Chapter

Modification of Bone Marrow Stem Cells for Homing and Survival During Cerebral Ischemia

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Abstract

Over the last decade, major advances have been made in stem cell-based therapy for ischemic stroke, which is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Various stem cells from bone marrow, such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), have shown therapeutic potential for stroke. Concomitant with these exciting findings are some fundamental bottlenecks that must be overcome in order to accelerate their clinical translation, including the low survival and engraftment caused by the harsh microenvironment after transplantation. In this chapter, strategies such as gene modification, hypoxia/growth factor preconditioning, and biomaterial-based methods to improve cell survival and homing are summarized, and the potential strategies for their future application are also discussed.

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... Hence, a pouch-like hydrogel materials like collagen, gelatin, and fibroin can serve as a potential and medically advantageous candidate in drug delivery systems, cell therapy, creation and regeneration of muscle tissues, and controlled release of systems. [29][30][31][32] Nowadays, hydrogel materials are widely used in biomedical and pharmaceutical field for its distinct properties like biocompatible, biodegradable, swelling ability, and non-toxicity. Combination of biopolymers like chitosan (C), with hydrogel has been demonstrated as an efficient candidate for stem cell transplantation. ...
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Quantitatively tracking engraftment of intracerebrally or intravenously transplanted stem cells and evaluating their concomitant therapeutic efficacy for stroke has been a challenge in the field of stem cell therapy. In this study, first, an MRI/SPECT/fluorescent tri-modal probe (125I-fSiO4@SPIOs) is synthesized for quantitatively tracking mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplanted intracerebrally or intravenously into stroke rats, and then the therapeutic efficacy of MSCs delivered by both routes and the possible mechanism of the therapy are evaluated. It is demonstrated that (125)I-fSiO4@SPIOs have high efficiency for labeling MSCs without affecting their viability, differentiation, and proliferation capacity , and found that 35% of intracerebrally injected MSCs migrate along the corpus callosum to the lesion area, while 90% of intravenously injected MSCs remain trapped in the lung at 14 days after MSC transplantation. However, neurobehavioral outcomes are significantly improved in both transplantation groups, which are accompanied by increases of vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-3 in blood, lung, and brain tissue (p < 0.05). The study demonstrates that 125I-fSiO4@SPIOs are robust probe for long-term tracking of MSCs in the treatment of ischemic brain and MSCs delivered via both routes improve neurobehavioral outcomes in ischemic rats.
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Development of cell delivery platforms have been driven based on an empirical cytoprotective design. While cell-matrix and cell-cell interactions that influence biochemical effects beyond survival has been limited and overshadowed in an effort to incrementally improve biomimicking properties of the tissue-engineered constructs. Here we demonstrate fabrication of a shape controlled 3D type-I collagen-based microgel platform that can be tuned to modulate angiogenic paracrine- 'angiocrine' responses of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Furthermore, these microgels were characterized as a 3D cell culture tool to assess optimal biological response as a function of cell-matrix and cell-cell interactions. Finally, optimised hMSC embedded microgels were shown to induce vascular repair and functional improvement in vivo in a mouse model of hind-limb ischemia. The approach described here in designing a tuneable cell delivery platform using naturally occurring extracellular matrix molecules highlights the need for highly customised matrices with an array of self-assembling proteins that dictate specific cell function resembling the native tissue of interest for repair.
