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Background: Stress is known to contribute to obesity and hypertension and both are considered to be primary risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Green coffee bean extract (GCBE) contains chlorogenic acid (CGA) which is attributed with several health benefits including anti-obesity and anti-hypertensive effects. Objectives: To investigate the short term effects of GCBE intake on blood pressure (BP), body mass index (BMI) and anthropometric parameters in healthy volunteers. Methodology: A single blinded cross-over placebo controlled study was performed on 16 healthy volunteers who consumed either GCBE or caffeine as placebo. The volunteers took the interventions for a week with a one-week washout period in between before switching intervention groups. Results: After administration of GCBE (equivalent to 500mg of CGA/day) for seven days, participant’s diastolic and systolic blood pressures were significantly reduced from 76.9± 9.1 at baseline to 72.6±5.9mmHg (p<0.001), and from 119.1±11.9 to 114.5±9.6 mmHg (p=0.001), respectively. Body mass index (BMI) and body weight were also significantly reduced following GCBE intake. NO significant changes in these parameters were observed after the placebo. Conclusion: This study showed that 500mg CGA/day can significantly reduce blood pressure (BP), BMI and weight of healthy individuals. © 2016 DAR Publishers/The University of Jordan. All Rights Reserved.
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Jordan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 9, No. 3, 2016
- 181 - © 2016 DAR Publishers/The Universit
y
of Jordan. All Ri
g
hts Reserved.
* Emad Al-Dujaili
Received on 24/4/2016 and Accepted for Publication on
11/8/2016
Effect of Green Coffee Bean Extract Consumption on
Blood Pressure and Anthropometric Measures in Healthy Volunteers:
A Pilot Crossover Placebo Controlled Study
Emad AS Al-Dujaili 1*, Maha N Abuhajleh2 and Walid Al-Turk 2
1 Professor of Clinical and Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Middle East University, Amman, Jordan.
2 Faculty of Pharmacy, Middle East University, Amman, Jordan.
ABSTRACT
Background: Stress is known to contribute to obesity and hypertension and both are considered to be primary risk
factors for cardiovascular disease. Green coffee bean extract (GCBE) contains chlorogenic acid (CGA) which is
attributed with several health benefits including anti-obesity and anti-hypertensive effects.
Objectives: To investigate the short term effects of GCBE intake on blood pressure (BP), body mass index (BMI) and
anthropometric parameters in healthy volunteers.
Methodology: A single blinded cross-over placebo controlled study was performed on 16 healthy volunteers who
consumed either GCBE or caffeine as placebo. The volunteers took the interventions for a week with a one-week wash-
out period in between before switching intervention groups.
Results: After administration of GCBE (equivalent to 500mg of CGA/day) for seven days, participant’s diastolic and
systolic blood pressures were significantly reduced from 76.9± 9.1 at baseline to 72.6±5.9mmHg (p<0.001), and from
119.1±11.9 to 114.5±9.6 mmHg (p=0.001), respectively. Body mass index (BMI) and body weight were also
significantly reduced following GCBE intake. NO significant changes in these parameters were observed after the
placebo.
Conclusion: This study showed that 500mg CGA/day can significantly reduce blood pressure (BP), BMI and weight
of healthy individuals.
Keywords: Green coffee bean extract, Chlorogenic acid, BP, BMI, Obesity.
1. INTRODUCTION
The prefrontal cortex regulates human behaviour,
cognition and emotion. Exposure to acute or chronic
stress has been shown to impair these through the
activation of calcium and potassium channels, weakening
synaptic input and reducing neuronal firing1. Many
people experience some level on a daily basis of acute or
chronic stress, and it can impact on their well-being,
sometimes through weight gain and/or hypertension.
Coffee is one of the most frequently consumed non-
alcoholic beverages and those wanting to adopt a
healthier lifestyle may choose better options such as
green tea or coffee. Green tea and green coffee bean
extract have been shown to have several beneficial effects
in reducing BP and body weight2-6 and there is also the
potential for green coffee to produce similar favourable
properties. The two commonly known types of coffee,
black and green coffee, differ in their roasting process;
green coffee beans are usually unroasted whilst black
coffee beans are roasted, and the latter results in a
Effect of Green Coffee Bean… Emad AS Al-Dujaili
- 182 -
decrease in their antioxidant and chlorogenic acid (CGA,
a polyphenol found in coffee and other botanicals)
levels7-8. Several fruits and vegetables rich in polyphenols
have been reported to reduce blood pressure and possess
many health benefits 9-12.
Green coffee bean extract (GCBE) contains CGA
which has anti-obesity, anti-hypertensive properties and
may also reduce glucocorticoids and vascular stiffness7-9.
Moreover, CGA is the main ingredient in green coffee
and GCBE which produces the desired effects. Other
beneficial effects of CGA include possible neuro-
protective properties such as in the prevention of
Alzheimer’s disease although there is limited evidence to
support this and further research is needed for this end 13-
16. Hypertension is a primary risk factor for coronary
heart disease and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the
risks of these diseases can be reduced with simple
lifestyle modifications such as a change in diet, an
exercise regime or through drug therapies17.
Alternatively, GCBE offers a natural diet based approach
for reducing BP rather than the use of a drug based
approach and may be considered to be more desirable.
Suzuki et al. (2002)17 first reported the antihypertensive
properties of GCBE on spontaneously hypertensive rats
that were given either single or long-term doses of
GCBE. A single dose of GCBE (180, 360 and 720mg/kg)
significantly decreased BP compared with the placebo,
and there was a statistically significant decrease in BP
that followed a dose dependant effect between each of the
doses compared to the control. The effects of CGA
observed in rats were later confirmed by Kozuma et al.
(2005)18 in humans with mild hypertension. They used
117 healthy volunteers who were given either a placebo
or GCBE (46, 93 or 185mg/day) for 28 days. Intake of
GCBE significantly decreased volunteer’s BP (p<0.05
with 93mg and p<0.01 with 185mg) compared to the
placebo group. Usually, high BP is associated with
reduced arterial compliance but CGA may reduce
both14,15. Few studies choose to use a high dose of CGA
which is an important area that should be considered.
The link between weight reduction and CGA has been
well documented and the mechanism for the weight loss
effects attributed to CGA19. It has been shown to reduce
and slow glucose absorption by inhibiting the action of
glucose transporters in the small intestine which will lead
to an improvement in glucose control and weight loss 20-
21. There is no definitive conclusion as to how CGA
reduces weight, but evidence exists to suggest that it
plays a role in weight reduction. It is likely that CGA
reduces weight by a number of mechanisms: Cho et al.
