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Taxonomic notes on Arisaema seppiconse Kitam. (Araceae)

Authors:
The Japanese Society for Plant Systematics
NII-Electronic Library Service
The JapaneseSociety forPlant Systematics
ISSNOOOIm6799 ActaPhytotax. Geebot, 50 (2):
221-224 (1999)
Short
Communication
kxonomic Notes on Arisaema seppikoense Kitam. (Araceae)
TOMIKI KOBAYASHI '
JIN
MUR2ffA 2 and KUNIAKI WPffANABE 3
'
i
71ie Hbeogo
P,ojlectural institute
ofEnvironmental
Science,
3-l-27 }iikihira-cho, Suma-k",
1(bbe
654-O03Z
Japan;
2 71ie
Botanical
Gantens,
Craduate school ofScience,
University
ojC
lbkyo,
3-7-1
Hdk'usan,
Bunkyo-ku,
7bkyo 112-OOOI,
Japan; 3Department ofBiology
Fac"lty
ofScience,
Kbbe Uitiversit}l
1-2-1
kuruhabuto,
Kobe 657-850i, Japan
Abstract. New ]ocalities of Arisaema seppikoense Kitam., a critically endangered and endemic
species in central parts
of Hyogo Prefecture, were recently discovered, arid this species was
morphologically re-examined, One plant
with two foliage leaves was newly found. Male plant
usually had ]ess than seven leaflets. 1[he ]ength ef pseudostem
apd peduncle
in female plant
were
significantly longer than those of males. The spathe blade. spadix-appendage and anther showed
the various comhinations of color. Arisaema seppikoense does
not seem to
be
so closely related
to A. eucuUat"m M. Hotta based on the morphelogical and cytological differences examined.
Key words: Araceae,
Arisaema cucullat"m, Arisaema sempikoense, critically endangered species,
endemic,HyogoPrefe ¢ture
Received Octoben 2Z 1999; accepted Nbvemben 10,
1999
Arisaema seppikoense was described by Kitamura, (1949)
based on only four
specimens from Mt. Seppikosan, YUmesaki-cho, Shikama-gun, Hyogo Prefecture
but his description did not discriminate between male and female
plants.
It
was
also recorded later
from Mt. Kasagatayama Kanzaki-cho, Kanzaki-gun, Hyogo
Pref.
These two localities
were close to
each other and thus
the
distribution
of this
species seemed to be restricted to a small area of the central parts
of Hyogo Pref.
After those records, however, this species had not been
found for
a long
time
partly
due to the excessive collections by amateures and the change of habitat
conditions around there.
Recently, several tens of living plants-of
this species,
including both male and female
plants,
were re-discovered under the deciduous
broad-leaved
forests
at the montane regions of 500-800 m alt. from Shikama-gun
to Asako-gun, Hyogo Pref., and were 4ble
to be carefully examined
morphologically and cytologically. As a result, it becomes necessary to.emend the
circumscription of dioecious A. seppikoense. In the
present
note, thus we will
niake
a revised description
ofA. se:ppikoense and compare it' on several characters
with A.
cucultatum M. Hotta which has been regarded to
be the
most closely
related species (Hotta,
1963). Chromosome number, karyotype and the number of
ovules per・
ovary were already reported (Watanabe
et al., 1998). Observation and
measurements of several characteristics were made on the living plants
in the field
as well as on the herbarium specimens. Vbucher specimens are deposited' in the
herbarium of Shoei Junior College (sHo).
We would like
to
thank
the curators of
Kyo, zNs and sHo fbr
giving
us the opportunity to study the herbarium specimens
The Japanese Society for Plant Systematics
NII-Electronic Library Service
The JapaneseSociety forPlant Systematics
222 Acta Phytotax.
Geobot. Vbl,
50
in
their
care.
Morphological characteristics ofArisaema
seppikoense
Pseudostem. The length of pseudostem was 1.5- 11.8 cm (average
5.5 cm) in
male plants
and 12.7-31.5 cm (av.
24.7 cm) in females [17-24
cm in Kitamura
(1949)].
The female pseudostem was significantiy longer than that of male.
foliation. This species usually has a single foliage leaf. During the two years
observation, however, we fbund one female plant
with two foliage leaves. It had
nine leaflets in the first lower foliage leaf and seven in the second upper in 1996.