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Background and purpose: Acute interventions of stroke are often challenged by a narrow treatment window. In this study, we explore treatments in the postacute phase of stroke with wider windows of opportunity. We investigated the effects of stromal cell-derived factor (SDF-1α) in neurovascular recovery during the postacute phase and downstream signaling pathways, underlying SDF-1α-mediated neurovascular recovery. Methods: Adult male Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion. One week after middle cerebral artery occlusion, the animals received stereotactic injection of adenoassociated virus (AAV) carrying SDF-1α gene as treatment or AAV-green fluorescent protein as control and were monitored for 5 weeks. Neurobehavioral outcomes were evaluated, and brain atrophy was measured. Neurogenesis and angiogenesis were examined. The proliferation and migration of neural progenitor cells were evaluated. Downstream pathways of SDF-1α were investigated. Inflammatory response was monitored. Results: Neurobehavioral outcomes were improved, and brain atrophy was greatly reduced for ≤5 weeks in AAV-SDF-1α groups when compared with the control. SDF-1 receptor CXCR4 was upregulated and colocalized with neural and endothelial progenitor cells. The number of nestin(+) and doublecortin(+)/bromodeoxyuridine(+) cells in the subventricular zone, doublecortin(+) and neuron(+)/bromodeoxyuridine(+) cells in the perifocal region, and cluster of differentiation (CD)31(+) and bromodeoxyuridine(+)/CD31(+) microvessels are also significantly increased in AAV-SDF-1α groups. Administration of CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 eliminated the beneficial effects of SDF-1α. SDF-1α/CXCR4 interaction activated AKT, extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), and P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways but not the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway. Conclusions: SDF-1α promoted neurogenesis and angiogenesis during the postacute phase of ischemia without eliciting an inflammatory response. AAV-SDF-1α expression represents a promising avenue for ischemic stroke therapy with a wider treatment window.
Article
Cell therapy is emerging as a viable therapy to restore neurological function after stroke. Many types of stem/progenitor cells from different sources have been explored for their feasibility and efficacy for the treatment of stroke. Transplanted cells not only have the potential to replace the lost circuitry, but also produce growth and trophic factors, or stimulate the release of such factors from host brain cells, thereby enhancing endogenous brain repair processes. Although stem/progenitor cells have shown a promising role in ischemic stroke in experimental studies as well as initial clinical pilot studies, cellular therapy is still at an early stage in humans. Many critical issues need to be addressed including the therapeutic time window, cell type selection, delivery route, and in vivo monitoring of their migration pattern. This review attempts to provide a comprehensive synopsis of preclinical evidence and clinical experience of various donor cell types, their restorative mechanisms, delivery routes, imaging strategies, future prospects and challenges for translating cell therapies as a neurorestorative regimen in clinical applications.
Article
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have attracted much attention in regenerative medicine owing to their apparent usefulness as multi-potent replacement cells. The potential of MSC therapy can be further improved by transforming MSCs with therapeutic genes that maximize the efficacy of gene therapy and their own therapeutic ability. Since most conventional transfection methodologies have shown marginal success in delivering exogenous genes into primary cultured cells, efficient gene transfer into primary MSCs is a prerequisite for the development of MSC-based gene therapy strategies to achieve repair and regeneration of damaged tissues. Herein, facially amphipathic bile acid-modified polyethyleneimine (BA-PEI) conjugates were synthesized and used to transfer hypoxia-inducible vascular endothelial growth factor gene (pHI-VEGF) in MSCs for the treatment of rat myocardial infarction. Under the optimized transfection conditions, the BA-PEI conjugates significantly increased the VEGF protein expression levels in rat MSCs, compared with traditional transfection methods such as Lipofectamine™ and branched-PEI (25 kDa). Furthermore, the prepared pHI-VEGF-engineered MSCs (VEGF-MSCs) resulted in improved cell viability, particularly during severe hypoxic exposure in vitro. The transplantation of MSCs genetically modified to overexpress VEGF by BA-PEI enhanced the capillary formation in the infarction region and eventually attenuated left ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction in rats. This study demonstrates the applicability of the BA-PEI conjugates for the efficient transfection of therapeutic genes into MSCs and the feasibility of using the genetically engineered MSCs in regenerative medicine for myocardial infarction.
