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This paper presents an overview of the enablement of IoT in developing countries and discusses the visions, general applications, opportunities and challenges of IoT in these countries. It also touches on issues relating to security, privacy, trust and the accompanied complexity. The potential applications for IoT are countless and can optimize processes with a direct impact on society. Certain challenges have to be addressed to make IoT deployment successful. It will be shown that some of the challenges can be turned into opportunities and that IoT has good chances to succeed in developing countries.
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Enabling The Internet of Things in Developing
Countries: Opportunities and Challenges
Md Nazmus Sakib Miazi, Zenville Erasmus, Md. Abdur Razzaque, Marco Zennaroand Antoine Bagula
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Wireless Laboratory, International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Italy.
Department of Computer Science, University of the Western Cape, South Africa.
Email: sakibnm@gmail.com, zerasmus@uwc.ac.za, razzaque@du.ac.bd, mzennaro@ictp.it, bbagula@uwc.ac.za
Abstract—This paper presents an overview of the enablement
of IoT in developing countries and discusses the visions, gen-
eral applications, opportunities and challenges of IoT in these
countries. It also touches on issues relating to security, privacy,
trust and the accompanied complexity. The potential applications
for IoT are countless and can optimize processes with a direct
impact on society. Certain challenges have to be addressed to
make IoT deployment successful. It will be shown that some of
the challenges can be turned into opportunities and that IoT has
good chances to succeed in developing countries.
I. INTRODUCTION
The Internet of Things (IoT) is a novel paradigm that
is rapidly gaining ground in the era of modern pervasive
computing. The concept is basically developed on an idea,
where there are numerous things or objects - such as Radio-
Frequency Identification (RFID) tags, sensors, actuators, mo-
bile phones, etc. - that are connected with the Internet. Each
of the objects has a unique address and is able to interact with
other objects. The things or objects co-operate with each other
to reach a common goal. The IoT is a triumph of distributed
computing systems having a huge compatibility to compile,
process and distribute information using wireless and wired
communication systems.
The term Internet of Things was first coined by Kevin
Ashton in 1999 in the context of supply chain management
[1]. Nevertheless, in the past decade, the term IoT evolved as
a keyword of modern technology covering a wide range of
applications like intelligent transport, smart health care, smart
utilities, etc. In summary, we can define IoT as an integrated
Internet system, that is able to cope with highly dynamic
global network infrastructure, having the capability of con-
figuring themselves according to the standard communication
protocols, where every single thing has its own identity and
intelligent interfaces for seamless integration into information
networks.
A. Visions of IoT
The vision of the Internet of Things is to merge computer
networks, Internet of Media (IoM) and Internet of Services
(IoS) with Internet of Things (IoT) for developing a global IT
platform of seamless networks [2]. IoM is a system that facil-
itates Multimedia applications - such as multi-player games,
digital cinema, virtual world simulations, etc. It addresses
the challenges in video processing, 3D processing and high
demands for data rate to be adapted with network conditions.
IoS is a system of delivering software based components
throughout the global networks. Enterprise inter-operability,
Service Web, Smart Grids and Semantic Web are the key
research challenges to build up an integrated and robust IoS.
IoT demands scalability, i.e., the edge points will be con-
nected through Clouds, not a Local Area Network (LAN).
Communication challenges are to be drawn more among things
and data-centers. The IoT needs enhanced processing power
with large storage capacity having always-on connectivity. At
the same time, the cost is needed to be minimized. To facilitate
the end-users with the best of IoT, the applications, services,
middle-wares, networks and endpoints are to be structurally
defined in an entirely new way.
The IoT makes it happen between people and things to be
connected to each other at Anytime, Anyplace, with Anything
and Anyone, ideally using Any path/network and Any service.
This inscribes objects much flexibility in terms of the 6 C’s -
Convergence, Content, Collections (Repositories), Computing,
Communication, and Connectivity in the context where there
is seamless interconnection between people and things[2].
B. General Applications of IoT
The Internet of Things denotes a plethora of things intercon-
nected with each other seamlessly. We can divide the general
applications of IoT into three domains, such as, Industry,
Environment and Society. Activities involving financial or
commercial transactions among companies, organizations and
other entities reside in the Industry domain. The Environment
domain consists of activities related to the safety, maintenance
and development of all natural resources. And finally, the Soci-
ety domain contains the initiatives referring to the development
and inclusion of societies, cities, and people. These domains
are not isolated ones, rather they have strong correlations that
enable us to develop new applications and services exploiting
intra and inter domain dynamics.
