Article

Fertility after uterine artery embolization for symptomatic multiple fibroids with no other infertility factors

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Objectives To evaluate the fertility of women eligible for surgical multiple myomectomy, but who carefully elected a fertility-sparing uterine artery embolization (UAE). Methods Non-comparative open-label trial, on women ≤40 years, presenting with multiple symptomatic fibroids (at least 3, ≥3 cm), immediate pregnancy wish, and no associated infertility factor.Women had a bilateral limited UAE using tris-acryl gelatin microspheres ≥500 μm.Fertility, ovarian reserve, uterus and fibroid sizes, and quality of life questionnaires (UFS-QoL) were prospectively followed. ResultsFifteen patients, aged 34.8 years (95%CI 32.2–37.5, median 36.0, q1–q3 29.4–39.5) were included from November 2008 to May 2012.During the year following UAE, 9 women actively attempting to conceive experienced 5 live-births (intention-to-treat fertility rate 33.3%, 95%CI 11.8%–61.6%). Markers of ovarian reserve remained stable. The symptoms score was reduced by 66% (95%CI 48%–85%) and the quality of life score was improved by 112% (95%CI 21%–204%). Uterine volume was reduced by 38% (95%CI 24%–52%).Women were followed for 43.1 months (95%CI 32.4–53.9), 10 live-births occurred in 8 patients, and 5 patients required secondary surgeries for fibroids. Conclusion Women without associated infertility factors demonstrated an encouraging capacity to deliver after UAE. Further randomized controlled trials comparing UAE and myomectomy are warranted. Key points• Women without infertility factors showed an encouraging delivery rate after UAE.• For women choosing UAE over abdominal myomectomy, childbearing may not be impaired.• Data are insufficient to definitively recommend UAE as comparable to myomectomy.• Further randomized trials comparing fertility after UAE or myomectomy are warranted.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... According to literature data, myomectomy is recommended as the first option especially for patients who expect to conceive. Today, women prefer uterine myoma embolization (UME) more over abdominal myomectomy, even though they expect to get pregnant [3][4][5][6]. The reasons of this preference are that UME has less invasive, shorter hospitalization time and providing quick healing. ...
... According to literature data, in patients with pregnancy expectancy, myomectomy is accepted as the first option in myoma treatment [1][2][3][4][5][6]. Therefore, we directed all patients to surgery who we thought can benefit from myomectomy in preoperative MRI. ...
... Although some of the cases accepted as clinical failure at third month follow-up stated that their symptoms had decreased, none stated that all symptoms had disappeared. When patients' pre-operation MRIs that were accepted as unsuccessful were examined, it was found that myoma sizes of 6 of them were bigger than 10 cm (average: 13.6 cm), myomas of 4 of them were dyed weak with contrast agent, and the myoma of 1 patient was has intense calcification centers [5,6]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Öz Objective. We aimed to share the long-term technical and clinical success results, complications and radiologic follow-up findings in our myoma cases treated with uterine artery embolization (UAE) ) and to make a contribution to the literature data on this subject. Method. The study was retrospective and the results of 70 patients who underwent UAE for myoma treatment at our institute between January 2012 and January 2015 were analyzed. Results. The age range was 22 to 46 years and the mean age 34 years. The postprocedural follow-up duration was 6 to 24 months and the mean follow-up duration was 14 months. The technical success rate was 100% and the clinical success rate was 84.7%. On postprocedural follow-up, fibroid passage was seen in 2 patients (2.85%), severe hypermenorrhea in 4 (5.7%) and postembolization syndrome in 6 (8.5%). Our myoma recurrence rate was 11.36% (n=5). The UAE procedure did not need to be repeated in any of the patients. Conclusions. UAE is a reliable alternative to hysterectomy and myomectomy. We believe that UAE should be preferred in patients who are recommended hysterectomy or are predicted to potentially need hysterectomy during myomectomy.
... Embolization techniques have found their place in modern obstetrics and gynecology. The experience with uterine myomas is meanwhile very large, and subsequent conception seems to be possible and relatively safe [16]. Torre et al. described an insignificant change in fertility rate and ovarian reserve after UAE for uterine fibroids in women with no other infertility factors [16]. ...
... The experience with uterine myomas is meanwhile very large, and subsequent conception seems to be possible and relatively safe [16]. Torre et al. described an insignificant change in fertility rate and ovarian reserve after UAE for uterine fibroids in women with no other infertility factors [16]. Krissi et al. reported on the subsequent fertility after MTX administration with UAE in the treatment IP. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Interstitial pregnancies (IP) can be treated medically or surgically. The most common complication remains hemorrhage. The risk of that may be reduced by elective uterine artery embolization (UAE) prior to surgery, which we applied in two consecutive cases with high vascularization on ultrasound. We also reviewed larger series (n ≥ 10) on medical as well as surgical management of IP on success and complication rates and reviewed the entire literature on UAE. Results A gravida 5 (two ectopic pregnancies treated by salpingectomy) para 1 (cesarean section complicated by a niche, earlier repaired) presented with an asymptomatic IP. Primary treatment consisted of systemic methotrexate (MTX). Because of raising β-hCG and persisting heart activity 1 week later, she was referred for surgery (β-hCG = 59,000 IU/L; CRL = 10.5 mm). Another gravida 5 para 3 presented with an asymptomatic evolutive IP on dating ultrasound. Because of the size (CRL = 24.5 mm), thin overlaying myometrium, and high β-hCG (121,758 IU/L), we opted for primary surgery. Both IPs were highly vascularized with high flow rates. To prevent bleeding, a bilateral UAE was performed. The surgery was nearly bloodless. In the literature, a wide range of treatment regimens for IP is reported. Larger series report a success rate of 76% for primary systemic MTX, 88% for primary local medical treatment, and 94% for primary surgery. It was not possible to determine reliable hemorrhage or rupture rates following MTX administration. As to laparoscopic surgery, the blood transfusion rate for bleeding was 9% while the conversion rate for hemorrhage was 2%. The use of UAE to reduce the risk for hemorrhage before (n = 2) or after (n = 19) MTX administration was reported in 21 cases. This failed in two cases (90% success rate), and one patient required transfusion (5%). Two cases treated with UAE and primary surgery were reported, yet the exact indication for embolization was not elaborated. Alternative hemostatic techniques during surgical management have been proposed to reduce blood loss and operating time, yet individual outcomes were not identifiable. Conclusion We report on the use of elective UAE prior to laparoscopic resection of IP, because of signs of strong vascularization on ultrasound. This strategy coincided with a nearly bloodless operation. Literature review suggests that this is one of the effective methods to reduce blood loss intra-operatively.
... I 2 = 86%; 2 studies, 202 women). The incidence of adverse events ranged from 19.1% to 40.0% in the UAE group and from 0% to 46.5% in the HIFU ablation group (Fig. 9). ...
... There may have been a selection bias at baseline because most physicians intentionally do not select women who desire fertility for UAE treatment because of the potential impact on ovarian function, formation of intrauterine adhesions, and so on. Torre et al [40] reported that among 15 women without associated infertility factors, 5 (33.3%) experienced live births after UAE, and the markers of ovarian reserve remained stable, demonstrating an encouraging capacity to deliver. However, a study by Torre et al [41], which included 66 women treated with UAE, showed that only 1 woman became pregnant, and she finally miscarried, although the ovarian reserve was unchanged after UAE, demonstrating that the negative impact on fertility might not be related to ovarian function. ...
Article
Objective This study aimed to compare the clinical effects of uterine artery embolization (UAE) with those of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation for the treatment of symptomatic uterine myomas. Data Sources We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and ClinicalTrials.gov for studies from January 2000 to August 2020. Related articles and relevant references of the included studies were also searched. Methods of Study Selection Two researchers independently performed the data selection. We included comparative studies that compared the clinical outcomes of UAE with those of HIFU ablation in women with myomas. Tabulation, Integration, and Results We assessed the study quality using the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions for evaluating the risk of bias. Two independent researchers performed the article selection according to the screening criteria and rated the quality of evidence for each article. We calculated pooled mean difference with 95% confidence interval (CI) for continuous data and relative risk (RR) with 95% CI for dichotomous data. The systematic review registration number is CRD42020199630 on the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews. A total of 7 articles (5 trials), involving 4592 women with symptomatic uterine myomas, were included in the meta-analysis. Compared with the HIFU ablation group, the decrease in “uterine fibroid symptom” scores as well as the increase in quality-of-life scores at the time of follow-up were higher in the UAE group, with overall mean difference 19.54 (95% CI, 15.21–23.87; p <.001) and 15.72 (95% CI, 8.30–23.13; p <.001), respectively. The women in the UAE group had a significantly lower reintervention rate (RR 0.25; 95% CI, 0.15–0.42; p <.001). The women undergoing UAE had a significantly lower pregnancy rate than those undergoing HIFU ablation (RR 0.06; 95% CI, 0.01–0.45; p = .006). The difference in the incidence of adverse events between the 2 groups was not statistically significant (p = .53). Conclusion Compared with HIFU ablation, UAE provided more significant alleviation of symptoms and improvement in quality of life, lower postoperative reintervention rate, and lower pregnancy rate for women with uterine myomas. However, we cannot conclude that HIFU ablation is more favorable for desired pregnancy than UAE because of the confounding factors.
... This is further supported by recent reports of successful pregnancies following UAE in women under 40 years old. 15,38 However, further high-quality prospective randomised studies with robust designs are required to verify the findings of this review. ...
Article
Introduction: In the recent years, uterine artery embolisation (UAE) has been gaining increasing popularity as an effective and minimally invasive treatment for uterine fibroids. However, there has been a growing concern over the risk of unintended embolization of the utero-ovarian circulation leading to reduction of ovarian blood supply with subsequent impairment of ovarian reserve. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of UAE on circulating anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and other markers of ovarian reserve. Material and methods: This meta-analysis included all published cohort, cross-sectional and case-control studies a well as randomized trials that investigated the impact of UAE on circulating AMH. Data sources included MEDLINE, EMBASE, Dynamed Plus, ScienceDirect, TRIP database, ClinicalTrials. gov and the Cochrane Library from January 2000 to June 2019. All identified articles were screened, and articles were selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. AMH and other data were extracted from the eligible articles and entered into RevMan software to calculate the weighted mean difference between pre- and post-embolization values. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42017082615. Results: This review included three cohort and three case-control studies (n=353). The duration of follow up after UAE ranged between three and 12 months. Overall pooled analysis of all studies showed no significant effect of UAE on serum AMH levels (weighted mean difference -0.58 ng/ml; 95% CI -1.5 to 0.36, I2 =95%). Subgroup analysis according to age of participants (under and over 40 years) and according to follow-up duration (3, 6 and 12-month) showed no significant change in post-embolization circulating AMH. Pooled analysis of serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations (four studies, n=248) revealed no statistically significant change after UAE (weighted mean difference 4.32; 95% CI -0.53 to 9.17; I2= 95%). Analysis of two studies (n=62) measuring antral follicle count showed a significant decline at 3-months follow up (weighted mean difference -3.28; 95% CI -5.62 to -0.93; I2 = 94%). Conclusions: Uterine artery embolization for uterine fibroids does not seem to affect ovarian reserve as measured by serum concentrations of AMH and FSH.
... En algunos casos en que existió un retraso entre el procedimiento de embolización profiláctica y la cirugía definitiva, se observó que las pacientes manifestaban una reducción significativa de la sintomatología asociada a los fibromas uterinos, llegando incluso a rechazar la cirugía. En 1995, Ravina y su equipo publicaron la recopilación de su experiencia en embolización de arterias uterinas, postulándola como una alternativa de primera elección para el manejo de este padecimiento [3][4][5] . ...
... In another study, women without infertility factors showed an encouraging delivery rate after UAE. Furthermore, UAE may not impair fertility when compared with abdominal myomectomy, however, data is insufficient to recommend UAE in nulliparous [12]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Background: Submucosal fibroids account for approximately 15 - 20 percent of total fibroids. Rarely, they prolapse. Common size is 2 - 6 cm, because larger fibroids are unlikely to fit through the cervix. Larger fibroids are associated with significant bleeding and pose a surgical challenge. Case Presentation: We present a 38-year-old woman nulliparous with an intravaginal pedunculated fibroid, 12 cm in diameter. She presented with metrorrhagia and an intense malodorous vaginal discharge, irresponsive to oral therapy. The patient had a history of resectoscopic fibroid enucleation, 7 months earlier, followed by insertion of an (intra-uterine device) IUD. There was no uterine prolapse. Management involved bilateral uterine artery embolization, followed by hysteroscopic excision with rigid resectoscope. The fibroid was “delivered” transvaginally intact. The uterus was preserved. The IUD was partly buried within the mass. Blood loss was negligible. Patient recovery was quick and uneventful. At 6-months follow up, pelvic anatomy has been restored. Conclusion: Large pedunculated fibroids are very rare. Embolization of uterine arteries has proven a valuable tool in challenging gynecologic operations. In our case, not only it prevented massive bleeding during excision, but also allowed a fertility-sparing minimally invasive management.