(2010)22 showed that CGA reduced activity of fatty acid
synthase (FAS), HMG-CoA reductase, ACAT and
increased fatty acid β-oxidation. They looked at mice on
a normal diet, a high fat diet or a diet containing 0.02g/kg
CGA over an eight week period. Those on the CGA diet
showed lower amounts of each of the components that are
used in fat production (FAS, HMG-CoA reductase and
ACAT) and also had an increased rate of fatty acid β-
oxidation compared with mice on the normal or high fat
diet. The aims of this study were to assess whether heart
rate, systolic and diastolic BP, and anthropometric
measurements including weight and BMI are affected by
GCBE short term use.
Materials and Method
Study Design
This was a single-blind, cross-over, placebo-
controlled small trial. All measurements were taken in
triplicate to improve reliability and the mean was
calculated. Volunteers were asked to follow their usual
diet and physical activity habits. Questionnaires and 2-
day diet diaries, for one weekday and one weekend day,
were done at baseline and after taking the GCBE, to
determine volunteer’s physical activity levels, salt and
caloric intake. An increase or decrease of salt or calories
may account for a change in weight, BP and
anthropometric measures. Questionnaires were used to
determine eligibility of the volunteers (see Table 1). An
ethical approval was granted by Edinburgh University
ethics committee, Edinburgh, UK and subjects were
largely students and staff members. Measurements of
heart rate, BP, height and weight were taken at baseline
and again on days 7 and 21 to detect if the placebo
Jordan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 9, No. 3, 2016
- 183 -
(containing caffeine) or GCBE had caused any effects.
There was a 7-day wash-out period, between days 8-14,
to avoid a carry-over effect and to make sure that only
either the caffeine or the GCBE was having an effect 23.
On day 14, the groups switched the intervention protocol
they were taking to the other arm of the study. The same
equipment was used each time to avoid inaccuracies.
Figure 1 shows the outline of the cross-over study design.
Table 1. Health status Questionnaire used to determine eligibility of the volunteers
Name:_____________________ Surname:___________________
Gender:  Male  Female Age (year):_____________________
Weight (kg) = _______________ Height (metre) = ______________________
Could you please answer the following questions? (Tick as appropriate)
1. Have you ever had or do you currently have any of the following conditions?
Diabetes
Liver problems
Digestive/gastrointestinal diseases
Kidney disease
 Stroke or heart problems
2. Do you have high blood pressure/hypertension?  Yes  No
3. Do you smoke?  Yes  No
If yes, could you specify how many cigarettes per day?
4. Do you take any vitamin, mineral or oil supplements?  Yes  No
If yes, could you specify type of supplement and amount taken?
5. Do you take any cholesterol-lowering drugs or blood pressure lowering drugs?
 Yes  No
6. Are you currently taken contraceptive medication?  Yes  No
7. Do you exercise regularly?  Yes  No
If yes, what exercise do you do and how often?
8. Do you drink coffee?  Yes  No
If yes, how often do you drink it?
 Never or 1-3 times a week
1-2 cups a day
 2-4 cups a day
 > than 4 cups a day
9. Do you drink alcohol?  Yes  No
If yes, how much and how often?
Study Population
A total of 16 healthy volunteers (7 males, 9 females)
were recruited and were placed into two groups. This
number of was chosen because of the Ethics committee
requirements for pilot studies. The number was thought
to be sufficient for a pilot study. Volunteers were given
randomly a participant number and those who had an
even number were allocated to begin the GCBE first,
whilst those who had an odd number began the placebo
first. Volunteers signed a consent form after reading an
information sheet about the study. Those who were
caffeine sensitive and had a history of cardiovascular
disease, kidney disease, diabetes or were smokers and
pregnant females were excluded from the study. Also,
Effect of Green Coffee Bean… Emad AS Al-Dujaili
- 184 -
only those who had a BMI of 18-35 kg/m2 were included
in the study and were asked to reduce caffeine containing
drinks such as coffee, tea and fizzy drinks during the
study, but none of these contain CGA. All data collected
was stored electronically with a password and kept
anonymous.
Figure 1: Shows the outline of the cross-over study design
Baseline Measurements
Volunteers had their baseline measurements taken for
BP (3 readings of systolic and diastolic BP were taken
each time) using an A&D digital sphygmomanometer
This is a very reliable device and applied by thousands of
studies with errors of <0.1% mmHg), as well as height
(m) using a Seca height measure and weight (kg) using a
Salter weight measurement scale. The digital assessment
of BP is regarded a very reliable and have been used by
most research studies. BMI was then calculated as
weight/(height)2. Volunteers were asked to remove their
shoes and jackets for measurements. All measurements
were taken on day 0, day 7 and day 21 to determine if the
placebo or GCBE intake had caused any effect.
Green Coffee Bean Extract Intake
Volunteers were asked to take two 500mg GCBE
(Nature’s way premium extract, Nature Best, Tunbridge
Baseline measurements taken
Group 1 (8 volunteers)
begin placebo for 7 days
and measurements
taken
Group 2 (8 volunteers)
begin GCBE for 7 days
and measurements
taken
7 day wash-out
p
eriod
Day 0
Day 1-7
Day 8-14
Group 1 (8
volunteers) begin
GCBE and
measurements taken
Group 2 (8 volunteers)
begin placebo and
measurements taken
Day 14-21
16 healthy volunteers
Jordan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 9, No. 3, 2016
- 185 -
Wells, England) tablets per day, each containing 250mg
of CGA and 12.5 mg of caffeine (total caffeine per
day=25mg); one in the morning and one in the evening.
The dose of 500mg of CGA was chosen because it was
found to reduce BP and weight in previous other
studies19.
Placebo Intake
When taking the placebo, volunteers were asked to
take half a 50mg tablet of caffeine (Bayer pro-plus) per
day. This was very closely matched the amount of
caffeine in the 2 GCBE tablets taken during the
intervention (25mg). As caffeine can cause weight loss,
so the amount of caffeine in both the placebo and GCBE
tablet should be similar as much as possible. Volunteers
were further asked to take both interventions at the same
time of the day.
