Article

Trophic Magnification of Parabens and Their Metabolites in a Subtropical Marine Food Web

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  • Cape Canaveral Scientific
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Abstract

Despite the widespread use of parabens in a range of consumer products, little is known about bioaccumulation of these chemicals in aquatic environments. In this study, six parabens and four of their common metabolites were measured in abiotic and biotic samples collected from a subtropical marine food web in coastal Florida. Methyl paraben (MeP) was found in all abiotic (100%) and a majority of biotic (87%) samples. 4-Hydroxy benzoic acid (4-HB) was the most abundant metabolite, found in 99% of biotic and all abiotic samples analyzed. The food chain accumulation of MeP and 4-HB was investigated for this food web. The trophic magnification factor (TMF) of MeP was estimated to be 1.83, which suggests considerable biomagnification of this compound in the marine food web. In contrast, a low TMF value was found for 4-HB (0.30), indicating that this compound is metabolized and excreted along the food web. This is the first study to document the widespread occurrence of parabens and their metabolites in fish, invertebrates, seagrasses, marine macroalgae, mangroves, sea water, and ocean sediments and to elucidate biomagnification potential of MeP and 4-HB in a marine food web.

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... BPA has been detected in China (ND-364 ng/L in the Jiulong River Estuary) (Sun et al., 2016) and Japan (ND-431 ng/L in the Tokyo Bay) (Yamazaki et al., 2015), whereas relatively lower concentrations of parabens have been reported. In seawater samples, methylparaben (MeP) and propylparaben (PrP) were reported to be up to 104 ng/L (Kung et al., 2018) and 69.9 ng/L (Sun et al., 2016), respectively, in China; up to 21 ng/L and 1.6 ng/L, respectively, in Portugal (Jonkers et al., 2010a); up to 33.3 ng/L and 3 ng/L, respectively, in the Antarctic (Emnet et al., 2015); and up to 31.7 ng/L and 9.04 ng/L, respectively, in the United States of America (USA) (Xue et al., 2017). Although limited, these findings indicate that the seawater contamination of bisphenol analogues and parabens may be as important as the traditional EDCs including phthalic acid esters (PAE) (Zhang et al., 2017) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (Mackintosh et al., 2006). ...
... The SPM samples were spiked with the internal standard (100 ng for each compound) and extracted with 5 mL of methanol/water mixture (5:3, v/v) by shaking in an orbital shaker for 60 min, and then the extracts were centrifuged at 4500 g for 5 min (Bioridge TD5M-WS, Shanghai, China). The extraction was repeated twice, and the combined supernatants were concentrated to 3 mL under a gentle stream of nitrogen, and then diluted to 10 mL with ultrapure water that contained 0.2% formic acid (pH = 2.5), as described by Xue et al. (2017). Then, the extractions were passed through the SPE cartridge for further treatment, which was the same as seawater samples. ...
... The pretreatment of marine organism samples were assayed based on a modified method by Xue et al. (2017). Briefly, the muscle of organism samples were homogenized with automatic sample grinder (JXFSTPRP-64, Jingxin, China). ...
... Specifically, the δ 13 C values were used to identify the sources of dietary carbon within an ecosystem and indicated a 1‰ enrichment with a unit increase in the trophic level. 45,62 The range of the δ 13 C values of all the biological samples was from −31.47‰ for Asian clam to −22.09‰ for yellow catfish (Fig. 4), with a mean value of −26.96‰. The variation in δ 13 C of all the biota species was less than 10‰, suggesting that the aquatic organisms examined in this study probably depended on similar sources of food. ...
... The variation in δ 13 C of all the biota species was less than 10‰, suggesting that the aquatic organisms examined in this study probably depended on similar sources of food. 62 Meanwhile, the δ 15 N values were used to estimate the trophic position of various aquatic organisms in the food web, as the δ 15 N value was generally enriched by 3.4% with each increment in the trophic level. 45 The δ 15 N values of all the species ranged from 6.85‰ for pearl mussel to 16.98‰ for Taihu Lake shrimp, which gave trophic levels of the aquatic organisms from Taihu Lake ranging from 1.81 to 4.79. ...
... Chemical compounds are considered biomagnified along the food chain when the trophic magnification factor (TMF) of these compounds is greater than 1. 58,59,[62][63][64] The TMF value of total Ag in the aquatic food web of Taihu Lake was 0.49, indicating that Ag species were biodiluted (Fig. 5A), consistent with the previously observed biodilution effect of Ag in Lake Moreno, Patagonia region, Argentina. 65 There was no significant correlation between the log concentrations of nanoparticulate Ag and the trophic levels of all the biological samples in the food web (p > 0.05). ...
Article
The wide production and utilization of nanoparticulate Ag and Ti inevitably result in their release into the environment. Thus far, limited information is available regarding to what extent the nanoparticulate Ag and Ti could accumulate in biota and magnify along the food chain in real natural aquatic environment. With the application of single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy, we quantitatively demonstrated that both nanoparticulate Ag (18.8-41.0 nm) and Ti (46.6-116 nm) occurred in the water, sediment and aquatic organisms in Taihu Lake, China. Nanoparticulate Ag exhibited greater bioaccumulation potential compared to other chemical counterparts, and also greater bioaccumulation factor than nanoparticulate Ti. Sediment served as a main reservoir for nanoparticulate Ag and Ti, and acted as one important exposure source for invertebrates. According to the concentrations of nanoparticulate Ag and Ti in aquatic organisms at different trophic levels, including a variety of invertebrates and fish species, the total and nanoparticulate Ti appeared to be biodiluted in the food web with trophic magnification factors (TMFs) < 1. Conversely, biomagnification of nanoparticulate Ag was found in the fish food web with a TMF of 1.21, while the total Ag was biodiluted. These findings serve as the first line of evidences on the transfer behaviors of nanoparticulate Ag and Ti along the natural aquatic food chain and underline the distinctive bioaccumulation and biomagnification behaviors of nanoparticles as opposed to other chemical counterparts.
... In addition, sublethal effects may lead to more complex effects that decrease elasmobranch's ability to cope with other stressors (Lyons and Wynne-Edwards, 2019). PPCPs exposure has been previously evaluated in elasmobranchs, remarkably pharmaceuticals (Gelsleichter and Szabo, 2013;Lyons et al., 2018;Martins et al., 2020), UV filters (Nakata et al., 2009), parabens (Xue and Kannan, 2016;Xue et al., 2017) and fragrances (Nakata, 2005). However, most studies were carried out with adult individuals, and little is known on PPCPs exposure and effects in younger organisms. ...
... The methylparaben concentrations reported in females were also higher than in marine teleosts (Ali et al., 2018) and comparable to higher trophic position organisms, including elasmobranchs (Xue and Kannan, 2016). Besides, uterine content concentrations were comparable to levels found in adult Atlantic stingrays, Blacktip and Bonnethead sharks (Xue et al., 2017) and higher than in Atlantic Sharpnose sharks (Xue and Kannan, 2016). Methylparaben was the predominant paraben detected in biological samples from coastal Florida and has also the potential to biomagnify (Xue et al., 2017). ...
... Besides, uterine content concentrations were comparable to levels found in adult Atlantic stingrays, Blacktip and Bonnethead sharks (Xue et al., 2017) and higher than in Atlantic Sharpnose sharks (Xue and Kannan, 2016). Methylparaben was the predominant paraben detected in biological samples from coastal Florida and has also the potential to biomagnify (Xue et al., 2017). Therefore, dietary exposure to parabens might also be attributed to the considerable concentrations presented herein. ...
Article
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Maternal transfer is a notable contaminant source for elasmobranchs during the embryonic development. The maternal offloading of several compounds has been evaluated, especially concerning legacy contaminants. However, information on pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) offload and, consequently, embryonic exposure is still unknown. Despite this, previous detection of PPCPs in pregnant females suggested the maternal offloading of these compounds in the Brazilian guitarfish Pseudobatos horkelii, yet progeny levels were not investigated. For this reason, our goal was to estimate and describe the maternal transfer of four PPCPs in P. horkelii. Diclofenac, methylparaben, octocrylene and triclosan were determined in liver and uterine content samples of five pregnant females using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Diclofenac and methylparaben were detected in maternal and uterine content samples, whereas octocrylene and triclosan were only detected in maternal livers. This suggests that diclofenac and methylparaben are transferred to the offspring, at maximum transfer capacities of 27% and 6%, respectively. The lack of detection of other analytes in uterine content suggests that these contaminants might not be transferred. The concentrations observed for diclofenac and methylparaben are similar to those reported for adult elasmobranchs and teleosts, showing that embryos are exposed to considerable concentrations during their development. In addition, maternal diclofenac concentrations were not influenced by maternal size, suggesting that this species is continuously exposed in the studied area. These results are important for understanding the maternal offloading process and predicting PPCPs impacts throughout this species life cycle.
... The question about paraben presence in processed foods is even more complicated when the parabens transformation products, namely 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (p-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-HBA), 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (protocatechuic acid, 3,4-DHB), methyl-protocatechuate (OH-MeP) and ethyl-protocatechuate (OH-EtP), are taken into consideration (Xue et al. 2015(Xue et al. , 2017. Those (di) hydroxybenzoic acids have been recognised as metabolites of parabens and thus might serve as potential markers of parabens incidence Chiesa et al. 2018e). ...
... Also, both p-HBA and 3,4-DHB appear as intermediates in several industrial processes with potential biotechnological applications in food production , and if not managed properly they could represent a risk for baby food, as well. Additionally, OH-MeP and OH-EtP are recognised as hydroxylation products of MeP and EtP, respectively, and generally, they are produced by biotic and abiotic transformation of many xenobiotics (Xue et al. 2017). There is no available literature data about their origin, level and risk assessment in the baby food. ...
... On the other hand, a very important finding concerning OH-MeP is highlighted by its frequent appearance in preparations that contained fish as a main constituent: 7 of 13 fish samples showed OH-MeP presence. Considering that OH-MeP is the main hydroxylated MeP derivate in aquatic biota (Xue et al. 2017) the content of OH-MeP especially in infant food preparation based on fish (without any other ingredient) might be a reliable indicator of parabens contamination. ...
Article
Food safety becomes imperative when it aims to protect infants. The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of emerging contaminants of which some act as endocrine-disruptors in baby food. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), parabens and antibiotics were analysed in 112 baby food of different categories (meat, fish, vegetables, fruit, cheese). As regard POPs, PFASs and antibiotics, no residues were detected, while one sample showed methyl-paraben (4.14 ng g⁻¹), whereas another three contained propyl-paraben (median 1.70 ng g⁻¹). Special attention must be paid on parabens metabolites, as 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, the principal parabens metabolite, was detected in all samples (median 176.7 ng g⁻¹). It may be present as a degradation product, but also, it can be released from vegetables and fruits during food processing. It is recommended to collect more data on natural vs non-natural occurrence of parabens and metabolites to evaluate the exposure of sensitive population vs ADI published by the European Food Safety Authority and European Medicines Agency.
... Notably, Slovenian and Croatian river samples also contained BzP at high concentrations (175, 457 ng/L, respectively), even though BzP had been banned for use in PCPs since 2014 according to the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) (Česen et al. 2019). In coastal waters, the concentrations of individual parabens were in the low nanogram per litre range while in sediments, the parabens reached a maximum of 12.4 ng/g (Xue et al. 2017). MeP, PrP and BuP were also detected in source and drinking water in Egypt, with the highest concentration seen for MeP as 54 ng/L (Radwan et al. 2020). ...
... Their presence in numerous biotic samples (e.g. seagrass, mangroves, various fish), and in particular for MeP as high as 3600 ng/g, supports this notion Ramaswamy et al. 2011;Xue et al. 2017). ...
Article
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The continuous use of household and personal care products (HPCPs) produces an immense amount of chemicals, such as parabens, bisphenols, benzophenones and alkylphenol ethoxylates, which are of great concern due to their well-known endocrine-disrupting properties. These chemicals easily enter the environment through man-made activities, thus contaminating the biota, including soil, water, plants and animals. Thus, on top of the direct exposure on account of their presence in HPCPs, humans are also susceptible to secondary indirect exposure attributed to the ubiquitous environmental contamination. The aim of this review was therefore to examine the sources and occurrence of these noteworthy contaminants (i.e. parabens, bisphenols, benzophenones, alkylphenol ethoxylates), to summarise the available research on their environmental presence and to highlight their bioaccumulation potential. The most notable environmental contaminants appear to be MeP and PrP among parabens, BPA and BPS among bisphenols, BP-3 among benzophenones and NP among alkylphenols. Their maximum detected concentrations in the environment are mostly in the range of ng/L, while in human tissues, their maximum concentrations achieved μg/L due to bioaccumulation, with BP-3 and nonylphenol showing the highest potential to bioaccumulate. Finally, of another great concern is the fact that even the unapproved parabens and benzophenones have been detected in the environment. Graphical abstract
... Methylparaben was found in 100% of water and sediment samples and in almost 90% of fish, invertebrates, and plants. 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HB) was the most abundant metabolite, having been found in 97% of the biotic and abiotic samples analyzed [4]. One study showed that paraben exposure was positively associated with the trimester gestational weight gain rate during pregnancy [5]. ...
