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Nordic late bronze age razors: «very like a whale»

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Sperm whales do not belong to the North Sea, but could be observed, even from very close, as they frequently strand on the beaches. The animal seems to have given his very typical outline to the decorated Late Bronze Age razors from Scandinavia and Northern Germany. One has to «read» these systematically, with the handle at the bottom right. But they most often offer multiple interpretations, as they also have a meaning held upside down. Flemming Kaul has brilliantly shown that the iconography of these razors relates to the solar cycle, with several animals intervening in this cycle, such as the horse. The sperm whale seems to be the animal swallowing the sun and carrying it, on a ship, through the night, only to regurgitate the ship at sun dawn, as he did with Jonah, another passenger of this «monster» which could also be viewed at the edge of the world, where the sun sets.
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487Archäologisches Korrespondenzblatt 45 · 2015
EUGÈNE WARMENBOL
NORDIC LATE BRONZE AGE RAZORS: »VERY LIKE A WHALE«
Hamlet: Do you see yonder cloud, that’s almost in shape of a camel?
Polonius: By the mass, and ‘t is like a camel, indeed.
Hamlet: Methinks, it is like a weasel.
Polonius: It is backed like a weasel.
Hamlet: Or, like a whale?
Polonius: Very like a whale 1.
William Shakespeare, Hamlet, Act III, Scene 2
One might read the present paper as an answer to several kinds of questions, such as »what if?« or »why
not?«. As surprising or, to others, far-fetched our proposition might be, we would not have adventured into
these waters if we had not been convinced that it can at least become a matter of serious discussion. Sea
creatures, sea monsters are very much a feature of Greek and Roman myths, but also of Egyptian and Mes-
opotamian myths, and must have been »known« to Bronze and Iron Age mythographs, too. In what almost
seems like another life, we worked on Ancient Egyptian artefacts, which sometimes have been »contoured«
to resemble animals (a crocodile, a hippopotamus, even a scorpion) 2, and this might have inuenced us to
recognise in the shape of »yonder cloud« not a camel, but a creature »very like a whale«.
It might seem presumptuous to write on Nordic razors while having mainly a »paper« knowledge of them.
Flemming Kaul’s »Ships on Bronzes« has become a classic, with more and more colleagues quoting him, and
less and less reading him. All the then known Danish razors, at least those showing ships, were included at
the date of publication, presumably not too many could be added to the corpus to this day. The razors
found in Northern Germany, Sweden and the odd ones out from Norway, Finland etc. were not included in
Kaul’s superbly illustrated catalogue. The razors of Period IV and Period V are (sometimes lavishly) decorated,
systematically on just one side 3. As F. Kaul already suggested, if one considers the decorated side as the
most important one, then the handle must be placed at the lower right corner, and the decoration must be
read according to this. Our Danish colleague himself does not always do so 4, and certainly does not always
illustrate the razors this way. Ernst Sprockhoff and Evert Baudou 5, amongst many others, mostly show them
upside down, which probably explains why nobody, as far as we know, ever realised that the shape of these
razors is not gratuitous, while this has been recognised for Period III razors. We agree with F. Kaul that these
exemplars represent »half-ships«. The Period IV and Period V razors unmistakably have the shape of a
whale, and not just of any whale: the sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) 6 (g. 1).
Fig. 1 The sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus). – (After www.matatohora.com/?p=340 [24. 11. 2015]).
488 E. Warmenbol · Nordic Late Bronze Age Razors: »Very like a Whale«
SPERM WHALES IN THE NORTH SEA
One does not depict a sperm whale if it is not, one way or another, part of the life or the landscape of the
beholder. It was Philip Hoare who wrote about sperm whales that »they are not so much animal as geograph-
ical« 7. It is all about their sheer size. But sperm whales are not denizens of the North Sea. They get lost there,
having literally been taken out of their depths. As noted by Chris Smeenk, they are »animals of the deep
ocean [and] have no experience whatsoever in nd-
ing their way in this kind of shallow and treacherous
waters« 8. Mostly, they end up stranding, sometimes
in numbers, and are left on the beach for all to dis-
cover. This has been recorded, and illustrated, since
the 16th century and up to the 21st century, without
any patterning emerging, and there is absolutely no
reason to doubt that in the remote past sperm whale
strandings occurred and were observed (g. 2a-b).
One place where man might see or have seen these
animals »in the wild«, is in the Norwegian channel,
certainly within reach of Bronze Age boats from Den-
mark and other regions 9. So, mostly, sperm whales
observed around the North Sea were and are dead
sperm whales. We can assume that this actually gave
more opportunity to examine the animal, be it a car-
cass (see also Kinze 1995).
SPERM WHALE BEHAVIOUR
Authorities such as Jonathan Gordon and Hal White-
head, who have spent a lifetime literally amid these
mostly very gentle giants, at last gave us some true
Fig. 2 a map of multiple sperm whale
strandings in the North Sea, 1560-1995. –
b sperm whale stranding near Ter Heijde
(prov. Zuid-Holland / NL), 22/23 November
1577. – (After Smeenk 1997, gs 1. 6).
a
b
489Archäologisches Korrespondenzblatt 45 · 2015
knowledge about sperm whales, beyond the usual
clichés 10. We will just take note of a few »essentials«
for further understanding of the inclusion of these
Odontoceti in the Bronze Age bestiary. We are aware
that for some of these modern observations to be of
any relevance to ancient beliefs and thoughts, we
need to assume that sperm whales were not only
known through strandings but were also known in
the wild, which would be along (and maybe quite
far up) the Norwegian coast 11.
We would like to stress rst that we are dealing with
an apparently gregarious animal, though the true
nature of sperm whale movement up and down the
oceans is the object of much discussion 12. To Bronze
Age man, as to most of our ancestors, it will cer-
tainly look like sperm whales (actually only the males)
periodically migrate between their lower-latitude
breeding grounds, and their higher-latitude feeding
grounds, the »migration« occurring at the onset of
winter 13.
We will also take note of the fact that they have
been described as »ferocious ghters among them-
selves«, which would account for the scars the males
wear on their heads (g. 3), as the ghting appar-
ently occurs among sexually mature males possibly
in dispute over females 14. Whatever the reason for
it, the scarring pattern male sperm whales show
agrees with them battling with their jaws, which has
been repeatedly reported.
We must also remind the reader that the main prey
of sperm whales are cephalopods, mainly squid,
often caught at great depths (g. 4). They include
giant squids, like Architeuthis and Dosidicus gigas,
the »living horror of the deep« 15. The squids often
leave other marks on the sperm whales’ bodies, i.
e.
circular sucker marks left by the suction cups (g. 5),
lined with serrated rings of chitin, on the arms and
tentacles of these impressive animals 16. In the North
Atlantic and North Pacic, apparently, sh form a
substantial part of the diet of sperm whales 17.
We would also like to report a phenomenon that is
for sure less likely to be observed by those who do
Fig. 3 The scars on the head of a male sperm whale (some might
be propeller-induced). – (After Whitehead 2003, 316 g. 8, 1).
Fig. 4 Sperm whale versus giant squid (Architeuthis), drawn to
scale. – (After Whitehead 2003, g. 2, 12; drawing E. Kazar).