... Experts, nevertheless, agree that further study with larger sample sizes and extended follow-up is needed to elucidate the true incidence of postoperative fertility. 4,23,24 Our embolic agents of choice are Embospheres and TAGM. We prefer a particulate size of 500e 700 microns, although sizes ranging from 40 to 1200 microns are available. ...
Article
Objective: Despite growing endovascular experience within the vascular surgery community, some catheter-based interventions - such as uterine artery embolization (UAE) - remain outside the clinical scope of most vascular surgeons, owing in part to established referral patterns and limited awareness among referring colleagues. We present our experience with a vascular surgery-based, multidisciplinary UAE program at an academic tertiary referral center. Methods: In a collaborative effort between vascular surgery and gynecology, a Pelvic Vascular Disease Program has been established to provide palliative, prophylactic, and therapeutic embolizations including, but not limited to, UAE. For UAE, inclusion criteria are women over the age 18 with symptomatic uterine fibroids demonstrated on magnetic resonance imaging and a negative endometrial biopsy. Exclusion criteria are desire for future pregnancy and previous embolization(s). Technique and perioperative protocol is presented. Data including symptom resolution, reintervention rates, and complications were prospectively gathered and retrospectively reviewed. Results: Over an 18-month period, 30 patients with symptomatic fibroids were referred for potential UAE. Five patients were excluded due to uncertainty about future pregnancy wishes (4) and prior embolization (1). Twenty-four bilateral and 2 unilateral UAEs were performed (Mean age 46.3 years [range 28-53 years]). Presenting symptoms were pelvic and abdominal pain (25), cramps (25), menorrhagia (25), dysmenorrhea (25), urinary frequency (12), and dyspareunia (5). Technical success, defined as successful microcatheterization of uterine arteries and delivery of a particulate liquid embolic agent (embospheres, 500-700 microns), was 100%. There were no perioperative or delayed complications. Twenty-one patients (87.5%) reported complete symptomatic relief without further intervention at the time of last follow-up. Three patients (12.5%) reported pain relief but had persistent vaginal bleeding requiring hysterectomy 12 months after UAE. All patients underwent a 23-hour observation post-operatively for pain control. Mean follow-up was 7.4 months (1-23 months) and included pelvic ultrasound assessment of fibroid size at 1, 3, and 6 months post-UAE and annually thereafter. One patient was lost to follow-up. Fibroid shrinkage was noted in all patients. Given the willingness and capability to work-up, admit, treat, and follow-up patients, vascular surgery was deemed the preferred service for UAE by the referring gynecologists. Conclusions: Within the framework of a collaborative, multidisciplinary program, vascular surgery can play a prominent role in providing safe and effective UAE.
... [26,40] Literature data show that after UAE childbearing may not be impaired, which is proven by registered pregnancies in 14%-69% of infertility patients treated with UAE. [27,41] On the other hand, higher miscarriage rates, as well as abnormal placentation, have been reported after UAE making UAE the last therapeutically option in infertility patients. [30,42] Still, some investigations showed that after UAE pregnancy rates, as well as pregnancy complications, were comparable with age-adjusted rates for women with myomas who had no treatment for their condition. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: There are still contradictory opinions on the success rates of uterine artery embolization (UAE) for the treatment of myomas. In this scenario, our study aims to assess the effect of UAE on myoma shrinkage. Materials and methods: The study included 337 women in reproductive age affected by a single symptomatic intramural myoma and declined surgery, undergoing UAE. The uterus and myoma diameters and volumes were determined on ultrasonographic scans before and 3, 6, and 12 months after the procedure. Results: The mean uterine volume before intervention was 226.46 ± 307.67 mm3, whereas myoma volume was 51.53 ± 65.53 mm3. Further myoma progression was registered in only four patients. In remaining women, uterus volume in average decreased for 149.99 ± 156.63 mm3, whereas myomas decreased for 36.57 ± 47.96 mm3. The mean volume reduction rate of the uterus was 49.54 ± 35.62 and for myoma was 57.58 ± 30.71. A significant decrease in both uterine and myoma volume was registered in every stage of the follow-up. The highest average decrease in uterine volume was in the first 3 months and myoma volume between 3 and 6 months following UAE. After 12 months follow-up, successful outcome (volume regression >50% respect to the baseline) was registered for uterus in 97.4% and for myoma in 67.9% of investigated patients. Conclusion: UAE was proven to allow a good success rate and can be considered as an effective alternative procedure for myoma treatment.
... A follow-up paper from the same author prospectively studied nine women who underwent UAE and were actively trying to conceive, and found ten live births in eight patients. 26 Mara et al. performed a randomised controlled trial comparing the fertility outcomes in women with one or more intramural fibroid >4 cm in size. They randomised 121 patients into UAE or myomectomy and followed them up for a mean time of 24.9 months. ...
Article
Uterine leiomyomata (fibroids) are symptomatic in up to 35% of women and treatment can be a costly burden to the individual and society. Options for treatment range from non‐hormonal, hormonal, minimally invasive, to surgery. While symptoms from smaller fibroids may respond to simple treatment, those with larger fibroids or with a large volume of disease require a more definitive option. Surgery (hysterectomy or myomectomy) are both well‐established treatment modalities with good clinical outcomes. Since the 1990s, uterine fibroid embolisation has emerged as a less invasive option for women than for surgical techniques, while level 1 evidence shows that in the short to mid‐term, there is a similar improvement in symptom‐related quality of life outcomes to surgery, but with reduced hospital stay and reduced cost. However, in the longer term there may be a need for further treatment or retreatment in some patients compared with surgery. Since its introduction, uptake of this procedure in Australia has been low relative to surgical options. This manuscript reviews the current literature surrounding treatment, along with the trends in uptake of embolisation by Australian women, places this in context of current guidelines from major societies, and encourages gynaecologists and interventional radiologists to be aware of the advantages and limitations of embolisation.
... Although there have been cases series and systematic reviews of pregnancy after radiofrequency ablation (137,138), MR-guided focused ultrasound (138,139), and uterine artery embolization (140,141), none have provided information that would seem to be useful in understanding the relationship between leiomyomas and endometrial receptivity. ...
Article
Endometrial polyps, adenomyosis, and leiomyomas are commonly encountered abnormalities frequently found in both fertile women and those with infertility. The clinician is frequently challenged to determine which of these entities, when found, is likely to impair fertility, and which are “innocent bystanders” unrelated to the problem at hand. Although removing an endometrial polyp may be seen as a relatively benign and safe intervention, myomectomy, and in particular adenomyomectomy, can be substantive surgical procedures, associated with their own potential for disrupting fertility. One of the mechanisms thought to be involved when these entities are contributing to infertility is an adverse impact on endometrial receptivity. Indeed polyps, adenomyosis, and leiomyomas have all been associated with an increased likelihood of abnormal endometrial molecular expressions thought to impair implantation and early embryo development. This review is designed to examine the relationship of these common entities to endometrial receptivity and to identify evidence gaps that should be considered when strategizing research initiatives. It is apparent that we have the tools necessary to fill these gaps, but it will be necessary to approach the issue in a strategic and coordinated fashion. It is likely that we will have to recognize the limitations of imaging alone and look to the evidence-based addition of molecular analysis to provide the individualized phenotyping of disease necessary for patient-specific treatment decisions.
... First described in 1995, 19 as a radiological treatment for uncontrolled onco- gynecologic and obstetric uterine bleeding, it has become an important conservative therapy for women with symptomatic uterine fibroids. 20,21 Vilos et al demonstrated that the rate of pregnancy after UAE is lower than after surgical myomectomy, so they recommend embolization only for women that do not desire future pregnancy 22,23 as a second-line treatment, or in case of contraindication to surgical myomectomy. 24 Torre et al 23 confirmed lower fertility rate, explaining different complications of embolization: the need of hyster- ectomy after uterus necrosis (0.2%-2%), 25-27 persistent amen- orrhea (2%-5%) [26][27][28][29] caused by ovarian insufficiency 25,26,30 or endometrium atrophy. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: This paper reports on a rare case of pregnancy after uterine artery embolization (UAE) for uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM). Debate exists about persistence of fertility in women after UAE. Adverse effects of this technique can modify both uterine echostructure, inducing necrosis and infarction, endometrial atrophy and uterine artery rupture, and ovarian reserve, causing persistent amenorrhea. Ovarian reserve appears to be affected by UAE in pre-menopausal women. However, younger ovaries (according to biological ovarian age) exhibit a greater capacity for recovery after ovarian damage. Therefore, larger studies are needed for more conclusive results. Case report: A 28-year-old woman was admitted to our department due to life-threatening uterine bleeding, resulting in tachycardia, pallor, and sweating. The patient came with a history of two spontaneous miscarriages. After sonography and computed tomography, AVMs were identified at uterine fundus and anterior wall. Conclusion: The pathogenesis of infertility after UAE is not yet known. The peculiarity of this case was that, only few months later, the patient became pregnant and gave birth to a live fetus at 37 weeks with cesarean delivery.
... However, this is a highly invasive procedure, is associated with long recovery times, and precludes childbearing. Uterine artery embolization [6] and myomectomy [7] are minimally-invasive treatments that offer the potential to preserve fertility. In situ thermal ablation techniques for the treatment of fibroids-such as high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) [8], radiofrequency ablation (RFA) [9,10] and microwave ablation (MWA) [11,12]-are desirable due to their low invasiveness and associated fast recovery rates. ...
Article
Introduction: Type 2 uterine fibroids are challenging to resect surgically as ≥ 50% volume of myoma lies within the myometrium. A hysteroscopic approach for ablating fibroids is minimally-invasive, but places a considerable burden on the operator to accurately place the ablation applicator within the target. We investigated the sensitivity of transcervical microwave ablation outcome with respect to position of the ablation applicator within 1-3 cm type 2 fibroids. Methods: A finite element computer model was developed to simulate 5.8 GHz microwave ablation of fibroids and validated with experiments in ex vivo tissue. The ablation outcome was evaluated with respect to applicator insertion angles (30°, 45°, 60°), depth and offset from the fibroid center (±2 mm for 3 cm fibroid and ±1 mm for 1 cm fibroid) with 35 W and 15 W applied power for 3 cm and 1 cm fibroids, respectively. Power deposition was stopped when thermal dose of 40 cumulative equivalent minutes at 43 °C (CEM43) was accrued in adjacent myometrium. Results: Within the range of all evaluated insertion angles, depths and offsets, the ablation coverage was less sensitive to variation in angle as compared to depth and offset, and ranged from 34.9 - 83.6% for 3 cm fibroid in 140 - 400 s and 34.1 - 67.9% for 1 cm fibroid in 30 - 50 s of heating duration. Maximum achievable ablation coverage in both fibroid cases reach ~ 90% if thermal dose is allowed to exceed 40 CEM43 in myometrium. Conclusion: The study demonstrates the technical feasibility of transcervical microwave ablation for fibroid treatment and the relationship between applicator position within the fibroid and fraction of fibroid that can be ablated while limiting thermal dose in adjacent myometrium.
... Studies in the literature support a high pregnancy rate despite prior chemotherapy with no increased adverse outcomes. 1,9,12 Furthermore, as previously demonstrated, women of childbearing age were able to get pregnant after uterine arteries embolization, [13][14][15] this management was adopted when the patient was found having severe hemorrhage episodes over the chemotherapy. ...
Article
Full-text available
Complete hydatidiform mole (CHM) is a rare type of pregnancy, in which 15 to 20% of the cases may develop into gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN). The diagnostic of GTN must be done as early as possible through weekly surveillance of serum hCG after uterine evacuation. We report the case of 23-year-old primigravida, with CHM but without surveillance of hCG after uterine evacuation. Two months later, the patient presented to the emergency with vaginal bleeding and was referred to the Centro de Doenças Trofoblásticas do Hospital São Paulo. She was diagnosed with high risk GTN stage/score III:7 as per The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics/World Health Organization (FIGO/WHO). The sonographic examination revealed enlarged uterus with a heterogeneous mass constituted of multiple large vessels invading and causing disarrangement of the myometrium. The patient evolved with progressive worsening of vaginal bleeding after chemotherapy with etoposide, methotrexate, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide and vincristine (EMA-CO) regimen. She underwent blood transfusion and embolization of uterine arteries due to severe vaginal hemorrhage episodes, with complete control of bleeding. The hCG reached a negative value after the third cycle, and there was a complete regression of the anomalous vascularization of the uterus as well as full recovery of the uterine anatomy. The treatment in a reference center was essential for the appropriate management, especially regarding the uterine arteries embolization trough percutaneous femoral artery puncture, which was crucial to avoid the hysterectomy and allow GTN cure and maintenance of reproductive life.