Now, we discuss a few important fields of the IoT. First of
all, we can think about the Aerospace and Aviation industry,
where IoT certainly helps to improve aviation safety and secu-
rity. Secondly, we can look into the smart Automotive Industry,
where RFID is used everywhere in automobile production.
Prominent technologies like Dedicated Short Range Com-
munication (DSRC), vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-
infrastructure (V2I) communications, Intelligent Transporta-
tion Systems (ITS), etc. are fully being integrated with IoT
to ameliorate the current status of vehicle safety services
and traffic management systems. In addition, IoT is inte-
grating GSM, Near Field Communication (NFC), low power
BlueTooth, WLAN, GPS and sensor networks to develop
a whole new platform for ensuring better services in the
Telecommunications Industry.
The IoT has a great prospect in the Medical, Health and
Pharmaceutical industries. IoT can facilitate patients with the
help of intelligent monitoring technology for diseases, ad-hoc
diagnosis and prompt medical service in case of accidents.
Edible and biodegradable chips are being used for guided
tests and treatments. In case of the Pharmaceutical industry,
it is really important to maintain the safety and security of
the distribution of products. In terms of IoT, tracking the
supply chain with the use of intelligent systems and monitoring
everything with advanced sensor networks, is certainly very
beneficial to the people related to this industry.
The IoT makes the retail and supply chain management
(SCM) operations smooth and flawless. For example, with
RFID-equipped items and smart shelves that track the present
items in real time, a retailer can optimize many applica-
tions. Research shows, 3.9% of loss happens worldwide when
shelves go empty and customers do not get the desired product
[3]. So, IoT can save a significant amount of money in retail
stores facilitating them with smart Supply Chain Management
systems. Moreover, in the Manufacturing, Processing and
Transportation industry, the IoT can be a great boost-up for
the integrated systems. Furthermore, IoT shows great prospects
in Agriculture, Environment, Media and Entertainment indus-
tries.
C. Contributions of This Work
In this paper, we mainly focus on the prospects, challenges
and the probable solutions to the problems for enabling IoT in
developing countries. In developing countries, people face a lot
of problems to have access to the communication technologies
in terms of poverty, lack of Internet speed, low levels of
expertise, and overall lack of infrastructure. The authorities
face enormous challenges to improve the current systems to
make the infrastructure capable of deploying IoT as a whole.
We identify the opportunities of IoT in developing countries in
section II. We state the challenges to exploit the opportunities
for deploying IoT in developing countries in section III. We
discuss the possible solutions to the challenges and provide
guidelines to ameliorate the current condition to enable IoT in
developing countries.
II. OPPORTUNITIES OF IOTIN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
The prospect of IoT in developing countries is huge, ranging
from agriculture to smart city applications. In this section, we
discuss the opportunities of IoT for the emerging sectors in the
developing countries. We anticipate the promising prospects of
IoT in the fields of transportation safety, agriculture, environ-
IoT Cloud
Road
Safety
Environment
Monitoring
Utilities
Management
mHealth
Workplace
Safety
Precision
Agriculture
Fig. 1. Potential IoT applications in developing countries
ment, utility management, health monitoring and so on. Here,
we focus on some of the significant fields.
A. Road Accident Mitigation and Transportation Safety
The developing countries are experiencing rapid growth in
terms of economic development, population and consequently
motorization. However, neither the sufficient road network nor
the safe transportation techniques have been developed, result-
ing in an increased road safety problem. Driver distraction is
one of the major causes of road accidents and highway crashes.
Events and things that attract attention of the driver while
driving are called distractions. More specifically, distractions
are any type of events or causes that take away visual, manual
and cognitive resources from the driving task. Estimations by
the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA)
show that driver distraction causes nearly 25% of police
reported crashes [4]. Approximately, 80% of crashes and 65%
of near-crashes involve some form of driver distraction and
the distraction occurs within three seconds of vehicle crash
[4]. As a result, it is an interesting and timely research field to
work in in the aim of mitigating road accidents and ensuring
transportation safety, utilizing the best of IoT.
We can deploy smart devices to collect the data that indi-
cate the cognitive responses of the drivers, their mental and
physical health, the vehicles’ fitness and safety measurements,
etc. Collecting the data makes it possible to take safety
measures like, alarming the driver or responsible authorities,
intelligently stopping the vehicle, restricting the fatigued driver
from driving, etc. In summary, we can think of an Internet
of smart vehicular systems to mitigate road accidents and
enhance transportation safety.
B. Precision Agriculture
According to the United States Census Bureau, the world’s
population is over seven billion now, and it is expected to
increase more than three billion over the next few decades.