Fig. 5 Sperm whale skin with sucker marks from a giant squid. –
(After Feldhamer et al. 2015, g. 21, 28; Murray / Hjort 1912).
not live with sperm whales. According to J. Gordon, »on several occasions, males were seen holding young
calves gently in their mouth« 18. If Bronze Age man ever saw this, it would have denitely bewildered him,
the more so as even today it remains extremely rare to witness an actual birth among sperm whales.
490 E. Warmenbol · Nordic Late Bronze Age Razors: »Very like a Whale«
Another peculiarity that might or might not have been observed is the sperm whales’ habit of swimming
upside down, »to scrutinize objects above« 19, or more specically, to feed. They also have spectacular
»aerial behaviour«, like breaching, when the animal leaps from the water, sometimes fully emerging (g. 6).
As Herman Melville writes in his celebrated »Moby
Dick«: »in those moments, the torn, enraged waves
he shakes off, seem his mane: in some cases, this
breaching is his act of deance« 20. And, yes, there
are albinos sperm whales: Moby Dick is not just a
literary whale 21.
A READING OF THE RAZORS AS OBJECTS
According to us, Period IV and Period V Nordic razors
are gurative: their outlines refer to those of the
sperm whale, though the »later« the razor, the less
it is obvious. The animal is shown pointing to the
Fig. 6 Sperm whale breaching. – (After Whitehead 2003, g. 5,
4B).
Fig. 7 Razors: a from Kjettinge (Maribo / DK). – b from Vester-Åby (Svendborg / DK). – c from Jordhøj (Frederiksborg / DK). – d from Thing-
høj (Ålborg / DK). – e with unknown provenance (DK). – f from Neder Hvolris (Viborg / DK). – (a after Kaul 1998, cat. 94; b after Kaul 1998,
cat. 155; c-d after Kaul 1998, cat. 10. 203; e-f after Kaul 1998, cat. 353. 243; b. e-f drawing B. Skaarup).
ab
cd
e
f
491Archäologisches Korrespondenzblatt 45 · 2015
left, its massive brow explaining the square shape of the left edge of the object. The lower right edge of the
razor has the handle, which is usually S-shaped in Period IV and spiral-shaped in Period V, but is anyhow an
evocation of the sperm whale’s prominent tail 22. A few razors apparently give a more naturalistic rendering
of the tail (g. 7a) 23, and a few suggest that multiple readings are possible (g. 7b) 24. The back of the
animal has a very characteristic slight depression, middle-left, which leads, in reality as in its representation,
from the head to the dorsal crest of the animal, not to be confused with a n (g. 7c-d). All this compels
us to another »reading« of the razors, but, moreover, the decoration of the razors adds to our argument.
The engraved decoration, showing boats, but also the waters upon which they move 25, is indeed very evoc-
ative of the teeth marks (whether induced by other sperm whales, or, maybe, by killer whales or even other
competitors) that all sperm whales show all over their bodies, but mainly »up front«. The image of the sun,
circular of course, and usually surrounded by short lines or dots (g. 7e) 26, in turn, is extremely evocative of
the suction marks left by giant (and lesser
…) squids on almost every single sperm whale that washed
ashore.
THE USE OF NORDIC RAZORS
In our opinion, the Bronze Age »razor« is an badly named object 27. It would take us too far here to get into
details, but, while not denying that hair and stubble are part of the body language in that period, we
assume that these artefacts had (an)other function(s) 28. The contents of the leather belt-purse from the
Period III Hvidegård-grave (Region Nordjylland
/
DK) denitely point in that direction. They include a »razor«,
indeed, and tweezers, but also the tail of a young grass snake, the claw of a bird of prey, a small conch,
some amber, etc. 29 To call the man who was carrying all this a »shaman« has at least the merit of making it
very clear that none of this should be seen as ordinary »toilet articles«. It has been pointed out again and
again that the razors have never passed through the pyre, while the Period IV and Period V examples are
associated with cremation burials 30. A good alternative is thus to look at them as instruments that had been
used to prepare the corpse for the funeral 31, the more so as they carry images evocative of the renaissance
of the sun, with which the deceased might have been identied. This preparation would have been left to
specialists, whom one might or not want to call shamans. The heaviest wear is usually to be observed at the
very left of the object (fig. 7f), as if this part, the head of the whale, was the cutting side. For what it is
worth, a comparison with the instruments used for the »Opening of the Mouth«-ceremony as performed
in Ancient Egypt, might be productive 32 (fig. 8). This is not to say that the tombs in which Period IV or
Period V »razors« are encountered have to be identied as »shamans« tombs. The »razors« probably were
just manipulated by them, and afterwards could only remain associated, forever, with the one upon which
the operation was performed.
OTHER READINGS OF THE RAZORS THROUGH THEIR »DECORATION«
We fully agree with F. Kaul’s interpretation of Period III razors as the representation of a ship 33. The
»well-modelled horse’s head« shaping the handle could then be considered as an image of the bow-gure.
What is rather perplexing is that this handle by all means seems to be »in its place« at the upper left of the
object, while the handle is to be placed at the lower right of the razors of Period IV and Period V. F. Kaul
actually writes about »half-ships« 34 and we think this is quite correct, as there is no stern-gure to be seen.
We will not even attempt to answer the obvious question: why is that so? By all means, the half-ship is also
492 E. Warmenbol · Nordic Late Bronze Age Razors: »Very like a Whale«
to be seen on the Period IV and Period V razors, and
is actually the most characteristic motif on these
objects. We thus do not agree with F. Kaul’s reading
of the two ships along the edges of these razors as
just one »folded ship« (gs 7d. f; 9) 35.
What happens, in fact, is that the half-ship of Period
III, always pointing to the left, reappears in Period IV,
still pointing to the left, but within a sperm whale-
shaped frame, suggesting that the half-ship is in the
sperm whale (assuming we are offered some kind of
X-ray view). The bow is parallel with the left side of
the razor 36, the keel is parallel with the lower side of
it, and no stern is to be seen. One step further on
the way allows us to suggest that the half-ship has
been swallowed by the sperm whale, and its
representation, with all kind of accessories suggest-
ing a further development of the »story«, would
then be equivalent to an embedded narrative (or
récit enchâssé), and quite literally so!
We do not think it is far-fetched to propose this
»monster« from the deep, from the dark, from the
edge of the world 37, was actually considered, start-
ing in Period IV, to swallow the sun’s ship at sunset,
only to throw it up at dawn, with or without the
help of other creatures. This would, of course, not
Fig. 8 The »Opening of the Mouth«-ceremony
on Ancient Egypt on the Papyrus of Hunefer.
British Museum, London. – (After Wikimedia
Commons, British Museum free image service).
Fig. 9 The razor from Roskilde-egnen (København / DK). – (After
Kaul 1998, cat. 30; drawing B. Skaarup).
Fig. 10 Jonah regurgitated by the (sperm?) whale, as rendered in
an early 18th-century print by Casper Luyken in Christopher Weigel’s
Historiae celebriores Veteris Testamenti iconibus representatae. –
(After http://pitts.emory.edu/dia/detail.cfm?ID=757 [24. 11. 2015];
courtesy of the E. Rhodes and Leona B. Carpenter Foundation,
Atlanta).
be the rst nor the last story of sperm whales swallowing men or means, just to give them back, or »give
birth« to them later, from Jonah to Gepetto 38. Jonah’s whale is just a »big sh« in the Bible 39, but as his
misfortune happens in the Mediterranean, the sperm whale is surely the animal the biblical author had in
493Archäologisches Korrespondenzblatt 45 · 2015
mind, as the sperm whale is also at home here (g. 10) 40. Sperm whales, we have pointed out earlier, some-
times keep their young in their mouths: releasing them is releasing their younger self, or at least, that could
be what one is led to believe.
