ArticlePDF Available

Abstract and Figures

Lavender is mainly used in medicine, cosmetics industry, aromatherapy, perfume industry and as a culinary herb. It is most often grown for the purpose of obtaining essential oils characterized by a pleasant fragrance as well as antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant properties. The present paper is an overview of information on essential oils obtained from plant tissue of the Lavandula genus, including the methods of extraction, chemical composition and potential use. The chemical composition of plant oil is determined by various parameters such as environmental conditions, growing season, harvest time, methods of drying and storing until the time of oil extraction, method of oil isolation as well as the specific conditions of the analysis (column, set temperature) used to identify the compounds.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Folia Pomer. Univ. Technol. Stetin., Agric., Aliment., Pisc., Zootech. 2016, 328(39)3, 7–22
Review article
Dominika ANDRYS, Danuta KULPA
Department of Genetics, Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, West Pomeranian University
of Technology, Szczecin, Poland
Streszczenie. Lawenda wykorzystywana jest głównie w medycynie, kosmetyce, aromaterapii,
perfumiarstwie, a także jako przyprawa kulinarna. Niewątpliwe najczęściej uprawia się ją dla
pozyskania olejków eterycznych, mających przyjemny zapach, a także bardzo dobre
właściwości przeciwbakteryjne, przeciwgrzybiczne oraz antyoksydacyjne. Publikacja stanowi
przegląd informacji dotyczących olejków eterycznych pozyskiwanych z tkanek roślin należących
do rodzaju Lavandula, metod ich ekstrakcji oraz składu chemicznego, a także możliwości ich
zastosowań. Skład chemiczny olejku roślinnego zależy od wielu parametrów, takich jak:
uwarunkowania środowiskowe, okres wegetacyjny, w którym roślina została zebrana, sposób
suszenia i przechowywania do czasu zasadniczej ekstrakcji olejku, sposób izolowania olejku,
a także warunki prowadzenia analiz (kolumna, zaprogramowana temperatura), które
stosowane do identyfikacji związków.
Key words: Lamiaceae, secondary metabolites, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties,
industrial use.
Słowa kluczowe: Lamiaceae, metabolity wtórne,ciwości antymikrobiologiczne i antyoksydacyjne,
zastosowanie w przemyśle.
The plants of the genus Lavandula spp. are native to the Mediterranean region (Miller
1985; Basch et al. 2004), the Arabian Peninsula, the Canary Islands and India (Upson and
Andrews 2004). This plant naturally occurs in southern Europe and northern Africa.
Indigenous species of this plant occur in northern, eastern and southern Africa, Bulgaria and
Russia (Staicov et al. 1969).
The narrow-leaved lavender is one of the most useful aromatic-herbal plants used for
medicinal purposes. The plant is particularly valued for its essential oils (Boelens 1995;
Nobre 1996). The oils is a mixture of natural volatile compounds characterized by a strong
fragrance and it is classified as plant secondary metabolite (Bakkali et al. 2008). The oils are
Corresponding author – Adres do korespondencji: Danuta Kulpa, Department of Genetics, Plant Breeding
and Biotechnology, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Juliusza Słowackiego 17,
71-434 Szczecin, Poland, e-mail:
DOI: 10.21005/AAPZ2016.39.3.01
8 D. Andrys and D. Kulpa
extracted from plant material (flowers, buds, seeds, leaves, braches, bark, herbs, wood, fruit
and roots) by means of expression, fermentation, enfleurage process or extraction. The most
commonly applied method of obtaining oils on a commercial scale is steam distillation (Van
de Braak and Leijten 1999).
The earliest records of distillation for the purpose of obtaining essential oils come from the
region of Egypt and India, and date back to over 2,000 years ago (Guenther 1948). This
method was improved in the 9th century by Arabs (Bauer et al. 2001). In the 13th century,
the process of distillation was used by pharmacists and the pharmacological properties of
essential oils were described in pharmacopoeia (Bauer et al. 2001). However, essential oils
were widely used in Europe only from the 16th century (Crosthwaite 1998). According to
French doctor – Du Chesne (Quercetanus), the practice of extracting essential oils was
popular in the 17th century, and the pharmacies of the day offered 15–20 oils obtained from
various plant species (Guenther 1948).
Due to rapid progress in molecular biology and natural sciences, the knowledge on
essential oils, their synthesis and extraction continues to increase. There has been a growing
interest in the potential application of the natural plant compounds, including lavender
essential oils, in alternative medicine, clinical and medical microbiology, phytopathology,
aromatheraphy, pharmacy and pharmacology (Daferera et al. 2000; Woronuk et al. 2011), as
well as for preservation of food (Gómez-Estaca et al. 2010) and cosmetic products (Kunicka-
-Styczyńska et al. 2009; Dreger and Wielgus 2013).
Essential oil of the Lavandula spp. genus is produced in the secretory glands (also known
as secretory trichomes or essential oil glands) located between the fine hairs covering the
flowers, leaves as well as stems. The oil can be isolated both from fresh as well as dry
flowers, and the green parts of the lavender plant (leaves). The efficiency of the process is
greater when it is performed with the use of flowers as raw material (13.9–15.3 mg g
weight). The oil obtained from this part of the plant is rich in linalool and linalool acetate,
whereas the amount of oil obtained from lavender leaves, rich in camphor and borenol,
ranges from 0.7–2.9 mg ∙ g
of fresh weight (Falk et al. 2009).
The best quality oil is derived from Lavandula angustifolia and Lavandula stoechas even
though its concentration in plant tissue is the lowest. The oil yield is estimated to be 40 kg
per herctare (Lis-Balchin 2002). In turn, oil used for the production of cheaper perfumes is
derived from Lavandula latifolia in the amount of 50 kg per hectare. Since 1920, lavender
hybrids characterised by high amounts of essential oils in plant tissues (to 120 kg ha
) have
been cultivated on a commercial scale, despite the lower quality of the oils (Wyckoff and
Sievers 1935). The most popular lavender hybrid is transgenic lavandula, produced by cross-
breeding of Lavandula latifolia with Lavandula angustifolia (Cavanagh and Wilkinson 2002).
The oil obtained from this hybrid is called lavandin oil and, due to high concentration of
camphor, it is rarely used in the perfume industry or for therapeutic purposes. Due to its
antiseptic, antifungal and antibacterial properties, the oil can be used for the purpose of
preservation of products (Lis-Balchin 2002).
Lavandula spp. essential oils… 9
On a commercial scale, lavender oils are obtained by means of steam distillation
(Zheljazkov et al. 2013) which produce higher ratio of alpha terpineol, linalool and linalyl
acetate than supercritical fluid extraction (SFE method) (Hawthorne et al. 1993; Jin and Ha
2005). The research by Zheljakov et al. (2013) provides data on the influence of the duration
of distillation on the obtained lavender oil yield and its composition. The distillation times
under analysis were: 1.5; 3; 3.75; 7.5; 15; 30; 60; 90; 120; 150; 180 and 240 min. The
highest efficiency of oil distillation in the range of 0.5–6.8% was found for distillation time
60 min. The concentration of cineol in the range of 6.4–35% and fenchol 1.7–2.9% was the
highest for distillation time 1.5 min, and decreased with distillation time. The concentration of
camphor in the range 6.6–9.2% reached maximum after 7.5–15 min, and the concentration
of linalool acetate (15–38%) after 30 min. The results of this research show that there is no
increase in the amount of obtained lavender essential oil after more than 60 min of
distillation. However, according to Wesołowska et al. (2010), the maximum efficiency of the
distillation process (2% essential oil Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) is achieved after 2 h, and
the minimal oil yield (1%) is obtained after 40 min of distillation.
Extraction of oils by means of microwave radiation is also mentioned in the literature on
the subject (Craveiro et al. 1989; Luque de Castro et al. 1999; Périno-Issartier et al. 2013).
A method has been developed for obtaining lavender essential oils by microwave
accelerated steam distillation (MASD). Dried lavender flowers were placed over the source of
steam produced with the use of microwave heating. MASD method was compared with the
classic steam distillation and both were used to obtain essential oils from narrow-leaved
lavender. MASD method proved to be superior than the tradition method in terms of energy
consumption, rate of the process (MASD 10 min, steam distillation 90 min), efficiency
(MASD – 8.86%, steam distillation – 8.75%), purity and quality of the oils (Chemat et al. 2006).