As a result, the food demand will grow 1.5-2 times more
than what it is at presently [5]. Besides, the farm economy
is becoming unstable due to the combined effect of the
volatile nature of agricultural conditions and the uncertainty
of expected income from farm products. In the developing
countries, the scenario is worse and becoming more abnormal
day by day. Natural calamities, lack of proper fertilization,
use of excessive chemicals and pesticides, inefficient crop
monitoring systems lead the crop management system of these
countries to jeopardy. Moreover, usage of poisonous chemicals
like Formaldehyde to prevent food from becoming rotten urges
for effective food monitoring systems. The prospect of Preci-
sion Agriculture (PA) is reflected in many recent researches.
According to Global PA Market Analysis & Forecast (2015-
2022) by BIS Research, the global market size for PA has
been estimated to grow over $6.34 billion by 2022.
These conditions necessitate the usage of modern tech-
nologies to improve crop-planning, to facilitate the better in-
field management decisions, to provide precise farm records,
to minimize the usage of fertilizers and pesticides to the
optimum level, to maximize profit margin and finally to reduce
environmental pollution. In contrast, the solution remains in
a very elementary stage. In fact, the adoption of sensor and
actuator devices in implementing PA systems is very limited
and still in research farms worldwide. PA might help in
ensuring accurate utilization of plant nutrition materials, to
protect them from insects and diseases, and finally to yield
higher crop production. Moreover, PA actually provides a
better scope for the national policy makers to plan for the
future production of crops and helps them to develop the right
methods to maintain food security.
C. Environment Monitoring
Environment monitoring is a growing paradigm in the field
of the Internet of Things and is becoming a key feature of
modern environment management systems. Reusable hardware
and software platforms and energy harvesting sensors [6] can
be exploited to facilitate IoT application requirements for
ameliorating the current environment monitoring systems. In
developing countries, the necessity of modern environment
monitoring is very high. There, the rate of air pollution,
noise pollution, industrial pollution, and a range of human
created environmental pollution is formidable. To mitigate the
pollution level, we need to monitor the environment both
in urban and rural areas. In the developing countries, it is
important to monitor the environment regularly to predict the
climatic changes and to deal with the natural calamities like,
cyclones, flood, drought, etc. In these countries, the system
needs to be fairly cheap and easily maintainable. So, usage
of IoT in environment monitoring can open a new era of
opportunities to maintain the consonance of nature, climate
and civilization.
D. Utility Management
Utility Management is one of the most prominent fields in
respect to the application of IoT in the developing world. In
addition to electricity, gas, trash removal, etc., water network
monitoring and quality assurance of drinking water is consid-
ered as a significant application of IoT. To ensure high water
supply quality, sensors that measure critical water parameters
are installed at prime locations [7]. The whole monitoring
system is managed by an Internet backbone consisting of high
speed fiber optic networks and Cloud services.
In developing countries, there is virtually no utility except
electricity, which is being managed utilizing modern moni-
toring systems. Even for electricity, the whole system needs a
lot of manual inputs from management personnel. So, in these
countries, it is important to implement smart and cost-effective
systems that will benefit people with efficient utilization of
available resources and minimize the resource wastage.
E. Intelligent Health Management (mHealth or eHealth)
In this age, the cliche of global aging and chronic diseases
is becoming a regular phenomenon [8]. To deal with the
situation, many developed countries are focusing on reducing
hospital beds and in contrast, they are building up intelligent
home health-care systems. These kind of systems are the
combination of Hospital-centric services and Home-centric
environments. Implementation of the systems by developing
practical and advanced health related technologies by exploit-
ing IoT is becoming a burning research issue [9].
Developing intelligent health monitoring systems is becom-
ing important for some other reasons, such as, real-time health
monitoring which helps to detect and predict formidable health
issues and to take precautions. Moreover, almost 25% of young
people do not intend to follow the proper prescriptions from
the doctors. Consequently, the necessity of continuous health
monitoring is gaining significance day by day. IoT enables
the easy access of Internet to health sensors, actuators and
other devices and provides Cloud services to manage data
and system integrity. Thus, IoT creates an opportunity to
utilize ICT in respect to develop health intelligent management
systems.
In developing countries, the scenario is grimmer than the
developed world. Here, from the birth of a child, ending
up to the chronic diseases of aged persons, the degree of
irregularity in health management is immense. People are not
really concerned of their health and they do not even bother
to preserve their medication history. People often come to see
doctors when they are in the final stage of cancer. So, the
scope of utilizing intelligent health management systems is
huge. IoT envisions a way to implement eHealth with robust
and affordable services in developing countries.