If Nordic razors do represent sperm whales, with the tail at the lower right, then their decoration, strangely,
is quite often upside-down, at least part of it. This can only be signicative, and concerns, among others,
the representations of horses (gs 7f; 11a) 41, which we do not expect to have their legs »in the air«. It
means that there are different ways to look at the razors, and one of them is holding them upside down.
Very often, a complete ship then appears, not a half-ship, with the handle taking up the role of the stern of
the ship. When the bow is shown with some detail, it usual takes the shape of a horse’s protome (gs 7d;
9; 11b) 42. These ships are always pointing to the right, and F. Kaul was not mistaken in associating the right
with light, the right with life and the left with death. An animal clearly connected with these ships, is the
sh 43: something else regurgitated by the sperm whale? We readily admit that we do not quite understand
why sh are associated with the right side 44. But it is quite clear to us that the razors are related to death
when held the one way, and to life or resurrection when held the other way. We do not think it is accidental
that the bow of the half-ship is more evocative of a bird rather than anything else in Period IV and Period V,
as (aquatic) birds are associated with the movement of the sun at night 45. At least in Period IV, the other
ship, quite logically, has a bow that is evocative of a horse’s protome, as horses are associated with the
movement of the sun at daytime 46, and a bow, turned backwards, as light triumphed over darkness, in the
shape of an (aquatic) bird.
VERY MUCH LIKE A WAVE
In a remarkably brilliant contribution, François Poplin 47 stressed the close semantic relationship between
horses and ducks, but also between horses and ships, and horses and waves, the last with a little help from
Léo Ferré 48. What he states is close to providing a semiological background for F. Kaul’s approach of the
Nordic razors, and for our own efforts to include the sperm whale in the picture, or rather, to make him
Fig. 11 Razors: a with unknown provenance (DK). – b from Boller (Hjøering / DK). – c from Koldsbaek (Frederiksborg / DK). – d from
Røkjum (Ring købing / DK). – (After Kaul 1998, cat. 381. 173. 2. 303; drawings B. Skaarup).
ab
c
d
494 E. Warmenbol · Nordic Late Bronze Age Razors: »Very like a Whale«
frame it. When the animal is breaching, he is indeed very much like a wave, and for sure produces some
waves when hitting the water. Now, we do realise this is something that probably was never observed close
to the Danish coasts, but, at the same time, we are quite convinced that sperm whales were observed up
the Norwegian coasts, where »everything is possible«. By all means, waves are depicted on the razors
(g. 11c-d) 49, or horses are depicted as waves, or waves as horses 50, or as aquatic birds. All the razors prob-
ably offer multiple readings.
Acknowledgements
We owe the reading of the Nordic razors as images of sperm
whales to one of our »old« students, Nicolas-Alexandre Guillaume,
whose Norwegian origins gave him a physical knowledge of this
magnicent animals. – Our colleagues from the Institut royal des
Sciences naturelles de Belgique in Brussels, Roseline C. Beudels-Ja-
mar and Pierre Devillers, as well as another of our »old« students,
Quentin Goffette, were very supportive of this reading, and intro-
duced me to the bibliography of the subject. Many thanks also to
Jan Haelters, monitoring sperm whale deaths in the North Sea and
coordinating the Management Unit of the North Sea Mathematical
Models. – As »usual«, we had exciting discussions about this mat-
ter with a few close colleagues, especially Stefan Wirth.
Notes
1) We are aware of John Boardman using this subtitle before us.
We did take our inspiration directly from William Shakespeare.
See Boardman 1987.
2) Hendrickx / Huyge / Adams 1997-1998. For another one: Der-
riks 2012.
3) There are very few exceptions (Kaul 1998, cat. 301), most
»razors« decorated on both sides being recycled knives.
4) He seems to get confused, for instance, trying to describe Kaul
1998, cat. 353.
5) Sprockhoff 1956; Baudou 1960. See also Tackenberg 1971.
6) Older or other representations in prehistoric Western Europe
seem to be very rare. For an early Neolithic example, see ortho-
stat 1 of the Mané Lud megalithic monument (Locmariaquer,
dép. Morbihan / F; Cassen 2011). We owe this reference to
Stefan Wirth. See also Baudouin 1907. – For the earliest exam-
ples of what one could call scrimshaw, see Poplin 1983.
7) Hoare 2008, 29.
8) Smeenk 1997, 21.
9) Clark 2004 makes this obvious.
10) Gordon 1998. – Whitehead 2003.
11) It might be relevant to stress that, today at least, sperm whales
are »generally viewed as unpalatable, except in Japan and In-
donesia«. See Whitehead 2003, 20.
12) Ibidem 98-100.
13) Ibidem 78-110. – See also Gordon et al. 1998.
14) Ibidem 277-281.
15) Ibidem 45, g. 2, 12.
16) Feldhamer et al. 2015, g. 21, 28 (after Murray / Hjort 1912).
17) Whitehead 2003, 44.
18) Gordon 1998.
19) Hoare 2008, 72.
20) Melville 1851, 667.
21) Rogers 1988.
22) The spiral is always turning »downwards«. Kaul 1998, cat. 40
is probably no exception, just misconstrued.
23) Kaul 1998, cat. 94 is very evocative.
24) This is »classic« in later Celtic art. See Kaul 1998, cat. 155. 316
showing a tail that denitely looks like a horse’s head. This is
quite obviously deliberate.
25) This is particularly true of the Period V razors.
26) Kaul 1998, cat. 188. 205. 223. 317. 353. See also cat. 31.
27) Most colleagues would not agree. – See Harding 2008 and
many others.
28) »Experimental« archaeology sometimes claims that shaving
with a Bronze Age razor is feasible (Ruoff 1983) and some-
times it is not (Vorlauf 1996).
29) Kaul 1998, 17 f.
30) Bradley 2006, 375. – Rebay-Salisbury 2010, 67.
31) Treherne 1995, 121. – Bradley 2000, 134 f.; 2006, 375.
32) van Walsem 1978-1979.
33) Kaul 1998, 134 et passim.
34) Ibidem 135 et passim.
35) See ibidem cat. 30. 192. 203. 243. 379 showing clearly that
there are two different images of (half-)ships, one obviously
upside-down. The same is to be said about cat. 191. 195, both
with the ship upside-down giving a double bow. Ibidem cat.
223 proposes the same reading as ours, but to us, the assimi-
495Archäologisches Korrespondenzblatt 45 · 2015
lation of the handle with the stern of the boat shown upside-
down is the rule, not the exception. The ship on ibidem
cat. 163 is unusually described as a half-ship (apparently the
object is a recycled knife-blade rather than a true razor).
36) Ibidem is sometimes contradictory as to where the bow (his
»stem fore«) and the stern (his »stem-aft«) are: see, for in-
stance, the description of cat. 34. 254.
37) Romm 1992, passim.
38) Davis 1991.
39) Cambier 2009, 29-35.
40) Gannier / Drouot / Goold 2002. Notarbarolo di Sciara / Frant-
zis / Rendell 2012.
41) See Kaul 1998, cat. 190. 220-221. 243. 381 and, most proba-
bly, cat. 237 as well, and cat. 361, though Sprockhoff and Kaul
do not agree on the nature of the animal, horse or bird. Cat.