Essential oils are used in a wide range of specialised industries and production of
lavender essential oils is one of the highest in the world. For centuries, it has been used for
therapeutic purposes (Cavanagh and Wilkinson 2002) and in aromatherapy (Welsh 1997;
Moss et al. 2003; Lehrner et al. 2005; Setzer 2009). The oils derived from Lavandula
stoechas and Lavandula dentata have spasmolytic properties and are used in folk medicine
(Khalil et al. 1979; Gilani et al. 2000). Lavender oils are used in the treatment of illness of the
digestive system and thanks to content of cumarin, herniarin and acidic triterpenoids it
alleviates flatulence, colic symptoms as well as has relaxant effects on ileum and smooth
muscles (Lis-Balchin and Hart 1997, 1999). In vitro studies showed that lavender oil has
analgesic properties (Skoglund and Jorkjed 1991), and testing in rabbits confirmed its
anaesthetizing effects (Ghelardini et al. 1999).
Fragments of Lavandula angustifolia plants, used as dried product as well as extracts and
plant hydrolates, are widely used in Europe and in the United States for treatment of mild
anxiety and stress (Bradley et al. 2007). It has been demonstrated that the plant has
soothing properties on airways, both in people and in animals (Lis-Balchin and Hart 1999).
Hydrolates contain numerous valuable water-soluble substances as well as slight amounts of
10 D. Andrys and D. Kulpa
oil – from 0.02% to 0.5%. Therefore, hydrolates, including lavender hydrolate, have sedative
as well as refreshing effects and are used in the treatment of insomnia and headache.
Moreover, lavender hydrolate has beneficial effects on skin and is used in the treatment of
diseases of the skin and burns (Stanojević et al. 2011). However, some ingredients of the
lavender essential oil obtained from Lavandula may trigger allergic reactions. It is believed
that D-limonene, geraniol, linalool and linalyl acetate are potentially allergenic compounds
(Jin and Ha 2005) which have strong anti-microbiological effects and can irritate the skin
(Pattnaik et al. 1997; Arputhabibiana et al. 2012).
It has been known for centuries that essential oils derived from herbal plants have some
antimicrobial properties, yet the efficiency of oils was scientifically proven only relatively
recently (Deans and Ritchie 1987; Janssen et al. 1987). The ingredients of essential oils of
narrow-leaved lavender such as linalool, linalyl acetate, α-terpineol, geranyl acetate and
cumarin (Kreis and Mosandl 1992; Figueiredo et al. 1995; Flores et al. 2005) exhibit strong
antbacterial properties (Cole 1992; Adam et al. 1998; Mayaud et al. 2008; De Rapper et al.
2013), antifungal (D'Auria et al. 2005; De Rapper et al. 2013) and antioxidant effects
(Spiridon et al. 2011; Hamad et al. 2013).
The activity of lavender oil on microorganisms present on human skin was thoroughly
examined and its high activity against these pathogens was confirmed (Farag et al. 1989,
Paster et al. 1990; Adam et al. 1998; Smith-Palmer et al. 1998). Adaszyńska et al. (2013)
demonstrated astrong effect of oils isolated from ‘Blue River’ and ‘Munstead’ cultivars of
narrow-leaved lavender against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa
bacteria. The activity of lavender oils on these bacteria was confirmed by Kunicka-
-Styczyńska et al. (2011). Antibacterial properties of essential oils isolated from narrow-
-leaved lavender were demonstrated also against Micrococcus ascoformans, Proteus
vulgaris (Hui et al. 2010) and Escherichia coli (Mayaud et al. 2008). Moreover, essential oils
inhibit bacterial growth of Salmonella enteritidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae as well as fungi
Candidia albicans and Aspergillus niger (Hammer et al. 1999). Essential oils derived from
Lavandula angustifolia and Lavandula x intermedia show strong anti-parasitic properties
against human pathogens – Giardia duodenalis and Trichomas vaginalis protozoa, and
Hexamita inflate in fish (Moon et al. 2006).
Lavender essential oils can be widely used in agriculture. The oils are used for the
purpose of combating plant pathogens such as Botryris cinerea (Thanassoulopoulos and
Laidou 1997; Reddy et al. 1998; Pavela 2005) or Rhizopus stolonifer (Reddy et al. 1998).
Moreover, oils also have herbicidal properties and the essential oil of Lavandula
angustifolia offers an alternative to synthetic herbicide as it inhibits germination of Xantium
strumarium L., Avena sterilis L. and Phalaris brachystachys L. (Uremis 2009). Haig et al. (2009)
argue that the ingredients of lavender oils such as cumarin and 7-metoxycumarin show
strong phytotoxic effects on annual ryegrass (Loliumrigidum).
Also, there is a growing interest in perillyl alcohol – monoterpene produced in trace
quantities by Lavandula angustifolia, which shows chemotherapeutic properties (Perrucci
et al. 1994; Schulz et al. 1994; Hohl 1996). It was found that lavender extract can inhibit
growth of tumour cells (Stanojević et al. 2011).
Lavandula spp. essential oils… 11
Lavender oil is used in food industry for the purpose of aromatisation of beverages, ice
cream, sweets, pastries and chewing gum (Kim and Lee 2002). Lavender extracts are used
for the same purpose due to their nutraceutical properties which additionally have beneficial
effects on health. Aqueous extracts of Lavandula angustifolia and Lavandula stoechas
contain a strong tyrosinase inhibitor and can be used as a food bleaching agent (Hsu et al.
2007). Additionally, oils have inhibitory effects on microorganisms and prevent food spoilage
(Thompson 1989; Basilico and Basilico 1999). Lavender oil shows strong antioxidant activity
against lipid peroxidation in a model system of linoleic acid (Hui et al. 2010). The most
common method for determining antioxidant activity is DPPH method. Oils obtained from
Lavandula angustifolia shows strong antioxidant properties which suggests that lavender oils
can be used as an efficient antioxidant compound (Hamad et al. 2013). Addition of Lavandula
vera extract to minced chicken meat decreases lipid oxidation and loss of α-tocopherol
during storage of cooked meat (Kovatcheva-Apostolova et al. 2008).
Plant essential oils of Lavandula sp. are volatile and aromatic oily substances composed
of mixtures of volatile components synthesized by plants, including primarily two groups of
biosynthetically related compounds such as terperns C10-C15 – derivatives of isoprene,
aromatic terpenoids and aliphatic compounds with low molecular weight (Cosentino et al.
1999; Daferera et al. 2000; Landmann et al. 2007; Da Porto et al. 2009; Bertoli et al. 2011).
There can be from 20 to even as much as 100 components present in oils in various
concentrations. One characteristic aspect is that two or three of the components may be
present in high concentration, whereas the others are present only in trace quantities.
The characteristic lavender aroma of essential oils is attributed to monoterpenes of low
molecular weight (C10). The essential oils obtained from Lavandula angustifolia characterised
by high concentration of linalool/linalyl acetate and low of camphor are considered to have
the most beautiful fragrance and are the most desired oils used in aromatherapy and
cosmetic industry. Oils obtained from other species of lavender contain high concentrations
of terpens, including high content of camphor, which results in less pleasant fragrance
(Lynam and Smith 2009).
Researchers found various concentrations and number of compounds in different species
of lavender. With the use of GC-MS method Hussain et al. (2011) found 56 compounds in
Lavandula angustifolia essential oil. According to Wesołowska et al. (2010), oils of Lavandula
angustifolia Mill. have the highest content of linalool (28.78–30.68%), linalyl acetate
(12.35–17.67%) and α-terpineol (7.57–11.49%) among the indentified compounds (from 43 to 47).
Adaszyńska et al. (2011, 2013) conducted GC-MS analysis of essential oils isolated from
lavender cultivars: ‘Munstead’, ‘Munstead Strain’, ‘Lavender Lady’, ‘Ellegance Purple’, ‘Blue
River’. In all cultivars the same compounds were identified, however in various concentrations.