... Methylparaben was found in 100% of water and sediment samples and in almost 90% of fish, invertebrates, and plants. 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HB) was the most abundant metabolite, having been found in 97% of the biotic and abiotic samples analyzed [4]. One study showed that paraben exposure was positively associated with the trimester gestational weight gain rate during pregnancy [5]. ...
Article
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Since the mid-1920s, parabens have been widely used as antimicrobial preservatives in processed foods and beverages, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetic products. Paraben use continues to generate considerable controversy, both in the general population and in the scientific community itself. The primary purpose of our study was to determine whether parabens (methyl and butyl at concentrations of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight by subcutaneous injection) during pregnancy of adult female Wistar rats can have an impact on the F1 generation. As far as we know, we are the first to demonstrate that using parabens during pregnancy has negative repercussions on the mitochondrial bioenergetics and antioxidant activity of testicular germ cells in the F1 generation. Our study showed that there was a 48.7 and 59.8% decrease in the respiratory control index with 100 and 200 mg/kg of butylparaben, respectively. Cytochrome c oxidase activity was significantly inhibited (45 and 51%) in both groups. In addition, 200 mg/kg butylparaben promoted a marked decrease in citrate synthase activity, indicating that mitochondrial content decreased in the germ cells, especially spermatocytes and spermatids. Mitochondrial ROS production increased in groups exposed to parabens in a concentration-dependent manner, especially the butyl one (102 and 130%). The groups exposed to butylparaben showed an increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, while glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) decreased. With methylparaben, only differences in SOD and GR were observed; for the latter, this only occurred with the highest concentration. The glutathione (GSH)/glutathione disulfide (GSSG) ratio did not undergo any significant change. However, there was a considerable increase in hydroperoxide content in animals exposed to butylparaben, with 100 and 200 mg/kg resulting in 98.6 and 188% increase, respectively. Furthermore, several other organs also showed alterations in antioxidant capacity due to paraben use. In summary, our study demonstrates that paraben use during pregnancy will cause severe changes in the mitochondrial bioenergetics and antioxidant capacity of testicular germ cells and the antioxidant capacity of several other F1 generation organs.
... A fraction of target parabens absorbed by SPM was measured according to the levels observed in the solution and particulate phases. The total mass of parabens absorbed by SPM (the mean value of the three treatment plants) could be ranked in the increasing order as follows: BA (69.23%) [ MeP (8.56%) [ 4-HB (0.47%), which may be possibly justified by their solubility (Xue et al. 2017). Because of the low detection rate of EtP, PrP, BzP, BuP, and HepP in both wastewater and SPM samples, the fraction of the total mass of analytes absorbed by SPM was not calculated for these compounds. ...
... The high proportion of BA in the SPM samples could be due to its low solubility and high absorptivity. In contrast, the low proportion of the other mentioned compounds can be attributed to their low solubility (Xue et al. 2017). In addition, MeP and 4-HB had high ratios of the total mass in the wastewaters (22.34 and 4.46%, respectively). ...
Article
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The current work is documented as the first record of the characteristics, removal efficiency, partitioning behavior, fate, and eco-toxicological effects of paraben congeners in a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP, stabilization ponds) and hospital WWTPs (septic tank and activated sludge), as well as seawater-sediments collected from runoff estuarine stations (RES) and coastal stations (CS) of the north of the Persian Gulf. The median values of Σparabens at the raw wastewater and effluent of the studied WWTPs were 1884 ng/L and 468 ng/L, respectively. The activated sludge system had a greater removal efficiency (56.10%) in removing ∑parabens than the septic tank (45.05%) and stabilization pond (35.54%). The discharge rates of methyl paraben (MeP) was computed to be 2.23, 21.18, and 9.12 g/d/1000 people for stabilization ponds, septic tank, and activated sludge, respectively. Median concentrations of Σparabens in seawater (103.42 ng/L) and sediments (322.05 ng/g dw) from RES stations were significantly larger than from CS stations (61.2 and 262.0 ng/g dw in seawater and sediments, respectively) (P < 0.05). The median of field-based koc for Σparabens was 130.81 cm³/g in RES stations and 189.51 cm³/g in CS stations. It was observed that the concentration of parabens could have negative impacts on some living aquatic populations (invertebrates and bacteria), but the risk was not significant for fishes and algae. Graphical abstract
... For decades, the IRL ecosystem has been a focus of research on human activities that harm ecological processes and threaten dire consequences for fish populations. The results of those activities include declining water quality, harmful algal blooms, pollution, habitat degradation, and loss, and bioaccumulation of harmful chemical compounds (Johnson-Restrepo et al. 2005;Xue et al. 2017;Barile 2018;Adams et al. 2019). The IRL has been undergoing chronic, anthropogenic ecological disturbances, which could break down isolation mechanisms and facilitate hybridization between fish that do not normally hybridize because they are quite divergent, as this study showed. ...
Article
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Three species of sparids in the western Atlantic, sheepshead (Archosargus probatocephalus), sea bream (A. rhomboidalis), and pinfish (Lagodon rhomboides), share overlapping habitats, spawning seasons, and spawning grounds, providing opportunities for interaction among these species. Three regions of mitochondrial DNA and three nuclear DNA intron sequences were used to construct the genetic relationships among these species. The results showed that these species are closely related, suggesting the presence of soft polytomy with sheepshead and western Atlantic sea bream as sister species. However, western Atlantic sea bream and pinfish are equally divergent from sheepshead. We used a suite of 18 microsatellite markers to verify the occurrence of hybridization, identify the parental types, and evaluate the filial-generation status of 36 individuals morphologically identified as hybrids from the Indian River Lagoon system, in Florida. The 36 putative hybrids were analyzed with a reference group of 172 western Atlantic sea bream, 232 pinfish, and 157 sheepsheads and were all genetically determined to be F1 of sheepshead and western Atlantic sea bream with very little indication or no introgressive hybridization among the 172 reference specimens of western Atlantic sea bream. Hybridization was asymmetric, with western Atlantic sea bream males crossing with sheepshead females. Hybrids were first observed in the Indian River Lagoon in 2005, after the western Atlantic sea bream had become common there, in the 1990s. Their occurrence could be associated with unique features of the Indian River Lagoon that bring the two species together or with recent anthropogenic changes in this system. Further study is needed to determine the causes and long-term effects of the recurrent production of F1 hybrids and the degree of their sterility in the Indian River Lagoon.
... Residual substances may enter the aquatic ecosystem through various means, including via the sewage treatment system, through atmospheric deposition, and through precipitation scouring (Karthikeyan et al., 2018;Qiu, 2005). These multiple kinds of anthropogenic sources of parabens can lead to accumulation in aquatic organisms (Xue and Kannan, 2016;Xue et al., 2017). As a reservoir for pollutants (Kumar et al., 2013), sediments can adsorb both organic and inorganic pollutants via a dynamic equilibrium controlled by various factors (i.e., chemical, physical, and biological) (Saha et al., 2001). ...
Article
Mercury (Hg), six alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens), and their metabolite, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA), were simultaneously studied in sediments from the upper Huai River, Henan Province, China. There were higher concentrations of Hg in the surface sediments from the Huai River during the moderate precipitation season (MPS②) as compared to the minimal precipitation (MPS①) and high precipitation seasons (HPS), and as compared to core sediments. The Hg values in all sediments were above the background value. The Hg contents in the tributaries were much higher than those in the mainstream. The concentrations of ∑parabens in the core sediments ranged from 2.45 to 22.2 ng/g while the concentrations of PHBA ranged from 11.3 to 155 ng/g. Methylparaben (MeP) and propylparaben (PrP) were the most commonly detected parabens. Total organic carbon (TOC) and black carbon (BC) played important roles in the distribution of Hg in the surface sediments during the minimal precipitation and high precipitation seasons and affect the distribution of Hg and parabens in core sediments. Sand (>63 μm) was another factor affecting the distribution of Hg and parabens in core sediments. The concentrations of PHBA and Hg in core sediments were positively correlated. Temporal records of Hg and parabens in core sediments reflected local social changes. Hg content in the surface sediments during the MPS② was associated with relatively high ecological risks while parabens in the core sediments were associated with low level risks.
... Owing to wide usage, parabens have been found in different environmental samples and waste flows such as soil and sediment (Núnez et al., 2008), house dust (Wang et al., 2012;Ma et al., 2014;Chen et al., 2018), sludge and wastewater (Amin et al., 2019), and swimming pool water (Li et al., 2015;Lu et al., 2017). Besides, several investigations monitored the occurrence and distribution of parabens in biological samples (Darbre et al., 2004;Ye et al., 2006;Ma et al., 2013;Asimakopoulos et al., 2014;Usama et al., 2015;Xue et al., 2015Xue et al., , 2017Xue and Kannan, 2016), indicating the bioaccumulation potential of these chemicals. Parabens have been found in humans (Dogan et al., 2019;Alloujami and Barguil, 2020;Hajizadeh et al., 2020;Martins et al., 2020). ...
... Similarly, synthetic estrogen found in human contraceptives and widely distributed within aquatic ecosystems from wastewater treatment effluent caused reproductive failure in male S. scovelli in laboratory exposure studies (Rose et al. 2013). An array of known endocrine-disrupting compounds has been found in other fishes in the IRL (Weijs et al. 2015;Xiaohong et al. 2017;Bangma et al. 2018), but the direct effects of these contaminants on S. scovelli reproductive output and population viability in the IRL are not well understood. ...
Article
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Coastal lagoons and other estuarine habitats are increasingly exposed to the negative effects of growing human populations with associated intensifications in nutrient loading, harmful algal blooms, pollution, and habitat degradation. We examined population dynamics of Gulf pipefish Syngnathus scovelli in estuarine waters of the Indian River Lagoon, on the Atlantic coast of Florida. Substantial declines in abundance of this sentinel species were concurrent with significant losses of seagrass habitat associated with ongoing harmful algal blooms, and other perturbations during the study period spanning from 1998 to 2018. Moderate declines in S. scovelli were observed with early downward trends in seagrasses ahead of the onset of the precipitous seagrass reductions observed. The massive decline of seagrass habitats in the Indian River Lagoon in recent years had negative influences and was directly linked to population declines we observed in the S. scovelli population. Lack of seagrass habitat essential to this and related syngnathid species may reduce optimum seagrass-associated prey, increase predation by lack of appropriate cover, and increase energetic costs which may be realized through reduced growth rates and potential reproductive impairment. Identification and monitoring of population trends of S. scovelli and related sentinel fish species allow for early implementation of management actions that reduce the impact of anthropogenic pressures on the services that estuarine systems provide to the fishes and fisheries they support.
... Owing to wide usage, parabens have been found in different environmental samples and waste flows such as soil and sediment (Núnez et al., 2008), house dust (Wang et al., 2012;Ma et al., 2014;Chen et al., 2018), sludge and wastewater (Amin et al., 2019), and swimming pool water Lu et al., 2017). Besides, several investigations monitored the occurrence and distribution of parabens in biological samples (Darbre et al., 2004;Ye et al., 2006;Ma et al., 2013;Asimakopoulos et al., 2014;Usama et al., 2015;Xue et al., 2015Xue et al., , 2017Xue and Kannan, 2016), indicating the bioaccumulation potential of these chemicals. Parabens have been found in humans (Dogan et al., 2019;Alloujami and Barguil, 2020;Hajizadeh et al., 2020;Martins et al., 2020). ...
