ArticlePDF Available

The First European Willeya (Verrucariaceae) on Limestone Brought from China

  • Laboratório de Botânica/Liquenologia

Abstract and Figures

The new species Willeya tetraspora is described from a Botanical Garden in the Netherlands, where it grows on naturally shaped limestone that was imported from China. It differs from all other species in the genus by the 4-spored asci, and also from most species by the globose hymenial algae. It is the first species of the genus reported from Europe. Its natural distribution is in China, where this species remains to be found, but several similar taxa are known.
Content may be subject to copyright.
... These two species probably belong in Willeya but as material has not been examined in the course of the present study, the transfer is not made. Willeya tetraspora Aptroot (Aptroot 2016) has ascospores (27-)30-32-35(-37) μm long, and it possesses pycnidia, but it grows on non-irrigated limestone. ...
Twenty-eight species of Verrucariaceae are reported from Nepal. One genus and nine species are described as new: Nesothele gen. nov., sister to Staurothele s. lat., with a crustose to squamulose thallus, hymenial algae and 4–8 colourless muriform ascospores per ascus; Nesothele glebulosa sp. nov., resembling N. rugulosa but with smaller perithecia; Thelidium uvidulum sp. nov., producing a thin thallus with soralia, prominent perithecia, and 1-septate ascospores; Verrucaria antepotens sp. nov., having a well-developed thallus with dark-sided areoles, immersed perithecia, and small ascospores 12.5–16.5 μm long; V. lactea sp. nov., resembling V. praetermissa but with larger ascospores and a strongly deviating ITS sequence; V. parvipeltata sp. nov., with brown, basally constricted areoles on an extensive dark prothallus; V. senta sp. nov., with a brown cracked thallus and prominent naked perithecia; Willeya eminens sp. nov., with prominent perithecia, and differing from W. protrudens in its ITS sequence; W. irrigata sp. nov. with a thallus cracked into dark-sided areoles, and relatively large ascospores 28.5–40 μm long; W. nepalensis sp. nov. with a cracked thallus, immersed perithecia and a distinctive ITS sequence. Three species complexes might contain new taxa, but wider geographical sampling is necessary before delimiting species: Thelidium minutulum , Verrucaria elaeomelaena and V. hydrophila . Five new combinations are made: Willeya honghensis comb. nov. (for Staurothele honghensis ), Nesothele globosa comb. nov. (for Endocarpon globosum ), N . hymenogonia comb. nov. (for Staurothele hymenogonia ), N. rugulosa comb. nov. (for Staurothele rugulosa ) and N. succedens comb. nov. (for Staurothele succedens ). Four species are unidentified.
... Finally, it is worth noting that anthropogenic introductions are a problem in homogenizing biotas due to the introduction of species out of their natural ranges ( Lodge, 1993 ), including isolated and nonpopulated areas as Antarctica ( Tin et al., 2009 ). Reports on human-induced introductions of lichen-forming fungi are still scarce ( Olech, 1996 ;Osyczka, 2010 ;Aptroot, 2011Aptroot, , 2016, but focus should be put on this likely source of diaspore dispersal. ...
Full-text available
Compared to other organisms, such as vascular plants or mosses, lichen-forming fungi have a high number of species occurring in both northern and southern hemispheres but are largely absent from intermediate, tropical latitudes. For instance, ca. 160 Antarctic species also occur in polar areas or mountainous temperate regions of the northern hemisphere. Early interpretations of this particular distribution pattern were made in terms of vicariance or long-distance dispersal. However, it was not until the emergence of phylogenetics and the possibility of dating past diversification and colonization events that these initial hypotheses started to be evaluated. The premise of a relatively recent colonization of the southern hemisphere by boreal lichens through long-distance dispersal has gained support in recent studies based on either the comparison of genetic affinities (i.e., tree topology) or more robust, statistical migratory models. Still, the scarcity of such studies and a concern that taxonomic concepts for bipolar lichens are often too broad preclude the generation of sound explanations on the mechanisms and origin of such fascinating disjunct distributions. This review provides an up-to-date overview of bipolar distributions in lichen-forming fungi and their photobionts. Evidence provided by recent, molecu-lar-based studies as well as data on the type of lichen reproduction, dispersal ability, photobiont identity and availability, and habitat preferences are brought together to discuss how and when these distributions originated and their genetic footprints. Ideas for future prospects and research are also discussed.
Full-text available
The crustose genus Staurothele (Verrucariaceae, Ascomycota) is a common component of the lichen flora from acidic or alkaline rock surfaces in temperate to cold temperate climates. Our field study in the karst system of Northern Vietnam showed that it is also very common on dry to humid limestone in the wet Tropics. Molecular data revealed that species of Staurothele from Vietnam belong in fact to an unnamed clade sister to the genus Endocarpon, together with Staurothele diffractella, a North-American species recently transferred to Endocarpon based on molecular data and the tropical Australian species Staurothele pallidopora. The genus Willeya is here resurrected for this clade of crustose epilithic Staurothele with pale ascospores. Nine new combinations are proposed and three new species of Willeya are described from Vietnam. Sampling tropical members of a lichen family previously mostly known from temperate areas contributed significantly to improving its generic classification.
The taxonomy of aquatic or semi-aquatic freshwater species of Verrucaria from Yunnan, China was investigated. The following four species are described as new: V. honghensis, V. gongshanensis, V. luchunensis, and V. nujiangensis. Seven additional species are reported: Verrucaria aethiobola, V. aquatilis, V. funckii, V. hydrela, V. latebrosa, V. praetermissa and V. rheitrophila. Descriptions, illustrations and a key to species are provided.
Seventeen species of Staurothele are reported from North America. Of these S. effigurata Thoms., S. orispruinosa Thoms., S. rugosa Thoms., and S. verruculosa Thoms. are new to science. The description of S. lecideoides Bouly de Lesd. is emended. A key to species, descriptions, maps, photographs, and discussions are provided. Extensive synonymies combine a number of previously reported species. The shape of the hymenial algae is not accepted as a taxonomic criterion.
  • E A Vainio
Vainio, E. A. 1896. Lichenes Antillarum a W. R. Elliott collecti. -Journal of Botany 34: 258 -266.
Lichenes Symbolae Sinicae III
  • A Zahlbruckner
Zahlbruckner, A. 1930. Lichenes. – In: Handel-Mazzetti, H. (ed.). Symbolae Sinicae III. Pp. 1–254. – Wien: J. Springer.
Lichenes nonnulli in expeditione Regnelliana prima collecti
  • G O A Malme
Malme, G. O. A. 1937. Lichenes nonnulli in expeditione Regnelliana prima collecti. -Arkiv för Botanik 29A(6): 1-35.