies associated with DSDL will be discussed. Finally, suggestions will be made to develop DSDL in education.
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Differentiated instruction contends that teachers should vary their instructional strategies to match the learners’ individual differences. However, this is challenging due to various constraints of classroom and contextual variables. Adaptive systems offer a solution to this challenge, especially as instruction has increasingly moved towards an online format. Specifically, adaptive systems use artificial intelligence to adapt content or interface presentation to the individual needs of the learner. A historical review suggests that the following four different approaches to adaptive systems have emerged over time: adaption to cognitive abilities, learning styles (debunked), affective states, and external environments.
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The learning styles myth propagates via a complex web of individuals, resources, and organizations. Academic journals, which represent a source of new information, contain articles where learning style theories are inaccurately portrayed as empirically valid. Media outlets and non-experts share free or low-cost learning styles resources with students, parents, and teachers. Other resources are created and sold for commercial gain. Students learn about learning styles via academic centers and university libraries, textbooks, and educators. Teachers learn about learning styles from training in teacher’s college, from colleagues, or from administrators. Learning styles and other neuromyths thrive because of a general enthusiasm for explanations that weave in neuroscience jargon in the absence for a fuller understanding of neuroscientific knowledge to judge the quality of presented evidence. Furthermore, neuroscientific applications to education are somewhat limited, partly due to barriers between researchers and educators. Educators striving towards evidence-based practice often face a user paywall to peer-reviewed research. Several cognitive and emotional biases further contribute to belief in learning styles and other neuromyths. Learning styles theory is particularly appealing because of the underlying assumption that every child can succeed with the correct instruction method. Understanding methods of propagation and factors contributing to belief provides the necessary ammunition to restrain and eliminate the learning styles myth.
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Despite the potential of massive open online courses (MOOCs) for capacity building in public policy competency, current manifestations of this learning platform are fraught with student attrition problems. Accordingly, this paper draws from a literature review of cognitive learning theory, learning styles theory and constructivist theory to shed insights into how public policy MOOCs can be designed or refined in a manner which will better engage the student and sustain participation. The chapter concludes with a framework and recommendations on how to better utilize student profiling, pre-course learning skills development, and instructional design best practice to support more effective design and delivery of MOOCs.KeywordsMassive open online courseMOOCCognitive learning theoryLearning stylesConstructivist theory
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Bei den sogenannten Lernstilen handelt es sich um einen klassischen Bildungsmythos, der wissenschaftlich bereits seit langem und sehr klar widerlegt ist. Laut der Lernstilhypothese geschieht Lernen besonders erfolgreich, wenn der Unterricht auf die individuellen Lernstile (z. B. auditiv/visuell/kinästhetisch) der Schüler/-innen angepasst ist. Zahlreiche der mit dieser Hypothese verbundenen Annahmen sind bereits aus theoretischer Sicht unhaltbar. Auch in empirischen Studien erweisen sich zentrale Behauptungen der Lernstilhypothese als falsch. Weder lassen sich Lernstile bei Lernenden zuverlässig und akkurat diagnostizieren, noch zeigen sich in sorgfältig durchgeführten Studien Lernvorteile eines an Lernstile angepassten Unterrichts. Dennoch ist der Lernstilmythos vermutlich das weitverbreitetste Fehlkonzept zum Lehren und Lernen überhaupt. In diesem Kapitel werden theoretische Argumente und empirische Befunde zur Widerlegung der Lernstilhypothese ausgeführt und potenzielle Gründe für die Hartnäckigkeit des Lernstilmythos diskutiert. Außerdem werden wir zeigen, dass der Versuch, einen lernstilorientierten Unterricht umzusetzen, durchaus schädlich sein kann.