Article
The occurrence of seven typical parabens was investigated in several types of personal care products (PCPs) sold at supermarkets and in indoor dust samples collected from houses, laboratories, and medical stores in Hanoi, Vietnam. Parabens were frequently detected in PCPs regardless of the paraben indication in their ingredient labels. However, concentrations of parabens in labeled products (median 3280; range 1370–5610 μg/g) were much higher than those found in non-labeled products (69.4; not detected – 356 μg/g). Parabens were also measured in indoor dust samples of this study at elevated concentrations, ranging from not detected to 1650 (median 286 ng/g). Levels of parabens in the indoor dust samples collected in 2019 decreased in the order: house > medical store > laboratory dust, however, the difference was not statistically significant. Interestingly, levels of parabens in Vietnamese house dust exhibited an increasing trend over time, for example, mean/median concentrations of parabens in house dust samples collected in 2014, 2017, and 2019 were 245/205, 310/264, and 505/379 ng/g, respectively. Methylparaben was found at the highest frequency and concentrations in both PCPs and indoor dust samples. Mean exposure doses of total parabens through dust ingestion were estimated to be 2.02, 1.61, 0.968, 0.504, and 0.192 ng/kg-bw/d for infants, toddlers, children, teenagers, and adults, respectively. Further studies on the distribution, emission behavior, potential sources, and negative impacts of parabens in different environmental media in Vietnam are needed.
... Ramaswamy et al. (2011) and Chiesa et al. (2018) found methyl paraben in fish., while Valdés et al. (2016) and Huerta et al. (2018) found CMZ in fish. Methyl paraben has been shown to have a trophic increase factor of 1.83 in marine fish, which implies considerable bioaccumulation and biomagnification of this compound in the marine food web (Xue et al. 2017). However, there is evidence of rapid metabolism of short-chain parabens in fish; a 10-day feeding study found that less than 1% of the total ingested propyl paraben was found in the liver and muscle tissue of rainbow trout after a dose of 1830 mg/kg every other day (Alslev et al. 2005). ...
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Between 2017 and 2019, samplings were carried out in the San Jorge, Cauca and Magdalena River basins in Colombia, to determine the presence of methyl paraben and carbamazepine in water and Pseudoplatystoma magdaleniatum. For the analysis of the samples, a validation of the analytical method was performed, following the EPA method 1694 (Pharmaceutical and personal care products in water), with slight modifications. This was done by liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, for quantification of methyl paraben and carbamazepine, including parameters of linearity, accuracy precision and veracity. Carbamazepine was found in the Magdalena River at 8.03 ± 0.01 µg/L in transition season. In fish samples, methyl paraben and carbamazepine were detected in a range between 32 and 90.80 µg/kg in transition and dry seasons.
... These are all studies using stable isotope analysis, where trophic level is calculated based on the isotopic distance of a particular dietary cluster to a chosen base reference. In these cases, values below one refer to certain primary producers and suspended particulate organic matter (Nilsen et al., 2008;Roy et al., 2015;Wing et al., 2017Wing et al., , 2018Xue et al., 2017), or even some species of pelagic filter feeders or benthic surface and sub-surface deposit feeders (Bell et al., 2016). ...
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The study of marine coastal food webs has a central role in the application of the integrated ecosystem approach for marine management. Changes in food webs caused by natural or anthropic drivers can lead to dramatic shifts in the overall structure and function of coastal marine ecosystems and deterioration of their services. The present review investigates the methodological approaches employed for the assessment of coastal shelf food webs at a global scale and highlights existing gaps and limitations. Out of 1652 published articles that initially met our search criteria, 880 passed the initial screening and 493 were found relevant and were fully analyzed. The information extracted included the spatiotemporal coverage of the studies; the main methodological approaches utilized for the assessment of population state variables (i.e., biomass, size, abundance) and trophic levels; the biotic components and driving factors considered; indices used to describe the structure and functioning of coastal food webs; and main knowledge gaps. Results showed that most studies have been conducted at a subnational level, mostly in the Temperate Northern Atlantic marine realm. Overall, 54% of the studies provided quantitative information on food web structure. The most common methodological approach utilized was modeling (40%), followed by non-experimental-based correlations (30%), and natural or manipulative experiments (14%). Information on population state variables was provided by 69% of the studies, while 42% employed some of the following trophic level determination techniques: stable isotopes, gut contents, fatty acids, and molecular analysis, which were either combined or used in isolation. Specific natural or human drivers were incorporated in 76% of the studies, with fishing being the most common driver. Modeling approaches included multiple indices to describe food web attributes and/or the structure and functioning of coastal shelf ecosystems. Despite the great progress achieved through the development of new tools and techniques, food web analysis still suffers from important knowledge gaps and limitations of the methodological approaches, which are extensively discussed. The present review establishes a useful knowledge base to provide guidance for future research and assessments on coastal shelf food webs, and to support ecosystem-based management.
... A novel aspect of this study is its consideration of the fate of metabolites across the food web, as this has been previously recommended 45 but poorly-conducted 14,51 . The levels of 1-hydroxypyrene significantly declined with trophic level in the Orge river ( Figure 1C), whereas the tobit regressions were not significant for sum of hydroxyphenanthrenes and 6-hydroxychrysene. ...
Article
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Trophic magnification factors (TMFs, i.e. the average change in the log-concentration of a pollutant per trophic level) have been extensively assessed for the so-called persistent organic pollutants, especially organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), which are biomagnified along the food web. In contrast, trophic dilution was documented for pollutants with a high metabolic transformation rate, such as phthalate plasticizers and PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons). However, the fate of their metabolites across the food web has been rarely investigated. In this comparative study, the trophodynamics of 104 micropollutants and 25 of their metabolites were investigated in a freshwater food web from the urban Orge River, France. Trophic levels were determined using stable isotopes. Pyrethroid pesticides and their metabolites were not detected. As predicted, PCBs and OCPs biomagnified (TMF > 1), while all chlorinated paraffins (CPs), PAHs and phthalates underwent a trophic dilution (TMF < 1). TMFs significantly decreased with metabolic transformation rate and increased with hydrophobicity. The levels of PAH or phthalate metabolites were not significantly correlated to trophic levels or underwent a trophic dilution. This study highlighted that the relative contribution of metabolite levels in TMF values calculated for both parent compound and its metabolite(s) is weak compared to TMF values of the parent compound only in a riverine food web.
... Elasmobranchs tend to accumulate high levels of contaminants due to their higher trophic positions, acting as meso and apex predators, and life history parameters, such as longevity. Accumulation of legacy contaminants and trace metals has been extensively studied among this group (Gelsleichter and Walker, 2010), whereas studies evaluating CEs are incipient, with only a few compounds being analyzed (Gelsleichter and Szabo, 2013;Lyons et al., 2018;Nakata, 2005;Nakata et al., 2009;Xue and Kannan, 2016;Xue et al., 2017). However, due to their trophic proximity, as well as k-strategy life-history patterns, with other taxa in which PPCPs have been detected (Gago-Ferrero et al., 2013;Fair et al., 2009;Nakata, 2005), it is highly expected to also detect these compounds and its metabolites in elasmobranch tissues. ...
Article
Elasmobranchs are particularly prone to accumulating contaminants due to their life history patterns and relatively high trophic position. However, several compounds, especially contaminants of emerging concern, have still not been well studied in this group. Here, we aimed to determine the occurrence and concentrations of several inorganic and organic contaminants in different tissues of the Brazilian guitarfish Pseudobatos horkelii. This species is a critically endangered species, endemic from the Southwest Atlantic which uses southern Brazilian waters as a nursery habitat. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), emerging pesticides, pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) and trace metals were determined in five biological tissues in order to assess the accumulation and organotropism of these compounds. Except for chlorothalonil and triclosan, all compounds were detected in, at least, one tissue, mostly in liver samples. All compounds differed among tissues, with liver presenting the higher concentrations of several contaminants, followed by muscle and gills. PAHs and PPCPs were the most detected analytes and presented the highest concentrations among tissues. Diclofenac levels were determined, for the first time in elasmobranchs, and were relatively high, when compared to other fishes. Finally, relatively high concentrations of PAHs, dichlofluanid and octocrylene in muscle might be suggestive of chronic exposure, presenting also human health implications. Regarding trace metals, contrary to most elasmobranch studies, Hg levels were low in all tissues, whereas Cd and Pb here higher in liver, and gills and blood samples, respectively. Our results indicate that P. horkelii is exposed to several organic and inorganic which might affect this species in a long-term scale. Concerning the determination of emerging contaminants, it is likely that other elasmobranchs are also exposed to these compounds and special attention should be given to this issue in order to predict future effects on this group.
... Bioconcentration modelling for these compounds incorporating estimated rates of biotransformation in fish gave BCF values of 76 -1,598 L/kg for heptyl-, octyl-and isooctyl-paraben, and 2,148 L/kg for laurylparaben . A series of studies of parabens and their metabolites in biota found methylparaben and pHBA at high concentrations in many marine organisms [69,70,71]. A trophic magnification factor of 1.83 was calculated for methylparaben in one food web. ...
... Furthermore, many contaminants accumulate in this area. Therefore, a wide range of pollutants, such as heavy metals [34], pesticides [35], persistent organic pollutants [36,37], pharmaceuticals [38], antibiotics [39], and PAHs in seawater and sediment have been monitored. These contaminants are continuously deposited in coastal areas, with vertical distributions in the intertidal and supralittoral zones. ...
Article
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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in wharf roach (Ligia spp.), as an environmental indicator, and in environmental components of the intertidal and supralittoral zones were determined, and the PAH exposure pathways in wharf roach were estimated. Wharf roaches, mussels, and environmental media (water, soil and sand, and drifting seaweed) were collected from 12 sites in Japan along coastal areas of the Sea of Japan. PAH concentrations in wharf roaches were higher than those in mussels (median total of 15 PAHs: 48.5 and 39.9 ng/g-dry weight (dw), respectively) except for samples from Ishikawa (wharf roach: 47.9 ng/g-dw; mussel: 132 ng/g-dw). The highest total PAH concentration in wharf roach was from Akita (96.0 ng/g-dw), followed by a sample from Niigata (85.2 ng/g-dw). Diagnostic ratio analysis showed that nearly all PAHs in soil and sand were of petrogenic origin. Based on a correlation analysis of PAH concentrations between wharf roach and the environmental components, wharf roach exposure to three- and four-ring PAHs was likely from food (drifting seaweed) and from soil and sand, whereas exposure to four- and five-ring PAHs was from several environmental components. These findings suggest that the wharf roach can be used to monitor PAH pollution in the supralittoral zone and in the intertidal zone.
... Methyl parabens are detected in surface water and sediments in India (Dornath et al. 2015;Karpuzoglu et al. 2013). MeP has been detected in marine ecosystem, especially in invertebrates and fishes (Xue et al. 2017). Acute and chronic effect of MeP on sexual specie has been analyzed (Comeche et al. 2017). ...
Article
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Removal of personal care products (PCPs) has become one of the challenging aspects around the globe. From the last few decades, it has been introduced as one of the emerging pollutants to the environment that affects directly or indirectly our ecosystem mainly aqueous environment. From biodegradation to photo-degradation mechanism, there are different categories of treatment methods, while the priority is based upon being cheaper, effective, reliable, environmental and economically friendly that should be compatible to water chemistry. Currently, photo-catalysis is considered as one of the most reliable and efficient non-conservative technologies for the degradation of PCPs industrial effluents from the aqueous environment. A recent development of photo-catalysis technology for the removal of PCPs gives efficient performance by using carbonaceous TiO2 composites. By using hybrid nature of photo-catalyst, one can achieve suitably high and attractive efficiency with comparable low cost. In this review article, the different photo-catalysis mechanism while moving from non-photo-catalysis to photo-catalysis approach and its practical application for the removal efficiency of various polluting agents have been discussed. A critical evaluation on the various parameters for this approach is highlighted. Future perspective refers to the need for coupling of different semiconducting nano-materials with photo-catalysis that could yield higher efficiency than those of previous one. This facilitates further insight into photo-catalysis approach for the efficient degradation of PCPs to ensure healthy aqueous environment, and some points regarding fate of PCPs should be discussed in future perspective.
... This critical issue is prevalent in many coastal areas globally [1,4,5]. A wide variety of pollutants is present, such as pesticides [6], antibiotics [7], polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [8], heavy metals, and persistent organic pollutants. These environmental pollutants affect and disrupt marine ecosystems, and biomonitoring is necessary to understand these environmental issues. ...