Statistical Analysis
Variables were tested for normality on SPSS (version
21.0.0.2). All data were parametric and a student’s two-
tail paired t-test was done in SPSS between volunteers
measurements at baseline and both the GCBE and
placebo. The test was done for weight, BMI, systolic and
diastolic BP. Descriptive statistics were done in Excel
2010. Diet diaries were analysed using Windiet (2005)
and a paired t-test was also calculated for mean caloric
and sodium intake between baseline and whilst taking the
GCBE. All the data were presented as mean±SD. Any p
value 0.05 was considered to be significant.
Results and Discussion
Volunteer’s Characteristics
All healthy volunteers (7 males and 9 females), aged
between 19 and 32 year with a mean±SD of 24.6±3.3year
were recruited and all completed the study. All were
recruited for the study with exclusion criteria given above
(Study population). No adverse effects to either the
caffeine or GCBE were reported. Mean baseline, post
caffeine and post GCBE values are shown in Table 1. The
main limitations of this study: the small sample size and
thus the results may not reflect the true population and
compliance was checked only verbally and there was no
true way to know if the volunteers have taken all the
tablets they were supposed to. A seven day period was
allocated for each intervention with a week wash-out
period in between. It would have been more desirable to
use a longer intervention period and a longer wash-out
period 24.
Table 2. Characteristics of volunteers at baseline, after placebo and after GCBE intake
Parameter Mean value
(± SD) at baseline Mean value
(± SD) after Placebo Mean value (± SD)
after GCBE
Age (Years) 24.6 ± 3.3
Weight (kg) 72.16 ± 16.53 72.1 ± 16.45 71.64 ± 16.35***
BMI (kg/m2) 24.41 ± 4.38 24.33 ± 4.39 24.09 ± 4.26*
SBP (mmHg) 119.1 ± 11.9 118.3 ± 10.5 114.5 ± 9.6**
DBP (mmHg) 76.9 ± 9.1 76.5 ± 8.4 72.6 ± 5.9***
Heart rate (BPM) 80.5 ±13.4 79.5 ± 9.2 79.4± 9.4
Energy intake (kcal/day) 1355±429 1367±532 1386±745
Sodium intake (g/day) 2.12±1.2 2.14±0.95 2.08±0.7
Basal versus GCBE (two-tail paired t-tests): *: p=0.025, **: p=0.001, ***: p<0.001. Placebo versus GCBE: For the
difference in weight: p=0.005; for DPB: p=0.002 and for SBP: p=0.05. Basal versus placebo p values were all not
significant (range from p=0.112 to p=0.578).
Effect of Green Coffee Bean… Emad AS Al-Dujaili
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Anthropometrical Measurements
At baseline, the participants mean weight and BMI
were respectively 72.16±16.53 kg and 24.41±4.38 kg/m2.
Mean weight and BMI decreased to 71.64±16.35 kg
(p<0.001) and 24.09±4.26 (p=0.025) respectively after
taking the GCBE. A very slight mean decrease was
observed for weight and BMI following the caffeine
placebo but were not significant; p =0.373 for weight and
p=0.095 for BMI. Our findings were similar to other
studies. In a six month randomized placebo controlled
trial, Boozer et al. (2002)25 showed that GCBE intake had
significantly reduced body weight after taking an herbal
ephedra and caffeine/day (n=167, P<0.001). Our study
used more females than males and consequently the
menstrual cycle may impact on weight changes. Other
studies have included a greater percentage of males to
obtain a more accurate representation of the effects of
CGA on weight loss 26.
GCBE have the potential to reduce weight which
could benefit health. One mechanism stands out more in
the literature for the effect of CGA plus caffeine on body
weight was that due to the increase in resting energy
expenditure and thermogenesis 21,23, 25. Most authors
agree that CGA in GCBE slows absorption of glucose in
the small intestine. If glucose absorption is reduced, the
glucose blood level will be reduced improving glucose
control and reducing weight. Interestingly, Gavrieli et al
(2013)27 have reported that a moderate coffee intake can
effectively reduce energy intake in the following meal
and during the whole day.
Effect of GCBE on Physiological Markers
Supplementing volunteers with GCBE had
significantly reduced mean DBP. It decreased from
baseline of 76.9± 9.1 to post GCBE of 72.6±5.9mmHg
(p<0.001), and also SBP significantly decreased from a
mean of 119.1±11.9 at baseline to 114.5±9.6 mmHg after
taking GCBE (p=0.001). See Table 2 and figure 2. No
significant decrease or changes were found in other
physiological markers after the intake of GCBE (heart
rate, energy intake or sodium intake). There were no
significant differences between any baseline
measurements and post placebo (caffeine) values (p
values were all not significant and ranged from p=0.112
to p=0.578). The antihypertensive effects of GCBE seen
in this study were similar to those found by Yamaguchi et
al. (2008)28. In their randomized, double-blind study, they
showed that BP significantly decreased after 4 weeks of
CGA intake in 203 volunteers (p<0.001). The present
study has substantiated the work of Yamaguchi and
collegues (2008)28, showing that GCBE, a natural
nutraceutical reduces both systolic and diastolic BP. In
addition, Mubarak et al. (2012)29 has also concluded that
GCBE reduced BP. However, Ochiai et al. (2004)30 have
reported inconsistent results as far as the antihypertensive
actions of GCBE. After a four month study they found no
significant differences in the BP when volunteers took
140mg/day CGA. The drawback of their study was the
small sample group (n=10), that might have produced a
statistical error. Doses of 0.25%, 0.5% and 1% of CGA in
the diet, were used for the long-term intervention and
there was a statistically significant decrease in BP
between each of the doses compared to the control diet,
p<0.01 for 0.25% and p<0.001 for doses of 0.5% and 1%.
Therefore, CGA may play some role in down-regulating
FAS, HMG-CoA reductase and ACAT whilst up-
regulating fatty acid β-oxidation on short term basis and
could be on long term use17.
Hypertension can cause several serious consequences;
kidney disease, diabetes, stroke, heart disease and many
others. Each 2 mmHg rise in systolic BP corresponds to a
7% increased risk of mortality from heart disease and a
10% increased risk of stroke31. Taking GCBE has been
shown to reduce BP and possibly its associated risks. It is
recommended that more extensive human trials on the
benefits of GCBE for hypertensive people should be
conducted. Consumption of Green Coffee and GCBE rich
in CGA has been reported to reduce BP and BMI by
Influencing 11β-HSD1 Enzyme Activity through the
reduction of the stress hormone level, cortisol 7, 32.