F. Workplace Safety Enhancement
In developing countries like Bangladesh, Vietnam, India,
etc., work safety is often ignored to save capital and invest
in production more. Although the governments impose strict
laws to prohibit disasters and accidents in workplaces, it is
a very common practice of the industry authorities to bypass
the restrictions with the help of corrupted officials. So, the
situation asks for a solution that should be cost effective, easy
to use and well-integrated. A well organized workplace mon-
itoring system can ensure reliable and corruption mitigation
procedures for meeting the safety standards in industry.
In recent years, a number of industry incidents happened
that point to serious safety ignorance and lack of modern safety
monitoring systems. The 2012 Dhaka fire killed more than 117
garments workers at the Tajrin garments factory in Bangladesh.
Again, the Rana Plaza incident in 2013 killed an overwhelming
number of more than 1100 people and injured more than 2500
people in Bangladesh. These incidents indicate the substantial
necessity of well integrated safety monitoring and warning
systems. In these circumstances, IoT opens the door of hope
to sort this problem out.
G. Social Security Management
The current conditions in developing countries reflect the
lack of Social Security. The situation, especially in India
and Bangladesh, indicates an unsafe state for general people,
especially for women. The rate of street harassment to women
is very high and the condition is becoming grimmer day by
day. Nights are becoming dangerous due to an uncountable
number of thefts, robberies, hijackings, kidnappings, murders,
rapes and so on. In fact, the growth of terrorism and civil unrest
in developing countries put things to their worst. To get rid
of them, we need to provide a whole new system of social
security networks. The technologies ranging from a central
CCTV network to personal safety devices can be used to make
cities safer. We have all the technologies in hand to integrate
and the platform is IoT. So, it is a great prospect for IoT to
develop social security ensuring systems.
III. CHALLENGES OF IOTIN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
The prospect also brings a whole bunch of challenges. In
developing countries, the administrative and financial systems
run by mostly without any integrated and automated system.
The level of technology usage is low, and the investment
on research and development is very little. In the following
sections, we focus on various IoT challenges in detail in
respect to developing countries.
A. Technical Challenges
1) Internet Connectivity: Internet Connectivity is a prime
issue, when we want to enable IoT. Internet of Things demands
flawless and adequate connectivity among every particular
thing. To sustain flawless connectivity, it needs fast internet
speed, a continuous power supply, robust backup systems and
reliable and scalable infrastructure.
Facilitating the end users with high speed internet in devel-
oping countries is a huge challenge. To deploy wired backbone
throughout the whole country is formidably costly, and it is
kind of impossible for them to develop a countrywide wired
network to facilitate every end-user. An easy alternative is to
provide internet access through wireless technologies, like 3G,
WiMAX, 4G-LTE, etc. This invokes other kinds of problems
concerning lower internet speed, high power consumption,
high cost per unit usage ratio, etc.
So, the authorities can deploy a hybrid model of internet
backbone over the whole country, consisting of a fiber-optic
national data-highway, local and national data centers, regional
WiMAX and 4G service points, etc. The main challenge here
is to deploy a hybrid backbone over the country, that trades-off
with the problems and facilitates the end-users with optimal
utility, that can be sufficient to enable IoT in these countries.
2) Data Centers: The creation of unmatched amounts of
data is one of the most important offshoots of the IoT. Since
the Internet consumes up to 5% [10] of the total energy
generated today and with IoT demands on the rise, energy
consumption is guaranteed to rise as a consequence. Data
centers in developing countries that are run on harvested
energy and are centralized will cater for energy efficiency and
reliability. The storage of data thus has to be implemented
intelligently so that smart monitoring and actuation can take
place.
3) Power Resources: Compared to developed countries, the
planning of electricity for developing countries presents itself
as a complicated dilemma. The challenge surpasses the mere
acquisition of financing for energy related investments. Energy
development is challenging as electric power industries are
among the most intensive in an economy. This leads to the
severe draining of financial resources.
IoT for developing countries (IoT4D) will aid in provid-
ing power solutions by enabling clean energy technologies,
creating smarter energy markets and by optimizing the imple-
mentation of existing products. For example, to improve the
use of energy in homes, the IoT will automate and promote
energy efficient practices such as the running of appliances at
off-peak times.
In terms of a solution presented by IoT, servicing customers
with information regarding utilities, devices known as smart
meters can provide real-time, two-way communication be-
tween customers and devices in their perusal. Benefits involve
granular detail to customers about their electricity usage.
Smart meters also aid customers in modifying their energy
consumption in relation to current prices. A smart meter also
allows the collection of data automatically. This negates the
need for a company needing to send out an engineer to
manually collect data readings from such a meter. It also serves
as an effective means to detect outages and the necessity of
repairs [11].