91 is surely another example, though denitely more »ba ro-
que«.
42) Kaul 1998, cat. 30. 173. 203. 379 are very good examples.
Cat. 210. 223. 317 are even more interesting, as the horse-
shaped bow clearly pulls the sun in, the way the horse of the
Trundholm »chariot« is pulling it (or the horse on cat. 243).
Cat. 223 has an especially fascinating composition (with some
reminiscences in cat. 84).
43) Ibidem cat. 209. 257. 387.
44) Sprockhoff 1954, 96 f. comes in useful.
45) Amongst other contributions, see Wirth 2006; 2010.
46) Gelling / Davidson 1969 remains a »classic«. – See lately, Kaul
2002; 2010; Sommerfeld 2010.
47) Poplin 1990.
48) This is how he describes the North Sea waves in his song
»Comme à Ostende«, the lyrics of which were written in 1960
by Jean-Roger Caussimon (quote in Poplin 1990, 18):
On voyait les chevaux de la mer
Qui fonçaient la tête la première
Et qui fracassaient leur crinière
Devant le casino désert
[…]
49) Kaul 1998, cat. 14. 17. 303, amongst others, might show
waves. See also cat. 2-4. 40, and others.
50) Ibidem cat. 237 shows the ambiguity between the gure of a
horse and the depiction of waves. Cat. 302 might be another
example. And cat. 345, etc.
References
Baudou 1960: E. Baudou, Die regionale und chronologische Eintei-
lung der jüngeren Bronzezeit im Nordischen Kreis. Acta Universi-
tatis Stockholmiensis: Studies in North-European Archaeology 1
(Stockholm 1960).
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497Archäologisches Korrespondenzblatt 45 · 2015
Zusammenfassung / Summary / Résumé
Rasiermesser der späten nordischen Bronzezeit: »Ganz wie ein Wal«
Pottwale gehören nicht in die Nordsee, jedoch konnten sie aus nächster Nähe beobachtet werden, da sie dort häuger
an den Stränden auaufen. Dieses Tier scheint seinen sehr charakteristischen Umriss den verzierten Rasiermessern der
späten Bronzezeit aus Skandinavien und Norddeutschland gegeben zu haben. Man muss sie systematisch »lesen«, mit
dem Griff nach rechts unten. Aber sie lassen meist mehrere Interpretationen zu, da sie auch Bedeutungen erkennen
lassen, wenn man sie andersherum hält. Flemming Kaul hat brilliant aufgezeigt, dass die Ikonographie dieser Rasier-
messer mit dem Lauf der Sonne verknüpft ist, wobei verschiedene Tiere, wie z. B. das Pferd, mit eingebunden sind. Der
Pottwal scheint das Tier zu sein, das die Sonne verschlingt, dann auf einem Schiff durch die Nacht trägt, nur um das
Schiff bei Sonnenaufgang wieder hochzuwürgen, wie er es mit Jonas tat, einem anderen Passagier dieses »Un geheuers«,
was auch am Rande der Welt bei Sonnenuntergang beobachtet werden konnte.
Nordic Late Bronze Age Razors: »Very like a Whale«
Sperm whales do not belong to the North Sea, but could be observed, even from very close, as they frequently strand
on the beaches. The animal seems to have given his very typical outline to the decorated Late Bronze Age razors from
Scandinavia and Northern Germany. One has to »read« these systematically, with the handle at the bottom right. But
they most often offer multiple interpretations, as they also have a meaning held upside down. Flemming Kaul has bril-
liantly shown that the iconography of these razors relates to the solar cycle, with several animals intervening in this
cycle, such as the horse. The sperm whale seems to be the animal swallowing the sun and carrying it, on a ship, through
the night, only to regurgitate the ship at sun dawn, as he did with Jonah, another passenger of this »monster« which
could also be viewed at the edge of the world, where the sun sets.
Les rasoirs nordiques du Bronze nal: »Tout à fait comme une baleine«
Le cachalot n’est pas un habitant de la mer du Nord, mais pouvait y être observé de près, puisqu’il a tendance à s’y
égarer et s’y échouer. L’animal possède une forme très reconnaissable, que semblent avoir emprunté les rasoirs décorés
du Bronze nal découverts en Scandinavie et dans le Nord de l’Allemagne. Il s’agit de les »lire« systématiquement, c’est-
à-dire structurellement, avec ce qui fait ofce de poignée en bas à droite. Les rasoirs offrent par ailleurs des lectures
multiples, à l’endroit comme à l’envers. Flemming Kaul a brillamment montré que l’iconographie de ces rasoirs détaille
le cycle solaire, y associant plusieurs animaux, dont le cheval. Le cachalot semble être l’animal avalant le soleil et le
transportant, posé sur un bateau, à travers la nuit, pour le régurgiter à l’aube, comme il l’a fait avec Jonas, un autre
passager de ce »monstre« qui apparaissait aussi aux limites du monde, là où le soleil disparaît.
Schlüsselwörter / Keywords / Mot clés
Dänemark / Norddeutschland / Bronzezeit / Ikonographie / Pottwal / Sonnenzyklus
Denmark / Northern Germany / Bronze Age / iconography / sperm whale / course of the sun
Danemark / Allemagne du Nord / âge du Bronze / iconographie / cachalot / cycle solaire
Eugène Warmenbol
Université libre de Bruxellles
Centre de Recherches en Archéologie et Patrimoine
Avenue F. D. Roosevelt, 50
B - 1050 Brussel
ewarmenb@ulb.ac.be
INHALTSVERZEICHNIS
Shumon T. Hussain, Mensch, Fluss und Raum: Überlegungen zur ökokulturellen Rolle
großer Flusssysteme im europäischen Jungpaläolithikum ............................. 439
Harald Floss, Simon Fröhle, Hans-Walter Poenicke, Stefan Wettengl, Die mittel-
und jungpaläolithische Freilandfundstelle Börslingen-Eisenberg (Alb-Donau-Kreis) .......... 459
Johanna Ritter, Zu einem Knochenkamm der Linienbandkeramik
aus Friedberg B3a km 19 (Wetteraukreis) ........................................ 475
Eugène Warmenbol, Nordic Late Bronze Age Razors: »Very like a Whale« ................... 487
Leif Hansen, Dirk Krausse, Roberto Tarpini, Joachim Wahl,
Besiedlungs- und Kulturlandschaftsentwicklung im Umfeld der Heuneburg
während der Hallstatt- und Frühlatènezeit – erste Ergebnisse ......................... 499
Tomasz Bochnak, Przemysław Harasim, Reparierte Waffen der vorrömischen Eisenzeit
in der Przeworsk- und Oksywie-Kultur ........................................... 519
Andrey E. Negin, A Bearded Face-Mask Helmet from the Collection of the National Museum
in Belgrade. An Example of Mutual Inuences of Armament Traditions
at the Roman Frontier ....................................................... 535
Nico Roymans, Stijn Heeren, A Late Roman Solidus Hoard with Hacksilber
from Echt (prov. Limburg / NL) ................................................. 549
Péter Prohászka, Falko Daim, Der Kaiser auf der Mantelschließe:
Zum Deckel der frühmittelalterlichen Dose von Sorpe (prov. Lérida / E) ................... 563
Mechthild Schulze-Dörrlamm, Zur Deutung von Orantenreliefs
auf Scheibenbeln der Karolingerzeit ........................................... 579
Inhalt Jahrgang 45, 2015 ......................................................... 593
ISSN 0342-734X
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593Archäologisches Korrespondenzblatt 45 · 2015
inhalt JahRgang 45, 2015
Die zuerst genannten Autorinnen und Autoren der Artikel sind ge s pe rr t gedruckt.