The number of identified compounds was from 18 to 21. The main components of oils were:
linalool (23.9–15.8%), linalyl anthranilate (12.3–1.6%), 1-terpinen-4-ol (9.7–5.5%), terpineol
(p-Menth-1-en-8-ol) (7.9–4.0%) and linalool oxide (4.7–1.1%). According to Cong et al. (2008),
there are 17 compounds derived from Lavandula angustifolia. The highest concentration was
found for linalool (44.54%), geraniol (11.02%), lavandulyl acetate (10.78%), 3,7-dimethyl-2,6-
-octadien-1-ol (10.35%) and isoterpineol (6.75%).
12 D. Andrys and D. Kulpa
Table 1. Main compounds of the essential oils from some of the most important Lavandula spp.
Tabela 1. Główne składniki olejków eterycznych najważniejszych gatunków Lavandula spp.
Country of
Type of
Part of
Major components
Główne składniki
L. dentata Algeria N U 1,8-cineole (38.4%), cis-verbenol
(4.3%), p-cymen-8-ol (3.8%),
fenchone (2.3%)
et al. (2005)
Morocco N A 1, 8 cineol (41.3%), sabinene
(13.7%), bicycle [3.1.0] hexan-3-Ol,
(6.8%), myrtenal (5.1%), α-pinene
et al. (2009)
Yemen N A camphor (12.4%), trans-pinocarveol
(7.5%), β-eudesmol (7.1%), α-guiaol
(6.1%), β-Selinene (4.5%)
et al. (2012)
L.x intermedia Turkey C F linalool (34.8–41.8%), linalyl acetate
(29.5–42.5%), borneol (1.7–5.1%),
cymene (1.5–3.3%), geraniol
Kara and
Spain C F and A Linalool (35–51 %), eucalyptol
(26–32 %), camphor (10–18 %),
α-pinene (1–2 %),α-terpineol (1–2 %)
et al. (2016)
L. latifolia Spain N F and A cineol (20.8-54.6%), camphor
(11.4-43.5%), borneol (0.9–2.7%)
et al. (2007)
L. multifida Tunisia C A linalool (50.1%), camphene (10.1%),
linalyl acetate (7.3%), α-thujene
(3.8%), bornyl acetate (3.0%)
et al. (2012)
L. pedunculata Portugal N A camphor (32.4%), 1,8-cineole (24%),
α-pinene (6.9%), linalool (5.2%),
α-cadinol (4.0%)
et al. 2010
L. pinnata Madeira C A β-phellandrene (12–32%),
α-phellandrene (6–16%)
et al. (1995)
L. stoechans Turkey C F fenchon (32.0%), camphor (14.7%),
myrtenyl acetate (11.7%),
1,8-cineole (7.7%), α-pinen (2.9%)
et al. (2008)
India C F camphor (52.1%), fenchone (12.0%),
1,8-cineole (9.7%), bornyl acetate
(6.2%), camphene (3.3%)
Raina and
Negi (2012)
Romania C F camphor (32.7%), 1,8-cineole
(26.9%), borneol (7.1%),
caryophyllene (4.9%), α-bisabolol
et al. (2013)
L. viridis L'Hér Portugal C A 1.8-cineole (21.9%), camphor
(15.7%), α-pinene (10.3%), linalool
(5.3%), borneol (4.1%)
and Romano
Portugal C A 1,8-cineole (34.5 %–42.2 %),
camphor (13.4 %), α-pinene (9.0 %),
linalool (7.9–6.7 %)
et al. (2011)
N natural condition warunki naturalne, C field-grown warunki uprawne, F flowers kwiaty, A aerial
parts – części nadziemne, U – unknown – nieznane.
Lavandula spp. essential oils… 13
Table 2. Main compounds of the Lavandula angustifolia essential oils includes country of origin
Tabela 2. Główne związki olejków eterycznych Lavandula angustifolia z uwzględnieniem kraju pochodzenia
Country of origin
Type of
Part of
Major components
Główne składniki
Brazil U F 1,8-cineole (28.3%), camphor (28.0%),
isoborneol (9.9%), α-phellandrene (5.7%),
myrcene (3.6%)
et al. (2004)
Bulgaria C F linalool (18.7–34.4%), linalool acetate
(20.7–32.7%), lavandulyl acetate (2.5–7.00%),
caryophyllene (1.00–3.8%), geranyl acetate
et al. (2013)
China C U linalool (37.6%), linalyl acetate (35.8%),
terpinen-4-ol (4.5%), lavandulyl acetate (4.1%)
et al. (2006)
Greece C F linalool (50.6%), linalyl acetate (15.7%),
terpinen-4-ol (7.8%), (Z)-β-ocimene (4.3%),
(E)-β-ocimene (2.7%)
et al. (2003)
Greece U U linalool (44.5%), linalyl acetate (32.7%),
terpinen-4-ol (6.9%), 1,8-cineole (4.8%),
borneol (3.9%)
et al. (2000)
France U U linalyl acetate (36.0%), linalool (34.0%),
β-caryophyllene (4.5%), terpinen-4-ol (1.7%)
et al. (2009)
India C F linalyl acetate (47.6 %), linalool (28.1 %),
lavandulyl acetate (4.3 %), α-terpineol (3.7%)
et al. (2010)
India U U linalyl acetate (45.2%), linalool (27.1%),
β-caryophyllene (4.6%), p-cymene (2.8%),
α-terpineol (2.2%), limonene (1.2%)
et al. (2010)
India C F linalyl acetate (35.8%), linalool (23.6%),
α-terpineol (6.3%), lavandulyl acetate (4.8%),
geraniol (3.3%)
Raina and Negi
Iran N A 1,8-cineole (37.9%), borneol (21.6%), camphor
(21.3%), cryptone (2.6%), cumin aldehyde (2.3%)
et al. (2011)
Iraq N F linalool (24.6%), camphor (13.6%), linalyl
acetate (8.9%), (Z)-β-ocimene (7.6%),
1,8-cineole (7.1%)
et al. (2013)
Italy N F linalool (36–36.5%), linalyl acetate
(21.7–14.4%), camphor (5.6–11.8%), 1,8-cineole
(4.0–10.9%), terpinen-4-ol (2.1–6.6%)
Da Porto
et al. (2009)
Italy U U linalool (23.1%), linalyl acetate (23.1%), 1,8-
-cineole (8.4%), camphor (6.6%), borneol (5.0%)
et al. (2008)
Poland C F linalool (30.6%), linalyl acetate (14.2%), geraniol
(5.3%), β-caryophyllene (4.7%), lavandulyl
acetate (4.4%)
et al. (2009)
Poland C F linalool (24.6%), linalyl acetate (14.4%), borneol
(6.2%), caryophyllene oxide (5.2%), lavandulyl
acetate (3.5%), α-terpineol (3.5%)
et al. (2013)
Poland C F linalool (28.8–30.7%), linalyl acetate (12.3–17.7%),
α-terpineol (7.6–11.5%), cis-linalool oxide
(5.3–5.8%), lavandulyl acetate (2.4–3.2%)
et al. (2010)
Romania C F caryophyllene (24.1%), β-phellandrene (16%),
1,8-cineole (15.6%), terpinen-4-ol (9.57%),
α-terpineol (6.0%),
et al. (2013)
Serbia C F linalyl acetate (27.5%), linalool (27.2%),
limonene (8.5%), lavandulyl acetate (6.5%)
et al. (2007)
Spain C F linalool (29.9–35.4%), camphor (4.9–6.9%),
borneol (3.7–4.7%), 1-8-cineole (1.9–4.2%),
α-terpineol (1.3–1.9%)
Chavez (2007)
Tunisia C U linalool (38.0%), 1,8-cineole (11.1%), terpinen-4-ol
(8.2%), borneol (8.0%), (Z)-β-ocimene (3.6%)
et al. (2014)
N natural condition warunki naturalne, C field-grown warunki uprawne, F flowers kwiaty, A aerial
parts – części nadziemne, U – unknown – nieznane.
14 D. Andrys and D. Kulpa
The analysis of oil isolated from plant tissues of the same species, conducted by Xie et al.
(2002), showed 21 compounds, and the highest concentration was found for linalool, linalyl
acetate, and 3-cyclohexon-1-ol, 4-methyl-1-(1methylbythyl).