4) Human Resources: A great challenge is the lack of
technically knowledgeable personnel. They include Engineers,
Scientists and Technicians. IoT is a state-of-the-art term and
implementing the technologies to build up IoT platforms re-
quires learned personnel. In developing countries, the number
of research centers are very low. The funding and investment
to innovations is critically at nadir.
B. Device Reliability
IoT devices for developing countries need to be robust,
energy efficient and able to run on batteries for months at
a time. They also need to be able to make use of the solar
radiation present for recharging capabilities (e.g., photo-voltaic
panels). Even the sensors connected to motes in areas where
they are exposed to environmental factors need to be of a high
quality and have a reasonable life span. These devices should
be designed in a modular fashion that makes components
easily replaceable, almost in a plug-’n-play manner.
It is important to know when an IoT device drops off from
a network and goes offline. Knowing when the device comes
back online is equally important. It is in this domain that
presence detection is able to give an exact and up to date status
of all devices that form part of a network. The monitoring
of IoT devices in this way lends the ability to correct any
problems that have arisen within a network. It subsequently
boosts its reliability.
C. Financial Challenges
The IoT provides a great opportunity for developing coun-
tries to leapfrog from poorly prepared to scientifically and
technologically equipped countries which can use the IoT
technology to face their current and future challenges by tap-
ping into the potential provided by this technology. However,
such opportunity may become reality only if the developing
world is ready to embark into this technology at the same
pace as scientists and technologists of the developed world
and financial challenges related to these technologies are
addressed. These include low cost of acquisition, maintenance
and financial sustainability.
As currently perceived, sensor devices are the raw material
of the IoT. Such devices are still expensive for many countries
of the developing world when accounting for the cost of
acquisition and shipping from the manufacturing companies
which are mainly located in the developed countries. This
may hamper their wide and ubiquitous deployment in the
developing world. Furthermore, for such devices, cost and
field-readiness are still closely related while the most field
ready devices are usually proprietary devices with vendor-
locked software, sometimes updated frequently at recurrent
fees or cost. This leads to higher cost of maintenance and
operation which also leads to a challenging financial sus-
tainability situation for those operating IoT businesses. Many
of these challenges may be addressed through local IoT
expertise, the use of open source hardware and software, and
strong collaboration between scientists and technologists of
the developed and developing world. Such collaboration will
enable the IoT4D dream to become reality.
D. Security, Privacy and Trust Issues
IoT security is a topic that is still in its development stage,
though there exists a rather large volume of research that
analyzes the challenges it presents and possible means of safe
guarding against attacks. These challenges must be overcome
in order for the IoT to be ready for real world deployment.
Since IoT architectures can be complex and can scale to
accommodate billions of objects or things that interact with
each other and with other entities, such interactions must be
secured.
The complexity presented by large scale architectures allow
for attack vectors that can be capitalized on in a staggering
way as access by anyone, anyhow and anytime are key features
of the IoT [12]. IoT threats are numerous and include attacks
that target various communication channels, denial of service,
identity fabrication, physical attacks, etc.
In terms of protocol and network security, efficient cryp-
tography algorithms are needed that can provide a high
throughput even in 8-bit devices. These algorithms should
also be lightweight by design and offer end-to-end secure
communication channels.
Key management systems must be implemented that take
care of distributing credentials to these protocols. These cre-
dentials will aid in establishing session keys between nodes.
Another factor of concern is authentication to cater for
identity management. Authentication would allow the vetting
of data to ensure that it contains what it is supposed to contain.
The sheer number of nodes involved in an IoT network that
creates information can be a large threat to privacy. Users
involved in a sensor system or network should have tools
provided to them that caters for anonymity amid connected
networks. This will afford users a means of trust.
Awareness mechanisms should be put in place that can
detect intrusions and even prevent them. This will aid IoT
objects in protecting them or even gracefully degrading their
services. Recovery services must be able to determine areas
under attack and redirect the systems’ functionality towards
trusted areas in an IoT network.
IV. SOLUTIONS AND WAY FORWARD
As we described in the previous section, there are many
challenges for IoT in Developing Countries. We believe that
the solutions to these challenges are already available and
that Developing Countries will leapfrog ahead of industrialized
countries in adopting IoT.
1) Technical Challenges
Connectivity: IoT networks will require hybrid solu-
tions. Developing Countries host more than 70% of
SIM cards in the world and most countries have ex-
tensive mobile coverage. M2M solutions [13] based
on GSM are therefore feasible right now [14]. When
talking about long distance wireless links (necessary
to cover big distances as frequently the case in
Africa), solutions in the ISM bands don’t require
any license. Several satellite solutions are available
at reasonable costs for areas where there is no GSM
coverage. Finally, Disruptions Tolerant Networking
(DTN) based solutions for sensor networks have
been studied and tested for areas where human
mobility is guaranteed (most big urban centers).