Article
Astrocytes have not been a major therapeutic target for the treatment of stroke, with most research emphasis on the neuron. Given the essential role that astrocytes play in maintaining physiological function of the central nervous system and the very rapid and sensitive reaction astrocytes have in response to cerebral injury or ischemic insult, we propose to replace the neurocentric view for treatment with a more nuanced astrocytic centered approach. In addition, after decades of effort in attempting to develop neuroprotective therapies, which target reduction of the ischemic lesion, there are no effective clinical treatments for stroke, aside from thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator, which is used in a small minority of patients. A more promising therapeutic approach, which may affect nearly all stroke patients, may be in promoting endogenous restorative mechanisms, which enhance neurological recovery. A focus of efforts in stimulating recovery post stroke is the use of exogenously administered cells. The present review focuses on the role of the astrocyte in mediating the brain network, brain plasticity, and neurological recovery post stroke. As a model to describe the interaction of a restorative cell-based therapy with astrocytes, which drives recovery from stroke, we specifically highlight the subacute treatment of stroke with multipotent mesenchymal stromal cell therapy. GLIA 2013;62:1-16.
Article
Exogenously delivered chemokines have enabled neovasculogenic myocardial repair in models of ischemic cardiomyopathy; however, these molecules have short half-lives in vivo. In this study, we hypothesized that the sustained delivery of a synthetic analog of stromal cell-derived factor 1-α (engineered stromal cell-derived factor analog [ESA]) induces continuous homing of endothelial progenitor cells and improves left ventricular function in a rat model of myocardial infarction. Our previously designed ESA peptide was synthesized by the addition of a fluorophore tag for tracking. Hyaluronic acid was chemically modified with hydroxyethyl methacrylate to form hydrolytically degradable hydrogels through free-radical-initiated crosslinking. ESA was encapsulated in hyaluronic acid hydrogels during gel formation, and then ESA release, along with gel degradation, was monitored for more than 4 weeks in vitro. Chemotactic properties of the eluted ESA were assessed at multiple time points using rat endothelial progenitor cells in a transwell migration assay. Finally, adult male Wistar rats (n=33) underwent permanent ligation of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery, and 100 µL of saline, hydrogel alone, or hydrogel+25 µg ESA was injected into the borderzone. ESA fluorescence was monitored in animals for more than 4 weeks, after which vasculogenic, geometric, and functional parameters were assessed to determine the therapeutic benefit of each treatment group. ESA release was sustained for 4 weeks in vitro, remained active, and enhanced endothelial progenitor cell chemotaxis. In addition, ESA was detected in the rat heart >3 weeks when delivered within the hydrogels and significantly improved vascularity, ventricular geometry, ejection fraction, cardiac output, and contractility compared with controls. We have developed a hydrogel delivery system that sustains the release of a bioactive endothelial progenitor cell chemokine during a 4-week period that preserves ventricular function in a rat model of myocardial infarction.
Article
Intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (r-tPA) was approved for use in acute ischemic stroke in the United States in 1996. Approximately 2% to 5% of patients with acute ischemic stroke receive r-tPA. Complications related to intravenous r-tPA include symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, major systemic hemorrhage, and angioedema in approximately 6%, 2%, and 5% of patients, respectively. Risk factors for symptomatic hemorrhage include age, male gender, obesity, increased stroke severity, diabetes, hyperglycemia, uncontrolled hypertension, combination antiplatelet use, large areas of early ischemic change, atrial fibrillation, congestive heart failure, and leukoariosis. A risk factor for angioedema is the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. Risk assessment scores, novel imaging strategies, and telemedicine may offer methods of optimizing the risk-benefit ratio.