The composition of essential oils is determined mainly by the plant genotype (Nurzyńska-
-Wierdak et al. 2012), yet developmental and environmental factors can also play a role
(Boeckelmann 2008). GC-MS method was used to analyse the composition of essential oils
derived from Lavandula species from different parts of the world: Algeria (Dob et al. 2005),
Bulgaria (Ognyanov 1984), China (Cong et al. 2008), India (Verma et al. 2010), Iraq (Hamad
et al. 2013), Yemen (Mothana et al. 2012), Morocco (Imelouane et al. 2009), Poland
(Śmigielski et al. 2009), and Turkey (Kara and Baydar 2013) (Table 1). The research show
that the composition of essential oils varies depending on the region of origin. Even essential
oils derived from Lavandula angustifolia growing in various regions show difference in
composition (Table 2).
The production of essential oils by lavender is to a large extent attributed to the fact that
this genus belongs to Lamiaceae family. Even though the composition of essential oils is
determined by environmental factors (such as temperature, the length of the day) as well as
agricultural practices (for example irrigation, fertilisation), it is the genotype of the plant that
affects the composition of the oils produced by a plant to the greatest extent (Kokkini et al.
1997; Boira and Blanquer 1998; Russo et al. 1998).
In order to determine some mechanisms controlling monoterpene compounds, their
content in tissues of Lavandula angustifolia and Lavandula x intermedia were measured. The
results confirmed that efficiency of oil and the content of camphor, borneol, linalool and
limonene are species-specific. During the flowering of lavender, the content of monoterpene
compounds varies and there are some differences in their biosynthesis pathway. The amount
of produced linalool is correlated with linalool synthase gene transcription, however there is a
difference in L. angustifolia and L. x intermedia synthase transcription, and, consequently in
the mechanisms controlling the production of linalool in these species (Boeckelmann 2008).
Biosynthesis of monoterpene compounds starts with condensation of isopentenyldiphosphate
(IPP) and dimethylallyldiphosphate (DMAPP) and gives the basic intermediate product
geranyldiphoshate (GPP, in. C10). Monoterpene synthase enzyme (mTPSs) transforms GPP
to a respective monoterpene. In some cases, monoterpene production is directly correlated
with the activity of transcription of respective monoterpene synthase enzymes (MTP).
Linalool accrued in L. angustifolia correlates with the level of linalool synthase gene
transcription (Lane et al. 2010).
For the purpose of constructing genomic library of Lavandula, Demissie et al. (2011)
obtained more than 14.000 EST (expressed sequence tag) for leaves and flowers of L.
angustifolia used in the production of essential oil. They determined the series of previously
uncharacterized terpene synthase genes (TPS).
Construction of cDNA library of leaves and flowers of L. angustifolia was undertaken
earlier by Lane et al. (2010). Lavandula angustifolia was previously used as a model plant for
Lavandula spp. essential oils… 15
the purpose of investigating the processes behind essential oil production at a molecular
level. The construction of two cDNA libraries, separately for leaves and flowers, gave
information on 14.213 high quality specific expression markers (ESTs). Transcriptional
activity for EST was evaluated with the use of microarray in the development of leaves and
flowers. The results of the analysis indicate the presence of two previously uncharacterised
TPS sequences, including LabPHLS and LaTPS-I which showed strong expression in young
leaves and flowers characterised by the greatest production of essential oils.
The genotype combining Lavandula angustifolia and Lavandula latifolia was obtained by
creation of transgenic lavandula (Lavandula × intermedia) (Lammerink et al. 1989). It
contains cDNA limonene synthase gene (LIMS) from Lavandula angustifolia which is
endoded by the constructive promoter 35S. Tsuro and Asada (2014) investigated gene
expression and its effect on essential oil production and found that suppression of limonene
synthase expression contributes to the variability in the overall composition of essential oil,
such as significant decrease in limonene, linalool and linalyl acetate concentration. The
results suggest that the constitutive promoter acts as a suppressor in tissues with strong
expression of endogenous gene. Therefore, there occurs a change in fragrance in transgenic
plants – the fragrance of these plants was more camphorous, resulting from the presence of
compounds such as borneol, camphor and 1,8-cyneol. The results suggest that inhibition of
terpene synthase gene expression is an effective way of changing the fragrance despite the
decrease in the total production of essential oils.
Due to antifungal, antibacterial and antioxidant properties of lavender, it is widely used in
cosmetics, pharmaceutical, agro-food and feed industry. Essential oils are used in perfume
industry and for the purpose of aromatisation of cosmetics and household chemicals. The
beautiful smell of all species of Lavandula spp. is attributed to rich composition of the
essential oils which is a species- and cultivar-dependent characteristic. Linalool and linalyl
acetate were found to be most abundant components of essential oils.
Adam K., Sivropoulou A., Kokkini S., Lanaras T., Arsenakis M. 1998. Antifungal activities of
Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum, Mentha spicata, Lavandula angustifolia, and Salvia fruticosa
essential oils against human pathogenic fungi. J. Agric. Food Chem. 46, 1739–1745.
Adaszyńska M., Swarcewicz M., Dobrowolska A. 2011. Chemical and mineral composition in
varieties of lavender (Lavandula augustifolia). Prog. Plant Protec. 51(1), 15–20.
Adaszyńska M., Swarcewicz M., Dzięcioł M., Dobrowolska A. 2013. Comparison of chemical
composition and antibacterial activity of lavender varieties from Poland. Natur. Prod. Res. 27(16),
Arputhabibiana M., Selvamani P., Latha S. 2012. In-vitro antimicrobial evaluation of extracts, oil and
fractionated geraniol of Cymbopogan citratusan aromatic grass. Inter. J. Environ. Sci. 3(1), 583–590.
Azar P.A., Torabbeigi M., Sharifan A., Tehrani M.S. 2011. Chemical Composition and Antibacterial
Activity of the Essential Oil of Lavandula angustifolia Isolated by Solvent Free Microwave Assisted
Extraction and Hydrodistillation. J. Food Biosci. Technol. 1, 19–24.
16 D. Andrys and D. Kulpa
Bakkali F., Averbeck S., Averbeck D., Idaomar M. 2008. Biological effects of essential oils –
A review. Food Chem. Toxicol. 46, 446–475.
Basch E., Foppa I., Liebowitz R., Nelson J., Smith M., Sollars D., Ulbricht C. 2004. Lavender
(Miller). J. Herbal Pharmacother. 4(2), 63–78.
Basilico M.Z., Basilico J.C. 1999. Inhibitory effects of some spice essential oils on Aspergillus
ochraceus NRRL 3174 growth and ochratoxin A production. Lett. App. Microbiol. 29, 238–241.
Bauer K., Garbe D., Surburg H. 2001. Common fragrance and flavor materials: Preparation,
properties and uses. Weinheim, Wiley-VCH.
Bertoli A., Cirak C., Silva J.A.T. 2011. Hypericum species as sources of valuable essential oils. Med.
Aromat. Plant Sci. Biotechnol. 5(1), 29–47.
Boeckelmann A. 2008. Monoterpene production and regulation in Lavenders (Lavandula angustifolia
and Lavandula x intermedia). Master thesis. University of British Columbia. (typescript)
Boelens M.H. 1995. Chemical and sensory evaluation of Lavandula oils. Perfum. Flavor. 20, 23–51.
Boira H., Blanquer A. 1998. Environmental factors affecting chemical variability of essential oils in
Thymus piperella L. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 26(8), 811–822.
Bradley B.F., Starkey N., Brown S.L., Lea R.W. 2007. Anxiolytic effects of Lavandula angustifolia
odour on the Mongolian gerbil elevated plus maze. J. Ethnopharmacol. 111(3), 517–525.
Carrasco A., Martinez-Gutierrez R., Tomas V., Tudela J. 2016. Lavandula angustifolia and Lavandula
latifolia essential oils from Spain: Aromatic profile and bioactivities. Planta Med. 82(1–2), 163–170.
Cavanagh M.A., Wilkinson J.M. 2002. Biological activities of lavender essential oil. Phytother.
Res. 16, 301–308.
Chatzopoulou P.S., Goliaris A.H. Katsiotis S.T. 2003. Contribution to the analysis of the volatile
constituents from some lavender and lavandin cultivars grown in Greece. Sci. Pharm. 71, 229–234.
Chavez M.G.C. 2007. Hidrodestilacion de aceites esenciales: moclelado y caracterizacion. PhD
thesis. Valladolid, Spain, Univ. Valladolid. (typescript)
Chemat F., Lucchesia M.E., Smadjaa J., Favrettob L., Colnaghib G., Visinonib F. 2006.