However, some studies have shown that increased intake
of coffee and caffeine increased blood pressure within the
healthy physiological levels, in a gender specific manner
33-35. Other researchers found no significant effects of
Jordan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 9, No. 3, 2016
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coffee consumption on BP36-37.
The volunteers diet diaries showed that there was no
significant difference in the salt intake of participants
between baseline and whilst taking the GCBE. Any
significant reduction in salt intake may have accounted
for a reduction in BP and thus the reduction in the
volunteers BP was most likely a consequence of the
GCBE intake. Throughout the day BP will vary,
however, participants were unable to have their
measurements taken at the same time of the day due to
inconvenience. Therefore, circadian changes in BP may
mean the results might be questionable, and to improve
the study, the volunteers BP should be taken at the same
time of day or a 24 hour BP monitor could be employed.
Figure 2: A graph shows the mean systolic BPand diastolic BP at baseline and
after taking the placebo or GCBE. Both systolic and diastolic BP were significantly
reduced following GCBE intake (p=0.001: compared to basal values)
Physical Activity and Diet
Diet diaries were used to determine if average
baseline sodium and caloric intake was significantly
different from the average values whilst taking the
GCBE. A physical activity questionnaire was used to
determine if there was a change in physical activity at
baseline and whilst taking the GCBE. Analysis of diet
diaries showed that there was no significant difference in
the sodium and caloric intake between baseline and
GCBE values. There was also no significant difference in
physical activity between baseline and whilst taking the
GCBE. It follows that the decrease in weight was not due
to a change in diet or physical activity but due to the
intake of GCBE rich in CGA. Questionnaires and diet
diaries were used to determine volunteer’s physical
activity levels and caloric intake, and this technique is
considered to be the norm in such studies. No significant
changes in these measures were found between baseline
and post GCBE, therefore the decrease in body weight
may be attributed to the GCBE intake.
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
Systolic
BP
Diastolic
BP
Systolic
BP
Diastolic
BP
Systolic
BP
Diastolic
BP
Bloodpressure(mean±sdmmHg)
Effect of Green Coffee Bean… Emad AS Al-Dujaili
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Conclusions and Future Research
This study has shown that for normotensive
individuals, short term dietary supplementation with
GCBE can significantly decrease systolic and diastolic
BP. Also a mean decrease was observed for body weight
and BMI. Only a seven day intervention was used and a
more significant change may have arisen if the study
duration was extended over a longer period. Further
research using a larger sample size and longer
intervention period, for GCBE intake is warranted to
clarify the effects in overweight and obese subjects, and
whether salivary stress hormones will be reduced during
GCBE intake. We also suggest that future studies should
look at the effects of GCBE intake in mildly hypertensive
and hypertensive patients. Future trials should also use a
longer study than the one adopted in the present study. In
addition, it may be beneficial to carry out research on
those who have a BMI of >30kg/m2 as a possible weight
loss method, as most studies tend to use patients who
have normal BMI.
Acknowledgements
We would like to thank all the participants who took
part in this study. This study was funded by the
Undergraduate University fund.
Abbreviations:
ACAT= Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase
Body mass index =BMI
Blood pressure = BP
BPM = beats per minute
Cardiovascular disease = CVD
Chlorogenic acid = CGA
Diastolic blood pressure = DBP
FAS= Fatty acid synthase
Green coffee bean extract = GCBE
HMG- CoA reductase= Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase
Nitric oxide = NO
Systolic blood pressure = SBP
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Jordan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 9, No. 3, 2016
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ءﺎﺣﺻﻷا نﻳﻋوطﺗﻣﻠﻟ مﺳﺟﻟا تﺎﺳﺎﻳﻗو مدﻟا طﻐﺿ ﻰﻠﻋ رﺿﺧﻷا نﺑﻟا بو صﻠﺧﺗﺳﻣ رﻳﺛﺄﺗ
ﻠﻳﺟدﻟا دﺎﻣﻋ
1
،روﻧ ﺎﻬﻣ نﻳدﻟاﺟﺣ وﺑأ ،ﺔﻠ رﺗﻟا دﻳﻟوك
2
1،2
،ﺔﻟدﻳﺻﻟا ﺔﻳﻠﻛ ﻣﺍﺟ ﺔﻌاﺷﻟرق ﻷاو،ط ﺍﻣﻋن ،ارند.
صـﺧﻠﻣ
ﺔﻳﻔﻠﺧ ﺔﺳاردﻟا: قﻠﻘﻟا مﻫﺎﺳﻳدﺎﻬﺟﻹاو ﺔﻳﻟﺎﻣﺗﺣا ةدﺎﻳز ﻲﻓﺔﺑﺎﺻﻹا و مدﻟا طﻐﺿ عﺎﻔﺗراو ﺔطرﻔﻣﻟا ﺔﻧﻣﺳﻟﺎﺑ ﻝﻣﺎﻋ ﺎﻣﻫﻼﻛ رﺑﺗﻌﻳ
نﻳﻳارﺷﻟاو بﻠﻘﻟا ضارﻣﻷ ﻲﺳﺎﺳﻷا ةروط ا . رﺿﺧﻷا نﺑﻟا بو صﻠﺧﺗﺳﻣ يو ﺗ ﺣ ثﻳﺣ)GCBE ( ضﻣﺣ ﻰﻠﻋ
كﻧﻳﺟوروﻠﻛﻟا)CGA (ﻝﺛﻣ ةدﻳدﻋ ﺔﻳﺣﺻ دﺋاوﻓ ﻊﻣ طﺑﺗرﻳ يذﻟا مدﻟا طﻐﺿ ضﻔﺧو ﺔﻧﻣﺳﻟا ﺔﺣﻓﺎﻛﻣ.
فادﻫﻷا:
ﺔﺳارد ﻰﻟإ ثﺣﺑﻟا فدﻬﻳرﻳﺛﺄﺗ نﺑﻟا بوﺑ ﻝوﺎﻧﺗﻟ ىدﻣﻟا رﻳﺻﻘﻟارﺿﺧﻷا مدﻟا طﻐﺿ عﺎﻔﺗرا ﻰﻠﻋ)BP( ﺔﻠﺗﻛ رﺷؤﻣ ،
مﺳﺟﻟاBMI)(ءﺎﺣﺻﻷا نﻳﻋوطﺗﻣﻠﻟ مﺳﺟﻟا تﺎﺳﺎﻳﻗو ،.