Article
Stem cell transplantation therapy has emerged as a promising regenerative medicine for ischemic stroke and other neurodegenerative disorders. However, many issues and problems remain to be resolved before successful clinical applications of the cell-based therapy. To this end, some recent investigations have sought to benefit from well-known mechanisms of ischemic/hypoxic preconditioning. Ischemic/hypoxic preconditioning activates endogenous defense mechanisms that show marked protective effects against multiple insults found in ischemic stroke and other acute attacks. As in many other cell types, a sub-lethal hypoxic exposure significantly increases the tolerance and regenerative properties of stem cells and progenitor cells. So far, a variety of preconditioning triggers have been tested on different stem cells and progenitor cells. Preconditioned stem cells and progenitors generally show much better cell survival, increased neuronal differentiation, enhanced paracrine effects leading to increased trophic support, and improved homing to the lesion site. Transplantation of preconditioned cells helps to suppress inflammatory factors and immune responses, and promote functional recovery. Although the preconditioning strategy in stem cell therapy is still an emerging research area, accumulating information from reports over the last few years already indicates it as an attractive, if not essential, prerequisite for transplanted cells. It is expected that stem cell preconditioning and its clinical applications will attract more attention in both the basic research field of preconditioning as well as in the field of stem cell translational research. This review summarizes the most important findings in this active research area, covering the preconditioning triggers, potential mechanisms, mediators, and functional benefits for stem cell transplant therapy.
Article
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation has been shown to be beneficial in treating cerebral ischemia. However, such benefit is limited by the low survival of transplanted MSCs in an ischemic microenvironment. Previous studies showed that melatonin pretreatment can increase MSC survival in the ischemic kidney. However, whether it will improve MSC survival in cerebral ischemia is unknown. Our study examined the effect of melatonin pretreatment on MSCs under ischemia-related conditions in vitro and after transplantation into ischemic rat brain. Results showed that melatonin pretreatment greatly increased survival of MSCs in vitro and reduced their apoptosis after transplantation into ischemic brain. Melatonin-treated MSCs (MT-MSCs) further reduced brain infarction and improved neurobehavioral outcomes. Angiogenesis, neurogenesis, and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were greatly increased in the MT-MSC-treated rats. Melatonin treatment increased the level of p-ERK1/2 in MSCs, which can be blocked by the melatonin receptor antagonist luzindole. ERK phosphorylation inhibitor U0126 completely reversed the protective effects of melatonin, suggesting that melatonin improves MSC survival and function through activating the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. Thus, stem cells pretreated by melatonin may represent a feasible approach for improving the beneficial effects of stem cell therapy for cerebral ischemia.
Article
The treatment of ischemic stroke remains a daunting task as few therapeutic strategies have proven effective. Systemic thrombolysis with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) remains the only proven treatment to improve clinical outcome of patients with acute ischemic stroke. But because of increased risk of hemorrhage beyond 4.5 hours post-stroke, few stroke patients (1-2%) benefit from tPA. Therefore, new therapies need to be found that protect and repair the damaged brain after stroke. The discovery of stem cells holds great promise for the cure of many diseases, including stroke. The bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs) have particularly gained a great deal of attention, as BMSCs can differentiate into different lineages under specific conditions. In addition, obtaining marrow cells would be easy and using patient?s own BMSCs may eliminate the risk of rejection. Therapeutic effects have been reported in animal models of stroke after transplantation of BMSCs. Initial clinical trials using BMSC transplantation have been performed in patients with ischemic stroke. Additional trials are evaluating the impact of BMSCs on safety, feasibility, and efficacy for stroke treatment. However, more information about the appropriate cell type, timing of administration, cell delivery route, and optimal dose for translational applications remains largely unexplored. This article reviews the recent progress and future perspectives in BMSC-based therapy for ischemic stroke, focusing on cell delivery route and time window of cell transplantation for treatment of ischemic stroke in animal models and clinical trials.