van As, S. F. M., B rus g aa rd , N. Ø., Fokkens, H., Huisman, H. D. J., The Potential of Metal Debris:
a Late Iron Age Ironworking Site at Oss-Schalkskamp (prov. Noord-Brabant / NL) ............................... H. 3, 345
B a l th as a r, P., Die steinzeitlichen Oberächenfunde von Ahlendorf (Saale-Holzland-Kreis) .......................... H. 1, 1
B e c ke r, Th., Bauliche und funktionale Gliederung des Obergermanisch-Raetischen Limes
anhand der Turmgrundrisse....................................................................... H. 2, 249
van Beek, R., Ver g au we , R., Bourgeois, J., Finke, P., Spatial Variation in the Preservation of Late Neolithic
and Bronze Age Barrows in the Low Countries Explained by Differences in Soil Formation,
Degradation Processes and Land Use History .......................................................... H. 2, 177
B e r bü sse , C., Flachzylindrische Eisenblechdosen der Mittel- und Spätlatènezeit aus Rheinhessen und dem Hunsrück . . . . . H. 2, 215
B o c hn ak, T., Harasim, P., Reparierte Waffen der vorrömischen Eisenzeit in der Przeworsk- und Oksywie-Kultur .......... H. 4, 519
B o c k, C., Friedow, S., Haburaj, V., Neubeck, V., Pasda, C., Roa Romero, R., Vökler, D., Weiß, J.,
Der Magdalénien-Fundplatz Oelknitz (Saale-Holzland-Kreis) – die Ausgrabung von 1932......................... H. 2, 141
Bourgeois, J., Ver g au we , R., van Beek, R., Finke, P., Spatial Variation in the Preservation of Late Neolithic
and Bronze Age Barrows in the Low Countries Explained by Differences in Soil Formation,
Degradation Processes and Land Use History .......................................................... H. 2, 177
B r u sg aar d , N. Ø., Fokkens, H., van As, S. F. M., Huisman, H. D. J., The Potential of Metal Debris:
a Late Iron Age Ironworking Site at Oss-Schalkskamp (prov. Noord-Brabant / NL) ............................... H. 3, 345
C h a um e, B., Ney, W., Les bules de type Heuneburg ..................................................... H. 1, 61
Chvojka, O., C h y tr áč e k , M., Egg, M., John, J., Kyselý, R., Michálek, J., Ritter, S., Stránská, P., Zu einem Fürstengrab
aus der Späthallstattzeit mit zweirädrigem Wagen und Bronzegefäßen bei Rovná (okr. Strakonice) in Südböhmen.
Ein Vorbericht ................................................................................. H. 1, 71
C h y tr áč e k , M., Chvojka, O., Egg, M., John, J., Kyselý, R., Michálek, J., Ritter, S., Stránská, P., Zu einem Fürstengrab
aus der Späthallstattzeit mit zweirädrigem Wagen und Bronzegefäßen bei Rovná (okr. Strakonice) in Südböhmen.
Ein Vorbericht ................................................................................. H. 1, 71
Creemers, G., Me y le ma ns, E., De Bie, M., Paesen, J., Revealing Extensive Protohistoric Field Systems
through High Resolution LIDAR Data in the Northern Part of Belgium ....................................... H. 2, 197
C r o mb é, Ph., Sergant, J., Perdaen, Y., Meylemans, E., Deforce, K., Neolithic Pottery Finds at the Wetland Site
of Bazel-Kruibeke (prov. Oost-Vlaanderen / B). Evidence of Long-Distance Forager-Farmer Contact
during the Late 6th and 5th Millennium Cal BC in the Rhine-Meuse-Scheldt Area ............................... H. 1, 21
Daim, F., P roh á sz ka , P., Der Kaiser auf der Mantelschließe: Zum Deckel der frühmittelalterlichen Dose
von Sorpe (prov. Lérida / E) ........................................................................ H. 4, 563
De Bie, M., M e y le man s , E., Creemers, G., Paesen, J., Revealing Extensive Protohistoric Field Systems
through High Resolution LIDAR Data in the Northern Part of Belgium ....................................... H. 2, 197
Deforce, K., Cr o m bé , Ph., Sergant, J., Perdaen, Y., Meylemans, E., Neolithic Pottery Finds at the Wetland Site
of Bazel-Kruibeke (prov. Oost-Vlaanderen / B). Evidence of Long-Distance Forager-Farmer Contact
during the Late 6th and 5th Millennium Cal BC in the Rhine-Meuse-Scheldt Area ............................... H. 1, 21
Egg, M., C h y tr áč e k , M., Chvojka, O., John, J., Kyselý, R., Michálek, J., Ritter, S., Stránská, P., Zu einem Fürstengrab
aus der Späthallstattzeit mit zweirädrigem Wagen und Bronzegefäßen bei Rovná (okr. Strakonice) in Südböhmen.
Ein Vorbericht ................................................................................. H. 1, 71
594 Jahresinhaltsverzeichnis
Finke, P., V e rg au we, R., van Beek, R., Bourgeois, J., Spatial Variation in the Preservation of Late Neolithic
and Bronze Age Barrows in the Low Countries Explained by Differences in Soil Formation,
Degradation Processes and Land Use History .......................................................... H. 2, 177
F l o ss , H., Fröhle, S., Poenicke, H.-W., Wettengl, S., Die mittel- und jungpaläolithische Freilandfundstelle
Börslingen-Eisenberg (Alb-Donau-Kreis).............................................................. H. 4, 459
Fokkens, H., B r u sg aar d , N. Ø., van As, S. F. M., Huisman, H. D. J., The Potential of Metal Debris:
a Late Iron Age Ironworking Site at Oss-Schalkskamp (prov. Noord-Brabant / NL) ............................... H. 3, 345
F r a nc ken , M., Harvati, K., Wahl, J., Soziale Binnengliederung im linearbandkeramischen Gräberfeld
von Schwetzingen (Rhein-Neckar-Kreis) ............................................................. H. 3, 303
Friedow, S., Boc k , C., Haburaj, V., Neubeck, V., Pasda, C., Roa Romero, R., Vökler, D., Weiß, J.,
Der Magdalénien-Fundplatz Oelknitz (Saale-Holzland-Kreis) – die Ausgrabung von 1932......................... H. 2, 141
Fröhle, S., Fl o ss , H., Poenicke, H.-W., Wettengl, S., Die mittel- und jungpaläolithische Freilandfundstelle
Börslingen-Eisenberg (Alb-Donau-Kreis).............................................................. H. 4, 459
G a l l, F., Ein römisches Gorgoneion aus Belleben-Haus Zeitz (Salzlandkreis) ...................................... H. 1, 125
G e l ha use n , F., Das lithische Fundmaterial der Magdalénien-Station Oelknitz (Saale-Holzland-Kreis),
Grabungen 1957-1967 – eine Übersicht ............................................................. H. 2, 161
G r a el ls i F abre g at , R., Lorrio Alvarado, A. J., Pérez Blasco, M. F., A New Fragment of a Hispano-Chalcidian Helmet
from Castillejo (prov. Soria) in the RGZM ............................................................. H. 1, 91
G r u nw ald , L., Keramische Luxuswaren aus den spätmittelalterlichen Töpfereien von Mayen (Lkr. Mayen-Koblenz).