Internet connectivity: Internet connectivity is vital
to IoT solutions. The solution here is the segmen-
tation of geological area coverage. Sensor data are
mostly useful in the communities where they are
collected. So, it is desirable that we can build up
local segments of the whole system so that we don’t
need to synchronize all the data in real-time over
the Internet to the central servers. So regions with
limited Internet connection can still benefit from the
rich data coming from Wireless Sensors. Fantacci
et.al.[15] proposed a efficient network architecture
for this solution.
Power: reliable power supply is a big challenge in
most of the Developing World. Solar and Wind are
clearly the effective solutions. In contrast, establish-
ing the power plants of Solar and Wind are not
linear in cost. For example, if you double the size
the cost will be more than double. IoT nodes require
very little energy, so small solar panels are suitable
and are very cheap. In addition, energy harvesting
sensors are adding a new paradigm to the play-field
[16]. Deploying and maintaining energy harvesting
sensors is cheap and easy. It can conveniently ease
the demand of power.
Data Centers: there are several examples of low
energy data centers and they are all powered by solar
energy which is abundant in Developing Countries.
2) Social Challenges
Standardization: the lack of a standard is listed as a
limiting factor for the success of IoT. While this is
true for the Industrialized World, it can be seen as an
opportunity for the Developing World. There is no
definitive standard in IoT, so the needs coming from
the Developing World (long battery life, support of
different wireless technologies, longer wireless links
using TV White Spaces, etc.) can still be satisfied
by a new standard.
Case Studies: what is needed to define clearly the
standardization requirements is more case studies.
By critically analyzing the lessons learned from
deployments, the IoT community can define features
that need to be standardized.
Human Resources: this challenge includes training
engineers and scientists on IoT and final users on the
benefits they can obtain from this new technology.
Policy makers need to understand what benefits they
can gain from the explosion of data coming from
IoT networks. Finally, a network of IoT practitioners
from the Developing World can exchange experi-
ences and drive this technology further.
V. CONCLUSION
In this paper, we present the opportunities that IoT can
offer in developing countries. The potential applications are
countless and they can help optimize processes with a direct
impact on society. We then listed a number of challenges that
have to be addressed to make this new technology successful.
Finally, we showed that some of the challenges can be turned
into opportunities and that IoT has good chances to succeed
in developing countries.
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... This is one of the critical challenges of applying IoT at each scale [23]. These concerns, along with the infrastructural challenges in developing countries that are highly dependent on leading countries, illustrate the importance of IoT governance and an appropriate approach at the national level [24,25]. ...
... As Hakkert et al. argued, formatting niche markets or considering tax incentives in a short time is an alternative that governance needs to consider [35]. For IoT as a national TIS, the process of market formation consists of providing subsidies to service developers, procuring programs for meeting both the supply and demand sides of the market, and regulation, not only for technical issues through standardization but also for implementing policies made by governance [25,37]. These critical points convinced authors to propose the following hypotheses: ...
... According to the modeling results, all key processes in the IoT innovation system, except the "market formation", are directly affected by the facilitation function of governance. This means that the existence of an appropriate platform and infrastructure has a remarkable role in developing the IoT innovation system [25] and should be considered by the IoT governance. The authors' point of view, similar to the new governance concept developed by Rhodes [68], is that the actual governance here is that the development of both the technical and business infrastructures should be conducted in collaboration with the structural components of the IoT-related TIS. ...
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... However, low per capita income in developing countries has insufficient funds for IT innovation and IT services implementation (Lawrence et al., 2010). Furthermore, IT resources are limited in many developing countries, including access to hardware and software (Ejiaku, 2014); and qualified professional IT to implement the new technology (Miazi et al., 2016). Hence, the developing nations are still utilizing IT infrastructure with slow processing speed, poor internet connection, outdated software, and insufficient server capacity that affect work productivity. ...
... While IoT provides advantages in the health-care sector, to maximize IoT's advantages in developing countries, it is necessary to identify and overcome the barriers to IoT use in these countries (Miazi et al., 2016). Some studies in the literature have discussed IoT barriers, but these studies discuss barriers regarding overall IoT usage. ...
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... A detailed description of the Systematic Literature Review (SLR) of blockchain technology adoption in Bangladesh has illustrated in this section. An SLR is a formal procedure where researchers design and develop the research questions based on evidence [17]. This section provides insight on how blockchain technology is being evolved here in Bangladesh with adequate scientific evidence. ...