Article
Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a lately discovered enzyme catalyzing Angiotensin II into Angiotensin 1-7. Angiotensin II has been reported to impair endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) function and is detrimental to stroke. Here, we studied the role of ACE2 in regulating EPC function in vitro and in vivo. EPCs were cultured from human renin and angiotensinogen transgenic (R+A+) mice and their controls (R-A-). In in vitro experiments, EPCs were transduced with lentivirus-ACE2 or lentivirus-green fluorescence protein. The effects of ACE2 overexpression on EPC function and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS)/nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (Nox) expression were determined. ACE2, eNOS, and Nox inhibitors were used for pathway validation. In in vivo studies, the therapeutic efficacy of EPCs overexpressing ACE2 was determined at day 7 after ischemic stroke induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion. We found that (1) lentivirus-ACE2 transduction resulted in a 4-fold increase of ACE2 expression in EPCs. This was accompanied with an increase in eNOS expression and NO production, and a decrease in Nox2 and -4 expression and reactive oxygen species production. (2) ACE2 overexpression improved the abilities of EPC migration and tube formation, which were impaired in R+A+ mice. These effects were inhibited by ACE2 or eNOS inhibitor and further enhanced by Nox inhibitor. (3) Transfusion of lentivirus-ACE2-primed EPCs reduced cerebral infarct volume and neurological deficits, and increased cerebral microvascular density and angiogenesis. Our data demonstrate that ACE2 improves EPC function, via regulating eNOS and Nox pathways, and enhances the efficacy of EPC-based therapy for ischemic stroke.
Article
Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), which can be cultured in vitro from mononuclear cells in peripheral blood or bone marrow, express both hematopoietic stem cell and endothelial cell markers on their surface. They are believed to participate in endothelial repair and postnatal angiogenesis due to their abilities of differentiating into endothelial cells and secreting protective cytokines and growth factors. Mounting evidence suggests that circulating EPCs are reduced and dysfunctional in various diseases including hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, and ischemic stroke. Therefore, EPCs have been documented to be a potential biomarker for vascular diseases and a hopeful candidate for regenerative medicine. Ischemic stroke, as the major cause of disability and death, still has limited therapeutics based on the approaches of vascular recanalization or neuronal protection. Emerging evidence indicates that transplantation of EPCs is beneficial for the recovery of ischemic cerebral injury. EPC-based therapy could open a new avenue for ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Currently, clinical trials for evaluating EPC transfusion in treating ischemic stroke are underway. In this review, we summarize the general conceptions and the characteristics of EPCs, and highlight the recent research developments on EPCs. More importantly, the rationale, perspectives, and strategies for using them to treat ischemic stroke will be discussed.
Article
Without chemotactic cues and structural support, cavitary brain lesions typically fail to recruit endogenous neural progenitor cells (NPCs). Toward resolving this, we engineered multifunctional biomaterials comprising injectable gelatin-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid (Gtn-HPA) hydrogels and dextran sulfate/chitosan polyelectrolyte complex nanoparticles (PCNs) that delivered stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α). Over 7 d of interface with in vitro tissue simulant containing adult rat hippocampal NPCs (aNPCs) and their neuronal progeny, Gtn-HPA/SDF-1α-PCN hydrogels promoted chemotactic recruitment to enhance infiltration of aNPCs by 3- to 45-fold relative to hydrogels that lacked SDF-1α or vehicles to sustain SDF-1α release. When cross-linked with 0.85-0.95mM H(2)O(2), Gtn-HPA/SDF-1α-PCN hydrogels provided optimally permissive structural support for migration of aNPCs. Specific matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitors revealed that 42, 30, and 55% of cell migration into Gtn-HPA/SDF-1α-PCN hydrogels involved MMP-2, 3, and 9, respectively, demonstrating the hydrogels to be compatible toward homing endogenous NPCs, given their expression of similar MMPs. Interestingly, PCNs utilized FGF-2 found in situ to induce chemokinesis, potentiate SDF-1α chemotactic recruitment, and increase proliferation of recruited cells, which collectively orchestrated a higher number of migrated aNPCs. Overall, Gtn-HPA/SDF-1α-PCN hydrogels prove to be promising biomaterials for injection into cavitary brain lesions to recruit endogenous NPCs and enhance neural tissue repair/regeneration.-Lim, T. C., Rokkappanavar, S., Toh, W. S., Wang, L.-S., Kurisawa, M., Spector, M. Chemotactic recruitment of adult neural progenitor cells into multifunctional hydrogels providing sustained SDF-1α release and compatible structural support.