Article
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We investigated the pollution levels of 6 heavy metals and 29 dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs)) in intertidal and supratidal zones by using wharf roaches (Ligia spp.) collected from 12 sampling sites on the coast of Northeast Japan from November 2011 to June 2012. The total concentrations of heavy metals ranged from 177 to 377 µg/g-dry weight (dw), and the predominant metals were copper, zinc, and aluminum. The order of the detected level of heavy metals was zinc > aluminum > copper > cadmium > lead > chromium, and this trend was similar to a previous report. The total toxic equivalent (TEQ) value of the PCDD/Fs ranged from less than the limit of detection (<LOD) to 2.33 pg-TEQ/g-dw, and the predominant congener was octachlorodibenzodioxin (<LOD to 110 pg/g-dw). Compared with PCDD/Fs, DL-PCBs were detected at a predominantly higher level (total TEQ value: 0.64–27.79 pg-TEQ/g-dw). Detected levels of dioxins, especially DL-PCBs in the wharf roach, were like those in the bivalves. These results indicate that the wharf roach could reflect heavy metals and dioxin pollution in the supratidal zones and is a suitable environmental indicator for these environmental pollutants. This is the first study to investigate heavy metals, PCDD/Fs, and DL-PCBs pollution in coastal isopods in Japan.
... In several works, the terminology differs from one to another, e.g.: ultrasound assisted extraction as "UAE" [11], "US" [27], or simply "the sample was ... ultrasonicated" [37]. [46,131] ...
Article
Water bodies cover approximately 70 % of the earth´s surface, making them ecosystems with a high environmental value and the habitat for numerous species of flora and fauna. Emerging pollutants (EPs) are ubiquitous anthropogenic compounds of environmental concern that can be found at different concentration levels in matrices such as sediment, water and aquatic biota. In addition, EPs can be bioaccumulated and biomagnified, inducing adverse effects on biota, and posing a risk to humans when contaminated biota is consumed. Unlike abiotic matrices, the occurrence of EPs in aquatic biota has not been widely studied. This is probably because their complexity, due to the presence of lipids, proteins and other organic compounds, makes the extraction and analysis of EPs difficult. This review gathers the most relevant analytical methods published between 2014 and 2019, comparing them and evaluating their strengths and weaknesses. It is intended to provide a better understanding of the development of new and improved methods, and to be a reference for researchers who are looking for the best methodology for their studies.
... The mean concentrations of parabens in mollusks collected near five coastal cities (Tianjin, Shouguang, Penglai, Yantai, and Weihai) in China, ranged from 3.32 ng/g-85.6 ng/g (Liao and Kannan, 2018). Among 39 marine invertebrates are collected from Florida coastal waters, MP is found in 31 samples, primarily along the Indian River Lagoon and adjacent offshore waters, at an average concentration of 41.7 ± 65.9 ng/g (Xue et al., 2017b). The mean concentration of MP is 402 ng/g in the liver tissue of finless porpoises obtained from Korean coastal waters (Jeong et al., 2019). ...
Article
Objective Parabens are commonly used as preservatives in foodstuffs, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products. The widespread use of parabens has led to their leaking into the environment. Concerns about the safety of parabens have recently increased due to their potential endocrine–disrupting effects as an emerging contaminant. Thus, it is necessary to study the metabolism of parabens in vivo. Methods In this study, Drosophila melanogaster in males and females were exposed to ethylparaben (EP) concentration group (300 mg/L, 700 mg/L, and 1000 mg/L), and control group (0 mg/L) by the capillary feeding assay (CAFE). We quantified the activity of the detoxification-related carboxylesterase (CarE). The contents of EP metabolites in D. melanogaster, including p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA), methylparaben (MP), and intact EP were carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The regression model between EP metabolites (PHBA and MP) and CarE was developed using the Fourier series fitting method. Results The general level of EP metabolites (PHBA, MP, and intact EP) accumulation was accounted for 5.6−11.5% in D. melanogaster. As EP accumulated, the activity of CarE increased, and the activity of CarE in females was higher than males, which is inconsistent with the result of EP intake dose. Additionally, there were significant differences in the proportion of EP metabolites between female and male flies, and the results of sex comparison were different depending on the EP treated groups and EP metabolites. In general, PHBA of EP hydrolytic product and MP of EP transesterification product in D. melanogaster were 41.4−63.9% and 10.4−24.6%, respectively. In terms of the rest of the EP existed in intact form and ranged from 22.4% to 34.0%. Moreover, the EP metabolites in the conjugated form were higher than those in the free form. The regression model between EP metabolites and CarE was established, showing that the CarE activity can be used to estimate the content of PHBA and MP. Conclusion The result indicates that the EP can accumulate in the body through food. Hydrolysis is the main metabolic pathway of EP in D. melanogaster, and transesterification is another metabolic pathway of EP. Additionally, the EP metabolites in flies mainly exist in conjugated form. Furthermore, the Fourier series fitting method model between EP metabolites and CarE, providing theoretical support to study the dose–effect relationship between metabolites of parabens and CarE. This study not only provides a mathematical basis for the safety evaluation of parabens, but also provides support for the further study of the toxicological effects of parabens.
... As no research to date has examined the uptake and movement of this compound through aquatic insects, parallels may perhaps be drawn with other organisms, such as fish and mammals, where studies have confirmed the rapid metabolization and excretion of methylparaben (Moos et al., 2015;NICNAS, 2017;Renz et al., 2013;Tsukamoto and Terada, 1964;Wei et al., 2021;Ye et al., 2006). It is important to note, however, that current research on the bioaccumulation potential of parabens in biota is divided, as some authors have also observed the biomagnification of parabens in higher trophic levels (Xue et al., 2015(Xue et al., , 2017Xue and Kannan, 2016). Our results instead suggest that levels measured in Trichoptera may have been a result of natural origin, which is in line with our initial suggestion (Previšić et al., 2021) and reports on the natural presence of methylparaben in terrestrial insects (Dettner, 1993a(Dettner, , 1993bEvans and Schmidt, 1990;Keeling et al., 2003;Slessor et al., 1990). ...
Article
The widespread use of methylparaben as a preservative has caused increased exposure to natural aquatic systems in recent decades. However, current studies have suggested that exposure to this compound can result in endocrine disrupting effects, raising much concern regarding its environmental impact. In contast, methylparaben has also been found to be part of the metabolome of some organisms, prompting the question as to whether this compound may be more natural than previously assumed. Through a combination of field studies investigating the natural presence of methylparaben across different taxa, and a 54-day microcosm experiment examining the bioaccumulation and movement of methylparaben across different life stages of aquatic insects (order Trichoptera), our results offer evidence suggesting the natural origin of methylparaben in aquatic and terrestrial biota. This study improves our understanding of the role and impact this compound has on biota and challenges the current paradigm that methylparaben is exclusively a harmful anthropogenic contaminant. Our findings highlight the need for further research on this topic to fully understand the origin and role of parabens in the environment which will allow for a comprehensive understanding of the extent of environmental contamination and result in a representative assessment of the environmental risk that may pose. Share link till March 25, 2022: https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1eWsBAOM9zZCq
... broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, no degradation of the products quality and economic nature) [6,[8][9][10]. However, the widespread use of parabens has led to its accumulation in human tissues and body fluids up to thousands of µg/L and ng/g and in aquatic biota up to thousands of ng/g, contributing to the biomagnification potential in the food web [8,[11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18]. Furthermore, over the last century, concerns associated with the exposure to parabens have been discussed, with a particular emphasis on the endocrine disruptor character, affecting the production, transport and metabolism of endogenous hormones [6][7][8]. ...
... Atlantic stingrays feed principally on a variety of small invertebrate prey (Cook 1994) with a relative trophic level of 2.56 (Xue et al. 2017). There is little known regarding age and growth parameters of this species (Schmid 1988). ...
Article
Full-text available
Mercury (Hg) deposited into aquatic sediments can be converted into the more toxic methylmercury (MeHg) by microbial activity. Atlantic stingrays (Hypanus sabinus) are an estuarine and nearshore species found in coastal regions of the western North Atlantic, occurring in multiple habitat types, and feeding mainly on benthic invertebrates. Mercury dynamics and speciation in stingrays have not been well examined. This study quantified total Hg and Hg species (Hg (II) and MeHg) in Atlantic stingrays sampled from Florida’s Indian River Lagoon (IRL) from 2012 to 2013. Tissues (muscle and liver) collected from 29 stingrays were lyophilized and homogenized before being analyzed using a direct mercury analyzer. Concentrations of total Hg in muscle were positively related to stingray disk width, but concentrations in liver were not. Mean (±SD) total Hg in muscle (0.56 ± 0.30 mg/kg dw) was significantly higher than mean total Hg in liver (0.23 ± 0.19 mg/kg dw). Within liver tissue, percent MeHg (of total Hg) ranged from 31 to 99%. The ratio between total Hg in liver and total Hg in muscle was <1 for nearly all individuals, suggesting a lack of active hepatic demethylation and sequestration mechanisms. Concentrations of Hg in IRL Atlantic stingrays fall below concentrations known to result in direct toxicity to fishes; however, effects thresholds are not well understood for elasmobranchs. Comparisons of Hg concentrations in IRL Atlantic stingrays sampled previously (37 individuals in 1994) indicate that total Hg concentrations in muscle of Atlantic stingrays have decreased over the past two decades, suggesting a reduction in the bioavailable Hg in the IRL ecosystem.
... broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, no degradation of the products quality and economic nature) [6,[8][9][10]. However, the widespread use of parabens has led to its accumulation in human tissues and body fluids up to thousands of µg/L and ng/g and in aquatic biota up to thousands of ng/g, contributing to the biomagnification potential in the food web [8,[11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18]. Furthermore, over the last century, concerns associated with the exposure to parabens have been discussed, with a particular emphasis on the endocrine disruptor character, affecting the production, transport and metabolism of endogenous hormones [6][7][8]. ...
Article
The rising concerns from environmental contamination by emerging contaminants (ECs) pushes the need to develop efficient removal technologies in wastewater (WW) treatment plants. Parabens are synthetic estrogens belonging to the ECs group of endocrine disrupting chemicals. Microalgae-based bioremediation is gaining attention as a compelling solution for a cost-effective and sustainable WW treatment. However, there is a lack of scientific data regarding the capacity of microalgae for the removal of parabens at different concentrations as well as the removal mechanisms involved. This work aims to study the effects from methylparaben (MetP) exposure at 0.796 and 7.96 mg/L (10 and 100× higher than the maximum found in a WW influent) on the ability of Chlorella vulgaris to remove MetP and nutrients from a WW. This mechanistic study was undertaken using different physiological endpoints: cellular hydrophobicity (as extracellular interaction), metabolic activity, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and photosynthetic efficiency. The presence of MetP did not alter the hydrophobicity of C. vulgaris cells, which suggests that bioadsorption did not occur. Moreover, for 0.796 mg MetP/L no effects were observed in the metabolism or biomass production. However, for 7.96 mg/L, a decrease in the esterase activity and photosynthetic pigments production was observed, linking these metabolic effects with a decrease in cellular growth. After 168 h, MetP was partly removed: 33.16% and 14.10%, for initial concentrations of 0.796 and 7.96 mg/L, respectively. For the lower concentration, removal was achieved through biodegradation and photodegradation, however, for the extreme concentration, C. vulgaris was not capable to biodegrade MetP, being photodegradation the main removal mechanism. Furthermore, C. vulgaris showed satisfactory growth and removal of the main nutrients (≥73%), which were not affected by the presence of MetP at the lower concentration, highlighting the ability of this microalga for the treatment of WW contaminated with parabens, even with extreme concentrations.
... Due to the frequent use of parabens in everyday life, their presence in the environment is unavoidable. They are present in raw sewage water, influent water to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), man-made water bodies (e.g., swimming pools), surface waters (e.g., rivers, lakes, seas), and importantly, in biotic samples (Regueiro et al., 2009;Terasaki et al., 2012;Wei et al., 2021;Xue et al., 2017). ...
Article
The everyday use of household and personal care products (HPCPs) generates an enormous amount of chemicals, of which several groups warrant additional attention, including: (i) parabens, which are widely used as preservatives; (ii) bisphenols, which are used in the manufacture of plastics; (iii) UV filters, which are essential components of many cosmetic products; and (iv) alkylphenol ethoxylates, which are used extensively as non-ionic surfactants. These chemicals are released continuously into the environment, thus contaminating soil, water, plants and animals. Wastewater treatment and water disinfection procedures can convert these chemicals into halogenated transformation products, which end up in the environment and pose a potential threat to humans and wildlife. Indeed, while certain parent HPCP ingredients have been confirmed as endocrine disruptors, less is known about the endocrine activities of their halogenated derivatives. The aim of this review is first to examine the sources and occurrence of halogenated transformation products in the environment, and second to compare their endocrine-disrupting properties to those of their parent compounds (i.e., parabens, bisphenols, UV filters, alkylphenol ethoxylates). Albeit previous reports have focused individually on selected classes of such substances, none have considered the problem of their halogenated transformation products. This review therefore summarizes the available research on these halogenated compounds, highlights the potential exposure pathways, and underlines the existing knowledge gaps within their toxicological profiles.