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Psychologische Fehlvorstellungen (d. h. der Glaube an Annahmen, die wissenschaftlichen Erkenntnissen der Psychologie widersprechen) sind weit verbreitet. Auch über Themen aus dem pädagogisch-psychologischen Bereich kursieren viele Meinungen und Mythen, denen zum Teil mehr Glauben geschenkt wird als empirischen Befunden. Der vorliegende Beitrag beleuchtet einerseits die Entstehung solch pädagogisch-psychologischer Fehlvorstellungen und andererseits deren wirksame Bekämpfung. Nach einer Definition von pädagogisch-psychologischen Fehlvorstellungen und Ausführungen zu deren potenziellen Auswirkungen gehen wir auf unterschiedliche mögliche Quellen dieser Fehlvorstellungen ein (z. B. Medien, eigene Erfahrungen, falsche Ableitungen aus wissenschaftlichen Erkenntnissen). Anschließend stellen wir eine Methode vor, die sich als wirksam zur Bekämpfung von Fehlvorstellungen erwiesen hat: Refutations. Wir beschreiben das zugrunde liegende Konzept der Methode und unterschiedliche Einsatzmöglichkeiten.
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Актуальность рассматриваемой в статье проблемы заключается в недостаточной освещенности в отечественной психологической литературе вопросов совладающего поведения в контексте связи с эмоциональным интеллектом. Эмоциональный интеллект понимается как способность понимать эмоции, управлять ими, выстраивать адекватные межличностные отношения. Дан анализ понятиям «копинг», «стресс-преодолевающее поведение», «стратегия копинг-поведения». В ходе теоретического и эмпирического изучения выявлены закономерности формирования и функционирования стресс-преодолевающего поведения, обозначена взаимосвязь копинга со спецификой компонентов эмоционального интеллекта. Дана качественная характеристика совладания, которая объединяет в себе значимые показатели личностной компетентности и успешности взаимодействия в профессиональной деятельности; определена зависимость между совладающим поведением и эмоциональным интеллектом сотрудников правоохранительных органов с точки зрения системного подхода. Рассмотрена связь психологических условий успешности социальной адаптации через систему копинг-поведения. Доказано, что стресс-преодолевающее поведение является одним из важных психологических факторов обеспечения эффективности профессиональной деятельности в экстремальных условиях. Выявлено, что структура и содержание стратегий преодолевающего поведения находятся под детерминирующим влиянием способностей и умений, образующих эмоциональный интеллект личности. Лица, обладающие высоким копинг-потенциалом, наделены большими возможностями к социально-психологической адаптации в разнообразных условиях деятельности.
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Introduction Fall risk is increased in people with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Purpose This study adapted an evidence-based fall-prevention program Tai Ji Quan: Moving for Better Balance (TJQMBB) for adults with TBI and convened an online focus group with the target population for input on its delivery, content/safety, and potential benefits. Methods Fall prevention and TBI experts adapted TJQMBB. Eight adults with TBI were recruited. Participants watched demonstrations of the adapted TJQMBB exercises online over ZOOM©. Themes, subthemes, and participant quotes were extracted. Results Five women (71%) and 2 men (29%) participated with a mean age of 45 years. Nine themes and 5 subthemes were identified. Participants recommended a learning sequence of exercise demonstration with verbal directions and visual cues, followed by simple written instructions. Participants identified physical and cognitive barriers to participation and recognized that possible balance loss during exercise was a safety issue. Potential benefits included improved balance, navigation of challenging terrain, quality of life, and social inclusion. Conclusion Participants viewed the adapted program as safe and appropriate, given modifications for physical (e.g. balance) and cognitive impairments. The TJQMBB program may be underutilized in this population due to the complexity of the exercises, but is possible with modifications.
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Recent research shows the importance to teach students the self-regulated use of effective learning strategies at university. However, the effects of such training programs on students’ metacognitive knowledge, use of learning strategies, and academic performance in the longer term are unknown. In the present study, all first-year pharmacology students from one university attended a learning strategy training program, i.e., the ‘Study Smart program’, in their first weeks. The 20% (n = 25) lowest scoring students on the first midterm received further support regarding their learning strategies. Results showed that all students gained accurate metacognitive knowledge about (in)effective learning strategies in the short- and long-term and reported to use less highlighting, less rereading, but more interleaving, elaboration, and distributed practice after the training program. Academic performance was compared to the prior cohort, which had not received the Study Smart program. While in the previous cohort, students in the top, middle, and bottom rank of midterm 1 stayed in these ranks and still differed significantly in the final exam, students in the Study Smart cohort that received the training program improved throughout the year and differences between ranks were significantly reduced. A learning strategy training program including a remediation track for lower performing students can thus support students to study more effectively and enhance equal chances for all students at university.