ثﺣﺑﻟا ﺔﻳﺟﻬﻧﻣ: نﻳذﻟا ءﺎﺣﺻﻷا نﻣ ﺎﻋوطﺗﻣ رﺷﻋ ﺔﺗﺳ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻘﺑطﻣ ﺔﻳﻔﺧﻣ ﺔﺳارد ﻝﻣﻋ نﺑﻟا صﻠﺧﺗﺳﻣ او ﻟ و ﺎ ﻧ ﺗرﺿﺧﻷا وأ
نﻳﻳﻓﺎﻛﻟا بوﺑ ﺔﻧرﺎﻘﻣﻠﻟ . عو ﺑ ﺳ أ ةدﻣﻟ تﺎﻧﻳﻌﻟا ذﺧا نﻋ فﻗوﺗ ﻊﻣ عوﺑﺳأ ةدﻣﻟ تﺎﻧﻳﻌﻟا نﻳﻋوطﺗﻣﻟا ءﺎطﻋإ مﺗwash-out) ( مﺛ
نﻳﺑ ثﺣﺑﻟا تﺎﻧﻳﻋ ﻝدﺎﺑﺗ ٲ نﻳﻋوطﺗﻣﻟ.
ﺞﺋﺎﺗﻧﻟا: ﻰﻠﻋ يو ﺗ ﺣ ﺗ ﻲﺗﻟا نﺑﻟا صﻠﺧﺗﺳﻣ نﻣ تﺎﻧﻳﻌﻟا ذﺧا دﻌﺑ500 كﻧﻳﺟوروﻠﻛﻟا ضﻣﺣ نﻣ مﻐﻠﻣ)CGA ( ،مﺎﻳأ ﺔﻌﺑﺳ ةدﻣﻟ
نﻣ نﻳﻛرﺎﺷﻣﻠﻟ ﻲﺿﺎﺑﻘﻧﻻاو ﻲطﺎﺳﺑﻧﻻا مدﻟا طﻐﺿ ضﺎﻔﺧﻧا ظﺣوﻟ76.9
±9.1 ﻰﻟإ سﺎﺳﻷا ﻲﻓ72.6 ± 5.9 ﻲﻘﺑﺋز رﻳﺗﻳﻣﻳﻠﻠﻣ
)0.001(P< نﻣو ،119±11.9 ﻰﻟإ114±9.6 ﻲﻘﺑﺋز رﻳﺗﻳﻣﻳﻠﻠﻣ)0.001(P< ﻲﻟاوﺗﻟا ﻰﻠﻋ . مﺳﺟﻟا ﺔﻠﺗﻛ رﺷؤﻣBMI) ( نزوو
نﺑﻟا بوﺑﺣ صﻠﺧﺗﺳﻣ ذﺧأ دﻌﺑ ظو ﻝﻛﺷﺑ او ﺿ ﻔ ﺧ ﻧ ا مﺳﺟﻟا . دﻌﺑ تﺎﺳﺎﻳﻘﻟا ﻩذﻫ ﻲﻓ ﺔﺳوﻣﻠﻣ تارﻳﻐﺗ يأ ظﺣﻠﻳ مﻟ ثﻳﺣو
طﻘﻓ نﻳﻳﻓﺎﻛﻟا تﺎﻧﻳﻋ ءﺎطﻋإ.
جﺎﺗﻧﺗﺳﻻا: نا ﺔﺳرادﻟا ﻩذﻫ تر ﻬ ظ أ ﻝو500 كﻧﻳﺟوروﻠﻛﻟا ضﻣﺣ نﻣ مﻐﻠﻣ)CGA (ﻘﻳ ﺎﻳﻣوﻳ ﻝﻠ ﻰﻟإ عﺎﻔرا نﻣ ظو دﺣ
ءﺎﺣﺻﻷا نﻳﻋوطﺗﻣﻠﻟ مﺳﺟﻟا نزوو ،مﺳﺟﻟا ﺔﻠﺗﻛ رﺷؤﻣ ،مدﻟا طﻐﺿ.
تﺎﻣﻠﻛﻟا ﺔﻟادﻟا :ﺔﻧادﺑﻟا ،ءﺎﺣﺻﻷا نﻳﻋوطﺗﻣﻠﻟ مﺳﺟﻟا تﺎﺳﺎﻳﻗ ،مﺳﺟﻟا ﺔﻠﺗﻛ رﺷؤﻣ ،رﺿﺧﻷا نﺑﻟا بوﺑ.
____________________________________________
ثﺣﺑﻟا مﻼﺗﺳا ﺦﻳرﺎﺗ 24/4/2016 ﻪﻟوﺑﻗ ﺦﻳرﺎﺗو رﺷﻧﻠﻟ11/8/2016.
... A total of 4750 studies were identified through PubMed (n = 606) and Scopus ® (n = 4144). Table 1 shows the procedure of the selection of 19 RCTs (14 articles) published between 2015 and 2020 [20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33]. The number of participants in each trial (sample size, n) ranged from 10 to 142, with a total study population of 821. ...
... Records excluded on the basis of title or abstract (n = 1111) Table 1 shows the procedure of the selection of 19 RCTs (14 articles) published between 2015 and 2020 [20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33]. The number of participants in each trial (sample size, n) ranged from 10 to 142, with a total study population of 821. ...
... CGA: chlorogenic acid, CI: confidence interval, GCE: green coffee extract, HCCGA: high CGA content, MCCGA: medium CGA content, SBP: systolic blood pressure. The values ± 0.2, ± 0.5 and ± 0.8 represent small, medium, and large effect sizes [22][23][24][25][26][27]30,31,33]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Coffee is rich in phenolic acids, such as caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid (CGA). Polyphenol-rich diets were shown to reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome (MeTS). Background and Objectives: This systematic review and meta-analysis discusses the effects of coffee consumption and its dose-response on MeTS parameters. Materials and Methods: PubMed and Scopus® were searched for relevant articles published between 2015 and 2020. This review focused on randomised controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effect of coffee consumption on anthropometric measurements, glycaemic indices, lipid profiles, and blood pressure. Data from relevant studies were extracted and analysed using random, fixed, or pooled effects models with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Green coffee extract (GCE) supplementation (180 to 376 mg) was found to reduce waist circumference (weighted mean difference (WMD) = −0.39; 95% CI: −0.68, −0.10), triglyceride levels (WMD = −0.27; 95% CI: −0.43, −0.10), high−density lipoprotein−cholesterol levels (WMD = 0.62; 95% CI: 0.34, 0.90), systolic blood pressure (WMD = −0.44; 95% CI: −0.57, −0.32), and diastolic blood pressure (WMD = −0.83; 95% CI: −1.40, −0.26). Decaffeinated coffee (510.6 mg) reduced fasting blood glucose levels (WMD = −0.81; 95% CI: −1.65, 0.03). The meta-analysis showed that the intake of GCE containing 180 to 376 mg of CGA (administered in a capsule) and liquid decaffeinated coffee containing 510.6 mg of CGA improved the MeTS outcomes in study participants. Conclusions: The findings of the review suggested that the effect of coffee on MeTS parameters varies depending on the types and doses of coffee administered. A more detailed RCT on specific coffee doses (with adjustment for energy and polyphenol intake) and physical activity is needed to further confirm the observed outcomes.