... The bioaccumulation of PCPs in aquatic organisms has been widely investigated, such as in shrimp (Xue et al., 2017;Nakata et al., 2007), snails (Coogan and Point, 2008), mussels (de Solla et al., 2016;Reiner and Kannan, 2011), fish muscle ( Yao et al., 2018b;Tanoue et al., 2015;Tanoue et al., 2014), and fish liver ( Yao et al., 2018b;Tanoue et al., 2015;Tanoue et al., 2014;Reiner and Kannan, 2011). These accumulated PCPs, such as carbendazim, miconazole, parabens and TCS, displayed adverse effects to fish (e.g., mortality, growth, and reproduction) at exposure doses of 20 μg/L, 0.2 μg/L, 200 μg/L (butylparaben) and 134 μg/L, respectively ( Mascotti et al., 2008;Dobbins et al., 2009;Horie et al., 2018). ...
Article
We used a hybrid precipitation method to simultaneously extract and analyze 24 personal care products (PCPs), including 16 biocides, 4 synthetic musks, and 4 benzotriazoles, in the plasma of fish. The method's performance was validated for plasma samples with and without β-glucuronidase/aryl-sulfatase hydrolysis. The recoveries were in the range of 70–120% for most of the PCPs, except N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), clotrimazole (CTZ), miconazole and itraconazole at spiking concentration of 20 and 5 ng/mL. The quantification limits ranged between 0.89 and 17.9 ng/mL (hydrolyzed plasma) and 0.85–18.5 ng/mL (non-hydrolyzed plasma), except CTZ at 77.5 ng/mL and 76.3 ng/mL. Totally, 13 PCPs were detected in plasma samples of fish collected from the Yangtze River, with a maximum concentration of 58.4 ng/mL (galaxolide). Compounds with the phenol hydroxyl groups of parabens or triclosan in hydrolyzed plasma showed higher concentrations than those in unhydrolyzed plasma with the ratio of conjugation (glucuronides + sulfates) forms up to 86%. The median values for the logarithm of bioaccumulation factors were between 1.39 and 4.15, which were 2–3 orders of magnitude higher than the theoretical logarithm of bioconcentration factors. Using the fish plasma model, the effect ratios (effect concentration/measured plasma concentration ratios) of tonalide, galaxolide, benzotriazole, triclosan, and DEET reached 0.35, 4.15, 3.78, 7.52, and 9.24, respectively. These are recognized as priority chemicals for further risk assessment.
... Several reports have highlighted the burden of parabens in society and their distribution in the environment (Xue et al., 2017, Wang and Kannan, 2016, Darbre and Harvey, 2008, Pugazhendhi et al., 2005, deposition in tissues of aquatic organisms inhabiting water bodies (Jeong et al., 2019, Zhu andWei 2019) especially arising from effluent discharges from treatment facilities (Tanoue et al., 2015) but little or no attention has been paid to the removal of the major constituent metabolite, pHBA. To bridge this knowledge gap, this study was undertaken to determine optimal pH, enzyme concentration and hydrogen peroxide concentration required to achieve removal of pHBA from synthetic wastewater, with a set target of 95% within 3 hours, and to seek evidence of the formation of oligomers by mass spectroscopy. ...
Conference Paper
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para-hydroxybenzoic acid (pHBA) esters, called parabens, have been extensively used as preservatives in several substances. Their degradation in sewage treatment plants yields pHBA, known to possess estrogenic activity. pHBA is recalcitrant to conventional treatment processes, hence the need for employing other approaches to remove it from wastewater treatment effluents. The catalytic efficiency of soybean peroxidase (SBP) in removing pHBA in synthetic wastewater was studied. 1 mM pHBA, 1.2 U/mL of SBP, and 2.0 mM hydrogen peroxide, at pH 6.5, for 3 h, at room temperature achieved 93% removal. The reaction was analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography and high resolution mass spectrometry. An oxidative dimer was formed which precipitated out of solution. This study shows the possibility of treating pHBA with SBP. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of enzymatic treatment of pHBA.
Article
The aim of the present study was to investigate the kinetics of methylparaben (MPB) and butylparaben (BPB) removal, two emerging pollutants with possible endocrine disrupting effects, from agricultural soil with and without amendment with compost from sewage sludge used as biostimulant. Compound removal is explained by a first-order kinetic model with half-life times of 6.5/6.7 days and 11.4/8.2 days, in presence/absence of compost, for MPB and BPB respectively. % R2 for the fitted model were higher than 96% in all cases. Additionally, isolation of bacteria capable to grow using MPB or BPB as carbon source was also carry out. Laboratory tests demonstrated the ability of these bacteria to biodegrade MPB and BPB from culture media in more than 95% in some cases. These strains showed high ability to biodegrade the compounds. Ten isolates, most of them related to Gram positive bacteria of the genus Bacillus, were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The study of the enzymatic activities of the isolates revealed both esterase (C4) and esterase-lipase activities.
Article
Despite high production and usage of parabens and bisphenols, little is known about their spatiotemporal distribution in the marine environment. In this study, we determined the concentrations of several parabens and their metabolites as well as bisphenol analogues in sediment collected from coastal areas of northern China. All sediment samples, including surface sediment and sediment cores, contained at least one of the parabens analyzed, and the total concentrations of parabens (ΣPBs; sum of six parabens) ranged from 1.37 to 24.2 ng/g dw (geometric mean: 3.30-6.09 g/g dw), which was comparable to or slightly higher than those found for the total concentrations of five detectable bisphenols (ΣBPAs; geometric mean: 2.18-4.61 ng/g dw). 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, a common metabolite of parabens, was found in all samples at concentrations in the range of 6.85-437 ng/g dw, which was one order of magnitude lower than those found for benzoic acid. Methyl-, ethyl-, and propyl-parabens were the predominant paraben analogues, collectively accounting for >88% of ΣPBs. Bisphenol A and bisphenol F were the two major bisphenols, collectively accounting for >86% of ΣBPAs. We also examined vertical profiles in concentrations of target analytes in sediment cores. The sediment core from the Shandong Peninsula showed a gradual increase in the concentrations of several parent and metabolic parabens as well as bisphenols during the past decade. Relatively higher concentrations of parabens and bisphenols were found in sediment cores collected from industrialized areas. Significant positive correlations were found among the concentrations of parabens in sediment, which suggested the existence of similar sources for these compounds. Overall, our findings suggest that the Bohai Sea coast is moderately contaminated with parabens and bisphenols in comparison to other coastal areas in China or elsewhere.
Article
This study investigated the occurrence and fate of 19 biocides in 8 wastewater treatment plants and receiving aquatic environments (both freshwater and estuarine systems) in Thailand. The predominant compound in wastewater and surface water was methylparaben with the maximum concentration of 15.2 μg/L detected in the receiving river, while in sludge and sediment was triclocarban with the maximum concentration of 8.47 μg/g in sludge. Triclosan was the main contaminants in the fish samples with the maximum concentration of 1.20 μg/g. Similar results of biocides were found in the estuarine system in Pattaya city, with the maximum concentration of 185 ng/L in sea water for methylparaben, and 242 ng/g in estuarine sediment for triclocarban. The aqueous removal rates for the biocides ranged from 15% to 95% in average. The back estimated-usage and total estimated emission of Ʃ19 biocides in Thailand was 279 and 202 tons/year, respectively. Preliminary ecological risk assessment showed that clotrimazole and triclosan could pose high risks to aquatic organisms in the receiving aquatic environments.
Article
Parabens are alkyl esters widely used as preservatives in foodstuffs, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. Taihu Lake is the third largest freshwater lake in China. However, there is no information available on the occurrence of parabens in Taihu Lake. To investigate contamination of parabens in Taihu Lake and the influence of human activities on contamination levels, 199 fish samples, comprising five species, were collected from Taihu Lake from 2009 to 2017. Five parabens, including methylparaben (MeP), ethylparaben (EtP), propylparaben (PrP), butylparaben (BuP), and benzylparaben (BeP), were quantitated using an isotope dilution LC-MS/MS method. The total concentrations of the five parabens ranged from 261 to 1710 pg/g wet weight (ww) with an average of 642 pg/g ww. The predominant compounds were MeP, EtP, and PrP, whose amounts accounted for more than 95% of the total amounts. No significant differences in the concentrations of parabens among the five fish species were observed, suggesting no interspecies differences in bioaccumulation of these compounds. Σ5parabens in fish showed temporal variations with the means ranging between 532 and 772 pg/g ww during years. The levels of parabens were generally consistent with the economic development and urbanization rates of the regions surrounding Taihu Lake. The "typical" and "high" estimated daily intake (EDI) of parabens were 0.53 and 0.91 ng/kg-bw/day for children, and 0.46 and 0.79 ng/kg-bw/day for adults based on calculations using the means and the 95th concentrations, respectively. The EDIs were much lower than the reference dose values, suggesting that there are no obvious health risks posed by fish consumption.
Article
Parabens, the alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid such as methylparaben (MeP), ethylparaben (EtP), propylparaben (PrP), butylparaben (BuP) are used as a preservative in food, personal care products (PCPs), and pharmaceuticals, due to their antimicrobial properties. Parabens are continuously released into the environment, during washout of PCPs, disposal of industrial waste from the pharmaceutical and paper industries. Parabens have been detected in the indoor dust, wastewater stream, surface water of rivers, and the marine system. Recent eco-toxicological data and the environmental presence of parabens, has raised concerns regarding the safety and health of environment/humans. Thus, to further understand the toxicity of parabens, the present study was carried out in the soil nematode and well established biological model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. In the present study, LC50 of MeP, EtP, PrP and BuP for 72 h exposures from L1 larva to adult stage was found to be 278.1, 217.8, 169.2, and 131.88 μg/ml, respectively. Further exposure to 1/5th of LC50 of parabens yielded an internal concentration ranging from 1.67 to 2.83 μg/g dry weight of the organism. The toxicity of parabens on the survival, growth, behavior, and reproduction of the C. elegans was found in the order of BuP > PrP > EtP > MeP. Worms exposed to parabens show significant down-regulation of vitellogenin genes, high levels of reactive oxygen species and anti-oxidant transcripts, the latter being concordant with nuclear localization of DAF-16 and up-regulation of HSF-1 and SKN-1/Nrf. Hence, parabens caused endocrine disruption, oxidative stress and toxicity in C. elegans at environment relevant internal concentration of parabens.
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Parabens, alkyl ester derivatives from p‐hydroxybenzoic acid, are extensively used as antimicrobial preservatives. Nonetheless, due to its widespread and massive employment, several studies highlighted the association between parabens and alterations in the reproductive system. This study aimed to relate the adverse effect of the most commonly used parabens in testis mitochondria with male fertility. From all the parabens used, propyl and butyl were the ones that most negatively decreased the respiratory control ratio. In the case of butyl, inhibitions of 20% and 60% were observed, respectively, at the lowest and highest concentration, when compared to the control group. The membrane potential was only significantly affected by propyl (14%) and butyl (31%), and at a concentration of 250 µM. Succinate dehydrogenase, cytochrome c oxidase, and ATPase activities showed a nonsignificant decrease. Cytochrome c reductase, on the other hand, showed statistically significant inhibitions for both propyl (56%) and butylparaben (55%). The susceptibility to the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening was increased by all parabens, although this increase was markedly significant for propyl and butyl. These results show that the susceptibility of mitochondria to parabens is dependent on the alkyl chain length and parabens hydrophobicity, and the main mitochondrial target is Complex II–III and MPTP. Hence, this study demonstrates the contribution of parabens exposition to the inhibition of testis mitochondrial function and their putative noxious effect on the male reproductive system.
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The use of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and personal care products (PCPs) is growing day by day in all over the world. Thus, these materials have appearedas the contaminants of emerging concern (CEC) responsible for hazards and toxicity towards aquatic and terrestrial living systems as well as to humans. Regulatory agencies from all over the world have formulated multiple rules, guidelines and regulations for the risk assessment of pharmaceuticals and PCPs (PPCPs) to the ecosystem. As the generation of huge amount of experimental data is time consuming, costly, and also requires sacrifice of a large number of animals, computational modeling or in silico approaches are proving an efficient technique for not only risk assessment but also for risk management and data gap filling. The present review deals with critical assessment of hazardous potential of PPCPs in the environment. The importance of in silico modeling approaches of the environmental toxicity endpoints to diverse organisms covering all compartments of taxonomy, details of the most commonly employed endpoints, ecotoxicity databases and expert systems as rapid screening tools are discussed meticulously with completele mechanistic interpretations of in silico models over the years.