Next year,
it changed its gender
to male but it had two foliage leaves again,
showing eight leaflets in the first lower fbliage leaf and six in the second upper
(voucher
specimen of T Kbbayashi 30Z50).
Petiole. The length of petiole
is
11.0-20.5
cm (av.
16.0
cm) in male plants
and 15.7-21.0 cm (av.
18.2
cm) in
female
[14-20
cm in
Kitamura
(1949)].
Leqflets. The number of leaflets was 5-7 (av.
6.4) in male plants
and 7-9
(av.
7.8)
in
females
[7-9
in
Kitamura
(1949)].
The number of leaflets
in
female
is
1.4 times more than that in male. The length of Ieaflets was 10.0-16.5 cm (av.
12.9 cm) in
male plants
and 28.2-31.7cm
(av.
30.0
cm) in females, and the width
of leaflets
was 2.1-3.7
cm (av.
2.8
cm) in
males and 7.6-8.2 cm (av.
7.9
cm) in
females. The length and the width of female leaflets was much longer and wider
than those in male. It has been known that this species often had variegated
leaflets. More than ninety percent
of plants
examined had the leaflets variegated
with white.
Peduncle. The length of peduncle
was 1 .0-4.9 cm (av.
2.5 cm) in male plants
[1-2
cm in Kitamura (1949)]
and 7.8-10.7 cm (av.
9.1 cm) in females.
Accompanying the
change of its
gender
from male to
female,
the
length of
peduncle
remarkably elongated.
Slpathe.
The length
of spathe blade
was 5.0-7.5
cm (av.
6.5
cm) and the
length of the
spathe tube was 4.2-5.5 cm (av.
4.7 cm) in male plants
[spathe
blade
7-8.5 cm, spathe tube 4-4.5 cm in Kitamura (1949)].
Measurements
of the
length
of spathe blade and the length
of the spathe tube fbr
female
plants
have not
been made yet.
The color of spathe blade was various such as semi-scarious
yellowish
green,
lightly
greenish
purple,
purple,
dark
purple
and blackish
purple.
.
Five scarious lines were distinct in the dark to blackish purple
spathe blade.
SPadix-appendage.
When the color of spathe blade was yellowish
green,
the
color of spadix-appendage was always green.
However, when the color of spathe
blade was purplish,
various color combinations of spadix-appendage were fbund,
such as the the blackish brown appendage with the blackish green
top, the green
appendage with the blackish green
top, and the lightly purple
appendage with the
blackish purple
top [purplish
in Kitamura (1949)].
Anthen The color of anther was various such as greenish
white, purple,
blackish green
and blackish purple.
However, it did not always correspond to the
color of spathe blade. They showed various color combinations such as yellowish
green
spathe with purplish
anther and dark purplish
spathe with yellowish
white
anther.
Distinction
between Arisaema seppikoense and A. cucullatum
Arisaema seppikoense has been regarded to be closely related to A.
cuc"llatum known from Nara and Mie Prefectures in several yegetative
The Japanese Society for Plant Systematics
NII-Electronic Library Service
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December 1999KOBAYASHI et al. : [[laxonomy ofArisaema sqppikoensis 223
TABLE 1. Diagnostic characters ofArisaema soppikoense andA. cucultalum
A. sempikoense A. cucuUatum
Chromosome number (2n)
Number of ovules per
ovary (average)
Length of pseudostem
(cm)
Number of foliage leaf
Length of petiole
(cm)
Numberofleaflet
Length of peduncle
(cm)
Shape of spathe blade
Colour of spathe blade
26
12,5
2-32
1-2
11-21
5-9
1-11
Long acuminate', not cucullate
Yellowish green-dark
purple-blackish
purple
28
8,9
13-30
1
15-20
7-13
1-7
Curvedcucullate
Yellowish green-dark
purple
characteristics such as the
number of fbliage
leaves, almost palmately
pedate
. Iamina, long petiolar
vagina, short peduncle
and middle leaflet usually shorter than
the nearest lateral
ones (Hotta,
1963).