Microwave accelerated steam distillation of essential oil from lavender: A rapid, clean and
environmentally friendly approach. Anal. Chim. Acta 555(1), 157–160.
Cole M.D. 1992. The significance of the terpenoids in the Labiatae in: Advances in labiate science.
[b.m.]. Royal Bot. Gardens KEW.
Cong Y., Abulizi P., Zhi L. 2008. Chemical composition of the essential oil from Lavandula angustifolia from
Xinjiang, China. Chem. Natur. Compo. 44(6), 810–815.
Cosentino S., Tuberoso C.I.G., Pisano B., Satta M., Mascia V., Arzedi E., Palmas F. 1999. In-vitro
antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of Sardinian Thymus essential oils. Lett. App.
Microbiol. 29, 130–135.
Craveiro A.A., Matos F.J.A., Alencar J.W., Plumel M.M. 1989. Microwave oven extraction of an
essential oil. Flav. Frag. J. 4(1), 43–44.
Crosthwaite D. 1998. UK trade within the flavour and fragrance industry, in: International Federation
of Essential Oils and Aroma Trades – 21st International Conference on Essential Oils and Aroma’s.
London 1998. London, IFEAT, 6–12.
Daferera D.J., Ziogas B.N., Polissiou M.G. 2000. GC – MS analysis of essential oils from some
greek aromatic plants and their fungitoxicity on Penicillium digitatum. J. Agric. Food Chem. 48,
Da Porto C., Decorti D., Kikic I. 2009. Flavour compounds of Lavandula angustifolia L. to use in food
manufacturing: Comparison of three different extraction methods. Food Chem. 112(4), 1072–1078.
D'Auria F.D., Tecca M., Strippoli V., Salvatore G., Battinelli L., Mazzanti G. 2005. Antifungal
activity of Lavandula angustifolia essential oil against Candida albicans yeast and mycelial form.
Med. Mycol. 43(5), 391–396.
Deans S.G., Ritchie G.A. 1987. Antimicrobial properties of plant essential oils. Internat. J. Food
Microbiol. 5(2), 165–180.
Lavandula spp. essential oils… 17
Demissie Z.A., Sarker L.S., Mahmoud S.S. 2011. Cloning and functional characterization of β –
phellandrene synthase from Lavandula angustifolia. Planta 233(4), 685–696.
De Rapper S., Kamatou G., Viljoen A., Vuuren S. 2013. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of
Lavandula angustifolia essential oil in combination with other aroma – therapeutic oils. Evidence –
Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2013, 1–10.
Dreger M., Wielgus K. 2013. Application of essential oils as natural cosmetic preservatives. Herba
Pol. 59(4), 142–156.
Dob T., Dahmane D., Tayeb B., Chelghoum C. 2005. Chemical composition of the essential oil of
Lavandula dentata L. from Algeria. Internat. J. Aromath. 15, 110–114.
Dohi S., Terasaki M. Makino M. 2009. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity and chemical composition
of commercial essential oils. J. Agric. Food Chem. 57, 4313–4318.
Falk L., Biswas K., Boeckelmann A., Lane A., Mahmoud S.S. 2009. An efficient method for the
micropropagation of Lavenders: regeneration of a unique mutant. J. Essen. Oil Res. 21, 22–228.
Farag R.S., Daw Z.Y., Hewedi F.M., El-Baroly G.S.A. 1989. Antimicrobial activity of some egyptian
spice essential oils. J. Food Protect. 52, 665–667.
Figueiredo A.C., Barroso J.G., Pedro L.G., Sevinate-Pinto I., Antunes T., Fontinha S.S., Looman A.,
Scheffer J.S. 1995. Composition of the essential oil of Lavandula pinnata L. fil. var. pinnata grown
on Madeira. Flav. Fragr. J. 10(2), 93–96.
Flores G., Blanch G.P., Castillo M., Ruiz L. del, Herraiz M. 2005. En antiomeric composition studies
in Lavandula species using supercritical fluids. J. Separat. Sci. 28(17), 2333–2338.
Ghelardini C., Galeotti N., Salvatore G., Mazzanti G. 1999. Local an aesthetic activity of the
essential oil of Lavandula angustifolia. Planta Med. 65(8), 700–703.
Gilani A.H., Aziz N., Khan M.A., Shaheen F., Jabeen Q., Siddiqui B.S. 2000. Ethnophamacological
evaluation of the anticonvulsant, sedative and antispasmodic activities of Lavandula stoechas L.
J. Ethnopharmacol. 71, 161–167.
Giray E.S., Kirici S., Kaya D.A., Türk M., Sönmez O., Inan M. 2008. Comparing the effect of sub-
critical water extraction with conventional extraction methods on the chemical composition of
Lavandula stoechas. Talanta 74, 930–935.
Gómez-Estaca J., López de Lacey A., López-Caballero M.E., Gómez-Guillén M.C., Montero P. 2010.
Biodegradable gelatin chitosan films incorporated with essential oils as antimicrobial agents for
fish preservation. Food Microbiol. 27(7), 889–896.
Guenther E. 1948. The essential oils. New York, D. Van Nostrand.
Haig T.J., Haig T.J., Seal A.N., Pratley J.E., An M., Wu H. 2009. Lavender as a source of novel plant
compoundsfor the development of a natural herbicide. J. Chem. Ecol. 35(9), 1129–1136.
Hamad K.J., Al-Shaheen S.J.A., Kaskoos R.A., Ahamad J., Jameel M., Mir S.R. 2013. Essential oil
composition and antioxidant activity of Lavandula angustifolia from Iraq. Internat. Res. J. Pharm.
4(4), 117–120.
Hammer K.A., Carson C.F., Riley T.V. 1999. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils and other plant
extracts. J. Appl. Microbiol. 86, 985–990.
Hawthorne S.B., Riekkolo M.-L., Serenius K., Holm Y., Hiltunen R., Hartonen K. 1993. Comparison of
hydrodistillation and supercritical fluid extraction for the determination of essential oils in aromatic
plants. J. Chromatogr. 634, 297–308.
Hohl R.J. 1996. Monoterpenes as regulators of malignant cell proliferation. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 401,
Hsu C.K., Chang C.T., Lu H.Y., Chung Y.C. 2007. Inhibitory effects of the water extracts of
Lavandula sp. on mushroom tyrosinase activity. Food Chem. 105(3), 1099–1105.
Hui L., He L., Huan L., XiaoLan L., AiGuo Z. 2010. Chemical composition of lavender essential oil
and its antioxidant activity and inhibition against rhinitis related bacteria. African J. Microbiol. Res. 4(4),
18 D. Andrys and D. Kulpa
Hussain A.I., Anwar F., Nigam P.S., Sarker S.D., Moore J.E., Rao J.R., Mazumdarc A. 2011.
Antibacterial activity of some Lamiaceae essential oils using resazurin as an indicator of cell
growth. LWT – Food Sci. Technol. 44(4), 1199–1206.
Imelouane B., Elbachiri A., Ankit M., Benzeid H., Khedid K. 2009. Physico-chemical compositions
and antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Eastern Moroccan Lavandula dentata. Internat. J. Agric.
Biol. 11(2), 113–118.
Inouye S., Takahashi M., Abe S. 2010. Composition, antifungal and radical scavenging activities of
15 rare essential oils. Internat. J. Essen. Oil Therap. 4, 1–10.
Janssen A.M., Scheffer J.J.C., Baerheim Svendeaen A. 1987. Antimicrobial activity of essential
oils: a 1976–86 literature review. Aspects of the test methods. Planta Med. 53(5), 395–398.
Jianu C., Pop G., Gruia A.T., Horhat F.G. 2013. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of
essential oils of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lavandin (Lavandula x intermedia) grown in
western Romania. Internat. J. Agric. Biol. Eng. 15, 772–776.
Jilani I.B.H, Chebil S., Khiari R., Melki I., Limam-Ben Saad S., Daoud-Bouattour A., Gammar-
Ghrabi Z. 2014. Allelopathic Potential of some essential oils vis-a-vis three noxious weed species
invading cereals. Internat. J. Agron. Agric. Res. 4(3), 77–97.