Article
Transplantation of neural stem cells provides a promising therapy for stroke. Its efficacy, however, might be limited because of massive grafted-cell death after transplantation, and its insufficient capability for tissue repair. Interleukin 6 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in the pathogenesis of various neurological disorders. Paradoxically, interleukin 6 promotes a pro-survival signalling pathway through activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3. In this study, we investigated whether cellular reprogramming of neural stem cells with interleukin 6 facilitates the effectiveness of cell transplantation therapy in ischaemic stroke. Neural stem cells harvested from the subventricular zone of foetal mice were preconditioned with interleukin 6 in vitro and transplanted into mouse brains 6 h or 7 days after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. Interleukin 6 preconditioning protected the grafted neural stem cells from ischaemic reperfusion injury through signal transducer and activator of transcription 3-mediated upregulation of manganese superoxide dismutase, a primary mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme. In addition, interleukin 6 preconditioning induced secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor from the neural stem cells through activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, resulting in promotion of angiogenesis in the ischaemic brain. Furthermore, transplantation of interleukin 6-preconditioned neural stem cells significantly attenuated infarct size and improved neurological performance compared with non-preconditioned neural stem cells. This interleukin 6-induced amelioration of ischaemic insults was abolished by transfecting the neural stem cells with signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 small interfering RNA before transplantation. These results indicate that preconditioning with interleukin 6, which reprograms neural stem cells to tolerate oxidative stress after ischaemic reperfusion injury and to induce angiogenesis through activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, is a simple and beneficial approach for enhancing the effectiveness of cell transplantation therapy in ischaemic stroke. © 2012 The Author (2012). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: [email protected] /* */
Article
Background and purpose: Inflammatory response plays a critical role in propagating tissue damage after focal cerebral ischemia. CXCL12 is a key chemokine for leukocyte recruitment. However, the role of CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 in ischemia-induced inflammatory response is unclear. Here we use the pharmacological antagonist of CXCR4, AMD3100, to investigate the function of CXCL12/CXCR4 in regulating inflammatory response during acute ischemia. Methods: Adult male CD-1 mice (n=184) underwent permanent suture middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). AMD3100 was injected for 3 days (1 mg/kg/day) after MCAO. Brain water content, infarct volume, neurological score, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) expression and activity were examined at 24, 48, and 72 hours after MCAO. Proinflammatory cytokine RNA and protein levels in brain tissue were measured by RT-PCR and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Neurological score was greatly improved in AMD3100-treated mice compared with the control mice 3 days after MCAO (P<0.05). Brain edema-induced change of water content, IgG protein leakage, Evans blue extravasation, occludin, and ZO-1 expression in ipsilateral hemisphere were alleviated by acute treatment of AMD3100. MPO expression and activity revealed that AMD3100 profoundly reduced the number of MPO-positive cells in the ischemic region (P<0.05). It also attenuated proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor α, and interferon γ; their mRNA and protein levels changed accordingly compared with the controls (P<0.05). Conclusions: CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 significantly suppressed inflammatory response and reduced blood-brain barrier disruption after MCAO. AMD3100 attenuated ischemia-induced acute inflammation by suppressing leukocyte migration and infiltration, in addition to reducing proinflammatory cytokine expression in the ischemic region.
Article
Tissue repair and regeneration are thought to involve resident cell proliferation as well as the selective recruitment of circulating stem and progenitor cell populations through complex signaling cascades. Many of these recruited cells originate from the bone marrow, and specific subpopulations of bone marrow cells have been isolated and used to augment adult tissue regeneration in preclinical models. Clinical studies of cell-based therapies have reported mixed results, however, and a variety of approaches to enhance the regenerative capacity of stem cell therapies are being developed based on emerging insights into the mechanisms of progenitor cell biology and recruitment following injury. This article discusses the function and mechanisms of recruitment of important bone marrow-derived stem and progenitor cell populations following injury, as well as the emerging therapeutic applications targeting these cells.