Article
Uterine fibroids (leiomyomas) are the most common benign neoplasm of the female pelvis and have a lifetime prevalence exceeding 80% among African American women and approaching 70% among Caucasian women. Approximately 50% of women with fibroids experience symptoms which may include menorrhagia that may result in anemia, bulk symptoms with bladder and bowel dysfunction and abdominal protrusion, dysmenorrhea, and infertility. Hysterectomy remains the most common treatment option for fibroids and concerns have been raised about the overuse of this procedure. Uterine artery embolization (UAE) is now a well-established uterine preserving and minimally invasive therapy for symptomatic fibroids. Since its introduction, strong evidence for safety and efficacy of UAE has been generated with low rates of complications. This review will discuss UAE for the management of symptomatic uterine fibroids with special focus on emerging technical approaches and novel periprocedural patient care.
Article
Objective: To investigate the effect of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation for uterine fibroids on pregnancy. Design: A retrospective observational study. Setting: Department of Gynaecology in a single centre in China. Population: Patients with uterine fibroids who wish to become pregnant. Methods: Patients with uterine fibroids who wished become pregnant and have children, were treated using HIFU from April 2011 to March 2016 at Chongqing Haifu Hospital. Pregnancy outcomes were analysed. Main outcome measures: Pregnancy outcomes after undergoing USgHIFU. Results: After the HIFU treatment, the 78 patients had 80 pregnancies, in which 76 cases were natural pregnancies and four were test-tube pregnancies. Of the 78 patients who became pregnant, nine patients had complicated primary or secondary infertility before the HIFU treatment, 13 patients had had at least two miscarriages or missed miscarriages, one patient had had a stillbirth; none had undergone other special treatment. After the HIFU treatment, the average time to pregnancy was 5.6 ± 2.7 months. There were 15 cases of full-term normal delivery and 56 cases of caesarean, including three cases of premature caesarean. After the treatment, three patients had a miscarriage (one patient's progesterone level was lower than the normal value; and the other two miscarriages were for unknown reasons), two patients became pregnant 3 months after complete curettage of uterine cavity and had full-term normal deliveries, one patient planned to use contraception after complete curettage of the uterine cavity; and one patient had her labour induced (after 13-weeks pregnancy). The fetuses of all the patients developed well during both the pregnancy and child-bearing without uterine rapture or perinatal and postpartum complications. Conclusion: HIFU treatment can effectively treat patients with uterine fibroids who wish to have children; it could significantly reduce the preparation period for pregnancy after the operation. It can also improve the fertility of patients with a history of infertility and abnormal pregnancy and child-bearing, with no additional obstetric risks. Tweetable abstract: As a noninvasive therapeutic technique, HIFU safely can be used to treat patients with uterine fibroids who wish to become pregnant.
Article
Background: Uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) is a minimally invasive imaging-guided treatment using radiation exposure. Purpose: To compare the patients' radiation exposure during UFE before and after introduction of a new X-ray imaging platform. Material and methods: Forty-one patients were enrolled in a prospective, comparative two-arm project before and after introduction of a new X-ray imaging platform with reduced dose settings, i.e. novel real-time image processing techniques (AlluraClarity). Demographic, pre-interventional imaging, and procedural data, including dose area product (DAP) and estimated organ dose on the ovaries and uterus, were recorded and angiographic quality of overall procedure was assessed. Results: There were no significant differences in demographic characteristics and preoperative fibroid and uterine volumes in the two groups. The new imaging platform led to a significant reduction in mean total DAP (102 vs. 438 Gy.cm2; P < 0.001), mean fluoroscopy DAP (32 vs. 138 Gy.cm2; P < 0.001), mean acquisition DAP (70 vs. 300 Gy.cm2; P < 0.001), and acquisition DAP estimated organ dose in ovaries (42 vs. 118 mGy; P < 0.001) and uterus (40 vs. 118 mGy, P < 0.001), without impairment of the procedure and angiographic image quality. Conclusion: A substantial 77% reduction of DAP values and 64% and 66% reduction in organ dose on ovaries and uterus, respectively, was demonstrated with the new imaging platform, while maintaining optimal imaging quality and efficacy.
Chapter
Uterine fibroids are often identified by ultrasonography during an infertility evaluation, with a peak incidence of 70–80% of women during the late reproductive years. Precise identification of the size, number, and location of fibroids is determined by ultrasound. In most circumstances, detailed fibroid mapping can be accomplished with transvaginal ultrasonography. Abdominal ultrasound is needed when the uterus is large, when fibroid calcification limits uterine assessment, or when the ovaries cannot be identified with transvaginal ultrasound. Saline infusion sonohysterography is extremely useful to identify submucous fibroids and to define the relationship of intramural fibroids to the endometrial cavity. Three-dimensional sonography provides diagnostic insight when complex uterine abnormalities are identified. Tubal patency can be assessed by infusing saline and air bubbles during sonography, and the examiner can determine if an adjacent fibroid is the cause of proximal tubal occlusion. Most uterine fibroids are asymptomatic and do not require intervention, but some cause significant morbidity. Submucosal fibroids reduce fertility and compromise pregnancy, and outcomes are improved after hysteroscopic myomectomy. In select cases of hysteroscopic myomectomy, concurrent abdominal ultrasound helps to provide guidance and enhances the safety and efficacy of the procedure. Women with untreated fibroids have a higher incidence of maternal and fetal pregnancy-related complications, and there is increasing evidence that fertility and pregnancy outcomes are improved following myomectomy. Laparoscopic or abdominal myomectomy is appropriate for women with symptomatic intramural, subserosal, or pedunculated fibroids who desire fertility. Intracorporeal ultrasound may be useful when a fibroid deviates the endometrial cavity but cannot be identified by visual inspection of the uterus during myomectomy. Approximately 50% of women conceive after myomectomy, and IVF outcomes may improve.
Article
Background Uterine fibroids are the most common tumour in women of reproductive age and are associated with heavy menstrual bleeding, abdominal discomfort, subfertility and reduced quality of life. For women wishing to retain their uterus and who do not respond to medical treatment, myomectomy and uterine artery embolisation are therapeutic options. Objectives We examined the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of uterine artery embolisation compared with myomectomy in the treatment of symptomatic fibroids. Design A multicentre, open, randomised trial with a parallel economic evaluation. Setting Twenty-nine UK hospitals. Participants Premenopausal women who had symptomatic uterine fibroids amenable to myomectomy or uterine artery embolisation were recruited. Women were excluded if they had significant adenomyosis, any malignancy or pelvic inflammatory disease or if they had already had a previous open myomectomy or uterine artery embolisation. Interventions Participants were randomised to myomectomy or embolisation in a 1 : 1 ratio using a minimisation algorithm. Myomectomy could be open abdominal, laparoscopic or hysteroscopic. Embolisation of the uterine arteries was performed under fluoroscopic guidance. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was the Uterine Fibroid Symptom Quality of Life questionnaire (with scores ranging from 0 to 100 and a higher score indicating better quality of life) at 2 years, adjusted for baseline score. The economic evaluation estimated quality-adjusted life-years (derived from EuroQol-5 Dimensions, three-level version, and costs from the NHS perspective). Results A total of 254 women were randomised – 127 to myomectomy (105 underwent myomectomy) and 127 to uterine artery embolisation (98 underwent embolisation). Information on the primary outcome at 2 years was available for 81% ( n = 206) of women. Primary outcome scores at 2 years were 84.6 (standard deviation 21.5) in the myomectomy group and 80.0 (standard deviation 22.0) in the uterine artery embolisation group (intention-to-treat complete-case analysis mean adjusted difference 8.0, 95% confidence interval 1.8 to 14.1, p = 0.01; mean adjusted difference using multiple imputation for missing responses 6.5, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 11.9). The mean difference in the primary outcome at the 4-year follow-up time point was 5.0 (95% CI –1.4 to 11.5; p = 0.13) in favour of myomectomy. Perioperative and postoperative complications from all initial procedures occurred in similar percentages of women in both groups (29% in the myomectomy group vs. 24% in the UAE group). Twelve women in the uterine embolisation group and six women in the myomectomy group reported pregnancies over 4 years, resulting in seven and five live births, respectively (hazard ratio 0.48, 95% confidence interval 0.18 to 1.28). Over a 2-year time horizon, uterine artery embolisation was associated with higher costs than myomectomy (mean cost £7958, 95% confidence interval £6304 to £9612, vs. mean cost £7314, 95% confidence interval £5854 to £8773), but with fewer quality-adjusted life-years gained (0.74, 95% confidence interval 0.70 to 0.78, vs. 0.83, 95% confidence interval 0.79 to 0.87). The differences in costs (difference £645, 95% confidence interval –£1381 to £2580) and quality-adjusted life-years (difference –0.09, 95% confidence interval –0.11 to –0.04) were small. Similar results were observed over the 4-year time horizon. At a threshold of willingness to pay for a gain of 1 QALY of £20,000, the probability of myomectomy being cost-effective is 98% at 2 years and 96% at 4 years. Limitations There were a substantial number of women who were not recruited because of their preference for a particular treatment option. Conclusions Among women with symptomatic uterine fibroids, myomectomy resulted in greater improvement in quality of life than did uterine artery embolisation. The differences in costs and quality-adjusted life-years are very small. Future research should involve women who are desiring pregnancy. Trial registration This trial is registered as ISRCTN70772394. Funding This study was funded by the National Institute for Health and Care Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme, and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment ; Vol. 26, No. 22. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.
Article
Objectives: To assess the long-term freedom of surgical conversion after uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) and to define predictors for better clinical outcome. Additionally, the potential of pregnancy after UFE is assessed. Study design: Single-center retrospective cohort study including 190 patients who underwent UFE between 2001 and 2016. Data were obtained by postal questionnaire including symptom severity, late reintervention rate and post procedural fertility. Patient characteristics were extracted from the patients' electronic medical records. The cumulative rate of freedom from treatment failure was determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Cox regression models were used for univariate analyses of the association between patient preinterventional characteristics and late surgical conversion. Secondary outcome measures were patient specific predictors of treatment failure and evaluation of post-procedural fertility. Results: Long-term follow-up was available for a median of 6.1 years (range 1.2-15.2 y) in 95 out of 190 patients (50 %). Freedom from treatment failure showed a cumulative rate of 72.9 % after 10 years and stable until end of follow-up. A 63.8 % reduction in symptoms and a 23.3% increase in quality of life was found. Significant increase of treatment failure was found in patients with increasing pre-interventional uterine volume (p = 0.0003) or dominant fibroid volume (p = 0.0042); 9 out of 23 patients (39.13 %) with child-bearing wish became pregnant and conceived one or more children after UFE. Conclusion: UFE is associated with sustained long-term symptom control. Larger size uterus or dominant fibroma are correlated with higher late surgical conversion rate. Last, women can become pregnant and deliver after UFE.
Article
Uterine artery embolization (UAE) has been introduced for uterine fibroid treatment for two decades. Most of the patients are in reproductive age and many want future pregnancy. In this study, we will assess fertility, pregnancy and its outcomes in patients who have undergone UAE. In this systematic review, a systematic search was performed on important databases including PubMed and Medline, Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar, EMBASE and Scopus. Studies reported enough data about pregnancy after UAE were considered to be enrolled in the review. We assessed obstetric indices (pregnancy and delivery rates, pregnancy losses, complications and fetal outcomes). Study evaluation was done based on STROBE checklist by two reviewers. Totally, 24 original papers were included. Data were analyzed by Stata and MedCalc softwares. Among women wishing fertility, totally 40.5% experienced at least one pregnancy after UAE (95% confidence interval [CI]: 33.3%-48.2%). Pooled estimate of pregnancy loss rate was 33.5% (95% CI: 26.3–41%). Most pregnancy losses were due to spontaneous abortion (81.3% of all losses (95% CI = 76%-86.1%)). Rate of obstetrical complications was 25.4% (95% CI = 13–40.2%) among all finished pregnancies. Pooled estimate of preterm labor was 12.8% (95% CI = 8.7%-17.5%), and pooled estimate of low birth weight (LBW) was 10% (95% CI = 6.2–14.6%). Considering the findings of the study, a safe pregnancy after UAE is obviously possible resulting to a healthy and normal baby delivery. In addition, pooled obstetrical complication rates, pregnancy losses, preterm labor and LBW seem to be mostly similar to the general population. Registration: The study was registered in International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) on Nov 3, 2017, and was confirmed with a registration code of CRD42017076074.