Jin J.Z., Ha C.Y. 2005. GC-MS Determination of chemical components of essential oil from Lavender.
J. Wuxi Univ. Light Ind. 24, 68–71.
Kara N., Baydar H. 2013. Determination of lavender and lavandin cultivars (Lavandula sp.) containing
high quality essential oil in Isparta, Turkey. Turkish J. Field Crops 18(1), 58–65.
Khalil A.M., Ashy M.A., El-Tawil B.A.H., Tawfiq N.I. 1979. Constituents of local plants: 5. The
coumarin and triterpenoid constituents of Lavandula dentata L. plant. Pharmazie 34, 564–565.
Kim N.S., Lee D.D. 2002. Comparison of different extraction method for the analysis of fragrance from
Lavandula species by gas chromatography – massspectrometry. J. Chromatogr. A 982(1), 31–47.
Kokkini S., Karousou R., Dardiotis A., Krigas N., LanarasT. 1997. Autumn essential oils of Greek
oregano. Phytochemistry 44, 883–886.
Kovatcheva-Apostolova E.G., Georgiev M.I., Ilieva M.P., Skibsted L.H., Rødtjer A., Andersen M.L.
2008. Extracts of plant cell cultures of Lavandula vera and Rosa damascene as sources of
phenolic antioxidants for use in foods. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 227, 1243–1249.
Kreis P., Mosandl A. 1992. Chiral compounds of essential oils. Part XI. Simultaneous stereoanalysis
of Lavandula oil constituents. Flav. Fragr. J. 7(4), 187–193.
Kunicka-Styczyńska A., Sikora M., Kalemba D. 2009. Antimicrobial activity of lavender, tea tree and
lemon oils in cosmetic preservative systems. J. Appl. Microbiol. 107(6), 1903–1911.
Kunicka-Styczyńska A., Sikora M., Kalemba D. 2011. Lavender, tea tree and lemon oils as
antimicrobials in washing liquids and soft body balms. Internat. J. Cosm. Sci. 33, 53–61.
Lammerink J., Wallace A.R., Porter N.G. 1989. Effects of harvest time and postharvest drying on oil
from lavandin (Lavandula× intermedia). New Zealand J. Crop Hortic. Sci. 17(4), 315–326.
Landmann C., Fink B., Festner M., Dregus M., Engel K., Schwab W. 2007. Cloning and functional
characterization of three terpene synthases from lavender (Lavandula angustifolia). Arch. Biochem.
Biophys. 465(2), 417–429.
Lane A., Boecklemann A., Woronuk G., Sarker L., Mahmoud S. 2010. A genomics resource for
investigating regulation of essential oil production in Lavandula angustifolia. Planta 231(4), 835–845.
Lehrner J., Marwinski G., Lehr S., Johren P., Deecke L. 2005. Ambient odors of orange and
lavender reduce anxiety and improve mood in a dental office. Physiol. Behav. 86, 92–95.
Lis-Balchin M. 2002. Lavender: the genus Lavandula. London, CRC Press.
Lis-Balchin M., Hart S. 1997. A preliminary study of the effect of essential oils on skeletal and smooth
muscle in vitro. J. Ethnopharmacol. 58, 183–187.
Lis-Balchin M., Hart S. 1999. Studies on the mode of action of the essential oil of Lavander
(Lavandula angustifolia P. Miller). Phytother. Res. 13(4), 540–542.
Lavandula spp. essential oils… 19
Luque de Castro M.D., Jiménez-Carmona M.M., Fernández-Pérez V. 1999. Towards more rational
techniques for the isolation of valuable essential oils from plants. TrAC – Trend. Analyt. Chem. 18(11),
Lynam K., Smith D. 2009. Lavender oil characterization using agilent J&W DB-1ms Ultra InertCapillary
GC Columns. Agilent Technologies, Inc.
_officinalis_2009_01.pdf, access: August 3, 2014.
Maia N.B., Bovi O.A., Perecin M.B., Marques M.O.M., Granja N.P., Le Roy Trujillo A. 2004. New
crops with potential to produce essential oil with high linalool content helping preserve rosewood.
An endangered Amazon species. Acta Hortic. 629, 39–43.
Mayaud L., Carricajo A., Zhiri A., Aubert G. 2008. Comparison of bacteriostatic and bactericidal
activity of 13 essential oils against strains with varying sensitivity to antibiotics. Lett. Appl. Microbiol.
47(3), 167–173.
Miller A.G. 1985. The genus Lavandula in Arabia and tropical NE Africa. Not. Royal Bot. Gard.
Edinburgh 42, 503–528.
Moon T., Cavanagh M.A., Wilkinson J.M. 2006. Antiparasitic activity of two Lavandula essential oils
against Giardia duodenalis, Trichomonas vaginalis and Hexamita inflate. Parasitol. Res. 99(6),
Moss M., Cook J., Wesnes K., Duckett P. 2003. Aromas of rosemary and lavender essential oils
differentially affect cognition and mood in healthy adults. Internat. J. Neurosci. 113(1), 15–38.
Mothana R.A., Alsaid M.S., Hasoon S.S., Al-Mosaiyb N.M., Al-Rehaily A.J., Al-Yahya M.A. 2012.
Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS)
analysisof the essential oils of Ajuga bracteosa Wall. ex Benth. and Lavandula dentata L. growing
wild in Yemen. J. Med. Plants Res. 6(15), 3066–3071.
Msaada K., Salem N., Tammar S., Hammami M., Saharkhiz M.J., Debiche N., Limam F., Marzouk B.
2012. Essential oil composition of Lavandula dentata, L. stoechas and L. multifida Cultivated in
Tunisia. J. Essen. Oil Bear. Plants 15(6), 1030–1039.
Munoz-Bertomeu J., Arrillaga I., Segura J. 2007. Essential oil variation within and among natural
populations of Lavandula latifolia and its relation to their ecological areas. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 35,
Nobre J. 1996. In vitro cloning and micropropagation of Lavandula stoechas fromeld-grown plants.
Plant Cell Tiss. Organ Cult. 46, 151–155.
Nogueira J.M.F., Romano A. 2002. Essential oils from micropropagated plants of Lavandula viridis.
Phytochem. Anal. 13, 4–7.
Nurzyńska-Wierdak R., Bogucka-Kocka A., Kowalski R., Borowski B. 2012. Changes in the chemical
composition of the essential oil of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) depending on the plant growth
stage. Chemija 23(3), 216–222.
Ognyanov I. 1984. Bulgarian lavender and Bulgarian lavender oil. Perfum. Flavor. 8(6), 29–41.
Paster N., Juven B.J., Shaaya E., Menasherov M., Nitjan R., Weisslowicz H., Ravid U. 1990.
Inhibitory effect of oregano and thyme essential oils on moulds and foodborne bacteria. Lett. Appl.
Microbiol. 11, 33–37.
Pattnaik S., Subramanyam V.R., Bapaji M., Kole C.R. 1997. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of
aromatic constituents of essential oils. Microbios 89(358), 39–46.
Pavela R. 2005. Insecticidal activity of some essential oils against larvae of Spodoptera littoralis.
Fitoterapia 76, 691–696.
Périno-Issartier S., Ginies C., Cravotto G., Chemat F. 2013. A comparison of essential oils obtained
from lavandin via different extraction processes: Ultrasound, microwave, turbohydrodistillation,
steam and hydrodistillation. J. Chromatogr. A 1305, 41–47.
Perrucci S., Mancianti F., Cioni P.L., Flamini G., Morelli L., Macchioni G. 1994. In vitro antifungal
activity of essential oils against some isolates of Microsporum canis and Microsporum gypseum.
Planta Med. 60(2), 184–187.
20 D. Andrys and D. Kulpa
Raina A.P., Negi K.S. 2012. Comparative essential oil composition of Lavandula species from India.
J. Herb. Spic. Medic. Plants 18, 268–273.
Reddy M.V. Bh., Angers P., Gosselin A., Arul J. 1998. Characterization and use of essential oil from
Thymus vulgaris against Botrytis cinerea and Rhizopus stolonifer in strawberry fruits.
Phytochemistry 47, 1515–1520.
Romeo F.V., De Luca S., Piscopo A., Poiana M. 2008. Antimicrobial effect of some essential oils.