... A subset of 14 articles was included in the meta-analysis. Table 1 shows the procedure of the selection of 19 RCTs (14 articles) published between 2015 and 2020 [13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26]. The number of participants in each trial (sample size, n) ranged from 10 to 142, with a total study population of 821. ...
... CGA: chlorogenic acid, CI: confidence interval, GCE: green coffee extract, HCCGA: high CGA content, MCCGA: medium CGA content, SBP: systolic blood pressure. The values ± 0.2, ± 0.5, and ± 0.8 represent small, medium, and large effect sizes [15][16][17][18][19][20]23,24,26]. The values ± 0.2, ± 0.5, and ± 0.8 represent small, medium, and large effect sizes [15,[17][18][19][20]23,24,26]. ...
... The values ± 0.2, ± 0.5, and ± 0.8 represent small, medium, and large effect sizes [15][16][17][18][19][20]23,24,26]. The values ± 0.2, ± 0.5, and ± 0.8 represent small, medium, and large effect sizes [15,[17][18][19][20]23,24,26]. ...
Preprint
Coffee is rich in phenolic acids, such as caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid (CGA). Polyphenol-rich diets have been shown to reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome (MeTS). Background and Objectives: This systematic review and meta-analysis discusses the effects of coffee consumption and its dose-response on MeTS parameters. Materials and Methods: PubMed and Scopus® were searched for relevant articles published between 2015 and 2020. This review focused on randomised controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effect of coffee consumption on anthropometric measurements, glycaemic indices, lipid profiles, and blood pressure. Data from relevant studies were extracted and analysed using random, fixed, or pooled effects models with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Green coffee extract (GCE) supplementation (180 to 376 mg) was found to reduce waist circumference (weighted mean difference (WMD) = -0.39; 95% CI: -0.68, -0.10), triglyceride levels (WMD = -0.27; 95% CI: -0.43, -0.10), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels (WMD = 0.62; 95% CI: 0.34, 0.90), systolic blood pressure (WMD = -0.44; 95% CI: -0.57, -0.32), and diastolic blood pressure (WMD = -0.83; 95% CI: -1.40, -0.26). Decaffeinated coffee (510.6 mg) reduced the fasting blood glucose levels (WMD = -0.81; 95% CI: -1.65, 0.03). The meta-analysis showed that the intake of GCE containing 180 to 376 mg of CGA (administered in a capsule) and liquid decaffeinated coffee containing 510.6 mg of CGA improved the MeTS outcomes in study participants. Conclusions: The findings of the review suggested that the effect of coffee on MeTS parameters varies depending on the types and doses of coffee administered. A more detailed RCT on specific coffee doses (with adjustment for energy and polyphenol intake) and physical activity is needed to further confirm the observed outcomes.
... However, findings from the previous clinical trials regarding the effect of green coffee extract (GCE) intake on obesity measures are conflicting. [20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34] For example, two studies indicated a reducing effect of GCE supplementation on body weight, 22,27 while others did not find any significant effect. 21,26 Although a recent meta-analysis, conducted by Gorji et al., summarized available data on the effects of GCE supplementation on obesity, 35 the accuracy of its findings was uncertain due to several methodological limitations. ...
... [20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34] For example, two studies indicated a reducing effect of GCE supplementation on body weight, 22,27 while others did not find any significant effect. 21,26 Although a recent meta-analysis, conducted by Gorji et al., summarized available data on the effects of GCE supplementation on obesity, 35 the accuracy of its findings was uncertain due to several methodological limitations. For instance, investigators in that meta-analysis included a clinical trial in which a potentially active comparator such as coffee was administered for the control group rather than a placebo supplement. ...
... Trials were published between 2005 and 2019. Six studies were conducted in Iran, 20,23,27,28,30,33 2 trials in Japan, 24,31 2 trials in Spain, 25,29 2 studies in Korea, 26,34 and other studies were performed in France, 22 Jordan, 21 and Mexico. 32 Four studies were conducted on female subjects, 20,23,26,34 2 studies were performed on male subjects, 24,28 and other studies included both male and female participants. ...
Article
Background and aim Two meta-analyses summarized data on the effects of green coffee extract (GCE) supplementation on anthropometric measures. However, the accuracy of those meta-analyses is uncertain due to several methodological limitations. Therefore, we aimed to conduct a comprehensive systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis to summarize all available evidence on the effects of GCE supplementation on anthropometric measures by considering the main limitations in the previous meta-analyses. Methods We searched available online databases for relevant publications up to January 2020, using relevant keywords. All randomized clinical trials (RCTs) investigating the effects of GCE supplementation, compared with a control group, on anthropometric measures [including body weight, body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)] were included. Results After identifying 1871 studies from our initial search, 15 RCTs with a total sample size of 897 participants were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. We found a significant reducing effect of GCE supplementation on body weight (weighted mean difference (WMD): -1.23, 95% CI: -1.64, -0.82 kg,P < 0.001), BMI (WMD: -0.48, 95% CI: -0.78, -0.18 kg/m², P = 0.001), and WC (WMD: -1.00, 95% CI: -1.70, -0.29 cm, P = 0.006). No significant effect of GCE supplementation on body fat percentage and WHR was seen. In the dose-response analyses, there was no significant association between chlorogenic acid (CGA) dosage, as the main polyphenol in green coffee, and changes in anthropometric measures. Conclusion We found that GCE supplementation had a beneficial effect on body weight, BMI and WC. It provides a cost-effective and safe alternative for the treatment of obesity. Additional well-designed studies are required to further confirm our findings.