Article
Introduction The purpose of this study is to assess the angiographic incidence of uterine arteriovenous fistula (UAVF) in women referred for a high ultrasonographic suspicion in a postabortion setting and to evaluate the safety, efficacy and impact on further fertility of uterine artery embolization (UAE) in this indication. Materials and methods A monocentric retrospective study of 31patients managed by uterine artery embolization for suspected UAVF after spontaneous or induced first trimester abortion. The diagnosis of UAVF was confirmed when an early venous drainage was identified on the angiogram. Technical success was defined as complete exclusion of the vascular lesion. Clinical success was defined as the absence of bleeding during the clinical follow-up and during the surgery in case of hysteroscopic resection. Information about further fertility was gathered by phone calls to the patients. Results The mean age of the patients was 30.8 (±6.0) years. The diagnosis of UAVF was angiographically confirmed in 6 patients (19.4%). Angiographic findings of retained product of conception (RPOC) with varying degrees of vascularity were observed in remaining patients. The technical success rate of UAE was 100%, mostly through a proximal and bilateral embolization using a resorbable agent (27/31 patients, 87.1%). The clinical success rate of UAE was 100% in the group treated by a single UAE. We did not notice any bleeding during the surgery in the group of patients who needed a further hysteroscopic resection. 14 patients led at least one subsequent pregnancy to term without any difficulty. Conclusion UAVF is a rare condition. We supposed it may constitute the ultimate stage in the natural history of the retained products of conception with “marked vascularity”. UAE seems to be an effective and safe first-line treatment.
Article
Gelatin has various attractive features as biomedical materials, for instance, biocompatibility, low immunogenicity, biodegradability, and ease of manipulation. In recent years, various gelatin-based microspheres (GMSs) have been fabricated with innovative technologies to serve as sustained delivery vehicles of drugs and genetic materials as well as beneficial bacteria. Moreover, GMSs have exhibited promising potentials to act as both cell carriers and 3D scaffold components in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, which not only exhibit excellent injectability but also could be integrated into a macroscale construct with the laden cells. Herein, we aim to thoroughly summarize the recent progress in the preparations and biomedical applications of GMSs and then to point out the research direction in future. First, various methods for the fabrication of GMSs will be described. Second, the recent use of GMSs in tumor embolization and in the delivery of cells, drugs, and genetic material as well as bacteria will be presented. Finally, several key factors that may enhance the improvement of GMSs were suggested as delivery vehicles.
Article
BACKGROUND Uterine artery embolization is an effective and safe technique for the treatment of uterine fibroids, but its use remains controversial for women who wish to procreate. OBJECTIVE To study the clinical, anatomical and obstetrical results of uterine artery embolization in patients of childbearing age not eligible for myomectomy. STUDY DESIGN This was a retrospective cohort study of 398 female patients under the age of 43 years who were treated by uterine artery embolization between 2003 and 2017 for symptomatic fibroids and/or adenomyosis. Uterine artery embolization was performed according to a standardized procedure (fertility-sparing uterine artery embolization technique), with ovarian protection in the event of dangerous utero-ovarian anastomosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging and pelvic ultrasounds were performed before and after uterine artery embolization. RESULTS The overall clinical success rate (i.e. resolution of pre-embolization symptoms such as heavy menstrual bleeding, iron-deficiency anemia, pelvic pressure) was 91.2% and there were no major complications. One year after uterine artery embolization, we observed a mean 73% reduction in myoma volume. One hundred eight patients (49.3%) presented with dangerous utero-ovarian anastomosis and 33 (14.5%) benefited from ovarian protection. In our group, there were 148 pregnancies and 109 live births. Seventy-four children were born at term; 23 were born preterm, on average at 35.12 ± 2.78 weeks. Including preterm births, the mean birth weight and birth length of the children were within normal limits. Restoration of uterine anatomy and ovarian protection were identified as the main predictive factors for obstetrical success. Restoration was also a major predictive factor for clinical success and was associated with a lower rate of miscarriage. CONCLUSION This study provides detailed clinical and obstetrical outcomes for 398 female patients who underwent uterine artery embolization for fibroid treatment; it contributes to the identification of anatomical and technical factors that could have an impact on fertility after uterine artery embolization. Further controlled clinical trials are needed to confirm our findings and re-evaluate this procedure’s indications and limitations for women with a desire to procreate.
Article
The purpose of this study was to introduce a continuous quality improvement (CQI) program for radiation dose optimisation during uterine artery embolisation (UAE) and assess its impact on dose reduction and image quality. The CQI program investigated the effects of optimising radiation dose parameters on the kerma-area product (KAP) and image quality when comparing a ‘CQI intervention’ group (n = 50) and ‘Control’ group (n = 50). Visual grading characteristics (VGC) analysis was used to assess image quality, using the ‘Control’ group as a reference. A significant reduction in KAP by 17% (P = 0.041, d = 0.2) and reference air kerma (Ka, r) by 20% (P = 0.027, d = 0.2) was shown between the two groups. The VGC analysis resulted in an area under the VGC curve (AUCVGC) of 0.54, indicating no significant difference in image quality between the two groups (P = 0.670). The implementation of the CQI program and optimisation of radiation dose parameters improved the UAE radiation dose practices at our centre. The dose reduction demonstrated no detrimental effects on image quality.
Article
Resumen Los miomas uterinos están presentes en el 20-50% de las mujeres en edad de procrear; son los tumores benignos más frecuentes. La detección de un mioma en una paciente en edad de procrear o embarazada es una situación frecuente que suscita cuestionamientos e inquietudes. El fibroma puede interferir en todas las etapas de la concepción, pero también complicar el desarrollo del embarazo y del parto. La responsabilidad de los fibromas en la infertilidad depende de su tamaño, de su número y, principalmente, de su localización. Por lo tanto, el especialista deberá sopesar en consulta preconcepcional, el equilibrio beneficio/riesgo entre una actitud conservadora y el tratamiento de los fibromas. Los tratamientos de los miomas no están libres de complicaciones propias que pueden afectar a la fertilidad y a futuras gestaciones (sinequias, adherencias, ruptura uterina, infertilidad, etc.), por lo que se debe informar a la paciente. Cuando está indicada, la cirugía (preferentemente miniinvasiva) sigue siendo el tratamiento de referencia en la mujer en edad de procrear, mientras que las otras técnicas de destrucción de fibromas deben inscribirse en el marco de un protocolo de investigación.
Article
Objective: To investigate the effect of uterine artery embolization (UAE) for fibroids on ovarian pool of premenopausal women. Study design: Prospective case control study. Material and methods: One-hundred and twenty premenopausal women, aged between 40 and 50 years, who underwent UAE for symptomatic uterine fibroids and the same number of women, aged between 40 and 50 years, with symptomatic uterine fibroids, who were not offered treatment were recruited for this study. Hormonal status and ovarian reserve were evaluated by means of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) pre-procedural, three months, six months and 12 months after UAE. Results: No statistically significant decrease was noted in AMH values 12 months post procedure and no statistical significant alterations in AMH values between the two groups. Conclusions: Even though the study results may not be able to confirm the preservation of ovarian reserve and normal menstruation after UAE in premenopausal women, it should be considered as a friendly to normal menstruation treatment option of symptomatic fibroids.
Article
Full-text available
Leiomyomata is the most frequent gynecological neoplasm. One of the major complications of myomectomy is intrauterine adhesion (synechiae). To evaluate and compare the rate and severity of synechiae formation after myomectomy by laparotomy and laparoscopy. In this non-randomized interventional trial, hysteroscopy was performed in all married fertile women who had undergone myomectomy (type 3-6 interamural and subserosal fibroids) via laparotomy and laparoscopy in Tehran's Arash Hospital from 2010 to 2013. Three months after the operation, the occurrence rate and severity of intrauterine synechiae, and its relationship with type, number and location of myomas were investigated and compared in both groups. Forty patients (19 laparoscopy and 21 laparotomy cases) were studied. Both groups were similar regarding the size, type (subserosal or intramural), number and location of myoma. The occurrence rate of synechiae in the laparoscopy and laparotomy group was 21% and 19%, respectively; showing no significant difference (p=0.99). Among all patients, no significant relationship was found between the endometrial opening (p=0.92), location (p=0.14) and type of myoma (p=0.08) with the occurrence rate of synechiae. However, a significant relationship was observed between myoma's size (p=0.01) and the location of the largest myoma with the occurrence of synechiae (p=0.02). With favorable suturing methods, the outcome of intrauterine synechiae formation after myomectomy, either performed by laparotomy or laparoscopy, is similar. In all cases of myomectomy in reproductive-aged women, postoperative hysteroscopy is highly recommended to better screen intrauterine synechiae.
Article
Full-text available
Does uterine artery embolization (UAE) permit fertility in childbearing women who have extensive symptomatic fibroids and are not eligible for surgery? Although UAE was effective in improving bleeding, bulking and pain symptoms, and in sparing the ovarian reserve, no woman in this study delivered successfully after UAE. Although pregnancies have been reported after UAE, the actual fertility rate after this treatment remains uncertain. This prospective cohort study included 66 women who desired a future pregnancy and were treated with UAE for symptomatic fibroids. This cohort of consecutive patients had extensive symptomatic fibroids but were not eligible for abdominal myomectomy because of fibroid recurrence despite previous surgery, because of current risks of surgery, or because of patient refusal. The patients were enrolled in a tertiary referral center for fibroid treatment. All patients had a pre-operative ovarian function assessment and underwent bilateral superselective embolization of both uterine arteries using 500-1200 µm Tris acryl microspheres. Fibroid symptoms including menorrhagia (OR 0.08, 95% CI 0.02-0.27), metrorrhagia (OR 0.05, 95% CI 0.01-0.39), pain (OR 0.08, 95% CI 0.03-0.22) and bulk syndrome (OR 0.02, 95% CI 0.01-0.07) were significantly improved after UAE. According to magnetic resonance imaging, the dominant fibroid volume decreased by 31.8% (95% CI 12.2-51.3%). Ovarian reserve demonstrated no change after embolization. Thereafter the women were prospectively followed, and 31 of them (aged 37.3 ± 3.5 years) were actively trying to conceive. In spite of 33.4 ± 14.5 months of attempts, only 1 in 31 women became pregnant and she finally miscarried (monthly fecundability rate 0.1% 95% CI 0-0.3%). The high rate of associated infertility factors in our population, and the high frequency of previous surgery, could in part explain these poor reproductive outcomes; however, they should not account for the total absence of ongoing pregnancy. Embolization might have had a negative impact on fertility in our population, which may not be related to ovarian function. The low reproductive outcomes reported in the present study suggest that UAE should not be performed routinely in young women of childbearing age with extensive fibroids. Although this finding was established in a population for whom abdominal myomectomy was declined, a possible adverse effect of UAE on fertility potential should be considered for woman of childbearing age scheduled for embolization. No particular funding was obtained for this study and the authors have no conflict of interest.
Article
Full-text available
Uterine fibroids are common in women of reproductive age and various conservative treatments are available. In order to achieve a successful conservative treatment of fibroids, functional integrity of the uterus is as important as tumor removal or symptoms relief. In this context, intrauterine adhesions must be recognized as a possible complication of conservative management of uterine fibroids, but diagnostic pitfalls might justify an underestimation of their incidence. Hysteroscopic myomectomy can cause adhesions as a result of surgical trauma to the endometrium. The average reported incidence is around 10% at second-look hysteroscopy, but it is higher in certain conditions, such as the case of multiple, apposing fibroids. Transmural myomectomies also have the potential for adhesion, especially when combined with uterine ischemia. Uterine arteries embolization also carries a risk of intracavitary adhesions. Prevention strategies including bipolar resection, barrier gel or postoperative estradiol, might be useful, but stronger evidence is needed. In view of current knowledge, we would recommend a prevention strategy based on a combination of surgical trauma minimization and identification of high-risk cases. Early hysteroscopic diagnosis and lysis possibly represents the best means of secondary prevention and treatment of postoperative intrauterine adhesions.