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Parabens, a group of p-hydroxybenzoic acid esters, are extensively used in cosmetics, personal care products, pharmaceuticals, and foodstuff. In the present study, the total forms (free plus conjugated) of four parent parabens, such as methylparaben (MeP), ethylparaben (EtP), propylparaben (PrP), and butylparaben (BuP), and four metabolites, namely methyl protocatechuate (OH–MeP), ethyl protocatechuate (OH–EtP), p-hydroxy benzoic acid (4-HB), and 3,4-dihydroxy benzoic acid (3,4-DHB), were detected in paired urine and blood samples collected from 196 Chinese university students. The median urinary and blood parabens and their metabolites concentrations ranged from 0.24 to 167 ng/mL and from <0.02 to 2.88 ng/mL, respectively. MeP was the predominant parent parabens, accounting for 68% and 52% of urine and blood samples, respectively. Furthermore, 4-HB predominantly contributed to the parabens and their metabolites in urine (54%) and blood (41%). Significant positive correlations were observed between the urinary levels and blood levels. Moreover, relatively high levels of parabens and their metabolites were detected in urine samples. Our results imply that urinary concentrations are good predictors of human exposure to parabens and metabolites. Gender-related difference in urinary concentrations of parabens and their metabolites were found. The median urinary levels of the tested compounds in females were significantly higher than those in males (Mann Whitney U test, p < 0.05 or 0.01). The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of MeP, EtP, and PrP were also evaluated. The median values of EDIMeP, EDIEtP, and EDIPrP for all of the university students were estimated to be 25.9, 1.61, and 3.82 μg/kg bw/day, respectively. The median values (μg/kg bw/day) of EDIMeP, EDIEtP, and EDIPrP were higher in females (53.7, 8.65, and 5.22) than in males (8.41, 0.85, and 2.57). This study is the first study to report the occurrence of parabens and their metabolites in paired urine and blood samples in China.
Article
Parabens are used as antimicrobial preservatives in a range of consumer products. However, very limited information is available about the association between use of personal care products and paraben burden in human tissues. Accumulation of parabens in some non-destructive biomarkers (such as human fingernail) is essential for paraben biomonitoring. In this study, 50 human fingernail samples were collected from Nanjing, China. A subset of participants (n = 32) also provided their face cream samples (as the representative of personal care products). Six parabens, including methyl- (MeP), ethyl- (EtP), propyl- (PrP), butyl- (BuP), heptyl- (HeP), and benzyl-parabens (BzP), together with their major metabolites were measured in the fingernail and face cream samples. Total concentrations of parabens and their major metabolites were 39.9–27400 ng/g in fingernails. MeP, PrP and EtP were the three dominant parabens in fingernails with median values of 3140, 1290, and 127 ng/g, respectively. Significantly higher levels in female fingernails than those in male fingernails were observed for MeP, PrP, EtP, BuP, and the MeP metabolite (methyl protocatechuate, OH–MeP) (p < 0.05). Adult fingernails contained greater concentrations of MeP and PrP than juvenile fingernails (p < 0.05). Positive correlations were observed for EtP (R = 0.36, p < 0.05) and BuP (R = 0.48, p = 0.008) concentrations between the fingernail and face cream samples. Our work is a preliminary study trying to explore the quantitative relationship between paraben concentrations in human body and use of personal care products. The result here provides a direct evidence that use of personal care products is one of the major sources for human exposure to parabens.
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Parabens are the esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid extensively used as antimicrobial preservatives in food, pharmaceuticals and personal care products. These compounds have been reported to have estrogenic and antiandrogenic properties. The separation of methylparaben from water by hollow fiber supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) and pseudo-emulsion hollow fiber membrane strip dispersion (PEHFSD) technique was studied. Output responses: permeability and stripping percentage were maximized by Grey-Taguchi technique. Concentrations of methylparaben in the three phases at equilibrium were in good agreement with the values calculated from the material balance. Stripping percentage for HFSLM and PEHFSD system were 67% and 90.52% respectively at a contact time of 90 minutes. The estimated permeability was 3.8859 × 10⁻⁵ and 7.8041 × 10⁻⁵ cm/sec for HFSLM and PEHFSD system respectively.
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This study was conducted to assess the genotoxic potentials of water in the Helong Reservoir, which was designated as a strategic drinking water source by Guangdong Provincial Government of China in October 2016. According to the characteristics of water environment in it, 4 kinds of indigenous fish samples (Labeo rohita, Cirrhinus molitorella, Red tilapia and Oreochromis niloticus) were collected at 6 sampling sites during the period from July to November 2020. Fish from the clean drinking water source of the upper reaches of the Liuxihe Reservoir in Guangzhou was collected as control. Alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay and micronucleus (MN) test were used to detect the DNA damage and micronucleus rate in erythrocytes of fish samples, respectively. The results indicated that there was significant increase in comet tail length, Olive tail moment (OTM) and micronucleus rates of all fish samples as compared with those of the control (P<0.05). The order of sensitivity to DNA damage and micronucleus formation is Labeo rohita > Cirrhinus molitorella > Red tilapia > Oreochromis niloticus. The results of the two kinds of experiments are in perfect agreement with each other. Herein, we conclude that there are obvious genotoxic effects of water in the Helong Reservoir. As a strategic drinking water source, the safety of its water quality is worth pondering. The local government should put the restoration of the water environment of the Helong Reservoir on the agenda as soon as possible. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Several studies have reported exposure of humans to various endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) worldwide. However, there is a lack of data regarding EDC exposures in humans living in Southeast Asian countries, such as the Philippines. Hence, this study measured levels of 41 EDCs in women residing in the Greater Manila Area, home to the second largest city in Southeast Asia. Urine samples from women with versus without breast cancer were analyzed for 11 phthalate metabolites, 8 environmental phenols, and 10 bisphenols, while serum samples were analyzed for 12 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). Out of the four groups of EDCs analyzed, PFAS were significantly associated with breast cancer (adjusted OR = 13.63, 95% CI: 3.24–94.88 p-trend = 0.001 for PFDoA; adjusted OR = 9.26, 95% CI 2.54–45.10, p-trend = 0.002 for PFDA; and adjusted OR = 2.66, 95% CI: 0.95–7.66, p-trend = 0.004 for PFHxA). Long-chain PFAS levels were positively correlated with age and were significantly higher in women from Region IV-A, a heavily industrialized region, than from the National Capital Region. Overall, this study showed baseline information regarding the level of EDCs in Filipinas, providing a glimpse of EDC exposure in women living in a megalopolis city in Southeast Asia.
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Parabens, benzophenone (BP)-type UV filters, triclosan (TCS), and triclocarban (TCC) are commonly used in personal care products. Human exposure to these compounds has received increasing concern because of their adverse health effects. However, the levels of these chemicals in paired urine and indoor samples have never been simultaneously measured. In this work, eight parabens, eight BP-type UV filters, TCS, and TCC were measured in paired urine and indoor dust samples collected from university students and their dormitories in South China. The target analytes were commonly measured in urine (71%–100%) and indoor dust (30%–98%), with median concentrations ranging from 0.16 ng/mL to 19.3 ng/mL in urine and from <0.01 ng/g to 3700 ng/g in indoor dust samples. Females had high levels of most of these target compounds, and gender-related differences were found in the levels of most target analytes. Positive correlations were found in the levels of methylparaben, ethyl paraben, benzophenone-3, and TCS between urine and indoor dust samples. This finding suggested that indoor dust is an important source for human exposure to these compounds. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of these analytes in paired samples was also evaluated. The median EDI-urine values of target analytes varied in the range of 4.02–59,280 ng/kg bw/day. Females had higher median EDI-urine values for most of target analytes than males. In addition, the median EDI-indoor dust values of most target analytes in dust from female dormitories were higher than those in dust from male dormitories. Indoor dust ingestion only had minor contribution (<0.5%) to the total exposure. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this study is the first to simultaneously analyze the concentrations of parabens, BP-type UV filters, TCS, and TCC in the paired urine and indoor samples from university students in South China.
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Background Parabens are a group of endocrine disruptors that have been associated with health effects such as hypertension, diabetes, oxidative stress and obesity, which are associated with increased mortality risk over time. Women are exposed to higher paraben levels than men through use of consumer products. The current prospective study examines paraben exposure in association with mortality risk for women and men. Methods We analyzed 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data on urinary paraben analyte concentrations and covariates in adults aged 20 years and over, prospectively linked to National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) mortality through 2015 (N = 2939). Proportional hazard regression models examined mortality risk in association with exposures, controlling for covariates for women and men. Covariates included age, race/ethnicity, smoking, education, income, body mass index, physical activity, self-reported health status and baseline health conditions. Results Women were exposed to significantly higher concentrations of all studied parabens than men. Exposures were highest for methyl paraben. Women had significantly higher mortality risk in association with higher natural log exposure to ethyl (HR = 2.048, 95% CI 1.164–3.601), methyl (HR = 1.312, 95% CI 1.013–1.700), butyl (HR = 2.719, 95% CI 1.591–4.647) and total parabens (HR = 1.292, 95% CI 1.006–1.659). Exposure concentrations were associated with higher mortality risk for men only for ethyl paraben (HR = 2.532, 95% CI 1.217–5.268). Discussion Women were found to be at greater mortality risk in association with exposure to ethyl, methyl, butyl and total parabens. These findings require confirmatory research but add to the evidence base that exposure to parabens, probably through consumer products, may have adverse effects on human health, especially for women.
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Household and personal care products (HPCPs) are a kind of contaminants closely related to daily life, capturing worldwide concern. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt focusing on the spatiotemporal occurrence and mixture risk of HPCPs in the waters from rivers to Laizhou Bay. Nine HPCPs were quantitated in 216 water samples gathered from Laizhou Bay and its adjacent rivers in 2018, 2019, and 2021 to reveal the spatiotemporal occurrence and mixture ecological risks in Laizhou Bay. Eight HPCPs were detected with detection frequencies ranging from 74% to 100%. The total concentrations were in the ranges 105–721 ng L⁻¹ in river water and 51.3–332 ng L⁻¹ in seawater. The HPCPs were dominated by p-hydroxybenzoic and triclosan, which together contributed over 75% of the total HPCPs. The average level of the total HPCP concentration in the summer of 2018 (96.1 ng L⁻¹) was slightly exceed that in the spring of 2019 (91.6 ng L⁻¹), which is associated with the higher usage of HPCPs and enhanced tourism during summer. However, the highest total concentrations were found in spring of 2021 (124 ng L⁻¹ in average), which was attribute to a higher level of methylparaben, a predominant paraben used as preservatives in commercial pharmaceuticals of China. Influenced by riverine inputs and ocean currents, higher HPCP concentrations in Laizhou Bay were found nearby the estuary of Yellow River and the southern part of the bay. Triclosan should be given constant concern considering its medium to high risks (RQ > 0.1) in nearly 80% of the water samples. The cumulative risk assessment in two approaches revealed that HPCP mixtures generally elicit medium or high risk to three main aquatic taxa. Considering the worldwide outbreak of COVID-19, the levels and risks of multiple HPCPs in natural waters requires constant attention in future studies.
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Endocrine disrupting chemicals are exogenous chemicals which alter the functions of endocrine system. There are very few studies of occurrence and distribution of endocrine disrupting chemicals in water, soil and their potential human health risks under Indian conditions. In the present work, occurrence of eleven endocrine disrupting chemicals namely bisphenol-A, triclosan, triclocarbon, 4-nonylphenol, 4-tert octylphenol, methyl paraben, propyl paraben, butyl paraben, benzyl butyl phthalate, di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and di-n-butyl phthalate have been investigated in 20 river water samples, 5 ground water samples and 23 agricultural soil samples collected from 26 sampling points of different agro-climatic zones of India during 2019–2020. Instrument detection and quantification limits of different endocrine disrupting chemicals using LC–MS/MS varied from 0.001 to 0.05 and 0.005–0.1 µg/mL, respectively. Detection frequencies of bisphenol A, 4-nonylphenol, 4-tert octylphenol and di-n-butyl phthalate were 100% in river water samples. In ground water samples di-n-butyl phthalate, benzyl butyl phthalate, di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, triclosan, triclocarbon, 4-tert octylphenol, 4-nonylphenol, propyl paraben and butyl paraben and in soils 4-tert octylphenol, 4-nonylphenol, bisphenol-A and di-n-butyl phthalate were detected in 100% sample. High mean concentrations of di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate were recorded in river waters (2706.135 µg/L), ground waters (3203.33 µg/L) and agricultural soils (1005.490 ng/g). Other chemicals detected in high concentrations were 4-tert octylphenol (180.680–829.93 µg/L), di-n-butyl phthalate (117.492–182.29 µg/L) and bisphenol-A (13.99–228.03 µg/L). Widespread distribution and high concentrations of these chemicals in water and soil is a cause of concern and, therefore, continued monitoring of these chemicals in different environmental matrices is the need of the hour.