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Our aim with this chapter is twofold: to provide an account of the diverse ways students engage with online learning and to offer an alternative approach to student feedback on courses, one that extends an ‘ethic of hospitality’ to the process. In our chapter, we challenge the typically narrow structures that govern ‘student feedback’ (e.g., standardised surveys like the National Student Survey) by adopting an open approach, where students provide an account of their experience of learning without pre-set parameters or boundaries on what can be said. The chapter provides the personal accounts of four students’ experiences as postgraduate students on online MSc programmes at the University of Edinburgh. A number of prompts were provided as a guide for writing the accounts, but it was for the student to decide whether they were relevant or useful to them. All authors then engaged in a co-written, thematicised account derived from their combined narratives. Our chapter offers unique insights into some of the experiences, positive and negative, of adult online learners, which will be useful for educators involved in the design and development of online teaching.KeywordsEthic of hospitalityFeedback processStudent voiceCo-researchingEngagementOpenness
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Instructional research is reviewed where teaching failures have produced students who are less able to use learning skills or had less access to knowledge than before they were taught. Three general types of "mathemathantic" (i.e. where instruction "kills" learning) effects are hypothesized, theoretical explanations for each effect are examined and representative studies in each area are described. The three types of effects described are where instruction serves to: 1) Substitute learning procedures (e.g. Novel learning strategies are hypothesized to interfere with the learning of higher general ability learners and inadequate learning strategies are provided to those with lower general ability); 2) Impose less desirable motivational goals on learners (e.g. when teaching methods lead constructively motivated learners to believe that failure avoidance has replaced achievement directed goals and, conversely, when defensively motivated students believe that achievement directed goals have replaced the opportunity to avoid failure); and 3) Substitute student control for system control over instructional method (e.g. by allowing lower cognitive load instructional methods to be chosen by high general ability, constructive students and/or by allowing higher cognitive load methods to be chosen by defensive students who have low general ability)
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The existence of 'Learning Styles' is a common 'neuromyth', and their use in all forms of education has been thoroughly and repeatedly discredited in the research literature. However, anecdotal evidence suggests that their use remains widespread. This perspective article is an attempt to understand if and why the myth of Learning Styles persists. I have done this by analyzing the current research literature to capture the picture that an educator would encounter were they to search for "Learning Styles" with the intent of determining whether the research evidence supported their use. The overwhelming majority (89%) of recent research papers, listed in the ERIC and PubMed research databases, implicitly or directly endorse the use of Learning Styles in Higher Education. These papers are dominated by the VAK and Kolb Learning Styles inventories. These presence of these papers in the pedagogical literature demonstrates that an educator, attempting to take an evidence-based approach to education, would be presented with a strong yet misleading message that the use of Learning Styles is endorsed by the current research literature. This has potentially negative consequences for students and for the field of education research.
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For several decades, myths about the brain - neuromyths - have persisted in schools and colleges, often being used to justify ineffective approaches to teaching. Many of these myths are biased distortions of scientific fact. Cultural conditions, such as differences in terminology and language, have contributed to a 'gap' between neuroscience and education that has shielded these distortions from scrutiny. In recent years, scientific communications across this gap have increased, although the messages are often distorted by the same conditions and biases as those responsible for neuromyths. In the future, the establishment of a new field of inquiry that is dedicated to bridging neuroscience and education may help to inform and to improve these communications.
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There is evidence that negative correlations between student achievement and their enjoyment of instructional methods exist under certain circumstances. In aptitude‐treatment interaction (ATI) studies where two or more methods are allowed to interact with student aptitudes to predict enjoyment and achievement, it appears that students often report enjoying the method from which they learn the least. Selected ATI studies are reviewed, and an explanation is suggested which may account for the negative correlations between achievement and enjoyment in instructional settings. It appears that students make inaccurate judgments about the amount of effort they will have to expend to achieve maximum learning outcomes. Low ability students typically report liking more permissive instructional methods, apparently because they allow them to maintain a “low profile” so that their failures are not as visible. However, in order to experience maximum achievement low ability students require less permissive methods which lower the information processing load on them. High ability students like more structured methods which they believe will make their efforts more efficient when these lower load methods seem often to interfere with their learning. High ability students seem to learn more from more permissive approaches which allow them to bring their own considerable skills to bear on learning tasks.