Article
Full-text available
To obtain estimates of the effect of abdominal myomectomy on infertility, information from studies published in the English language literature between 1982 and 1996 was retrieved. Articles were identified through hand and computerized searches using Medline. A total of 27 trials, all published in peer-reviewed journals, was identified, of which four were excluded from the analysis because of methodological limitations. All studies were non-comparative and only nine were prospective. The sample size was generally limited, the mean number of patients included being 49 and the mean number of infertile subjects 26. All patients were followed for at least 12 months after surgery in 12 studies. The combined estimate of pregnancy rates across prospective studies based on a total of 138 observed subjects was 57% [95% confidence interval (CI), 48-65%]. Time to conception varied from a mean of 8 to 20 months. Survival analysis was used in only three studies, with cumulative rates ranging from 57 to 67% at 1 year, and 63% at 5 years. The overall conception rate among seven prospective studies in which only women with otherwise unexplained infertility were recruited was 61% (95% CI, 51-70%) compared with 38% (95% CI, 20-59%) in two prospective studies that included patients with causes of infertility in addition to myomas (chi2(1) = 4.25, P = 0.04; mean difference = 23%, 95% CI, 1-43%; OR = 2.47, 95% CI, 1.03-5.94). The conception rate ranged from 58 to 65% in the three studies of women with only intramural and/or subserous fibroids and were respectively 53 and 70% in the two that considered only patients with submucous myomas. Data on recurrence after myomectomy were reported in 13 articles, with rates varying from 4 to 47%. According to the available evidence, slightly less than two-thirds of women with uterine leiomyomas and otherwise unexplained infertility conceived after myomectomy. However, comparison with expectant management is needed before drawing definitive conclusions on the effectiveness of this time-honoured conservative surgical procedure.
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we compare the prognostic significance of hysterosalpingography (HSG) and laparoscopy for fertility outcome. In a prospective cohort study in 11 clinics participating in the Canadian Infertility Treatment Evaluation Study (CITES), consecutive couples who registered between 1 April 1984 and 31 March 1987 for the evaluation of subfertility and who underwent HSG and laparoscopy were included. Unilateral and bilateral tubal occlusion at HSG and laparoscopy were related to treatment-independent pregnancy. Cox regression was used to calculate fecundity rate ratios (FRR). Of the 794 patients who were included, 114 (14%) showed one-sided tubal occlusion and 194 (24%) showed two-sided tubal occlusion on HSG. At laparoscopy, 94 (12%) showed one-sided tubal occlusion and 96 (12%) showed two-sided tubal occlusion. Occlusion detected on HSG and laparoscopy showed a moderate agreement beyond chance (weighted kappa-statistic 0.42). The adjusted FRR of one-sided tubal occlusion at HSG was 0.80, whereas two-sided tubal occlusion showed an FRR of 0.49. For laparoscopy, the FRR were 0.51 and 0.15 respectively. After a normal or one-sided occluded HSG, laparoscopy showed two-sided occlusion in 5% of the patients, and fertility prospects in these patients were virtually zero. If two-sided tubal occlusion was detected on HSG but not during laparoscopy, fertility prospects were slightly impaired. Fertility prospects after a two-sided occluded HSG were strongly impaired in cases where laparoscopy showed one-sided and two-sided occlusion, with FRR of 0.38 and 0.19 respectively. Although laparoscopy performed better than HSG as a predictor of future fertility, it should not be considered as the perfect test in the diagnosis of tubal pathology. For clinical practice, laparoscopy can be delayed after normal HSG for at least 10 months, since the probability that laparoscopy will show tubal occlusion after a normal HSG is very low.
Article
Full-text available
To create and validate a questionnaire for assessing symptom severity and symptom impact on health-related quality of life for women with leiomyomata. The questionnaire was derived from focus groups of women with leiomyomata. Content validity was established through cognitive debriefings of women with leiomyomata and review by expert clinicians. Patients for the validation study were recruited from five gynecologists' offices, an interventional radiology department, and a University campus. Instruments used for validation were the Short Form-36, Menorrhagia Questionnaire, the Revicki-Wu Sexual Function Scale, and a physician and a patient assessment of severity. Item and exploratory factor analysis were performed to assess the subscale structure of the questionnaire. Psychometric evaluation was conducted to assess reliability and validity. Test-retest was performed on a random subset of the sample within 2 weeks of the initial visit. A total of 110 patients with confirmed leiomyomata and 29 normal subjects participated in the validation. The final questionnaire consists of eight symptom questions and 29 health-related quality of life questions with six subscales. Subscale Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0.83 to 0.95, with the overall health-related quality of life score alpha = 0.97. The Uterine Fibroid Symptom and Quality of Life (UFS-QOL) questionnaire subscales discriminated not only from normal controls but also among leiomyomata patients with varying degrees of symptom severity. Test-retest reliability was good with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.76-0.93. The UFS-QOL appears to be a useful new tool for detecting differences in symptom severity and health-related quality of life among patients with uterine leiomyomata. Additional study is underway to determine the responsiveness of the UFS-QOL to therapies for leiomyomata.
Article
Full-text available
To compare the effects on the myometrium of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles and calibrated microspheres (MS) in embolization of the uterine arteries in sheep. Superselective and bilateral embolization of the uterine arteries was performed with PVA particles and calibrated MS within 24 hours after artificial ovulation in 26 adult nonpregnant sheep. PVA particles of four diameters, 150-250, 250-400, 400-600, and 600-1,000 microm, were compared with calibrated MS of similar diameters, 100-300, 300-500, 500-700, and 700-900 microm, in eight groups of sheep. Evaluation was based on histopathologic study of uterus, ovaries, and vascular pedicles after sacrifice 5 days after embolization. The scores of necrosis, the diameter of occluded arteries, and the number of particles were determined. The scores of uterine necrosis were compared by using nonparametric tests (Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis). Spearman rank test was used for correlations. PVA particles clumped more readily than did MS. Small particles had a higher score (P =.02) of uterine necrosis than did large particles. PVA particles produced more necrosis than did MS. Size of MS and diameter of occluded arteries showed significant correlation (rho = 0.762, P <.001). Size of PVA particles and diameter of occluded arteries showed no correlation. PVA particles occluded vessels of a wider range of size than did calibrated MS. PVA particles are associated with intense uterine necrosis and extensive arterial occlusion regardless of size. Calibrated MS, which are associated with less uterine necrosis, permit a segmental arterial occlusion correlated with size.
Article
Full-text available
This prospective study was designed to evaluate the operative morbidity and reproductive outcome in patients who had secondary myomectomy for recurrent symptomatic uterine fibroids. A total of 58 women were subjected to a secondary myomectomy via the abdominal route. The operative morbidity such as blood loss, presence of adhesions and febrile index were estimated and the pregnancy outcome over a 2-4 year period of follow-up. The mean age and standard deviation (+/- SD) of the women was 35 (+/- 2.4) years. Nineteen patients (33%) had a postoperative temperature vertical line 100 degrees F and the estimated blood loss ranged from 159-2500 ml (median 700 ml). Seven patients (12%) required blood transfusion and one had a hysterectomy due to haemorrhage. Nine women (15.5%) became pregnant but only five (56%) had live births. Those with successful pregnancies tended to be younger with a mean age of 31.8 (+/- 2.6) years versus 35 (+/- 1.8) years, (P = 0.08, non-significant) and had fewer uterine leiomyomata; median with range values, 2 (1-6) versus 7 (6-15). The variables which best predicted the postoperative likelihood of pregnancy were; age, presence of tubal adhesions and the number of uterine fibroids. This prospective study showed a high operative morbidity and a poor fertility outcome after a repeat myomectomy. The factors affecting successful outcome in a logistic regression model were age, tubal adhesions and number of uterine fibroids.
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to compare the midterm results of a radiological and surgical approach to uterine fibroids. One hundred twenty-one women with reproductive plans who presented with an intramural fibroid(s) larger than 4 cm were randomly selected for either uterine artery embolization (UAE) or myomectomy. We compared the efficacy and safety of the two procedures and their impact on patient fertility. Fifty-eight embolizations and 63 myomectomies (42 laparoscopic, 21 open) were performed. One hundred eighteen patients have finished at least a 12-month follow-up; the mean follow-up in the entire study population was 24.9 months. Embolized patients underwent a significantly shorter procedure and required a shorter hospital stay and recovery period. They also presented with a lower CRP concentration on the second day after the procedure (p < 0.0001 for all parameters). There were no significant differences between the two groups in the rate of technical success, symptomatic effectiveness, postprocedural follicle stimulating hormone levels, number of reinterventions for fibroid recurrence or regrowth, or complication rates. Forty women after myomectomy and 26 after UAE have tried to conceive, and of these we registered 50 gestations in 45 women. There were more pregnancies (33) and labors (19) and fewer abortions (6) after surgery than after embolization (17 pregnancies, 5 labors, 9 abortions) (p < 0.05). Obstetrical and perinatal results were similar in both groups, possibly due to the low number of labors after UAE to date. We conclude that UAE is less invasive and as symptomatically effective and safe as myomectomy, but myomectomy appears to have superior reproductive outcomes in the first 2 years after treatment.
Article
Analytic methods for assessing the results of infertility therapy are reviewed and deficiencies discussed. A classification and staging scheme to define the type and severity of infertility problems is needed. Once homogeneous groups of patients are defined, the results of infertility therapy can be documented by the life-table method of analysis. A detailed description and format for this type of analysis are presented. To help conceptualize statistical probability as it pertains to infertility data, we have borrowed a mathematical model of fertility from demographers. This model can be used to predict the cumulative probability of conception over time, given a certain monthly probability of conception or fecundability. Also given that a couple has a certain duration of infertility, the model can be used to provide an estimate of an upper limit of the couple's likely monthly fecundability.
Article
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether uterine artery embolization is safe and effective for treating uterine leiomyomata. METHODS: We analyzed 200 consecutive patients (61 reported previously) undergoing uterine artery embolization for the treatment of uterine leiomyomata at a single institution. After treatment, follow‐up data were obtained by written questionnaire mailed to the patients at intervals of 2 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after treatment. Follow‐up imaging was obtained at 3 months and 12 months after therapy. All complications and subsequent gynecologic interventions were recorded prospectively, obtained using the patient questionnaires and physician contact. The percentages and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to compare the symptoms at follow‐up. Proportional odds models for repeated ordinal responses were used to assess the stability of symptom improvement over time. RESULTS: The mean follow‐up was 21 months (minimum 12). Heavy menstrual bleeding improved in 87% (95% CI 82%, 92%) of patients at 3 months and in 90% (95% CI 86%, 95%) at 1 year after therapy. Bulk symptoms improved in 93% of patients (95% CI 88%, 96%) at 3 months and in 91% (95% CI 86%, 95%) at 1 year after treatment. Only one major periprocedural complication occurred (pulmonary embolus), which resolved with anticoagulant therapy. Subsequent gynecologic interventions occurred in 10.5% of the patients (95% CI 7.0%, 15.0%) during the follow‐up period. CONCLUSION: Uterine artery embolization is safe and controls the symptoms caused by leiomyomata in most patients.
Article
Uterine artery embolization (UAE) research has largely been focused on women over 40 years, yet women of reproductive age undergo UAE without any increased morbidity. Some physicians refrain from recommending UAE to women in this age group because of some research findings showing a negative effect on fertility. This review presents a comprehensive discussion of the fertility potential of women undergoing UAE, in terms of pregnancy rates and complications as well as ovarian function and reserve. Findings indicate many benefits for women desiring fertility who undergo UAE over traditional myomectomy.