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Plastic additives are utilized during the production of plastic to modify the attributes and stability of the polymer. As oceanic plastic waste degrades, these additives can leach, and are harmful to global marine ecosystems. Despite the high abundance of additives leached into the marine environment, little is known about their direct impact on marine zooplankton. Here we test for impacts of four plastic additives, UV-327, Irganox 1010, DEHP, and methylparaben, all commonly used in plastic manufacturing, on purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) larval growth and survival in a serial dose response for 4 days. Methylparaben, UV-327, and Irganox 1010 significantly reduced larval body length by about 5% for at least one dose. In contrast, all compounds reduced larval survival by 20–70% with strongest effects at intermediate rather than high doses. Our results highlight that plastic additives should be tested for their effects on marine organisms.
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The unmatched levels of water contamination by emerging contaminants (ECs), such as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and pharmaceuticals, has become a relevant environmental problem due to their considerable ecotoxicity and associated health issues. Among the EDCs, parabens are a group of preservative compounds widely used on a daily basis in cosmetic, personal care products, food products and pharmaceuticals. Parabens can cause a variety of adverse health effects, particularly in the endocrine system. They are frequently detected in environmental matrices (up to 170.9 μg/L in surface waters), with a critical presence and persistence in aquatic systems (up to 36,000 h of a half-life time). Despite the advances in wastewater treatment technologies, the design of existing treatment plants is not suited to remove these ECs, generating wastes containing high concentrations of persistent contaminants or chemically unstable products and can demand high amounts of energy for operation. Moreover, there is a lack of published health standards that provide guidelines for treating parabens, highlighting the need for innovative approaches. Microalgae bioremediation is starting to evolve scientifically as feasible for the removal of parabens, namely with laboratorial and pilot scale studies achieving removal efficiencies close to 100%. However, large scale microalgae-based treatment of wastewaters containing parabens and other ECs faces challenges of process optimization. This study reviews the physicochemical properties of parabens, their regulation and environmental persistence. It further provides a rigorous analysis of parabens removal by the existing treatment process in comparison with microalgae-based systems, reinforcing the need for further research.
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Methylparaben (MeP) is an emerging aquatic pollutant that is found to impact neural functions. However, it still lacks a comprehensive understanding about its neurotoxicology. The present study exposed adult zebrafish to environmentally realistic concentrations (0, 1, 3, and 10 μg/L) of MeP for 28 days, with objectives to elucidate the neurotoxic effects and mechanisms. Proteomic profiling found that MeP pollutant induced distinct mechanism of neurotoxicity as a function of sex. MeP pollutant appeared to preferentially target the neurotransmission cascade via synapse junctions. In male brain, glutamatergic neural signaling was enhanced by 10 μg/L of MeP in characteristics of higher glutamate neurotransmitter content (by 61.9%) and up-regulated glutamate receptor expression by 2.6-fold relative to the control. In MeP-exposed female brain, biomarker proteins of synapse formation and regeneration had significantly lower abundance, accounting for the blockage of synaptic neurotransmission. Furthermore, under the stress of MeP pollutant, both male and female zebrafish initiated a negative feedback mechanism along stress neuroendocrine axis by down-regulating the transcriptions of corticotropin-releasing hormone and its binding protein, which subsequently decreased blood cortisol concentrations. MeP subchronic exposure also disturbed innate immune function. In particular, significant increases in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) content by 15.6% were caused by MeP exposure in male brain, thereby inducing the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In contrast, female brain was able to adaptively up-regulate the protein expression of blood brain barrier to inhibit the infiltration of LPS endotoxin into brain. Overall, the present findings pinpoint the potent neurotoxicity of MeP pollutant even at environmentally realistic concentrations.
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This work aimed to determine the concentrations of parabens and triclosan (TCS) in shellfish from coastal waters of Shenzhen, South China. A method of isotope dilution with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was used to determine TCS and five paraben analogues, including methyl paraben (MeP), ethyl paraben (EtP), propyl paraben (PrP), butyl paraben (BuP), and benzyl paraben (BeP), in 186 shellfish samples covering eight species. Concentrations of parabens and TCS were 0.13-25.5 ng/g wet weight (ww) and <LOQ-6.51 ng/g ww, respectively, indicating their ubiquitous contamination in Shenzhen coastal waters. MeP was the most predominant paraben, followed by EtP and PrP. These three analogues accounted for more than 95% of the total concentrations of parabens. The "high" estimated daily intakes of parabens and TCS with the 95th percentage concentrations were estimated to be 2.15-26.1 and 0.41-10.3 ng/kg bw/day, respectively, much lower than the acceptable dietary intakes of parabens (1 × 107 ng/kg bw/day) and TCS (200 ng/kg bw/day), indicating no significant human health risks from shellfish consumption in the studied region. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the occurrences of parabens and TCS in shellfish products from Shenzhen coastal waters.
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We measured stable-carbon [C-13/C-12] and/or nitrogen [N-15/N-14] isotope ratios in 322 tissue samples [minus lipids] representing 43 species from primary producers through polar bears Ursus maritimus in the Barrow Strait-Lancaster Sound marine food web during July-August, 1988 to 1990. delta-C-13 ranged from -21.6 + 0.3 parts per thousand for particulate organic matter [POM] to -15.0 +/- 0.7 parts per thousand for the predatory amphipod Stegocephalus inflatus. Delta-N-15 was least enriched for POM [5.4 +/- 0.8 parts per thousand], most enriched for polar bears [21.1 +/- 0.6 parts per thousand], and showed a step-wise enrichment with trophic level of + 3.8 parts per thousand. We used this enrichment value to construct a simple isotopic food-web model to establish trophic relationships within this marine ecosystem. This model confirms a food web consisting primarily of 5 trophic levels. delta-C-13 showed no discernible pattern of enrichment after the first 2 trophic levels, an effect that could not be attributed to differential lipid concentrations in food-web components. Although Arctic cod Boreogadus saida is an important link between primary producers and higher trophic-level vertebrates during late summer, our isotopic model generally predicts closer links between lower trophic-level invertebrates and several species of seabirds and marine mammals than previously established.
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Organochlorine compounds (OCs), brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and stable isotopes (δ15N and δ13C) were analyzed in various deep-sea organisms collected from Sagami Bay, Japan in 2004. PCBs and DDTs were the predominant contaminants detected in this study, followed by CHLs > HCB > HBCDs > PBDEs > HCHs. Concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, CHLs, HCB and PBDEs, which have high adsorptive affinities to particles and easily precipitate to sediments, were the highest in demersal fish among the organisms analyzed. Relatively high concentrations of HBCDs were found in species living in surface waters, suggesting recent input of HBCDs in the marine environment. Significant positive correlations between δ15N (‰) and concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, CHLs, HCB, PBDEs and HBCDs were found, indicating that these compounds were biomagnified in higher trophic level organisms. On the other hand, concentrations of HCHs decreased with an increase in trophic level implying dilution of this compound through the food web. The trophodynamic magnification factor (TMFs) of the analyzed PCB congeners showed an increasing trend for congeners with low log KOW (5-7), while a decreasing trend was observed for congeners with high log KOW (7-9). This phenomenon could be due to reduced bioavailability/uptake. This trend was also observed for PBDEs with some exceptions. TMF values calculated for BDE-99, -153, and -209 were lower than those of predicted TMF values. Metabolism or debromination of these congeners in the fish body is a possible reason for this difference. In addition, BDE-209 has extremely low bioavailability due to its large molecular size.
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The stable isotopes of nitrogen (d15N) and carbon (d13C) provide powerful tools for estimating the trophic positions of and carbon flow to consumers in food webs; however, the isotopic signature of a consumer alone is not generally sufficient to infer trophic position or carbon source without an appropriate isotopic baseline. In this paper, I develop and discuss methods for generating an isotopic baseline and evaluate the assump- tions required to estimate the trophic position of consumers using stable isotopes in multiple ecosystem studies. I test the ability of two primary consumers, surface-grazing snails and filter-feeding mussels, to capture the spatial and temporal variation at the base of aquatic food webs. I find that snails reflect the isotopic signature of the base of the littoral food web, mussels reflect the isotopic signature of the pelagic food web, and together they provide a good isotopic baseline for estimating trophic position of secondary or higher trophic level consumers in lake ecosystems. Then, using data from 25 north temperate lakes, I evaluate how d 15N and d13C of the base of aquatic food webs varies both among lakes and between the littoral and pelagic food webs within lakes. Using data from the literature, I show that the mean trophic fractionation of d15N is 3.4‰ (1 SD 5 1‰) and of d13 Ci s 0.4‰ (1 SD 5 1.3‰), and that both, even though variable, are widely applicable. A sen- sitivity analysis reveals that estimates of trophic position are very sensitive to assumptions about the trophic fractionation of d15N, moderately sensitive to different methods for gen- erating an isotopic baseline, and not sensitive to assumptions about the trophic fractionation of d13C when d13C is used to estimate the proportion of nitrogen in a consumer derived from two sources. Finally, I compare my recommendations for generating an isotopic baseline to an alternative model proposed by M. J. Vander Zanden and J. B. Rasmussen. With an appropriate isotopic baseline and an appreciation of the underlying assumptions and model sensitivity, stable isotopes can help answer some of the most difficult questions
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Parabens are used extensively in personal care products; however, their estrogenic properties have raised concern over risks to human health. High levels of total parabens, mainly as conjugates, have been reported in human plasma/serum, with limited data on native parabens. Our objective was to assess and link plasma concentrations of native common parabens to self-reported use of personal care products in women from the general population. The information was obtained from an extensive questionnaire on diet and lifestyle previously answered by the women in the NOWAC study. Plasma samples from 332 individuals were extracted and cleaned up by automated solid phase extraction and analyzed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Native methyl paraben dominated and was detected in 63% of the samples, with a median level of 9.4 ng/ml. Ethyl paraben (median < 3 ng/ml) and propyl paraben (median < 2 ng/ml) were detected in 22 and 29%, respectively. Butyl and benzyl parabens were not detected. For the first time, elevated levels of native parabens are reported in women from the general population. The concentrations were significantly associated with the use of skin lotions, indicating that frequent (daily or more) use maintain elevated concentrations despite the parabens short half-lives. These findings clearly emphasize the need to study potential health effects in the general population.
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This article reviews laboratory and epidemiological research into the endocrine disruptive effects of components of personal care products, namely, phthalate esters, parabens, ultraviolet (UV) filters, polycyclic musks, and antimicrobials. High doses of phthalates in utero can produce “phthalate syndrome,” demasculinizing effects in male rat offspring due to impaired testosterone production by fetal testes. However, evidence linking phthalate exposure to similar effects in humans appears inconclusive. Furthermore, phthalate exposure derived from personal care products is within safe limits and its principal bioavailable phthalate, diethyl phthalate (DEP), does not produce “phthalate syndrome.” Parabens exhibit very weak estrogen activity in vitro and in vivo, but evidence of paraben-induced developmental and reproductive toxicity in vivo lacks consistency and physiological coherence. Evidence attempting to link paraben exposure with human breast cancer is nonexistent. Select UV filters at high doses produce estrogenic, antithyroid, and other effects in rats in vivo. Again, no evidence links UV filter exposure to endocrine disruptive effects in humans. Some polycyclic musks weakly bind to estrogen, androgen, or progestin receptors and exhibit primarily antagonistic activity in vitro, which for the most part, has yet to be confirmed in vivo in mammals. The antimicrobials triclocarban and triclosan evoke weak responses mediated by aryl hydrocarbon, estrogen, and androgen receptors in vitro, which require confirmation in vivo. Preliminary observations suggest a novel interaction between triclocarban and testosterone. In conclusion, although select constituents exhibit interactions with the endocrine system in the laboratory, the evidence linking personal care products to endocrine disruptive effects in humans is for the most part lacking.