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... A detailed description of the Systematic Literature Review (SLR) of blockchain technology adoption in Bangladesh has illustrated in this section. An SLR is a formal procedure where researchers design and develop the research questions based on evidence [17]. This section provides insight on how blockchain technology is being evolved here in Bangladesh with adequate scientific evidence. ...
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Chapter
The internet of things (IoT) is a global ecosystem of networked “things.” It is the subject of much research worldwide, although it still has many challenges to overcome before it can achieve its full potential. Many papers have been written on the IoT and related areas including big data analytics, smart cities, and industrial IoT (IIoT). These challenges have mostly been seen as technical, although the IoT's business and societal challenges are also important. Most authors of research papers discuss the research challenges with which they are most familiar, but a framework which identifies and classifies all the challenges and cross-references the publications describing them in detail, is much needed. In this chapter, the authors extend their earlier IoT classification scheme to include more recent papers, and business and societal challenges as well as technical ones. The nature of the classification scheme and research challenges are described; however, the other chapters of this book cover in more detail the individual challenges and proposed strategies to mitigate them.
Chapter
With the enhancement in the technology and comprehensive growth in Internet of Things (IoT), smart devices are being deployed to provide various modern day services. Smart devices that are deployed and configured at various organizations and applications (like, e-healthcare, intelligent transportation systems, etc.) require seamless services supported through the provisioning of computational and storage resources at the cloud. With the increase in the number of services and devices, an extensive load has been noticed on the cloud platform. Thus, edge devices came into existence and act as a middle layer to provide limited services to the end users. However, a huge data movement has been observed in the three-layered architecture of IoT-Cloud platform. Therefore, a controller is required to manage the traffic in the network for smooth processing of the tasks. Software-defined network (SDN) has the capability to provide programmable interface to the network to handle the incoming traffic intelligently due to its dynamic and scalable behavior. In this chapter, we have discussed various prospectives related to edge–cloud cooperation and how effectively SDN can handle the elephant-like traffic intelligently.
Chapter
The survival of more than 40% of the country’s population such as India, Ethiopia, and others whose one-fourth of the GDP is based on agricultural products. Therefore, agriculture plays a significant role in the country’s growth. The government’s growth is constantly hampered by issues that relate to agriculture. A feasible solution to this issue is to opt for developed and modern farming that includes modern trends. Thus, the use of the Internet of Things (IoT) and other innovations such as artificial intelligence (AI) will lead to smart agriculture. Smart farming increases crop production, decreases water wastage, and minimizes excessive fertilizer usage. With the aid of detectors, this IoT-based system can help farms track terrain requirements anywhere and can even irrigate fields using an automatic device. World agriculture’s future needs to be sorted out through awareness and unnecessary cessation technology that can increase productivity and, in turn, restore farmers’ interest in this sector. So these smart farming strategies will help farmers minimize scrap and increase efficiency. It is certainly a glorified tech and capital-intensive crop cultivation system for the general public in a responsible way. The problems like adverse weather conditions, enviromental effect on cultivation, etc. that farmers are facing inspired us for the suggested programs that are: Global farming is on the snag due to the limited technical awareness of best and productive farming methods and furthermore they are still relying on traditional farming methods that lead to lower crop productivity. This chapter addresses a methodology to solve these problems by considering different agricultural parameters that influence yields; this also uses a GPS system to obtain geolocation data. Furthermore, it sends all information to the server where it can be investigated further. Finally, this methodology also includes a mobile application that provides the farmer with convenient access to the data.
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Book
Full-text available
Foreword by Peter Friess & Gérald Santuci: It goes without saying that we are very content to publish this Clusterbook and to leave it today to your hands. The Cluster of European Research projects on the Internet of Things – CERP-IoT – comprises around 30 major research initiatives, platforms and networks work-ing in the field of identification technologies such as Radio Frequency Identification and in what could become tomorrow an Internet-connected and inter-connected world of objects. The book in front of you reports to you about the research and innovation issues at stake and demonstrates approaches and examples of possible solutions. If you take a closer look you will realise that the Cluster reflects exactly the ongoing developments towards a future Internet of Things – growing use of Identification technologies, massive deployment of simple and smart devices, increasing connection between objects and systems. Of course, many developments are less directly derived from the core research area but contribute significantly in creating the “big picture” and the paradigm change. We are also conscious to maintain Europe’s strong position in these fields and the result being achieved, but at the same time to understand the challenges ahead as a global endeavour with our international partners. As it regards international co-operation, the cluster is committed to increasing the number of common activities with the existing international partners and to looking for various stakeholders in other countries. However, we are just at the beginning and, following the prognostics which predict 50 to 100 billion devices to be connected by 2020, the true research work starts now. The European Commission is decided to implement its Internet of Things policy for supporting an economic revival and providing better life to its citizens, and it has just selected from the last call for proposals several new Internet of Things research projects as part of the 7th Framework Programme on European Research. We wish you now a pleasant and enjoyable reading and would ask you to stay connected with us for the future. Special thanks are expressed to Harald Sundmaeker and his team who did a remarkable effort in assembling this Clusterbook.