Anmerkungen zu Werkstätten und zwei Krugfragmenten mit anthropomorphen Verzierungen.................... H. 1, 137
G u i ha rd , P.-M., Les faux-monnayeurs au travail. Réexions à partir de quelques moules en terre cuite
du 3e siècle apr. J.-C. conservés au Musée de Normandie à Caen........................................... H. 2, 263
H ä b er le, S., Schibler, J., Van Neer, W., Hüster Plogmann, H., Fischknochen als Indikatoren für Gewässerzustand
und menschliche Fischselektion. Eine zusammenfassende Auswertung mittelalterlicher und neuzeitlicher Fischreste
aus dem Rheineinzugsgebiet der Schweiz ............................................................ H. 3, 417
Haburaj, V., B ock , C., Friedow, S., Neubeck, V., Pasda, C., Roa Romero, R., Vökler, D., Weiß, J.,
Der Magdalénien-Fundplatz Oelknitz (Saale-Holzland-Kreis) – die Ausgrabung von 1932......................... H. 2, 141
H a n se n, L., Krausse, D., Tarpini, R., Wahl, J., Besiedlungs- und Kulturlandschaftsentwicklung im Umfeld der Heuneburg
während der Hallstatt- und Frühlatènezeit – erste Ergebnisse.............................................. H. 4, 499
Harasim, P., B oc hna k , T., Reparierte Waffen der vorrömischen Eisenzeit in der Przeworsk- und Oksywie-Kultur.......... H. 4, 519
Harvati, K., F r a nc ken , M., Wahl, J., Soziale Binnengliederung im linearbandkeramischen Gräberfeld
von Schwetzingen (Rhein-Neckar-Kreis) ............................................................. H. 3, 303
Havlíček, P., Š íd a, P., Sázelová, S., Smolíková, L., Hlaváč, J., Lower and Middle Pleistocene Sediment Sequence
with Archaeological Finds in Horky nad Jizerou (okr. Mladá Boleslav / CZ) ..................................... H. 3, 283
Heeren, S., Ro y ma ns , N., A Late Roman Solidus Hoard with Hacksilber from Echt (prov. Limburg / NL) ................. H. 4, 549
Helfert, M., Wa h l -C ler i ci , R., Wiechowski, A., Ramminger, B., Schierl, Th., Die Mühlsteinproduktion
im Steinbruch von Fonte da Ribeira. Zum römischen Bergwerksdistrikt von Três Minas, Gralheira
und Campo de Jales (distr. Vila Real / P) .............................................................. H. 3, 379
H i l gn er, A., Eine kommunikative Bilderwelt? Anmerkungen zu einer angelsächsischen Gürtelschnalle
aus Burwell (Cambridgeshire / GB) .................................................................. H. 3, 403
Hlaváč, J., Š í d a, P., Sázelová, S., Havlíček, P., Smolíková, L., Lower and Middle Pleistocene Sediment Sequence
with Archaeological Finds in Horky nad Jizerou (okr. Mladá Boleslav / CZ) ..................................... H. 3, 283
Huisman, H. D. J., B r u sg aar d , N. Ø., Fokkens, H., van As, S. F. M., The Potential of Metal Debris:
a Late Iron Age Ironworking Site at Oss-Schalkskamp (prov. Noord-Brabant / NL) ............................... H. 3, 345
H u s sa in, S. T., Mensch, Fluss und Raum: Überlegungen zur ökokulturellen Rolle großer Flusssysteme
im europäischen Jungpaläolithikum................................................................. H. 4, 439
595Archäologisches Korrespondenzblatt 45 · 2015
Hüster Plogmann, H., H ä b er le, S., Schibler, J., Van Neer, W., Fischknochen als Indikatoren für Gewässerzustand
und menschliche Fischselektion. Eine zusammenfassende Auswertung mittelalterlicher und neuzeitlicher Fischreste
aus dem Rheineinzugsgebiet der Schweiz ............................................................ H. 3, 417
John, J., C h y tr áč e k , M., Chvojka, O., Egg, M., Kyselý, R., Michálek, J., Ritter, S., Stránská, P., Zu einem Fürstengrab
aus der Späthallstattzeit mit zweirädrigem Wagen und Bronzegefäßen bei Rovná (okr. Strakonice) in Südböhmen.
Ein Vorbericht ................................................................................. H. 1, 71
K r á l, V., Limburský, P., Menšík, P., Polished Stone Tools of the Early Bronze Age in Bohemia ......................... H. 3, 335
Krausse, D., H a n se n, L., Tarpini, R., Wahl, J., Besiedlungs- und Kulturlandschaftsentwicklung im Umfeld der Heuneburg
während der Hallstatt- und Frühlatènezeit – erste Ergebnisse.............................................. H. 4, 499
Kyselý, R., Ch yt ráč e k, M., Chvojka, O., Egg, M., John, J., Michálek, J., Ritter, S., Stránská, P., Zu einem Fürstengrab
aus der Späthallstattzeit mit zweirädrigem Wagen und Bronzegefäßen bei Rovná (okr. Strakonice) in Südböhmen.
Ein Vorbericht ................................................................................. H. 1, 71
Limburský, P., Kr á l, V., Menšík, P., Polished Stone Tools of the Early Bronze Age in Bohemia ......................... H. 3, 335
Lorrio Alvarado, A. J., G r a el ls i F abre g at , R., Pérez Blasco, M. F., A New Fragment of a Hispano-Chalcidian Helmet
from Castillejo (prov. Soria) in the RGZM ............................................................. H. 1, 91
L o u gh ton , M. E., Engraved Amphora Dies from Toulouse »Caserne Niel« (dép. Haute-Garonne):
New Evidence Concerning their Function............................................................. H. 1, 105
Menšík, P., K rá l, V., Limburský, P., Polished Stone Tools of the Early Bronze Age in Bohemia ......................... H. 3, 335
M e y le man s , E., Creemers, G., De Bie, M., Paesen, J., Revealing Extensive Protohistoric Field Systems
through High Resolution LIDAR Data in the Northern Part of Belgium ....................................... H. 2, 197
Meylemans, E., C r o mb é, Ph., Sergant, J., Perdaen, Y., Deforce, K., Neolithic Pottery Finds at the Wetland Site
of Bazel-Kruibeke (prov. Oost-Vlaanderen / B). Evidence of Long-Distance Forager-Farmer Contact
during the Late 6th and 5th Millennium Cal BC in the Rhine-Meuse-Scheldt Area ............................... H. 1, 21
Michálek, J., C h y tr áč e k , M., Chvojka, O., Egg, M., John, J., Kyselý, R., Ritter, S., Stránská, P., Zu einem Fürstengrab
aus der Späthallstattzeit mit zweirädrigem Wagen und Bronzegefäßen bei Rovná (okr. Strakonice) in Südböhmen.
Ein Vorbericht ................................................................................. H. 1, 71
M i c he l, G., Die Dame mit dem Sonnenschirm – zu Grab Köln, Severinstraße 129 ................................ H. 3, 395
N e g in , A. E., A Bearded Face-Mask Helmet from the Collection of the National Museum in Belgrade.