J. Essen. Oil Res. 20, 373–379.
Russo M., Galletti G., Bocchini P., Carnacini A. 1998. Essential oil chemical composition of wild
populations of Italian oregano spice (Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum): A preliminary evaluation of their
use in chemotaxonomy by cluster analysis. 1. Inflorescences. J. Agric. Food Chem. 46, 3741–3746.
Setzer W.N. 2009. Essential oils and anxiolytic aromatherapy. Natural Prod. Communicat. 4(9),
Schulz S., Buhling F., Ansorge S. 1994. Prenylated proteins and lymphocyte proliferation: Inhibition
by d – limonene related monoterpenes. Eur. J. Immunol. 24, 301–307.
Skoglund L., Jorkjed L. 1991. Postoperative pain experience after gingivectomies using different
combinations of local anaesthetic agents and periodontal dressings. J. Clin. Periodontol. 18(3),
Smith-Palmer A., Stewart J., Fyfe L. 1998. Antimicrobial propertiesof plant essential oils and essences
against fiveimportant food-borne pathogens. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 26, 118–122.
Sokovic M., Marin P.D., Brkic D., Van Griensven L.J.L.D. 2007. Chemical composition and antibactrial
activity of essential oils of ten aromatic plants against human pathogenic bacteria. Food 1(2), 1–7.
Spiridon I., Colceru S., Anghel N., Teaca C.A., Bodirlau R., Armatu A. 2011. Antioxidant capacity
and total phenolic contents of oregano (Origanum vulgare), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and
lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) from Romania. Nat. Prod. Res. 25(17), 1657–1661.
Staicov V., Chingova B., Kalaidjiev I. 1969. Studies on several lavender varieties. Soap Perfum.
Cosm. 42, 883–887.
Stanojević L., Stanković M., Cakić M., Nikolić V., Nikolić L., Ilić D., Radulović N. 2011. The effect
of hydrodistillation techniques on yield, kinetics, composition and antimicrobial activity of essential
oils from flowers of Lavandula officinalis L. Hem. Industr. 65(4), 455–463.
Śmigielski K., Raj A., Krosowiak K., Gruska R. 2009. Chemical composition of the essentials oil of
Lavandula angustifolia cultivated in Poland. J. Essen. Oil Bear. Plants 12(3), 338–347.
Śmigielski K.B., Prusinowska R., Krosowiak K., Sikosa M. 2013. Comparison of qualitative and
quantitative chemical composition of hydrolate and essential oil of lavender (Lavandula
angustifolia). J. Essen. Oil Res. 25, 291–299.
Thanassoulopoulos C.C., Laidou Y. 1997. On the biological control of Botrytis cinerea on kiwifruit
cv. “Hayward” during storage. Acta Hortic. 444, 757–764.
Thompson D.P. 1989. Fungitoxic activity of essential oil componentson food storage fungi. Mycologia 81,
Tsuro M., Asada S. 2014. Differential expression of limonene synthase gene affects production and
composition of essential oils in leaf and floret of transgenic lavandin (Lavandula x intermedia
Emerice x Loisel.). Plant Biotech. Rep. 8, 193–201.
Upson T., Andrews S. 2004. The genus Lavandula. 1st ed. [b.m.], Timber Press, Inc., USA.
Uremis I. 2009. Herbicidal activity of essential oils on germination of some problem weeds. Asian
J. Chem. 21(4), 3199–3210.
Van de Braak S.A.A.J., Leijten G.C.J.J. 1999. Essential oils and oleoresins: A survey in the
Netherlands and other major markets in the European Union. Rotterdam, CBI, Centre for the
Promotion of Imports from Developing Countries.
Verma R.S., Rahman L.U., Chantotiya C.S., Werma R.K., Chauhan A., Yadav A., Singh A., Yadav A.K.
2010. Essential oil composition of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. cultivated in the mid hills of Uttarakh
and, India. J. Serb. Chem. Soc. 75, 343–348.
Lavandula spp. essential oils… 21
Welsh C. 1997. Three essential oils for the medicine cabinet. Evid. Based Complement. Alter. Med. 3(1),
Wesołowska A., Jadczak D., Grzeszczuk M. 2010. Influence of distillation time on the content and
composition of essential oil isolated from lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.). Herba Pol. 56(3),
Woronuk G., Demissie Z., Rheault M., Mahmoud S. 2011. Biosynthesis and therapeutic properties
of Lavandula essential oil constituents. Planta Med. 77(1), 7–15.
Wyckoff L., Sievers A. 1935. Lavender growing in America. Am. Perfum. 31, 67–70.
Xie C., Wang Q., Cui X. 2002. The analysis of lavender oil by GC/MS. J. Xinjiang Univ. (Natural Sci.
Edit.) 19(3), 294–296.
Zagorcheva T., Stanev S., Rusanov K., Atanassov I. 2013. Comparative GC/MS analysis of lavender
(Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) inflorescence and essential oil volatiles. J. Agric. Sci. Technol. 5(4),
Zhang Q-X., Jiang Y., Zhang Z-Q. 2006. The study on development of essential oil from lavender.
Flavor Fragr. Cosm. 6, 21–24.
Zheljazkov V.D., Cantrell C.L., Astatkie T., Jeliazkova E. 2013. Distillation time effect on lavender
essential oil yield and composition. J. Oleo Sci. 62(4), 195–199.
Zuzarte M.R., Dinis A.M., Cavaleiro C., Salgueiro L.R., Canhotoa J.M. 2010. Trichomes, essential
oils and in vitro propagation of Lavandula pedunculata (Lamiaceae). Industr. Crop Prod. 32, 580–587.
Zuzarte M., Gonçalves M.J., Cavaleiro C., Canhoto J., Vale-Silva L., Silva M.J., Pinto E.,
Salgueiro L. 2011. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of the essential oils of Lavandula
viridis L'Hér. J. Med. Microbiol. 60, 612–618.
Abstract. Lavender is mainly used in medicine, cosmetics industry, aromatherapy, perfume
industry and as a culinary herb. It is most often grown for the purpose of obtaining essential oils
characterized by a pleasant fragrance as well as antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant
properties. The present paper is an overview of information on essential oils obtained from plant
tissue of the Lavandula genus, including the methods of extraction, chemical composition and
potential use. The chemical composition of plant oil is determined by various parameters such
as environmental conditions, growing season, harvest time, methods of drying and storing until
the time of oil extraction, method of oil isolation as well as the specific conditions of the analysis
(column, set temperature) used to identify the compounds.
Full-text available
Essential oil (EO) content and composition values of two L. angustifolia (’Hidcote’ and ’Munstead’) and two L. × intermedia (’Grappenhall’ and ’Grosso’) cultivars were evaluated during summer harvest periods of 2017 and 2018, from two growing areas (Dörgicse and Szomód) in Hungary. According to the statistical analysis, only the EO content value of ‘Grappenhall’ was significantly affected by the growing area in both experimental years (in 2017: p<0.0001; in 2018: p<0.004). In 2018 ’Hidcote’ was also richer in EO content in the region of Szomód, as in the case of ’Grappenhall’. However, the highest EO content value (9.5 ml/100 g) was detected in the case of ’Grosso’ from Dörgicse. L. angustifolia varieties represented higher variability in EO composition, while it was more uniform with respect to the growing areas at L. × intermedia cultivars, In our study, ‘Grosso’ (from Dörgicse) possessed by outstanding linalool ratios (58.9%) if comparing to those were reported before by other authors. Moreover, the L. × intermedia cultivars exceeded the linalool percentages of all L. angustifolia varieties involved. ‘Munstead’ showed stability in the EO content and composition values regarding the effect of growing area and growth year. According to our results, the effect of growth year on the EO composition of the cultivars was found, which was significant only in the region of Szomód. Két L. angustifolia ('Hidcote' és 'Munstead') és két L. × intermedia ('Grappenhall' és 'Grosso') fajta hazai teljesítőképességét értékeltük illóolaj-tartalom és-összetétel alapján 2017-ben és 2018-ban a virágzás periódusában, két magyarországi termőterületről (Dörgicse és Szomód) gyűjtött mintákban. Megállapítottuk, hogy a termőhelyi hatás a vizsgált fajták közül csak a 'Grappenhall' illóolaj-tartalom értékeire nézve érvényesült, ami mindkét kísérleti évben statisztikailag igazolható volt (2017-ben: p < 0,0001; 2018-ban: p < 0,004). 2018-ban a 'Grappenhall' mellett a 'Hidcote' illóolaj-tartalom értékei is magasabbak voltak a szomódi területen. A legkiemelkedőbb illóolaj-tartalmat (9,5 ml/100 g) viszont Dörgicsén mértük 2017-ben, a 'Grosso' fajta esetében. A L. angustifolia fajták illóolaj komponenseire nagyobb variabilitás volt jellemző, míg a L. × intermedia fajták egységesebb, termőterületre jellemző illóolaj komponens mintázattal ren-delkeztek. Kísérletünkben, a szakirodalmi adatokkal egybehangzóan, a L. × intermedia fajták illóolajában a linalool komponens aránya meghaladta a vizsgálatba bevont L. angustifolia fajták hasonló értékeit. Közülük a legmagasabb linalool százalékkal (58,9%) a 'Grosso' dörgicsei állománya rendelkezett. A L. angustifolia 'Munstead' fajtát rendkívüli stabilitás jellemezte az illóolaj-tartalom és-összetétel szempontjából egyaránt, melyet sem az évjárat, sem a termőhely nem befolyásolt jelentősen. Kísérletünkben az évjárat hatása elsősorban az illóolaj-összetétel alakulásánál mutatkozott meg, mely statisztikailag jelentős mértékben csak a szomódi termőterületen (p < 0,018) érvényesült.