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The phrase Internet of Things (IoT) heralds a vision of the future Internet where connecting physical things, from banknotes to bicycles, through a network will let them take an active part in the Internet, exchanging information about themselves and their surroundings. This will give immediate access to information about the physical world and the objects in it leading to innovative services and increase in efficiency and productivity. This paper studies the state-of-the-art of IoT and presents the key technological drivers,potential applications, challenges and future research areas in the domain of IoT. IoT definitions from different perspective in academic and industry communities are also discussed and compared. Finally some major issues of future research in IoT are identified and discussed briefly.
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The Internet of Things (IoT) is an emerging computing concept that describes a structure in which everyday physical objects, each provided with unique identifiers, are connected to the Internet without requiring human interaction. Long-term and self-sustainable operation are key components for realization of such a complex network, and entail energy-aware devices that are potentially capable of harvesting their required energy from ambient sources. Among different energy harvesting methods, such as vibration, light, and thermal energy extraction, wireless energy harvesting (WEH) has proven to be one of the most promising solutions by virtue of its simplicity, ease of implementation, and availability. In this article, we present an overview of enabling technologies for efficient WEH, analyze the lifetime of WEH-enabled IoT devices, and briefly study the future trends in the design of efficient WEH systems and research challenges that lie ahead.
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At present, Sensor Networks and the emerging Internet of Things paradigm are playing a key role in the industry and in academic research. In this article we outline a common scenario, currently arising standards, and other emerging technologies having a direct impact on network architecture. In particular we introduce a novel network architecture based on an M2M Gateway and discuss it in relation to smart building applications. The proposed network architecture will improve services for users and will offer new opportunities for both service providers and network operators.
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In the Internet of Things, services can be provisioned using centralized architectures, where central entities acquire, process, and provide information. Alternatively, distributed architectures, where entities at the edge of the network exchange information and collaborate with each other in a dynamic way, can also be used. In order to understand the applicability and viability of this distributed approach, it is necessary to know its advantages and disadvantages – not only in terms of features but also in terms of security and privacy challenges. The purpose of this paper is to show that the distributed approach has various challenges that need to be solved, but also various interesting properties and strengths.
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Ubiquitous sensing enabled by Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) technologies cuts across many areas of modern day living. This offers the ability to measure, infer and understand environmental indicators, from delicate ecologies and natural resources to urban environments. The proliferation of these devices in a communicating-actuating network creates the Internet of Things (IoT), wherein, sensors and actuators blend seamlessly with the environment around us, and the information is shared across platforms in order to develop a common operating picture (COP). Fuelled by the recent adaptation of a variety of enabling device technologies such as RFID tags and readers, near field communication (NFC) devices and embedded sensor and actuator nodes, the IoT has stepped out of its infancy and is the the next revolutionary technology in transforming the Internet into a fully integrated Future Internet. As we move from www (static pages web) to web2 (social networking web) to web3 (ubiquitous computing web), the need for data-on-demand using sophisticated intuitive queries increases significantly. This paper presents a cloud centric vision for worldwide implementation of Internet of Things. The key enabling technologies and application domains that are likely to drive IoT research in the near future are discussed. A cloud implementation using Aneka, which is based on interaction of private and public clouds is presented. We conclude our IoT vision by expanding on the need for convergence of WSN, the Internet and distributed computing directed at technological research community.
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Machine-to-machine communications are gaining tremendous interest from mobile network operators, equipment vendors, device manufacturers, as well as research and standardization bodies. Indeed, M2M is a promising technology for the development of Internet of Things communications platforms, with high potential to enable a wide range of applications in different domains. However, providing suitable answers to the issues stemming from IoT platform design requires middleware-level solutions to enable seamless interoperability between M2M-based applications and existing Internetbased services. To the best of our knowledge, available proposals in the field are still immature and tend to be proof of concept prototypes that address specific issues stemming from IoT domains. This article starts from a different perspective and aims at investigating the possibility of implementing M2M solutions on top of currently available, mature, production-level solutions. In this vein, we here present and discuss the design and implementation of an M2M application in the field of road traffic management that integrates, for the sake of efficiency, with a broad IMS-based service infrastructure.