An Example of Mutual Inuences of Armament Traditions at the Roman Frontier............................... H. 4, 535
Neubeck, V., B ock , C., Friedow, S., Haburaj, V., Pasda, C., Roa Romero, R., Vökler, D., Weiß, J.,
Der Magdalénien-Fundplatz Oelknitz (Saale-Holzland-Kreis) – die Ausgrabung von 1932......................... H. 2, 141
N e u ma nn, D., Pütz, A., Vohberger, M., Ein schnurkeramisches Grab mit Silexdolchbeigabe
aus Aschheim (Lkr. München). Absolute Datierung, Strontiumisotopenanalysen und archäologische Vergleiche ........ H. 3, 319
Ney, W., C ha ume , B., Les bules de type Heuneburg ..................................................... H. 1, 61
Paesen, J., M e y le man s , E., Creemers, G., De Bie, M., Revealing Extensive Protohistoric Field Systems
through High Resolution LIDAR Data in the Northern Part of Belgium ....................................... H. 2, 197
Pasda, C., B o c k, C., Friedow, S., Haburaj, V., Neubeck, V., Roa Romero, R., Vökler, D., Weiß, J.,
Der Magdalénien-Fundplatz Oelknitz (Saale-Holzland-Kreis) – die Ausgrabung von 1932......................... H. 2, 141
Perdaen, Y., C r o mb é, Ph., Sergant, J., Meylemans, E., Deforce, K., Neolithic Pottery Finds at the Wetland Site
of Bazel-Kruibeke (prov. Oost-Vlaanderen / B). Evidence of Long-Distance Forager-Farmer Contact
during the Late 6th and 5th Millennium Cal BC in the Rhine-Meuse-Scheldt Area ............................... H. 1, 21
Pérez Blasco, M. F., G rae l ls i Fa b re ga t, R., Lorrio Alvarado, A. J., A New Fragment of a Hispano-Chalcidian Helmet
from Castillejo (prov. Soria) in the RGZM ............................................................. H. 1, 91
Poenicke, H.-W., Fl oss , H., Fröhle, S., Wettengl, S., Die mittel- und jungpaläolithische Freilandfundstelle
Börslingen-Eisenberg (Alb-Donau-Kreis).............................................................. H. 4, 459
596 Jahresinhaltsverzeichnis
P r o há sz ka, P., Daim, F., Der Kaiser auf der Mantelschließe: Zum Deckel der frühmittelalterlichen Dose
von Sorpe (prov. Lérida / E) ........................................................................ H. 4, 563
Pütz, A., N e u ma nn, D., Vohberger, M., Ein schnurkeramisches Grab mit Silexdolchbeigabe
aus Aschheim (Lkr. München). Absolute Datierung, Strontiumisotopenanalysen und archäologische Vergleiche ........ H. 3, 319
Ramminger, B., Wa h l- Cle r ic i, R., Wiechowski, A., Helfert, M., Schierl, Th., Die Mühlsteinproduktion im Steinbruch
von Fonte da Ribeira. Zum römischen Bergwerksdistrikt von Três Minas, Gralheira
und Campo de Jales (distr. Vila Real / P) .............................................................. H. 3, 379
R i t te r, J., Zu einem Knochenkamm der Linienbandkeramik aus Friedberg B3a km 19 (Wetteraukreis) ................. H. 4, 475
Ritter, S., Ch yt ráč e k, M., Chvojka, O., Egg, M., John, J., Kyselý, R., Michálek, J., Stránská, P., Zu einem Fürstengrab
aus der Späthallstattzeit mit zweirädrigem Wagen und Bronzegefäßen bei Rovná (okr. Strakonice) in Südböhmen.
Ein Vorbericht ................................................................................. H. 1, 71
Roa Romero, R., Bo c k, C., Friedow, S., Haburaj, V., Neubeck, V., Pasda, C., Vökler, D., Weiß, J.,
Der Magdalénien-Fundplatz Oelknitz (Saale-Holzland-Kreis) – die Ausgrabung von 1932......................... H. 2, 141
R o y ma ns, N., Heeren, S., A Late Roman Solidus Hoard with Hacksilber from Echt (prov. Limburg / NL)................. H. 4, 549
R u s to iu, A., Amphora-Shaped Glass and Coral Beads. Distant Cultural Connections in the Carpathian Basin
at the Beginning of the Late Iron Age ............................................................... H. 3, 365
Sázelová, S., Š í d a, P., Havlíček, P., Smolíková, L., Hlaváč, J., Lower and Middle Pleistocene Sediment Sequence
with Archaeological Finds in Horky nad Jizerou (okr. Mladá Boleslav / CZ) ..................................... H. 3, 283
Schibler, J., Hä be rle , S., Van Neer, W., Hüster Plogmann, H., Fischknochen als Indikatoren für Gewässerzustand
und menschliche Fischselektion. Eine zusammenfassende Auswertung mittelalterlicher und neuzeitlicher Fischreste
aus dem Rheineinzugsgebiet der Schweiz ............................................................ H. 3, 417
Schierl, Th., Wa h l -C ler i ci , R., Wiechowski, A., Helfert, M., Ramminger, B., Die Mühlsteinproduktion
im Steinbruch von Fonte da Ribeira. Zum römischen Bergwerksdistrikt von Três Minas, Gralheira
und Campo de Jales (distr. Vila Real / P) .............................................................. H. 3, 379
S c h ul ze - D ör rla m m, M., Zur Deutung von Orantenreliefs auf Scheibenbeln der Karolingerzeit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H. 4, 579
Sergant, J., C r o mb é, Ph., Perdaen, Y., Meylemans, E., Deforce, K., Neolithic Pottery Finds at the Wetland Site
of Bazel-Kruibeke (prov. Oost-Vlaanderen / B). Evidence of Long-Distance Forager-Farmer Contact
during the Late 6th and 5th Millennium Cal BC in the Rhine-Meuse-Scheldt Area ............................... H. 1, 21
Š í d a, P., Sázelová, S., Havlíček, P., Smolíková, L., Hlaváč, J., Lower and Middle Pleistocene Sediment Sequence
with Archaeological Finds in Horky nad Jizerou (okr. Mladá Boleslav / CZ) ..................................... H. 3, 283
Smolíková, L., Š í d a, P., Sázelová, S., Havlíček, P., Hlaváč, J., Lower and Middle Pleistocene Sediment Sequence
with Archaeological Finds in Horky nad Jizerou (okr. Mladá Boleslav / CZ) ..................................... H. 3, 283
Stránská, P., C hy tr á č ek , M., Chvojka, O., Egg, M., John, J., Kyselý, R., Michálek, J., Ritter, S., Zu einem Fürstengrab
aus der Späthallstattzeit mit zweirädrigem Wagen und Bronzegefäßen bei Rovná (okr. Strakonice) in Südböhmen.