... The authors included both parallel studies and crossover studies in the meta-analyses without using appropriate methods for crossover studies. For the three crossover studies [2][3][4] , the correlation within participant should be considered when calculating the standard deviation and standard error of the difference between conditions. The standard deviation of the mean differences should be calculated using the standard deviation of each treatment and an estimated correlation coefficient (r) as follows: 5 ...
... Meta-analyses of GCE supplementation vs. Control was used for between conditions of the cross-over studies.[2][3][4] ...
... Finally, 13 articles were included in this meta-analysis (SupplementalFigure 1). Of 13 included papers, 12 articles with 15 studies reported the effect of GCE on BW (Al-Dujaili et al., 2016;Dellalibera et al., 2006;Haidari et al., 2017;Kim et al., 2012;Kozuma et al., 2005;Martínez-López et al., 2019;Park et al., 2010; Roshan et al., 2018; Salamat et al., 2019;Shahmohammadi et al., 2017; Soga et al., 2013;Thom, 2007),11 articles with 13 trails on BMI (Al-Dujaili et al., 2016;Dellalibera et al., 2006;Haidari et al., 2017;Kim et al., 2012;Kozuma et al., 2005;Park et al., 2010; Roshan et al., 2018; Salamat et al., 2019;Shahmohammadi et al., 2017; Soga et al., 2013;Watanabe et al., 2006) , and 3 articles on WC (Park et al., 2010; Roshan et al., 2018;Shahmohammadi et al., 2017). ...
... Finally, 13 articles were included in this meta-analysis (SupplementalFigure 1). Of 13 included papers, 12 articles with 15 studies reported the effect of GCE on BW (Al-Dujaili et al., 2016;Dellalibera et al., 2006;Haidari et al., 2017;Kim et al., 2012;Kozuma et al., 2005;Martínez-López et al., 2019;Park et al., 2010; Roshan et al., 2018; Salamat et al., 2019;Shahmohammadi et al., 2017; Soga et al., 2013;Thom, 2007),11 articles with 13 trails on BMI (Al-Dujaili et al., 2016;Dellalibera et al., 2006;Haidari et al., 2017;Kim et al., 2012;Kozuma et al., 2005;Park et al., 2010; Roshan et al., 2018; Salamat et al., 2019;Shahmohammadi et al., 2017; Soga et al., 2013;Watanabe et al., 2006) , and 3 articles on WC (Park et al., 2010; Roshan et al., 2018;Shahmohammadi et al., 2017). ...
Article
Abstract Background: Given that the most recent systematic review investigating Green-Coffee Extract (GCE) as a weight loss facilitator was nearly a decade ago and that the authors reported there no consensus on the effect of GCE/CGA (Chlorogenic acids) on body composition indices, a comprehensive systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of all available randomized controlled trial (RCTs) was undertaken to examine the effect of GCE and CGA intervention on body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in adults. Methods: We conducted a systematic search of all available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) performed up to June 2019 in the following electronic databases: PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar. RCTs that investigated the effect GCE/CGA Supplementation on BW, BMI and WC in adults were included for final analysis. The pooled weight mean difference (WMD) of included studies was estimated using a random-effects model. Results: A total of 13 articles with 16 RCTs were included in the meta-analysis. Results revealed significant reduction in BMI (WMD: -0.403 kg/m2, 95% CI: -0.800, -0.005, p = 0.047) and no significant change in BW (WMD: -0.585 kg, 95% CI: -1.498, 0.329, p = 0.210) and WC (WMD: -0.847 cm, 95% CI: -1.764, 0.071, p = 0.070). In the subgroup analysis, studies that were conducted on baseline BMI ≥25 kg/m2 revealed a significant greater reduction in body weight and BMI than those performed on baseline BMI <25 kg/m2. Moreover, short supplementation periods of less than 4 weeks had no effect. Conclusion: The results of current meta-analysis study support the use of GCE supplementation for the improvement of obesity indices, with sub-group analysis highlighting greater improvements in individuals with a starting BMI ≥25kg/m2.
... In patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, although there was no significant decrease in HDL cholesterol, body weight, and BMI, GCBE supplementation can benefit them through improvement in total cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, and insulin resistance levels (Shahmohammadi et al., 2017). Al-Dujaili et al. (2016) also reported that GCBE supplementation could benefit healthy volunteers by reducing systolic and diastolic blood pressure, body weight, and BMI. All these studies establish the potential of coffee components or coffee extract to manage obesity; however, more clinical trials, particularly those with specific coffee components, should be conducted. ...
Article
Coffee consumption has been associated with the reduction of several chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity. The aim of this review was to summarize the research conducted in the last five years (or older, when appropriate) on the relationship between the consumption of coffee bioactive compounds, obesity, and T2DM. A bibliographic search was performed using the Web of Sciences, Scopus, and Google Scholar. Keywords used were “caffeine,” “coffee,” “coffee consumption,” “coffee extraction,” “coffee bioactive components,” “chlorogenic acid,” “obesity,” “antidiabetic,” and “antiadipogenic.” Epidemiological, clinical, animal, and cell culture studies were reviewed. Caffeine, chlorogenic acid, and diterpenes have been identified as potential bioactive compounds in coffee that exhibit antiadipogenic and antidiabetic effects. The concentration of these compounds in coffee depends on the coffee preparation method. The relationship between coffee consumption and obesity risk is inconsistent, as not all results report a positive association. The addition of sugar and cream may be responsible for these mixed results. The consumption of coffee and its constituents is consistently associated with a lower T2DM risk. Caffeine, chlorogenic acids, and diterpenes have antidiabetic properties and are associated with these effects. The available data do not allow us to draw a conclusion on the effect of coffee or its constituents on adipogenesis. Therefore, more tightly controlled human intervention studies are required for a deeper understanding about this relationship.
... Unroasted green coffee is rich in chlorogenic acid (CGA 2-5 g/100 g) (Haidari, Samadi, Mohammadshahi, Jalali, & Engali, 2017), which consists of caffeic acids or ferulic acids (Clifford, 1999) and possesses antidiabetic (Meng, Cao, Feng, Peng, & Hu, 2013), antiobesity ( Cho et al., 2010;Gorji et al., 2019) and antilipidemic ( Cho et al., 2010;Ong, Hsu, & Tan, 2013;Salamat et al., 2019) properties, with Yamaguchi et al. (2008), asserting that drinking a cup of coffee daily has an antihypertensive effect. In Kozuma et al. (2005), male, hypertensive participants who supplemented with green coffee bean extract (GCBE) for 28 days significantly decreased systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), whilst in Al-Dujaili, Abuhajleh, and Al-Turk (2016), it was demonstrated that following 7 days of supplementation with GCBE, SBP and DBP were significantly decreased. However, contrastingly, Yeon et al., ...