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This article takes a critical look at three pervasive urban legends in education about the nature of learners, learning, and teaching and looks at what educational and psychological research has to say about them. The three legends can be seen as variations on one central theme, namely, that it is the learner who knows best and that she or he should be the controlling force in her or his learning. The first legend is one of learners as digital natives who form a generation of students knowing by nature how to learn from new media, and for whom “old” media and methods used in teaching/learning no longer work. The second legend is the widespread belief that learners have specific learning styles and that education should be individualized to the extent that the pedagogy of teaching/learning is matched to the preferred style of the learner. The final legend is that learners ought to be seen as self-educators who should be given maximum control over what they are learning and their learning trajectory. It concludes with a possible reason why these legends have taken hold, are so pervasive, and are so difficult to eradicate.
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College students (Experiment 1) and non-college adults (Experiment 2) studied a computer-based 31-frame lesson on electronics that offered help-screens containing text (text group) or illustrations (pictorial group), and then took a learning test. Participants also took a battery of 14 cognitive measures related to the verbalizer-visualizer dimension including tests of cognitive style, learning preference, spatial ability, and general achievement. In Experiment 3, college students received either both kinds of help-screens or none. Verbalizers and visualizers did not differ on the learning test, and almost all of the verbalizer-visualizer measures failed to produce significant attribute x treatment interactions (ATIs). There was not strong support for the hypothesis that verbal learners and visual learners should be given different kinds of multimedia instruction.
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Instructional research is reviewed where teaching failures have produced students who seem to be less able to use learning skills or had less access to knowledge in some domain than before they were taught. Three general types of "mathemathantic" (i.e. where instruction "kills" learning) effects are hypothesized, theoretical explanations for each effect are examined and representative studies in each area are described. The three types of effects described are where instruction serves to: (1) substitute learning procedures (e.g. novel learning strategies are hypothesized to interfere with the learning of higher general ability learners and inadequate learning strategies are provided to those with lower general ability); (2) impose less desirable motivational goals on learners (e.g. when teaching methods lead constructively motivated learners to believe that failure avoidance has replaced achievement directed goals and, conversely, when defensively motivated students believe that achievement directed goals have replaced the opportunity to avoid failure); and (3) substitute student control for system control over instructional method (e.g. by allowing lower cognitive load instructional methods to be chosen by high general ability, constructive students and/or by allowing higher cognitive load methods to be chosen by defensive students who have low general ability). A four-page bibliography and an outline of situations when mathemathantic effects are more probable are attached. (Author/JAZ)
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The term “learning styles” refers to the concept that individuals differ in regard to what mode of instruction or study is most effective for them. Proponents of learning-style assessment contend that optimal instruction requires diagnosing individuals' learning style and tailoring instruction accordingly. Assessments of learning style typically ask people to evaluate what sort of information presentation they prefer (e.g., words versus pictures versus speech) and/or what kind of mental activity they find most engaging or congenial (e.g., analysis versus listening), although assessment instruments are extremely diverse. The most common—but not the only—hypothesis about the instructional relevance of learning styles is the meshing hypothesis, according to which instruction is best provided in a format that matches the preferences of the learner (e.g., for a “visual learner,” emphasizing visual presentation of information). The learning-styles view has acquired great influence within the education field, and is frequently encountered at levels ranging from kindergarten to graduate school. There is a thriving industry devoted to publishing learning-styles tests and guidebooks for teachers, and many organizations offer professional development workshops for teachers and educators built around the concept of learning styles. The authors of the present review were charged with determining whether these practices are supported by scientific evidence. We concluded that any credible validation of learning-styles-based instruction requires robust documentation of a very particular type of experimental finding with several necessary criteria. First, students must be divided into groups on the basis of their learning styles, and then students from each group must be randomly assigned to receive one of multiple instructional methods. Next, students must then sit for a final test that is the same for all students. Finally, in order to demonstrate that optimal learning requires that students receive instruction tailored to their putative learning style, the experiment must reveal a specific type of interaction between learning style and instructional method: Students with one learning style achieve the best educational outcome when given an instructional method that differs from the instructional