Ein Vorbericht ................................................................................. H. 1, 71
S z a bó , C., Notes on a New Cautes Statue from Apulum (jud. Alba / RO) ....................................... H. 2, 237
Tarpini, R., H a ns en , L., Krausse, D., Wahl, J., Besiedlungs- und Kulturlandschaftsentwicklung
im Umfeld der Heuneburg während der Hallstatt- und Frühlatènezeit – erste Ergebnisse ......................... H. 4, 499
Tr eb sc he, P., Zur Absolutdatierung der urnenfelderzeitlichen Kupfergewinnung im südöstlichen Niederösterreich ....... H. 1, 41
Van Neer, W., H ä b er le, S., Schibler, J., Hüster Plogmann, H., Fischknochen als Indikatoren für Gewässerzustand
und menschliche Fischselektion. Eine zusammenfassende Auswertung mittelalterlicher und neuzeitlicher Fischreste
aus dem Rheineinzugsgebiet der Schweiz ............................................................ H. 3, 417
Ver g au we , R., van Beek, R., Bourgeois, J., Finke, P., Spatial Variation in the Preservation of Late Neolithic
and Bronze Age Barrows in the Low Countries Explained by Differences in Soil Formation,
Degradation Processes and Land Use History .......................................................... H. 2, 177
597Archäologisches Korrespondenzblatt 45 · 2015
Vohberger, M., N eum a nn , D., Pütz, A., Ein schnurkeramisches Grab mit Silexdolchbeigabe
aus Aschheim (Lkr. München). Absolute Datierung, Strontiumisotopenanalysen und archäologische Vergleiche ........ H. 3, 319
Vökler, D., B ock , C., Friedow, S., Haburaj, V., Neubeck, V., Pasda, C., Roa Romero, R., Weiß, J.,
Der Magdalénien-Fundplatz Oelknitz (Saale-Holzland-Kreis) – die Ausgrabung von 1932......................... H. 2, 141
Wa h l -C ler i ci , R., Wiechowski, A., Helfert, M., Ramminger, B., Schierl, Th., Die Mühlsteinproduktion
im Steinbruch von Fonte da Ribeira. Zum römischen Bergwerksdistrikt von Três Minas,
Gralheira und Campo de Jales (distr. Vila Real / P) ....................................................... H. 3, 379
Wahl, J., Fr a n ck en, M., Harvati, K., Soziale Binnengliederung im linearbandkeramischen Gräberfeld
von Schwetzingen (Rhein-Neckar-Kreis) ............................................................. H. 3, 303
Wahl, J., Ha n s en , L., Krausse, D., Tarpini, R., Besiedlungs- und Kulturlandschaftsentwicklung
im Umfeld der Heuneburg während der Hallstatt- und Frühlatènezeit – erste Ergebnisse ......................... H. 4, 499
Wa r m en bol , E., Nordic Late Bronze Age Razors: »Very like a Whale« ........................................ H. 4, 487
Weiß, J., Bo c k, C., Friedow, S., Haburaj, V., Neubeck, V., Pasda, C., Roa Romero, R., Vökler, D.,
Der Magdalénien-Fundplatz Oelknitz (Saale-Holzland-Kreis) – die Ausgrabung von 1932......................... H. 2, 141
Wettengl, S., Fl o ss , H., Fröhle, S., Poenicke, H.-W., Die mittel- und jungpaläolithische Freilandfundstelle
Börslingen-Eisenberg (Alb-Donau-Kreis).............................................................. H. 4, 459
Wiechowski, A., Wa h l- Cle r ic i, R., Helfert, M., Ramminger, B., Schierl, Th., Die Mühlsteinproduktion
im Steinbruch von Fonte da Ribeira. Zum römischen Bergwerksdistrikt von Três Minas,
Gralheira und Campo de Jales (distr. Vila Real / P) ....................................................... H. 3, 379
Z a n ds tr a , M., The Artist Formerly Known as Batavus: a Reinterpretation of a Grafto
from Velsen (prov. Noord-Holland / NL) ............................................................... H. 2, 229
... Suffice to say that in Scandinavia the objects in question can be associated with both sexes, and discussion on functions is complicated, partly because cremation was the prevailing mode of disposal (see and compare e.g. Kaul 1998;Thedéen 2003;Forsgren 2007;Harding 2008;Storn 2008;Johansson 2011;Gustavsson 2012;Hornstrup et al. 2012, Catalogue;Warmenbol 2015;Arnoldussen & Steegstra 2018;Hornstrup 2018). ...
Article
Fifteen radiocarbon dates of inhumed burials were obtained for the 36 stone-cist graves at Jõelähtme, the largest completely excavated stone-cist cemetery in Estonia, to confirm and complement the typo-chronological date based on the Nordic Bronze Age chronology. The bronze artefacts of Nordic origin, such as razors, tweezers, double buttons, and looped toggles, in which the cemetery is, in the local context, exceptionally rich, date from Montelian Periods IV and V, more specifically perhaps around the turn of the periods. This is in good accordance with the radiocarbon dates, which show that burial began around 1000 BC at the latest and ended around 900 BC at the earliest. It is likely that the lifespan of the cemetery was longer between 1100 (less likely, 1200) and 800 BC. Besides the human remains, a dog bone and a cat bone were radiocarbon dated to ca AD 260–540 and 990–1160, respectively. Particularly surprising was the late date for the dog, because the separate cist apparently built for dogs suggested a date contemporary with the Bronze Age burials.
... 8 The recovery of facial hairs from more than one person on the Winterslow razor may be a case in point. 9 Also, our limited understanding of the cosmological significance of the iconography on razors (which may reference animals as diverse as horses, fish, waterfowl and whales (Kaul 1998;Jockenhövel 2003: 139;Warmenbol 2015) warrants cautious and regionally specific interpretations. 10 Moreover, the scope and pervasiveness of the warrior ideology, its selectiveness (who were entitled and when?) and its bodily repercussions have recently been called into question. ...
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Discussions on the presence, nature and apparel of (presumed) European Bronze Age warriors has traditionally focused on weapon graves, armour and rock art-the latter two regrettably absent in the Low Countries. This means that for this area, warrior identities need to be reconstructed on the basis of funerary assemblages that may even lack actual weapons. Since Paul Treherne's seminal (1995) paper, particularly razors and tweezers have been recognized as reflecting the personal care typical of the warrior lifestyle. In this paper, Bronze Age and Early Iron Age razors and tweezers from the Netherlands are discussed as part of their wider West-European distribution. Razors of different shapes (pegged, tanged, symmetrical and asymmetrical) can be shown to date to different phases in the period of c. 1600-600 BC. Moreover, in variations in handle and blade shape, regional groups and supra-regional contact networks can be identified. Tweezers too show ample diachronic and regional variations: in addition to presumably local types, Nordic and Hallstatt imports are discernible. Razors and tweezers were part of toilet sets that differed in meaning and composition within the time-frame of 1600-600 BC. We argue that the short-hafted awls frequently found in association may represent tattooing needles. In the Hallstatt period, nail-cutters and ear-scoops complement the set (now often suspended from a ring and worn in leather pouches closed with rings or beads). Contextual analysis of the objects shows that razors could be placed in hoards, yet most originate from graves. Several urnfield razors (and some tweezers) originate from funerary monuments that must have stood out for their age, shape or dimensions (e.g. older tombs, long-bed barrows), hinting at a special status for those interred with the toilet sets. Remarkably, the association of razors and tweezers with weapons is infrequent for the Low Countries during most phases of the Bronze Age. Associations with swords are limited to the Ploughrescant-Ommerschans dagger from the famous Ommerschans hoard and the Gündlingen sword from the Oss chieftain's grave. This means that in the Low Countries, a pars-pro-toto approach to the expression of warrior identity prevailed-one in which the interment of toilet sets instrumental to the expression of warrior identity took precedence over the interment of weaponry.
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