Article
Objectives: The aim of this guideline is to provide clinicians with an understanding of the pathophysiology, prevalence, and clinical significance of myomata and the best evidence available on treatment modalities. Options: The areas of clinical practice considered in formulating this guideline were assessment, medical treatments, conservative treatments of myolysis, selective uterine artery occlusion, and surgical alternatives including myomectomy and hysterectomy. The risk-to-benefit ratio must be examined individually by the woman and her health care provider. Outcomes: Implementation of this guideline should optimize the decision-making process of women and their health care providers in proceeding with further investigation or therapy for uterine leiomyomas, having considered the disease process and available treatment options, and reviewed the risks and anticipated benefits. Evidence: Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed, CINAHL, and Cochrane Systematic Reviews in February 2013, using appropriate controlled vocabulary (uterine fibroids, myoma, leiomyoma, myomectomy, myolysis, heavy menstrual bleeding, and menorrhagia) and key words (myoma, leiomyoma, fibroid, myomectomy, uterine artery embolization, hysterectomy, heavy menstrual bleeding, menorrhagia). The reference lists of articles identified were also searched for other relevant publications. Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date limits but results were limited to English or French language materials. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to January 2014. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, and national and international medical specialty societies. Benefits, harms, and costs: The majority of fibroids are asymptomatic and require no intervention or further investigations. For symptomatic fibroids such as those causing menstrual abnormalities (e.g. heavy, irregular, and prolonged uterine bleeding), iron defficiency anemia, or bulk symptoms (e.g., pelvic pressure/pain, obstructive symptoms), hysterectomy is a definitive solution. However, it is not the preferred solution for women who wish to preserve fertility and/or their uterus. The selected treatment should be directed towards an improvement in symptomatology and quality of life. The cost of the therapy to the health care system and to women with fibroids must be interpreted in the context of the cost of untreated disease conditions and the cost of ongoing or repeat investigative or treatment modalities. Values: The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Caadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). Summary Statements 1. Uterine fibroids are common, appearing in 70% of women by age 50; the 20% to 50% that are symptomatic have considerable social and economic impact in Canada. (II-3) 2. The presence of uterine fibroids can lead to a variety of clinical challenges. (III) 3. Concern about possible complications related to fibroids in pregnancy is not an indication for myomectomy except in women who have had a previous pregnancy with complications related to these fibroids. (III) 4. Women who have fibroids detected in pregnancy may require additional maternal and fetal surveillance. (II-2) 5. Effective medical treatments for women with abnormal uterine bleeding associated with uterine fibroids include the levonorgestrel intrauterine system, (I) gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues, (I) selective progesterone receptor modulators, (I) oral contraceptives, (II-2) progestins, (II-2) and danazol. (II-2) 6. Effective medical treatments for women with bulk symptoms associated with fibroids include selective progesterone receptor modulators and gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues. (I) 7. Hysterectomy is the most effective treatment for symptomatic uterine fibroids. (III) 8. Myomectomy is an option for women who wish to preserve their uterus or enhance fertility, but carries the potential for further intervention. (II-2) 9. Of the conservative interventional treatments currently available, uterine artery embolization has the longest track record and has been shown to be effective in properly selected patients. (II-3) 10. Newer focused energy delivery methods are promising but lack long-term data. (III) Recommendations 1. Women with asymptomatic fibroids should be reassured that there is no evidence to substantiate major concern about malignancy and that hysterectomy is not indicated. (III-D) 2. Treatment of women with uterine leiomyomas must be individualized based on symptomatology, size and location of fibroids, age, need and desire of the patient to preserve fertility or the uterus, the availability of therapy, and the experience of the therapist. (III-B) 3. In women who do not wish to preserve fertility and/or their uterus and who have been counselled regarding the alternatives and risks, hysterectomy by the least invasive approach possible may be offered as the definitive treatment for symptomatic uterine fibroids and is associated with a high level of satisfaction. (II-2A) 4. Hysteroscopic myomectomy should be considered first-line conservative surgical therapy for the management of symptomatic intracavitary fibroids. (II-3A) 5. Surgical planning for myomectomy should be based on mapping the location, size, and number of fibroids with the help of appropriate imaging. (III-A) 6. When morcellation is necessary to remove the specimen, the patient should be informed about possible risks and complications, including the fact that in rare cases fibroid(s) may contain unexpected malignancy and that laparoscopic power morcellation may spread the cancer, potentially worsening their prognosis. (III-B) 7. Anemia should be corrected prior to proceeding with elective surgery. (II-2A) Selective progesterone receptor modulators and gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues are effective at correcting anemia and should be considered preoperatively in anemic patients. (I-A) 8. Use of vasopressin, bupivacaine and epinephrine, misoprostol, peri-cervical tourniquet, or gelatin-thrombin matrix reduce blood loss at myomectomy and should be considered. (I-A) 9. Uterine artery occlusion by embolization or surgical methods may be offered to selected women with symptomatic uterine fibroids who wish to preserve their uterus. Women choosing uterine artery occlusion for the treatment of fibroids should be counselled regarding possible risks, including the likelihood that fecundity and pregnancy may be impacted. (II-3A) 10. In women who present with acute uterine bleeding associated with uterine fibroids, conservative management with estrogens, selective progesterone receptor modulators, antifibrinolytics, Foley catheter tamponade, and/or operative hysteroscopic intervention may be considered, but hysterectomy may become necessary in some cases. In centres where available, intervention by uterine artery embolization may be considered. (III-B).
Article
Objective To evaluate the mid-term efficacy and complications of uterine artery embolisation in women with symptomatic fibroids. To assess reduction in uterine and dominant fibroid volumes using ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging.Design Prospective observational single-centre study.Setting A district general hospital in Surrey and a private hospital in London.Methods Four hundred consecutive women were treated between December 1996 and February 2001. Indications for treatment were menorrhagia, menstrual pain, abdominal swelling or bloating and other pressure effects. Uterine artery embolisation was performed using polyvinyl alcohol particles and platinum coils.Main outcome measures Imaging was performed before embolisation and at regular intervals thereafter. Clinical evaluation was made at regular intervals after embolisation to assess patient outcome.Results Bilateral uterine artery embolisation was achieved in 395 women, while 5 women had a unilateral procedure. With a mean clinical follow up of 16.7 months, menstrual bleeding was improved in 84% of women and menstrual pain was improved in 79%. Using ultrasound, the median uterine and dominant fibroid volumes before embolisation were 608 and 112 cc, respectively, and after embolisation 255 and 19 cc, respectively (P= .0001). Three (1%) infective complications requiring emergency hysterectomy occurred. Twenty-three (6%) patients had clinical failure or recurrence. Of these, nine (2%) had a hysterectomy. Twenty-six (7%) women had permanent amenorrhoea after embolisation including four patients under the age of 45 (2%). Of these, amenorrhea started between 4 and 18 months after embolisation, and only three had elevated follicle stimulating hormone levels when amenorrhea developed. Thirteen (4%) women had chronic vaginal discharge considered as a major irritant. Thirteen pregnancies occurred in 12 patients. Ninety-seven percent of women were pleased with the outcome and would recommend this treatment to others.Conclusions Uterine artery embolisation is associated with a high clinical success rate and good fibroid volume reduction. Infective complications requiring hysterectomy, amenorrhoea under the age of 45 and chronic vaginal discharge may complicate the procedure.
Article
Background: Uterine fibroids cause heavy prolonged bleeding, pain, pressure symptoms and subfertility. The traditional method of treatment has been surgery as medical therapies have not proven effective. Uterine artery embolization has been reported to be an effective and safe alternative to treat fibroids in women not desiring future fertility. There is a significant body of evidence that is based on case controlled studies and case reports. This is an update of the review previously published in 2012. Objectives: To review the benefits and risks of uterine artery embolization (UAE) versus other medical or surgical interventions for symptomatic uterine fibroids. Search methods: We searched sources including the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE and trial registries. The search was last conducted in April 2014. We contacted authors of eligible randomised controlled trials to request unpublished data. Selection criteria: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of UAE versus any medical or surgical therapy for symptomatic uterine fibroids. The primary outcomes of the review were patient satisfaction and live birth rate (among women seeking live birth). Data collection and analysis: Two of the authors (AS and JKG) independently selected studies, assessed quality and extracted data. Evidence quality was assessed using GRADE methods. Main results: Seven RCTs with 793 women were included in this review. Three trials compared UAE with abdominal hysterectomy, two trials compared UAE with myomectomy, and two trials compared UAE with either type of surgery (53 hysterectomies and 62 myomectomies).With regard to patient satisfaction rates, our findings were consistent with satisfaction rates being up to 41% lower or up to 48% higher with UAE compared to surgery within 24 months of having the procedure (odds ratio (OR) 0.94; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.59 to 1.48, 6 trials, 640 women, I(2) = 5%, moderate quality evidence). Findings were also inconclusive at five years of follow-up (OR 0.90; 95% CI 0.45 to 1.80, 2 trials, 295 women, I(2) = 0%, moderate quality evidence). There was some indication that UAE may be associated with less favourable fertility outcomes than myomectomy, but it was very low quality evidence from a subgroup of a single study and should be regarded with extreme caution (live birth: OR 0.26; 95% CI 0.08 to 0.84; pregnancy: OR 0.29; 95% CI 0.10 to 0.85, 1 study, 66 women).Similarly, for several safety outcomes our findings showed evidence of a substantially higher risk of adverse events in either arm or of no difference between the groups. This applied to intra-procedural complications (OR 0.91; 95% CI 0.42 to 1.97, 4 trials, 452 women, I(2) = 40%, low quality evidence), major complications within one year (OR 0.65; 95% CI 0.33 to 1.26, 5 trials, 611 women, I(2) = 4%, moderate quality evidence) and major complications within five years (OR 0.56; CI 0.27 to 1.18, 2 trials, 268 women). However, the rate of minor complications within one year was higher in the UAE group (OR 1.99; CI 1.41 to 2.81, 6 trials, 735 women, I(2) = 0%, moderate quality evidence) and two trials found a higher minor complication rate in the UAE group at up to five years (OR 2.93; CI 1.73 to 4.93, 2 trials, 268 women).UAE was associated with a higher rate of further surgical interventions (re-interventions within 2 years: OR 3.72; 95% CI 2.28 to 6.04, 6 trials, 732 women, I(2) = 45%, moderate quality evidence; within 5 years: OR 5.79; 95% CI 2.65 to 12.65, 2 trials, 289 women, I(2) = 65%). If we assumed that 7% of women will require further surgery within two years of hysterectomy or myomectomy, between 15% and 32% will require further surgery within two years of UAE.The evidence suggested that women in the UAE group were less likely to require a blood transfusion than women receiving surgery (OR 0.07; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.52, 2 trials, 277 women, I(2) = 0%). UAE was also associated with a shorter procedural time (two studies), shorter length of hospital stay (seven studies) and faster resumption of usual activities (six studies) in all studies that measured these outcomes; however, most of these data could not be pooled due to heterogeneity between the studies.The quality of the evidence varied, and was very low for live birth, moderate for satisfaction ratings, and moderate for most safety outcomes. The main limitations in the evidence were serious imprecision due to wide confidence intervals, failure to clearly report methods, and lack of blinding for subjective outcomes. Authors' conclusions: When we compared patient satisfaction rates at up to two years following UAE versus surgery (myomectomy or hysterectomy) our findings are that there is no evidence of a difference between the interventions. Findings at five year follow-up were similarly inconclusive. There was very low quality evidence to suggest that myomectomy may be associated with better fertility outcomes than UAE, but this information was only available from a selected subgroup in one small trial.We found no clear evidence of a difference between UAE and surgery in the risk of major complications, but UAE was associated with a higher rate of minor complications and an increased likelihood of requiring surgical intervention within two to five years of the initial procedure. If we assume that 7% of women will require further surgery within two years of hysterectomy or myomectomy, between 15% and 32% will require further surgery within two years of UAE. This increase in the surgical re-intervention rate may balance out any initial cost advantage of UAE. Thus although UAE is a safe, minimally invasive alternative to surgery, patient selection and counselling are paramount due to the much higher risk of requiring further surgical intervention.
Article
Several atypical hysteroscopy findings have been described in association with uterine artery embolization (UAE). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the types and frequency of these findings in the largest published series of patients. Premenopausal patients after bilateral UAE for symptomatic intramural fibroid underwent subsequent hysteroscopic examination 3-9 months following UAE. The uterine cavity was examined with focus on specific post-embolization changes. Biopsy of endometrium was obtained and evaluated together with a biopsy of abnormal foci if present. UAE was performed in a total of 127 women with an average size of dominant fibroid 63.1 mm in diameter and an average patient age of 35.1 years. Even though the majority of patients were asymptomatic at the time of hysteroscopy (78.0%), the post-embolization hysteroscopic examination was normal in only 51 patients (40.2%). The most frequent abnormalities included tissue necrosis (52 women, 40.9%), intracavitary myoma protrusion (45 women, 35.4%), endometrium 'spots' (22.1%), intrauterine synechiae (10.2%) and 'fistula' between the uterine cavity and intramural fibroid (6.3%). Histopathological examination showed normal, secretory or proliferative endometrium in 83.5% patients. Necrosis and/or hyalinization prevailed in the results of biopsy of abnormal loci (45 cases, 35.4%). Frequency of abnormal hysteroscopic findings several months after UAE for primary intramural myomas is high. Alarmingly high is the percentage of patients with a histopathologically verified necrosis. Performing hysteroscopy in selected patients after UAE is necessary before eventual surgical re-intervention, especially in women with reproductive plans.
Article
Uterine artery embolization (UAE) is assuming an important role in the treatment of women with symptomatic uterine leiomyomata worldwide. The following guidelines, which have been jointly published with the Society of Interventional Radiology in the Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, are intended to ensure the safe practice of UAE by identifying the elements of appropriate patient selection, anticipated outcomes, and recognition of possible complications and their timely address.