method producing the best outcome for students with a different learning style. In other words, the instructional method that proves most effective for students with one learning style is not the most effective method for students with a different learning style. Our review of the literature disclosed ample evidence that children and adults will, if asked, express preferences about how they prefer information to be presented to them. There is also plentiful evidence arguing that people differ in the degree to which they have some fairly specific aptitudes for different kinds of thinking and for processing different types of information. However, we found virtually no evidence for the interaction pattern mentioned above, which was judged to be a precondition for validating the educational applications of learning styles. Although the literature on learning styles is enormous, very few studies have even used an experimental methodology capable of testing the validity of learning styles applied to education. Moreover, of those that did use an appropriate method, several found results that flatly contradict the popular meshing hypothesis. We conclude therefore, that at present, there is no adequate evidence base to justify incorporating learning-styles assessments into general educational practice. Thus, limited education resources would better be devoted to adopting other educational practices that have a strong evidence base, of which there are an increasing number. However, given the lack of methodologically sound studies of learning styles, it would be an error to conclude that all possible versions of learning styles have been tested and found wanting; many have simply not been tested at all. Further research on the use of learning-styles assessment in instruction may in some cases be warranted, but such research needs to be performed appropriately.
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The OECD's Brain and Learning project (2002) emphasized that many misconceptions about the brain exist among professionals in the field of education. Though these so-called "neuromyths" are loosely based on scientific facts, they may have adverse effects on educational practice. The present study investigated the prevalence and predictors of neuromyths among teachers in selected regions in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. A large observational survey design was used to assess general knowledge of the brain and neuromyths. The sample comprised 242 primary and secondary school teachers who were interested in the neuroscience of learning. It would be of concern if neuromyths were found in this sample, as these teachers may want to use these incorrect interpretations of neuroscience findings in their teaching practice. Participants completed an online survey containing 32 statements about the brain and its influence on learning, of which 15 were neuromyths. Additional data was collected regarding background variables (e.g., age, sex, school type). Results showed that on average, teachers believed 49% of the neuromyths, particularly myths related to commercialized educational programs. Around 70% of the general knowledge statements were answered correctly. Teachers who read popular science magazines achieved higher scores on general knowledge questions. More general knowledge also predicted an increased belief in neuromyths. These findings suggest that teachers who are enthusiastic about the possible application of neuroscience findings in the classroom find it difficult to distinguish pseudoscience from scientific facts. Possessing greater general knowledge about the brain does not appear to protect teachers from believing in neuromyths. This demonstrates the need for enhanced interdisciplinary communication to reduce such misunderstandings in the future and establish a successful collaboration between neuroscience and education.
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Although its origins have been traced back much further, research in the area of learning style has been active for--at a conservative estimate--around four decades. During that period the intensity of activity has varied, with recent years seeing a particularly marked upturn in the number of researchers working in the area. Also of note is the variety of disciplines from which the research is emerging. Increasingly, research in the area of learning style is being conducted in domains outside psychology--the discipline from which many of the central concepts and theories originate. These domains include medical and health care training, management, industry, vocational training and a vast range of settings and levels in the field of education. It is of little wonder that applications of these concepts are so wide ranging given the centrality of learning--and how best to do it--to almost every aspect of life. As a consequence of the quantity of research, the diversity of the disciplines and domains in which the research is conducted, and the varied aims of the research, the topic has become fragmented and disparate. This is almost certainly how it must appear to practitioners and researchers new to the area, with its complexities and convolutions difficult to comprehend and assimilate. As such, it is perhaps timely to present an account of the central themes and issues surrounding learning style and to consider the instruments available for the measurement of style. This paper aims to provide such an account, attempting to clarify common areas of ambiguity and in particular issues surrounding measurement and appropriate instruments. It aims to bring together necessary components of the area in such a way as to allow for a broader appreciation of learning style and to inform regarding possible tools for measurement. It is anticipated that such an account will promote research in the field by presenting it as more accessible and by developing a greater appreciation for the area across disciplines and in researchers and practitioners new to the area.