They,
however, differ
in chromosome
number and the number of ovules per
ovary (Watanabe
et al., 1998)
as well as
several other characteristics. [[lable 1 shows the diagnostic characters of the two
species revised in this study. The length ofpseudostem in male ofA. sqppikoense
is occasionally less than 10 cm, whereas that ofA. cuc"llatum is always more than
10 cm. The number of foliage leaves of A. seppikoense is occasionally two,
however,
that
of A. cucullatum is always one. The number of leaflets in A.
seppikoense is usually less than seven (5-9)
but is usually more than ten (7-13)
in A. cucullatum. Arisaema seppikoense differs from A. cucullatum in the color of
spathe blade
and spathe appendage as well as the shape of spathe blade. Based on
these
observations, the two species are distinct
from one another and do not seem
to be closely related as suspected previously.'
References
Hotta, M, 1963. A new species ofArisaema,from Japan. Acta Phytotax. Geobot, 19:
158- 160.
Kitamura, S. 1949, Notes on Araceae of Japan. Acta Phytotax. Geobot, 14 : 5-8.
Watanabe,
K., Z Kobayashi and J.
Murata. 1998. Cytology and systematics in Japanese Arisaema
(Araceae).
J. Plant Res. 111: 509-521,
Appendix.
Herbarium specimens examined fbrAn'saema sqapikoense Kitam.
Hyogo
Pref.: Mt. Seppikosan, YUmesaki-cho, Shikama-gun (S.
Kitamurzx, s. n, May 22, 1949,
Kyo-Holotype, TNs-Isotype; types
designated by Ohashi and Murata in J, Fac, Sci. Univ. [lbkyo, Sect.
M, 12:
302 (1980),
S.
Iveatani
May 25,
1958
sHo), Yumesaki-cho. Shikama-gun (Z
Kbbayashi
30Z50" sHo), [[aka-gun (7J
Kbbayashi 28933, 30748; 30749 sHo), Asako-gun (Z
Kbbayashi 32931
sHo). *Specimen with two foliage leaves,
The Japanese Society for Plant Systematics
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The  
Japanese  Soolety  
for  
Plant  Systematlos
224 Acta Phytotax Geobot
Vol50
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Article
Full-text available
Chromosome numbers are determined from 37 populations attributed to 22 taxa of JapaneseArisaema. Of them, chromosome numbers ofA. limbatum var.conspicuum (2n=26),A. minus (2n=26),A. nambae (2n=28) andA. seppikoense (2n=26) are determined for the first time. New chromosome numbers, 2n=26, are reported forA. aequinoctiale, A. limbatum, A. stenophyllum, A. undulatifolium andA. yoshinagae. Three modes of basic chromosome numbers,x=14,x=13 andx=12, occur in JapaneseArisaema. Precise karyotypic comparisons of 20 taxa reveal that taxa withx=14 andx=13 share 26 major chromosome arms and have an obvious chromosomal relationship. One of two submeta-centric chromosomes inx=13 corresponds to two telo-centric chromosomes inx=14. InA. ternatipartitum with 2n=6x=72, ten out of 12 basic chromosomes are the most similar in size and arm ratio with larger ten chromosomes ofA. ringens among JapaneseArisaema examined. A basic chromosome number ofx=14 is the commonest in the genusArisaema and the remaining basic chromosome numbers,x=13 andx=12, seem to be derived through dysploidal reduction by translocating large segments of major arm of telo-centric chromosome onto other minor arm of telo-centric followed by loss of the remainings including a centromere, and by loss of two telo-centrics fromx=14, respectively. Some systematic problems of JapaneseArisaema are discussed based on new cytological data.Arisaema hatizyoense, A. minus andA. nambae are accepted as independent species.
Kyo-Holotype, TNs-Isotype; types designated by Ohashi and Murata in J
  • Hyogo Pref
Hyogo Pref.: Mt. Seppikosan, YUmesaki-cho, Shikama-gun (S. Kitamurzx, s. n, May 22, 1949, Kyo-Holotype, TNs-Isotype; types designated by Ohashi and Murata in J, Fac, Sci. Univ. [lbkyo, Sect.
Notes on Araceae of Japan
  • S Kitamura
Kitamura, S. 1949, Notes on Araceae of Japan. Acta Phytotax. Geobot, 14 : 5-8.
A new species ofArisaema,from Japan
  • M Hotta
Hotta, M, 1963. A new species ofArisaema,from Japan. Acta Phytotax. Geobot, 19: 158-160.