Article
To assess long-term clinical effectiveness of uterine artery embolization (UAE) compared with abdominal myomectomy. Women who received UAE (n = 87) or abdominal myomectomy (n = 98) for symptomatic uterine leiomyomata between 2000 and 2002 at a single institution were consecutively enrolled in this study. Patients whose procedures were performed within 5 years before the study were included. Symptom evaluations with symptom severity scores, pregnancy rates, and satisfaction with the procedures were obtained via institutional review board-approved questionnaires. Chart reviews were performed to supplement analyses. The retrospective cohort included 185 patients, of whom long-term follow-up was completed by 89 patients (48.1%), 48 being treated with UAE, and 41 with myomectomy. Follow-up ranged from 50 to 83 months. A higher but not statistically significant number of patients received repeat interventions after abdominal myomectomy (14%) versus UAE (8%; P = .204). Significantly higher symptom severity score improvements were seen in patients treated with UAE versus abdominal myomectomy (34 vs 31; P = .02). UAE recipients were less likely to attempt to get pregnant (P = .02), but those who did had a 66.7% success rate compared with 58.8% for patients who underwent myomectomy. Similar numbers of patients between groups were satisfied with the procedure (P = .57), reported effectiveness of symptom relief (P = .43), and would recommend the procedure to others (P = .37). UAE results in long-term clinical success with outcomes comparable or superior to those of abdominal myomectomy.
Article
To investigate the influence of uterine artery embolization (UAE) on fertility after bilateral UAE with either tris-acryl gelatin microspheres (TAGM) or gelatin particles (GP). Six ewes that underwent UAE with TAGM, 6 ewes that underwent UAE with GP, and 6 control ewes were compared. After hormonal synchronization of the menstrual cycle, artificial insemination (AI) was performed. When pregnancy did not result, ewes were naturally inseminated. After AI, progesterone concentrations in blood increased and were maintained at >1.0 ng/mL in 9 ewes (3 per group). Three ewes became pregnant after AI. The abortion rate was higher in the UAE group. The remaining 15 sheep were naturally inseminated, with 14 delivering 15 lambs. Mean period of term gestation in UAE group ewes was 155.7 versus 158.6 days in control group ewes. Lambs' body weight, body length, and withers height after birth did not differ between those from UAE group and control group. Lambs from ewes embolized with GP tended to be smaller and had lower body weight than those from other groups. Uterine artery embolization influenced reproductive ability in sheep and UAE with GP could lead to intrauterine growth retardation.
Article
PIP Lack of standardization in analytic methods for assigning infertility data is attributed to inadequate classification of fertility problems, and a lack of consistent methodology in evaluating outcome of infertility therapy. A classification scheme ideally should consider types of fertility problems as well as clinical assessment of its severity. Until an adequate classification system is developed, researchers are encouraged to describe fully the nature of infertility problem examined, and present results for homogenous groups of patients. The life-table method of analysis is a useful technique for assessing infertility statistics. The starting point of this method should depend on the group examined and may be either the date of 1st visit to the clinic or the date that therapy is instituted. Approximate date of conception should be the endpoint. A mathematical model of infertility predicated on the assumption that there is a constant monthly probability of conception of fecundability can be used to derive equations with potential for clinical application.
Article
The primary objective of a phase II clinical trial of a new drug or regimen is to determine whether it has sufficient biological activity against the disease under study to warrant more extensive development. Such trials are often conducted in a multi-institution setting where designs of more than two stages are difficult to manage. This paper presents two-stage designs that are optimal in the sense that the expected sample size is minimized if the regimen has low activity subject to constraints upon the size of the type 1 and type 2 errors. Two-stage designs which minimize the maximum sample size are also determined. Optimum and "minimax" designs for a range of design parameters are tabulated. These designs can also be used for pilot studies of new regimens where toxicity is the endpoint of interest.
Article
Haemorrhage, probably related to hypervascularisation, is the commonest complication of uterine myomata and is difficult to treat. 16 patients, aged 34-48 years, with symptomatic uterine myomata, for which a major surgical procedure was planned after failure of medical treatment, were treated by selective free-flow arterial embolisation of the myomata with Ivalon particles. With a mean follow-up of 20 months (range 11-48) in the responders, symptoms resolved in 11 patients; menstrual cycles returned to normal in ten of these. Three patients had partial improvement. Two failures required surgery. In 14 cases embolisation caused pelvic pain, which required analgesia in all.
Article
In 197 patients, uterine embolization with a single femoral approach and a single 5-F cobra catheter was successful in 362 of 394 (92%) uterine arteries. In six patients (12 arteries), distal embolization with a coaxial 3-F microcatheter was safer. In 10 patients with a life-threatening condition, embolization was performed at the anterior division of both internal iliac arteries. Bilateral selective embolization of the uterine arteries can be performed with a single catheter.
Article
To evaluate the effect of uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) on menstruation and ovarian function. The authors performed an observational study of UFE for the treatment of symptomatic fibroids. All patients had regular predictable menses before intervention and none had clinical or laboratory findings of menopause. UFE was performed with use of standard methods with 355-700-microm-diameter polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) foam particles. The incidence of ovarian failure was calculated for women younger than 45 years and for those 45 years or older, based on retrospective stratification by age. The authors assessed statistical differences in ovarian failure between the two age groups with use of the X2 test. Sixty-six premenopausal women (age range, 30-55 years) underwent bilateral UFE and were followed for an average of 21 weeks (range, 12-77 weeks). In 56 of 66 (85%) patients, regular menses resumed after an average of 3.5 (range, 1-8) weeks. In 10 of 66 (15%) patients, regular menses did not resume. Clinical and biochemical findings consistent with ovarian failure and presumed menopause were seen in nine of 10 patients without resumption of menses (14% of total patients). Ovarian failure occurred in nine of 21 (43%) women older than 45 years and in none of the 45 women younger than 45 years (P < .05). There were no differences in presenting symptoms, amount of PVA used, or fibroid size between patients who did and did not resume menses. The majority of patients undergoing UFE will have resumption of menses, but the incidence of postprocedure ovarian failure is considerably higher than reported to date. Loss of menses induced by UFE is significantly more likely to occur in women older than 45 years.
Article
Earlier studies demonstrated the efficacy of uterine fibroid embolization (UFE). We seek to demonstrate the success of the procedure in a community hospital setting, and we attempt to identify patients likely not to benefit from embolization, if possible, before the procedure. The study followed all women treated with UFE for menorrhagia or postmenopausal bleeding at a community hospital between 1997 and 1999. Relief of symptoms, ultrasound changes, and complications were documented. Six months after the procedure, analysis was performed on ultrasound and interview data from patients who underwent UFE. A smaller number of patients has been followed for 12 months and were available for the analysis. We examined characteristics of patients and procedures performed in an attempt to identify likely failures of treatment. We calculated complication and failure rates based on the entire group of patients. From 183 patients who applied for UFE, 16 were excluded because ofpathologic conditions found during preembolization evaluation; 167 women had an embolization, 163 were successfully embolized bilaterally, and 4 were embolized unilaterally because of technical failure. Eighty-eight percent of the patients (147 of 167 patients) reported an improvement or stabilization of symptoms 6 months after UFE. Forty-six patients followed for 12 months experienced myoma shrinkage of 37% (a significant shrinkage over 6 months, p < 0.001), and total uterine volume decreased 52%. Analysis of shrinkage data revealed no demographic or procedure variable associated with shrinkage. Six patients underwent hysterectomy (3.5%) after embolization, one as a result of postprocedure infection. Pain in the first 24 hours postprocedure affected almost all patients. Five percent of the patients passed submucous myomata after UFE; all these patients at risk were identified at preembolization hysteroscopy. Four patients experienced premature menopause after embolization early in the study. There were three criteria for failure, of which a patient had to meet only one: hysterectomy, < 10% shrinkage ofmyoma 6 months after UFE, or worsening symptoms after UFE. No variables of age or size of the uterus could be shown to predict failure. Patients who had undergone earlier pelvic surgery were more likely to fail UFE (p = 0.012). Uterine fibroid embolization, an alternative treatment for myomas, offering low morbidity, can be performed in a community hospital setting. Eighty-eight percent of patients reported improvement or stabilization of symptoms. Total uterine volume decreased an average of 49% at 6 months after embolization. Shrinkage was unaffected by the size of the uterus, myoma, or patient characteristic before UFE. Longterm followup study reveals a significant continuing shrinkage of total uterine volume and myomata at 12 months. There has been no regrowth of fibroids. Earlier surgery was a factor predicting failure of UFE in our series. The risks to future fertility were small.
Article
To determine whether uterine artery embolization is safe and effective for treating uterine leiomyomata. We analyzed 200 consecutive patients (61 reported previously) undergoing uterine artery embolization for the treatment of uterine leiomyomata at a single institution. After treatment, follow-up data were obtained by written questionnaire mailed to the patients at intervals of 2 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after treatment. Follow-up imaging was obtained at 3 months and 12 months after therapy. All complications and subsequent gynecologic interventions were recorded prospectively, obtained using the patient questionnaires and physician contact. The percentages and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to compare the symptoms at follow-up. Proportional odds models for repeated ordinal responses were used to assess the stability of symptom improvement over time. The mean follow-up was 21 months (minimum 12). Heavy menstrual bleeding improved in 87% (95% CI 82%, 92%) of patients at 3 months and in 90% (95% CI 86%, 95%) at 1 year after therapy. Bulk symptoms improved in 93% of patients (95% CI 88%, 96%) at 3 months and in 91% (95% CI 86%, 95%) at 1 year after treatment. Only one major periprocedural complication occurred (pulmonary embolus), which resolved with anticoagulant therapy. Subsequent gynecologic interventions occurred in 10.5% of the patients (95% CI 7.0%, 15.0%) during the follow-up period. Uterine artery embolization is safe and controls the symptoms caused by leiomyomata in most patients.
Article
To assess the safety and effectiveness of tris-acryl gelatin microspheres (Embospheres) in the treatment of leiomyomata by uterine artery embolization. This was a Phase I study of 30 patients with symptomatic leiomyomata. Each patient underwent ultrasound imaging and completed questionnaires regarding symptoms and health status at baseline and 3 and 6 months after treatment. Bilateral embolization was performed with use of tris-acryl gelatin microspheres. Summary statistics were used to characterize the demographic and procedure data. Paired t-tests were used to assess change in the severity of menstrual bleeding and health-related quality of life. Bilateral embolization was technically successful in all patients. Three months after treatment, menstrual bleeding was markedly improved as assessed by menorrhagia questionnaire (P <.0001) and menstrual calendar (P <.0001). Pelvic pain and discomfort was improved in 92% of cases. Physical component summary scores of the SF-12 also increased from baseline at 3 months (P =.02) and at 6 months (P =.01). Minor complications occurred in nine patients; there were no major complications. Although limited, this initial experience suggests that tris-acryl gelatin microspheres are an effective and safe embolic agent for the treatment of uterine leiomyomata.
Article
To determine the frequency and severity of complications that occur as a result of uterine artery embolization for leiomyomas. As part of an ongoing study of outcome after uterine embolization, prospective data regarding complications that occurred in 400 consecutive patients were gathered. Each patient had a minimum of a 3-month interval from the procedure at the time of analysis. Each complication was categorized and graded as to severity and outcome using the complication classification developed by the Society of Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology (SCVIR) and a modified set of The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) criteria for complications of hysterectomy and myomectomy. All adverse events that occurred during the follow-up period were included, including those that occurred after the 3-month minimum interval. Confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for each complication. There were no deaths and no major permanent injuries. One patient required hysterectomy as a result of a complication, and one patient had an undiagnosed leiomyosarcoma. There were ten in-hospital complications and an additional 27 complications within the first 30 days, with 34 patients experiencing a periprocedural complication for a rate of 8.5% (95% CI 6.0%, 11.7%). There were five serious complications (SCVIR class D), comprising 1.25% (95% CI 0.3%, 2.5%) of the study group. Using ACOG definitions for perioperative complications, the overall morbidity was 5% (95% CI 3.1%, 7.7%). The short-term complication rate was low in women undergoing uterine embolization.
Article
Uterine artery embolization is an increasingly popular alternative to hysterectomy and myomectomy as a treatment for uterine leiomyoma. Whether this procedure is safe for women desiring future fertility is controversial. A primigravida who had previously undergone uterine artery embolization had premature rupture of membranes at 24 weeks. She had a cesarean delivery at 28 weeks, which was followed by uterine atony requiring hysterectomy. A primigravida who had previously undergone uterine artery embolization delivered appropriately grown dichorionic twins at 36 weeks. An analysis of the 50 published cases of pregnancy after uterine artery embolization revealed the following complications: malpresentation (17%), small for gestational age (7%), premature delivery (28%), cesarean delivery (58%), and postpartum hemorrhage (13%). Women who become pregnant after uterine artery embolization are at risk for malpresentation, preterm birth, cesarean delivery, and postpartum hemorrhage.