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The present study investigated the effects of modality presentation on the verbal learning performance of 26 older adults and 26 younger cohorts. A multitrial free-recall paradigm was implemented incorporating three modalities: Auditory, Visual, and simultaneous Auditory plus Visual. Older subjects learned fewer words than younger subjects but their rate of learning was similar to that of the younger group. The visual presentation of objects (with or without the simultaneous auditory presentation of names) resulted in better learning, recall, and retrieval of information than the auditory presentation alone.
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Adaptation to learning styles has been proposed to enhance learning. We hypothesized that learners with sensing learning style would perform better using a problem-first instructional method while intuitive learners would do better using an information-first method. Randomized, controlled, crossover trial. Resident ambulatory clinics. 123 internal medicine residents. Four Web-based modules in ambulatory internal medicine were developed in both "didactic" (information first, followed by patient problem and questions) and "problem" (case and questions first, followed by information) format. Knowledge posttest, format preference, learning style (Index of Learning Styles). Knowledge scores were similar between the didactic (mean +/- standard error, 83.0 +/- 0.8) and problem (82.3 +/- 0.8) formats (p = .42; 95% confidence interval [CI] for difference, -2.3 to 0.9). There was no difference between formats in regression slopes of knowledge scores on sensing-intuitive scores (p = .63) or in analysis of knowledge scores by styles classification (sensing 82.5 +/- 1.0, intermediate 83.7 +/- 1.2, intuitive 81.0 +/- 1.5; p = .37 for main effect, p = .59 for interaction with format). Format preference was neutral (3.2 +/- 0.2 [1 strongly prefers didactic, 6 strongly prefers problem], p = .12), and there was no association between learning styles and preference (p = .44). Formats were similar in time to complete modules (43.7 +/- 2.2 vs 43.2 +/- 2.2 minutes, p = .72). Starting instruction with a problem (versus employing problems later on) may not improve learning outcomes. Sensing and intuitive learners perform similarly following problem-first and didactic-first instruction. Results may apply to other instructional media.
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The concept of learning style is immensely popular despite the lack of evidence showing that learning style influences performance. This study tested the hypothesis that the popularity of learning style is maintained because it is associated with subjective aspects of learning, such as judgements of learning (JOLs). Preference for verbal and visual information was assessed using the revised Verbalizer-Visualizer Questionnaire (VVQ). Then, participants studied a list of word pairs and a list of picture pairs, making JOLs (immediate, delayed, and global) while studying each list. Learning was tested by cued recall. The results showed that higher VVQ verbalizer scores were associated with higher immediate JOLs for words, and higher VVQ visualizer scores were associated with higher immediate JOLs for pictures. There was no association between VVQ scores and recall or JOL accuracy. As predicted, learning style was associated with subjective aspects of learning but not objective aspects of learning.
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There is a long history of research efforts aimed at understanding the relationship between homework activity and academic achievement. While some self-report inventories involving homework activity have been useful for predicting academic performance, self-reported measures may be limited or even problematic. Here, we employ a novel method for accurately measuring students’ homework activity using smartpen technology. Three cohorts of engineering students in an undergraduate statics course used smartpens to complete their homework problems, thus producing records of their work in the form of timestamped digitized pen strokes. Consistent with the time-on-task hypothesis, there was a strong and consistent positive correlation between course grade and time doing homework as measured by smartpen technology (r = .44), but not between course grade and self-reported time doing homework (r = −.16). Consistent with an updated version of the time-on-task hypothesis, there was a strong correlation between measures of the quality of time spent on homework problems (such as the proportion of ink produced for homework within 24 hr of the deadline) and course grade (r = −.32), and between writing activity (such as the total number of pen strokes on homework) and course grade (r = .49). Overall, smartpen technology allowed a fine-grained test of the idea that productive use of homework time is related to course grade.