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The widespread exposure of humans to parabens present in personal care products is well known. Nevertheless, little is known about the accumulation of parabens in marine organisms. In this study, six parabens and four common metabolites of parabens were measured in 121 tissue samples from eight species of marine mammals collected along the coastal waters of Florida, California, Washington, and Alaska. Methyl paraben (MeP) was the predominant compound found in the majority of the marine mammal tissues analyzed, and the highest concentration found was 865 ng/g (wet weight [wet wt]) in the livers of bottlenose dolphins from Sarasota Bay, FL. 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HB) was the predominant paraben metabolite found in all tissue samples. The measured concentrations of 4-HB were on the order of hundreds to thousands of ng/g tissue, and these values are some of the highest ever reported in the literature. MeP and 4-HB concentrations showed a significant positive correlation (p < 0.05), which suggested a common source of exposure to these compounds in marine mammals. Trace concentrations of MeP and 4-HB were found in the livers of polar bears from the Chuckchi Sea and Beaufort Sea, which suggested widespread distribution of MeP and 4-HB in the oceanic environment.
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Parabens is the name given to a group of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA) esters used in over 22,000 cosmetics as preservatives at concentrations up to 0.8% (mixtures of parabens) or up to 0.4% (single paraben). The group includes Methylparaben, Ethylparaben, Propylparaben, Isopropylparaben, Butylparaben, Isobutylparaben, and Benzylparaben. Industry estimates of the daily use of cosmetic products that may contain parabens were 17.76 g for adults and 378 mg for infants. Parabens in cosmetic formulations applied to skin penetrate the stratum corneum in inverse relation to the ester chain length. Carboxylesterases hydrolyze parabens in the skin. Parabens do not accumulate in the body. Serum concentrations of parabens, even after intravenous administration, quickly decline and remain low. Acute toxicity studies in animals indicate that parabens are not significantly toxic by various routes of administration. Subchronic and chronic oral studies indicate that parabens are practically nontoxic. Numerous genotoxicity studies, including Ames testing, dominant lethal assay, host-mediated assay, and cytogenic assays, indicate that the Parabens are generally nonmutagenic, although Ethylparaben and Methylparaben did increase chromosomal aberrations in a Chinese Hamster ovary cell assay. Ethylparaben, Propylparaben, and Butylparaben in the diet produced cell proliferation in the forestomach of rats, with the activity directly related to chain length of the alkyl chain, but Isobutylparaben and Butylparaben were noncarcinogenic in a mouse chronic feeding study. Methylparaben was noncarcinogenic when injected subcutaneously in mice or rats, or when administered intravaginally in rats, and was not cocarcinogenic when injected subcutaneously in mice. Propylparaben was noncarcinogenic in a study of transplacental carcinogenesis. Methylparaben was nonteratogenic in rabbits, rats, mice, and hamsters, and Ethylparaben was nonteratogenic in rats. Parabens, even at levels that produce maternal toxicity, do not produce fetal anomalies in animal studies. Parabens have been extensively studied to evaluate male reproductive toxicity. In one in vitro study, sperm were not viabile at concentrations as low as 6 mg/ml Methylparaben, 8 mg/ml Ethylparaben, 3 mg/ml Propylparaben, or 1 mg/ml Butylparaben, but an in vivo study of 0.1% or 1.0% Methylparaben or Ethylparaben in the diet of mice reported no spermatotoxic effects. Propylparaben did affect sperm counts at all levels from 0.01% to 1.0%. Epididymis and seminal vesicle weight decreases were reported in rats given a 1% oral Butylparaben dose; and decreased sperm number and motile activity in F1 offspring of rats maternally exposed to 100 mg/kg day- 1 were reported. Decreased sperm numbers and activity were reported in F1 offspring of female rats given Butylparaben (in DMSO) by subcutaneous injection at 100 or 200 mg/kg day- 1, but there were no abnormalities in the reproductive organs. Methylparaben was studied using rats at levels in the diet up to an estimated mean dose of 1141.1 mg/kg day- 1 with no adverse testicular effects. Butylparaben was studied using rats at levels in the diet up to an estimated mean dose of 1087.6 mg/kg day- 1 in a repeat of the study noted above, but using a larger number of animals and a staging analysis of testicular effects - no adverse reproductive effects were found. Butylparaben does bind to estrogen receptors in isolated rat uteri, but with an affinity orders of magnitude less than natural estradiol. Relative binding (diethylstilbesterol binding affinity set at 100) to the human estrogen receptors α and β increases as a function of chain length from not detectable for Methylparaben to 0.267 ± 0.027 for human estrogen receptor α and 0.340 ± 0.031 for human estrogen receptor β for Isobutylparaben. In a study of androgen receptor binding, Propylparaben exhibited weak competitive binding, but Methylparaben had no binding effect at all. PHBA at 5 mg/kg day-1 subcutaneously (s.c.) was reported to produce an estrogenic response in one uterotrophic assay using mice, but there was no response in another study using rats (s.c. up to 5 mg/kg day- 1) and mice (s.c. up to 100 mg/kg day- 1) and in a study using rats (s.c. up to 100 mg/kg day- 1). Methylparaben failed to produce any effect in uterotrophic assays in two laboratories, but did produce an effect in other studies from another laboratory. The potency of Methylparaben was at least 1000× less when compared to natural estradiol. The same pattern was reported for Ethylparaben, Propylparaben, and Butylparaben when potency was compared to natural estradiol. In two studies, Isobutylparaben did produce an estrogenic response in the uterotrophic assay, but the potency was at least 240,000× less than estradiol. In one study, Benzylparaben produced an estrogenic response in the uterotrophic assay, but the potency was at least 330,000× less than estradiol. Estrogenic activity of parabens and PHBA was increased in human breast cancer cells in vitro, but the increases were around 4 orders of magnitude less than that produced by estradiol. Parabens are practically nonirritating and nonsensitizing in the population with normal skin. Paraben sensitization has occurred and continues to be reported in the case literature, but principally when exposure involves damaged or broken skin. Even when patients with chronic dermatitis are patch-tested to a parabens mix, parabens generally induce sensitization in less than 4% of such individuals. Many patients sensitized to paraben-containing medications can wear cosmetics containing these ingredients with no adverse effects. Clinical patch testing data available over the past 20 years demonstrate no significant change in the overall portion of dermatitis patients that test positive for parabens. As reviewed by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel, the available acute, subchronic, and chronic toxicity tests, using a range of exposure routes, demonstrate a low order of parabens' toxicity at concentrations that would be used in cosmetics. Parabens are rarely irritating or sensitizing to normal human skin at concentrations used in cosmetics. Although parabens do penetrate the stratum corneum, metabolism of parabens takes place within viable skin, which is likely to result in only 1% unmetabolized parabens available for absorption into the body. The Expert Panel did consider data in the category of endocrine disruption, including male reproductive toxicity and various estrogenic activity studies. The CIR Expert Panel compared exposures to parabens resulting from use of cosmetic products to a no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of 1000 mg/kg day- 1 based on the most statistically powerful and well-conducted study of the effects of Butylparabens on the male reproductive system. The CIR Expert Panel considered exposures to cosmetic products containing a single parabens preservative (use level of 0.4%) separately from products containing multiple parabens (use level of 0.8%) and infant exposures separately from adult exposures in determining margins of safety (MOS). The MOS for infants ranged from ∼6000 for single paraben products to ∼3000 for multiple paraben products. The MOS for adults ranged from 1690 for single paraben products to 840 for multiple paraben products. The Expert Panel considers that these MOS determinations are conservative and likely represent an overestimate of the possibility of an adverse effect (e.g., use concentrations may be lower, penetration may be less) and support the safety of cosmetic products in which parabens preservatives are used.
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Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and stable isotopes of nitrogen (delta N-15) were measured in zooplankton (6 species), a benthic invertebrate (Anonyx nugax), Arctic cod (Boreogados saida), seabirds (6 species), and ringed seals (Phoca hispida) collected in 1998 in the Northwater Polynya to examine effects of biological and chemical factors on trophic transfer of POPs in an Arctic marine food web. Strong positive relationships were found between recalcitrant POP concentrations (lipid corrected) and trophic level based on stable isotopes of nitrogen, providing clear evidence of POP biomagnification in Arctic marine food webs. Food web magnification factors (FWMFs), derived from the slope of the POP-trophic level relationship, provided an overall magnification factor for the food web but over and underestimated biomagnification factors (BMFs) based on predator-prey concentrations in poikilotherms (fish) and homeotherms (seabirds and mammals), respectively. Greater biomagnification in homeotherms was attributed to their greater energy requirement and subsequent feeding rates. Within the homeotherms, seabirds had greater BMFs than ringed seals, consistent with greater energy demands in birds. Scavenging from marine mammal carcasses and accumulation in more contaminated winter habitats were considered important variables in seabird BMFs. Metabolic differences between species resulted in lower than expected BMFs, which would not be recognized in whole food web trophic level-POP relationships. The use of Sigma POP groups, such as Sigma PCB, is problematic because FWMFs and BMFs varied considerably between individual POPs. FWMFs of recalcitrant POPs had a strong positive relationship with log octanol-water partition coefficient (K-ow). Results of this study show the utility of using delta N-15 to characterize trophic level and trophic transfer of POPs but highlight the effects of species and chemical differences on trophic transfer of POPs that can be overlooked when a single magnification factor is applied to an entire food web.
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Despite the widespread use of bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) and bisphenol F diglycidyl ether (BFDGE) in various consumer products, studies on human exposure to these compounds are scarce. In this study, BADGE, BFDGE, and seven of their derivatives were determined in human adipose fat and blood plasma samples collected from New York City, NY, USA. Bisphenol A bis (2,3-dihydroxypropyl) ether [BADGE▪2H2O] was the major BADGE derivative found in 60% of the adipose samples and 70% of the plasma samples analyzed. High concentrations and detection frequencies of BFDGE were found in both adipose and plasma samples. BFDGE concentrations in adipose fat ranged from 19.1 to 4500 ng/g wet weight. A significant correlation between BADGE or BFDGE and their derivatives in adipose and plasma samples suggested hydration of these reactive compounds in humans. A significant positive correlation existed between BADGEs (i.e., the sum of BADGE and its five derivatives) and BFDGEs in adipose samples, which suggested similar exposure sources and pathways for these compounds in humans. Bisphenol A (BPA) also was analyzed in adipose fat and plasma, and its concentrations were positively correlated with those of BADGEs, which confirmed co-exposure of BADGEs and BPA in humans.
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Six phenolic acids were found in leaves of over 50% of the seagrasses surveyed. p-Hydroxybenzoic acid was the most ubiquitous and was recorded in each of the 12 genera and in each of the 25 species that included both Gulf-Caribbean and Indo-Pacific seagrasses. p-Coumaric, caffeic, ferulic, vanillic and protocatechuic acids were also of frequent occurrence. The six phenolic acids were detected in rhizomes and roots as well as in leaves of four Texas seagrasses, Thalassia testudinum Banks ex König, Halodule wrightii Aschers., Syringodium filiforme Kütz., and Halophila engelmannii Aschers. The phenolic acids that predominate in the seagrasses also occur widely in land plants, but gallic acid was detected in a greater percentage of seagrasses than had been observed in a comparable number of land plants of Central Texas origin. Although trhe phenolic acids have been cited in the allelopathic literature of land plants as major water-borne inhibitors, their role in seagrass ecosystems is under investigation.
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p-Hydroxybenzoic acid esters (parabens) and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) are widely present in personal care products, food packages, and material coatings. Nevertheless, little is known about the occurrence of these compounds in indoor dust. In this study, we collected 158 indoor dust samples from the U.S., China, Korea, and Japan and determined the concentrations of 11 target chemicals, viz., six parabens and their common hydrolysis product, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HB), as well as BADGE and its three hydrolysis products (BADGE·H(2)O, BADGE·2H(2)O, and BADGE·HCl·H(2)O). All of the target compounds were found in dust samples from four countries. Concentrations of sum of six parabens in dust were on the order of several hundred to several thousands of nanogram per gram. Geometric mean concentrations of BADGEs in dust ranged from 1300 to 2890 ng/g among four countries. Methyl paraben (MeP), propyl paraben (PrP), BADGE·2H(2)O, and BADGE·HCl·H(2)O were the predominant compounds found in dust samples. This is the first report of BADGE and its hydrolysis products (BADGEs) in indoor dust samples and of parabens in indoor dust from Asian countries. On the basis of the measured concentrations of target chemicals, we estimated the daily intake (EDI) via dust ingestion. The EDIs of parabens via dust ingestion were 5-10 times higher in children than in adults. Among the four countries studied, the EDIs of parabens (5.4 ng/kg-bw/day) and BADGEs (6.5 ng/kg-bw/day) through dust ingestion were the highest for children in Korea and Japan.