Article
To evaluate the mid-term efficacy and complications of uterine artery embolisation in women with symptomatic fibroids. To assess reduction in uterine and dominant fibroid volumes using ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. Prospective observational single-centre study. A district general hospital in Surrey and a private hospital in London. Four hundred consecutive women were treated between December 1996 and February 2001. Indications for treatment were menorrhagia, menstrual pain, abdominal swelling or bloating and other pressure effects. Uterine artery embolisation was performed using polyvinyl alcohol particles and platinum coils. Imaging was performed before embolisation and at regular intervals thereafter. Clinical evaluation was made at regular intervals after embolisation to assess patient outcome. Bilateral uterine artery embolisation was achieved in 395 women, while 5 women had a unilateral procedure. With a mean clinical follow up of 16.7 months, menstrual bleeding was improved in 84% of women and menstrual pain was improved in 79%. Using ultrasound, the median uterine and dominant fibroid volumes before embolisation were 608 and 112 cc, respectively, and after embolisation 255 and 19 cc, respectively (P = .0001). Three (1%) infective complications requiring emergency hysterectomy occurred. Twenty-three (6%) patients had clinical failure or recurrence. Of these, nine (2%) had a hysterectomy. Twenty-six (7%) women had permanent amenorrhoea after embolisation including four patients under the age of 45 (2%). Of these, amenorrhea started between 4 and 18 months after embolisation, and only three had elevated follicle stimulating hormone levels when amenorrhea developed. Thirteen (4%) women had chronic vaginal discharge considered as a major irritant. Thirteen pregnancies occurred in 12 patients. Ninety-seven percent of women were pleased with the outcome and would recommend this treatment to others. Uterine artery embolisation is associated with a high clinical success rate and good fibroid volume reduction. Infective complications requiring hysterectomy, amenorrhoea under the age of 45 and chronic vaginal discharge may complicate the procedure.
Article
To report a case of permanent amenorrhea associated with endometrial atrophy after uterine artery embolization for symptomatic uterine fibroids. Case report. Gynecologic clinic of a university hospital. A 44-year-old woman with menorrhagia and anemia caused by multiple fibroids. Transcatheter bilateral uterine artery embolization with polyvinyl alcohol particles, with hormonal, sonographic, and hysteroscopic follow-up procedures. Serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and estradiol levels were measured, and sonographic appearance of the ovaries and the endometrium at baseline and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after treatment were recorded. Hysteroscopy was performed with endometrial biopsy at baseline and 6 months after embolization. The patient remained amenorrheic from the procedure. Serial posttreatment measurements of FSH and estradiol levels and repeated ovarian imaging showed no change in ovarian function as compared with baseline. A reduction in endometrial thickness (<or=5 mm), as compared with the endometrial thickness measured at baseline (7.2 mm), was sonographically documented 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after treatment. Postprocedure hysteroscopy showed an atrophic endometrium, and endometrial biopsy confirmed endometrial atrophy. Permanent amenorrhea associated with endometrial atrophy may occur following uterine artery embolization for fibroids and, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first time this complication has been reported. Patients should be appropriately counseled about the risk of reduced fertility after embolization.
Article
To evaluate fibroid uterine volume reduction, symptom relief, and patient satisfaction with uterine artery embolization (UAE) for symptomatic fibroids. Multicenter, prospective, single-arm clinical treatment trial. Eight Ontario university and community hospitals. Five hundred thirty-eight patients undergoing bilateral UAE. Bilateral UAE performed with polyvinyl alcohol particles sized 355-500 microm. Three-month follow-up evaluations including fibroid uterine volume reductions, patient reported symptom improvement (7-point scale), symptom life-impact (10-point scale) reduction, and treatment satisfaction (6-point scale). Median uterine and dominant fibroid volume reductions were 35% and 42%, respectively. Significant improvements were reported for menorrhagia (83%), dysmenorrhea (77%), and urinary frequency/urgency (86%). Mean menstrual duration was significantly reduced after UAE (7.6 to 5.4 days). Improvements in menorrhagia were unrelated to pre-UAE uterine size or post-UAE uterine volume reduction. Amenorrhea occurring after the procedure was highly age dependent, ranging from 3% (1%-7%) in women under age 40 to 41% (26%-58%) in women age 50 or older. Median fibroid life-impact scores were significantly reduced after UAE (8.0 to 3.0). The majority (91%) expressed satisfaction with UAE treatment. UAE reduced fibroid uterine volume and provided significant relief of menorrhagia that was unrelated to initial fibroid uterine size or volume reduction. Patient satisfaction with short-term UAE treatment outcomes was high.
Article
To evaluate the midterm results of limited embolization of the uterine arteries in the management of symptomatic uterine fibroids and to evaluate the efficacy and safety of limited uterine artery embolization (UAE) with use of calibrated tris-acryl gelatin microspheres in the management of symptomatic uterine fibroids. Twenty women (mean age, 43 years) with symptomatic uterine fibroids underwent bilateral embolization of the uterine arteries with use of calibrated microspheres. Devascularization of the fibroids was achieved and the main uterine artery was left patent in all women. Embolization was offered as an alternative to surgery in all women who had been treated unsuccessfully with medical therapy. All procedures were technically successful. Microspheres 700-900 micro m in diameter were used in 14 women (70%). After a mean follow-up duration of 30.2 months (range, 24-48 mo), all women reported improvement in their symptoms, with 85% reporting complete resolution of menorrhagia at the most recent follow-up. One woman with multiple fibroids required a second embolization procedure because of persisting symptoms at 6 months. She is currently symptom-free after 48 months. In two women with submucosal fibroids, expulsion of necrotic fibroids occurred 2 and 7 months after the procedure, respectively. All women resumed normal menstruation after the procedure. One woman had a successful full-term pregnancy after embolization. Early experience with UAE with use of calibrated tris-acryl gelatin microspheres indicates that it is safe and efficacious in controlling menorrhagia.
Article
Some causes of stillbirth may also lead to fetuses that are small for gestational age (have a low birth weight with respect to their gestational age) or are delivered preterm (before 37 weeks of gestation). It is not known whether the birth of a previous small-for-gestational-age or preterm infant increases the subsequent risk of stillbirth. We assessed the associations between previous adverse outcomes of pregnancy and the risk of stillbirth in a nationwide Swedish study of 410,021 women who delivered first and second consecutive singleton infants between 1983 and 1997. There were 1842 and 1062 stillbirths during the first and second pregnancies, respectively. As compared with women whose first infant was born at term (37 weeks of gestation or more) and was not small for gestational age, women whose first infant was born at term or preterm and was small for gestational age had an increased risk of stillbirth during their second pregnancy. The odds ratios for subsequent stillbirth, after adjustment for covariates known to be associated with an increased risk of stillbirth, were 2.1 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.6 to 2.8) among women with a first infant who was born at term and was small for gestational age, 3.4 (95 percent confidence interval, 2.1 to 5.6) among women with a first infant who was moderately (32 to 36 weeks of gestation) preterm and small for gestational age, and 5.0 (95 percent confidence interval, 2.5 to 9.8) among women with a first infant who was very (before 32 weeks of gestation) preterm and was small for gestational age. The odds ratio for subsequent stillbirth among women with a first stillborn infant was 2.5 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.4 to 4.7), as compared with women whose first infant was not stillborn. The rates of stillbirth in second pregnancies ranged from 2.4 per 1000 births among women whose first infant was born at term and was not small for gestational age to 19.0 per 1000 births among women whose first child was very preterm and was small for gestational age. Delivery of a previous small-for-gestational-age infant is an important predictor of the subsequent risk of stillbirth, particularly if the infant was delivered preterm.
Article
The study was conducted to evaluate if the diagnosis and treatment of intrauterine lesions with office hysteroscopy is of value in improving the pregnancy outcome in patients with recurrent in-vitro fertilization and embryo transfer failure. Four hundred and twenty-one patients who had undergone two or more failed IVF-embryo transfer cycles were prospectively randomized into two groups. Group I (n = 211) did not have office hysteroscopic evaluation, Group II (n = 210) had office hysteroscopy. The patients who had normal hysteroscopic findings were included in Group IIa (n = 154) and patients who had abnormal hysteroscopic findings were included in Group IIb (n = 56). Intrauterine lesions diagnosed were operated during the office procedure. Fifty-six (26%) patients in Group II had intrauterine pathologies and the treatment was performed at the same time. No difference existed in the mean number of oocyte retrieved, fertilization rate, number of embryos transferred or first trimester abortion rates among the patients in groups. Clinical pregnancy rates in Group I, Group IIa and Group IIb were 21.6%, 32.5% and 30.4% respectively. There was a significant difference in the clinical pregnancy rates between patients in Group I and Group IIa (21.6% and 32.5%, P = 0.044, respectively) and Group I and Group IIb (21.6% and 30.4%, P = 0.044, respectively). There was no significant difference in the clinical pregnancy rate of patients in Groups IIa and IIb. Patients with normal hysterosalpingography but recurrent IVF-embryo transfer failure should be evaluated prior to commencing IVF-embryo transfer cycle to improve the clinical pregnancy rate.
Article
To determine whether uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles affects fertility in women desiring future pregnancy. Of 288 patients managed with UFE with PVA particles for uterine myoma or adenomyosis between 1998 and 2001, 94 patients were enrolled in this study. The age range of participants was 20-40 years. The data were collected through review of medical records and telephone interviews. Mean duration of follow-up duration was 35 months (range 22-60 months). Patients using contraception and single women were excluded, and the chance of infertility caused by possible spousal infertility or other factors was disregarded. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging was performed in all patients before and after UFE, and the size of PVA particles used was 255-700 mum. Among 94 patients who underwent UFE with PVA, 74 were on contraceptives, 6 had been single until the point of interview, and 8 were lost to follow-up. Of the remaining 6 patients who desired future pregnancy, 5 (83%) succeeded in becoming pregnant (1 patient became pregnant twice). Of a total of 8 pregnancies, 6 were planned pregnancies and 2 occurred after contraception failed. Five deliveries were vaginal, and 2 were by elective cesarean. Artificial abortion was performed in 1 case of unplanned pregnancy. There was 1 case of premature rupture of membrane (PROM) followed by preterm labor and delivery of an infant who was small-for-gestational-age. After UFE, mean volume reduction rates of the uterus and fibroid were 36.6% (range 0 to 62.6%) and 69.3% (range 36.3% to 93.3%), respectively. Although the absolute number of cases was small, UFE with PVA particles ultimately did not affect fertility in the women who underwent the procedure.
Article
To evaluate the impact of bilateral uterine artery embolization (UAE) upon fertility in sheep. Prospective study. University-based interventional radiology, pathology, and reproductive physiology units. Nineteen control ewes, 10 ewes embolized with polyvinyl alcohol particles (PVA group), and 10 ewes embolized with Tris-acryl gelatin microspheres (TGMS group). Bilateral UAE was performed with 600- to 1,000-mum PVA particles or 700- to 900-mum TGMS particles. Animals of three groups were synchronized and naturally inseminated. For each ewe, a hormonal follow-up was performed throughout the gestation. Gestation duration, number and weight of newborns, and fertility and gestation rates were recorded. Mean number of estrus before insemination and gestation duration were not different between groups. There were 47 living newborns: 26 control, 9 PVA, and 12 TGMS. Overall birth weight of newborns was 3.7 +/- 0.9 kg for controls, 3.6 +/- 1.1 kg for TGMS, and 2.2 +/- 0.7 kg for PVA (which was statistically significant vs. control). In the PVA group, there was a statistically significant decrease of fertility rate and gestation rate vs. controls, but this was not the case in the TGMS group. Particles of PVA decrease fertility in sheep and lead to intrauterine growth retardation.
Article
To evaluate pregnancies in women who had previously undergone uterine fibroid embolization. Prospective study. A city hospital in Spain. A cohort of 100 uterine fibroid embolization patients, 57 of whom wished to preserve their fertility. Uterine arteries were embolized by using 500-1,200 microm tris-acryl gelatin microspheres. After intervention, patient follow-up was performed at 1 week, 3 months, 6 months, and yearly. The number of pregnancies and course of pregnancy. Eleven pregnancies in 10 women (19.2%). The pregnancies resulted in 8 live births, including 4 normal and 4 cesarean deliveries. Early miscarriage occurred in 3 cases (2 patients). None of the 8 newborns was a low-birth weight infant, and gestation lasted >or=37 weeks in all the patients, except for 1 case of a macrosomic fetus delivered at 33 weeks. There were no cases of abnormal placental implantation. Despite the small sample size, uterine artery embolization appears to be viable in young women who still want to become pregnant. Larger series and studies comparing uterine fibroid embolization and myomectomy are needed.
Myoma management recommandations
  • Collège-National-des-Gynécologues-et-Obstétriciens-Français