Article
This study investigated whether melatonin-treated adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSC) offered superior protection against acute lung ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 30) were randomized equally into five groups: sham controls, lung IR-saline, lung IR-melatonin, lung IR-melatonin-normal ADMSC, and lung IR-melatonin-apoptotic ADMSC. Arterial oxygen saturation was lowest in lung IR-saline; lower in lung IR-melatonin than sham controls, lung IR-melatonin-normal ADMSC, and lung IR-melatonin-apoptotic ADMSC; lower in lung IR-melatonin-normal ADMSC than sham controls and lung IR-melatonin-apoptotic ADMSC; lower in lung IR-melatonin-apoptotic ADMSC than sham controls (P < 0.0001 in each case). Right ventricular systolic blood pressure (RVSBP) showed a reversed pattern among all groups (all P < 0.0001). Changes in histological scoring of lung parenchymal damage and CD68+ cells showed a similar pattern compared with RVSBP in all groups (all P < 0.001). Changes in inflammatory protein expressions such as VCAM-1, ICAM-1, oxidative stress, TNF-α, NF-κB, PDGF, and angiotensin II receptor, and changes in apoptotic protein expressions of cleaved caspase 3 and PARP, and mitochondrial Bax, displayed identical patterns compared with RVSBP in all groups (all P < 0.001). Numbers of antioxidant (GR+, GPx+, NQO-1+) and endothelial cell biomarkers (CD31+ and vWF+) were lower in sham controls, lung IR-saline, and lung IR-melatonin than lung IR-melatonin-normal ADMSC and lung IR-melatonin-apoptotic ADMSC, and lower in lung IR-melatonin-normal ADMSC than lung IR-melatonin-apoptotic ADMSC (P < 0.001 in each case). In conclusion, when the animals were treated with melatonin, the apoptotic ADMSC were superior to normal ADMSC for protection of lung from acute IR injury.
Article
Exposure of cells to sublethal concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) can alleviate subsequent oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. We assessed the effects of H2O2 preconditioning on the therapeutic potential of human umbilical cord Wharton's Jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSCs) in a murine model of myocardial infarction. WJ-MSCs were incubated in the media for 2 hours with or without 200 µmol/L H2O2. Mice underwent left anterior descending coronary artery ligation, and received injection of phosphate buffered saline, 1×10(6) WJ-MSCs, or 1×10(6) H2O2 preconditioned WJ-MSCs 3 hours later via tail vein. Echocardiography was performed 0, 7, 14 and 28 days after surgery, and the mice were euthanized on day 28 for histological analysis. In vitro cytokine concentrations in the WJ-MSC cell supernatant were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The effect of WJ-MSC cell supernatant on the migration and proliferation of endothelial cells were observed by transwell migration and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazoliumbromide (MTT) assays. Echocardiographic measurements revealed a significant improvement in the left ventricular contractility of the WJ-MSCs-H2O2 group compared to the WJ-MSCs group. Histological analysis revealed increased neovascularization and reduced myocardial fibrosis in the WJ-MSCs-H2O2 group compared to the WJ-MSCs group. Pretreatment of WJ-MSCs with H2O2 increased the secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6) into the cell culture supernatant by approximately 25-fold. The culture supernatant from WJ-MSCs-H2O2 significantly increased the migration and proliferation of endothelial cells; these effects could be blocked using an anti-IL-6 antibody. This study demonstrates that H2O2 preconditioning significantly enhanced the therapeutic potential of WJ-MSCs, possibly by stimulating the production of IL-6 by WJ-MSCs, which may cause migration and proliferation of endothelial cells and increase neovascularization.