Full-text available
Five aromatic constituents of essential oils (cineole, citral, geraniol, linalool and menthol) were tested for antimicrobial activity against eighteen bacteria (including Gram-positive cocci and rods, and Gram-negative rods) and twelve fungi (three yeast-like and nine filamentous). In terms of antibacterial activity linalool was the most effective and inhibited seventeen bacteria, followed by cineole, geraniol (each of which inhibited sixteen bacteria), menthol and citral aromatic compounds, which inhibited fifteen and fourteen bacteria, respectively. Against fungi the citral and geraniol oils were the most effective (inhibiting all twelve fungi), followed by linalool (inhibiting ten fungi), cineole and menthol (each of which inhibited seven fungi) compounds.
Full-text available
The research was carried out during the 2009 and 2010 growing period with the aim of determining agricultural and technological characteristics of lavender cultivars. When the agricultural characteristics of the lavender and lavandin cultivars were examined, in both years the highest fresh stem flower yield was obtained from Dutch (5467 and 8204 kg ha(-1), respectively) and the highest dry stemless flower yield from Super A (1083 and 1463 kg ha(-1)., respectively) cultivars. The highest essential oil content in both fresh stem flowers (the first year 2.00 %, the second year 1.90 %) and dry stemless flowers (the first year 9.62 %, the second year 8.87 %) was determined from Silver. Linalool, linalyl acetate and camphor were determined as the main components of essential oil in the lavender cultivar. The highest linalool content in fresh stem flowers was determined to be from Dutch (43.3 %) in the first year and from Vera (43.9 %) in the second year. The highest linalyl acetate content from Super A (42.5 and 19.8 %, respectively) and camphor content from Super A (19.8 %) in the first year and Dutch (10.0 %) in the second year were determined. The highest linalool content in dry stemless flowers from Dutch (46.5 and 47.0 %, respectively), linalyl acetate content from Super A (32.8 and 29.5 %, respectively) in both years and camphor content from Silver (12.6 %) in the first year and Dutch (10.9 A) in the second year were obtained.
Full-text available
The herbicidal activities of volatile compounds of plant origin (sweet basil, Ocimum basilicum L.; common sage, Salvia officinalis L.; English lavender, Lavandula angustifolia Mill.; lemon balm, Melissa officinalis L. and common thyme Le., Thymus vulgaris) were studied against 3 weeds (common cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium L.; sterile wild oat, Avena sterilis L. and short spiked canarygrass, Phalaris brachystachys L.) in laboratory experiments. Chemical composition of the essential oils were determined by capillary gas chromatography (GC) and GC/MS. The essential oil composition varied with the species. Thymol, geranial and ß-thujone were the main constituent of T. vulgaris, M. officinalis and 5. officinalis oils, respectively. Linalool was the main constituent of O. basilicum and L. angustifolia oils. Each essential oil was applied at the concentrations of 2,4,8,16 and 32 μL on the filter paper at the top of the Petri dishes to determine germination and growth bioassays. Inhibition rate of essential oils increased with the increasing concentrations. Essential oils of T. vulgaris had the highest inhibitory effect on the germination of X. strumarium and A. sterilis, on the other hand essential oil of O. basilicum had the highest inhibitory effects on the germination of P. brachystachys. Each essential oil suppressed seedling and root growth of the tested weeds. Essential oil of O. basilicum, S. officinalis, L. angustifolia, M. officinalis and T. vulgaris could be used as alternatives of herbicides to suppress germination of X. strumarium, A. sterilis and Phalaris brachystachys seeds in organic farming systems.
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to determine the chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of essential oils (EOs) isolated from lavender (L. angustifolia Miller) and lavandin (Lavandula x intermedia) harvested in 2011 in western Romania. The essential oils, isolated by steam distillation from inflorescences arrived at full flowering stage, were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The essential oil of L. angustifolia Miller analyzed contained as main components caryophyllene (24.1%), beta-phellandrene (16%) and eucalyptol (15.6%), while the essential oil of Lavandula x intermedia contains camphor (32.7%) and eucalyptol (26.9%). The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by the Kirby-Bauer method. Antimicrobial tests showed antimicrobial activity against Shigella flexneri, Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli and Salmonella typhimurium, while Streptococcus pyogenes is not sensitive to the action of the two essential oils. The study revealed that essential oils isolated and analyzed from lavender (L. angustifolia Miller) and lavandin (Lavandula x intermedia) display significant bactericidal effects against microorganisms such as Shigella flexneri, Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli even in the absence of active principles like linalool and linalyl acetate, considered responsible for the antibacterial and antifungal properties of essential oils obtained from different species of Lavandula. The results suggest once again that the antimicrobial activity of EOs is a resultant of the antibacterial properties of the major and minor components in their chemical composition.
Full-text available
Genetic and environmental factors as well as plant ontogeny have a determining effect on the yield and quality of Ocimum basilicum L. volatile oil; ontogenetic variation is particularly important, since it largely determines the proper time for harvesting raw material as well as its chemical composition and activity. The aim of the present study was to determine relationships between the content and chemical composition of the essential oil of the sweet basil herb and the plant growth stage as well as to evaluate the usefulness of two basil cultivars for industry. The present experiment was conducted in a greenhouse during the period from February to May in the years 2008-2010. The basil herb was harvested at three growth stages: vegetative stage, flower bud stage, and full flowering, while the amount of essential oil (by hydrodistillation) and its composition (GC-MS and GC-FID) were evaluated in two cultivars: 'Kasia' and 'Wala'. The essential oil content in the herb of the basil cultivars under study was high (0.83% in the cultivar 'Kasia' and 0.75% in cv. 'Wala') and it increased with plant development. The studied essential oils were characterized by the presence of 63 compounds, among which linalool was the dominant one. The concentration of linalool was from 55.4% to 69.8%, depending on the cultivar and plant growth stage. The oil extracted at the flower bud stage was characterized by the highest proportion of linalool (in both cultivars) and of 1,8-cineole (only in the cultivar 'Kasia'). The concentration of methyl chavicol and methyl eugenol in the oil decreased together with the development of the basil plants studied, similarly to the concentration of limonene, α-humulene, cis-muurola-4(14),5-diene, and transcalamene.
Composition, antifungal activity and radical scavenging activity of IS rare essential oils were examined in vitro and were compared with those of the essential oils used frequently in aromatherapy.The composition of white champaca was first disclosed in this work and the composition of other oils were similar to those reported, except for osmanthus and spikenard oils that showed different compositions. Almost all the oils examined showed potent inhibitory activity against filamentous formation of Candida albicans, though the inhibition against the growth of the yeast form was weak. Against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, white champaca and zanthoxylum oils showed potent killing action when treated at 42°C for 20 min at 0.8% solution. The radical scavenging activity against I, I-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrzyl radical was weak except for holy basil and spikenard oils, in which the activity of holy basil was comparable to that of clove oil.