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"Our goal in this paper is not to conduct another extensive review of literature in the area, but to initiate a dialogue among educators who continue to make assertions about the usefulness of identifying students’ learning styles with little or no research support. We will discuss the status of learning style instruction and the unsubstantiated claims made by authors of learning style instruments and by instructors. Many of our comments are influenced by two recent comprehensive reviews of learning styles (Coffield et al., 2004a, 2004b)."
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While it is hypothesized that providing instruction based on individuals' preferred learning styles improves learning (i.e., reading for visual learners and listening for auditory learners, also referred to as the meshing hypothesis), after a critical review of the literature Pashler, McDaniel, Rohrer, and Bjork (2008) concluded that this hypothesis lacks empirical evidence and subsequently described the experimental design needed to evaluate the meshing hypothesis. Following the design of Pashler et al., we empirically investigated the effect of learning style preference with college-educated adults, specifically as applied to (a) verbal comprehension aptitude (listening or reading) and (b) learning based on mode of instruction (digital audiobook or e-text). First, participants' auditory and visual learning style preferences were established based on a standardized adult learning style inventory. Participants were then given a verbal comprehension aptitude test in both oral and written forms. Results failed to show a statistically significant relationship between learning style preference (auditory, visual word) and learning aptitude (listening comprehension, reading comprehension). Second, participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups that received the same instructional material from a nonfiction book, but each in a different instructional mode (digital audiobook, e-text), and then completed a written comprehension test immediately and after 2 weeks. Results demonstrated no statistically significant relationship between learning style preference (auditory, visual word) and instructional method (audiobook, e-text) for either immediate or delayed comprehension tests. Taken together, the results of our investigation failed to statistically support the meshing hypothesis either for verbal comprehension aptitude or learning based on mode of instruction (digital audiobook, e-text).
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The concept of aptitude is reviewed and reconstructed. Its original sense of reciprocity between person and situation and appropriateness of person-situation fit is restored. Modern interpretation thus emphasizes readiness to learn in particular instructional situations and recognizes conative and affective as well as cognitive sources of aptitude. Limitations of old aptitude theories are noted. Requirements for new aptitude theories are listed. A new conceptual language for aptitude theory is suggested by the Thorndike-Thomson sampling theory, Gibson's (1966, 1979) affordance theory, and Simon's (1969) artifact theory, in combination with implications from current research.
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Describes two experiments, one with undergraduates and one with high school students, that tested instructional strategies for teaching computer programing. The cognitive styles of impulsivity and reflection are examined, completion strategy versus generation strategy is tested, and results support a preferential model rather than a compensatory model of learning. (20 references) (LRW)
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In 1965 the authors conducted an experiment in a public elementary school, telling teachers that certain children could be expected to be “growth spurters,” based on the students' results on the Harvard Test of Inflected Acquisition. In point of fact, the test was nonexistent and those children designated as “spurters” were chosen at random. What Rosenthal and Jacobson hoped to determine by this experiment was the degree (if any) to which changes in teacher expectation produce changes in student achievement.
Article
Learning styles are often assessed through students' self-reports on instruments such as Vermunt's Inventory of Learning Styles (ILS). Recent research, however, has questioned the adequacy of questionnaires for the assessment of learning styles. The objective of this paper is to evaluate methods of learning style assessment as a means for identifying students at risk. Therefore, the ILS as a self-report instrument will be compared with the students' actual study processes, assessed through the thinking-aloud method. In the first study 1,060 students from the Technical University of Delft participated. Thirty-three of them were selected on the ILS for participation in the second study. The ILS was administered to the 1,060 participants and their study results (GPA and credit points) were collected. Next, the selected 33 participants studied a technical text while thinking aloud. Knowledge acquisition was measured by means of a post-test. Thinking-aloud protocols were analysed on frequencies of study activities, thus representing process measures of learning styles. The ILS proved to be a rather weak predictor of study results in Study 1. Results from Study 2 show hardly any correspondence between ILS and study process measures, although principal component structures of both measures were highly similar. Furthermore, study process measures outweighed the ILS in the prediction of study results (post-test, GPA and credit points). Learning style theory was confirmed by results on the study process measures. The assessment of learning styles through self-report instruments such as the ILS, however, should be reconsidered.
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