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Given the proliferation in studies investigating green coffee bean extract (GCBE) supplementation, the purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy and effectiveness of GCBE supplementation on indices of blood pressure. The literature search was performed in four databases, namely, PubMed/Medline, Scopus, the Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar, to identify clinical trials that examined the effects of green coffee supplements on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) up to February 2019. Mean change and standard deviation (SD) of the outcome measures were used to estimate the mean difference between the intervention group and the control group at follow‐up. Nine studies reported SBP and DBP as an outcome measure. Results revealed significant reduction in SBP (weighted mean difference: −3.093 mmHg, 95% confidence interval [CI]: −3.914, −2.273; I2 = 0.0%) and DBP (−2.170 mmHg, 95% CI: −2.749, −1.590; I2= 46.5%) after green coffee supplementation with low heterogeneity among the studies. In addition, in subgroup analysis, a significant reduction in SBP and DBP in studies with hypertensive patients, green coffee dosage <400 mg, and administered for 4 weeks was identified. The results of the current meta‐analysis study support the use of GCBE supplementation for the improvement of blood pressure indices, with subgroup analysis highlighting improvements in hypertensive patients.
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BACKGROUND: The effect of green coffee (GC) on blood pressure (BP) is still debated, but GC is thought to improve liver and kidney function. AIM: This study aimed to analyze the effect of the GC intervention on BP, liver, and kidney functions in obese model rats. METHODS: The research was a pre-clinical trial of pretest-posttest with control group design. Animals were divided into four groups: obese rats (G1), obese rats and GC (G2), obese rats and physical exercise (PE) (G3), and a combination of interventions (PE+GC) (G4). Data analysis used an independent sample t-test and analysis of variance; (p < 0.05). RESULTS: There was a different effect of the GC, PE, and PE+GC intervention on BP (186.50 ± 3.45 vs. 91.33 ± 1.96 p = 0.001*; 189.17 ± 2.93 vs. 119.50 ± 3.73 p = 0.001*; 191.8 3 ± 2.64 vs. 98.83 ± 3.76 p = 0.001*) in obese rats. There was a significant difference in Serum Glutamic Oxaloacetic Transaminase (SGOT) (p=0.001*), Serum Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase (SGPT) (p = 0.001*), Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) (p = 0.001*), and Creatinine (p = 0.001*) before and after the intervention in the three groups (G2, G3, and G4). SGOT, SGPT, and Creatinine levels decreased significantly after PE, GC, and PE+GC intervention. On the other hand, BUN levels decreased significantly after GC and its combination intervention. Meanwhile, in the control group and the intervention of PE, it increased significantly. CONCLUSIONS: GC is more effective in lowering BP without causing impaired liver and kidney function in obese rats.
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Objective Dietary supplements and alternative therapies are commercialized as a panacea for obesity/weight gain as a result of the minimal regulatory requirements in demonstrating efficacy. These products may indirectly undermine the value of guideline-driven obesity treatments. Included in this study is a systematic review of the literature of purported dietary supplements and alternative therapies for weight loss. Methods A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of dietary supplements and alternative therapies for weight loss in participants aged ≥18 years. Searches of Medline (PubMed), Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Embase (Ovid) were conducted. Risk of bias and results were summarized qualitatively. Results Of the 20,504 citations retrieved in the database search, 1,743 full-text articles were reviewed, 315 of which were randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of 14 purported dietary supplements, therapies, or a combination thereof. Risk of bias and sufficiency of data varied widely. Few studies (n = 52 [16.5%]) were classified as low risk and sufficient to support efficacy. Of these, only 16 (31%) noted significant pre/post intergroup differences in weight (range: 0.3-4.93 kg). Conclusions Dietary supplements and alternative therapies for weight loss have a limited high-quality evidence base of efficacy. Practitioners and patients should be aware of the scientific evidence of claims before recommending use.
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Background and purpose: post-operative surgical wound healing is highly important, so, it could be of great benefit to find suitable alternatives for chemical drugs through herbal remedies in Persian Medicine. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Arnebia euchroma ointment on surgical wound healing process. Materials and methods: In this experimental study, 24 Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=6 per group); controls (no intervention), positive controls (silver sulfadiazine cream 1%), intervention group I (Arnebia euchroma ointment), and intervention group II (mixed Arnebia euchroma and silver sulfadiazin cream1%). In all groups, an ulcer was developed in the back of the neck, then the groups were treated for 21 days. Wound healing was evaluated at days 4, 7, 14, and 21. Data were analyzed in SPSS V22 applying one-way ANOVA and Games- Howell post hoc test for normal distribution and Kruskal-Wallis test for non-normal distribution. Results: Surgical wound healing was found be significantly different between intervention group I and control group at days 4 (P= 0.00) and 7 (P= 0.02). Percentage of wound healing at day 14, in control group, the positive controls, and intervention groups I and II were 81.16±4.4, 84±19.27, 94.28±4 and 82.20±19, respectively. The rate was considerably higher in intervention group I (P= 0.07). Conclusion: Topical use of Arnebia euchroma root ointment can facilitate surgical wound healing. Keywords: Arnebia euchroma, wound, healing, Wistar rats, herbal medicine
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Background: Pomegranate extract (PE) provides a rich and varied source of biophenols, which can act as powerful antioxidants. The most abundant being ellagitannins, anthocyanins, and ellagic and gallic acid derivatives.. Evidence suggests that pomegranate juice consumption may alleviate cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. This exploratory study investigates the effect of PEconsumption on blood pressure (BP), insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), stress hormone levels (cortisol/cortisone) and quality of life in healthy human volunteers. Methods: Seven males and 22 females(n = 29) participated in a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled exploratory study (BMI: 25.05 ± 3.91 kg/m², age: 34.5 ± 13.7 years). All participants consumed either one PE (Pomanox, Pomegreat) or a placebo capsule daily, after a meal, for 4 weeks. Dietary history and habits and the health related Quality of Life questionnaire (Rand 36) were recorded pre- and post-intervention. BP, salivary cortisol and cortisone levels (am, noon, and pm) were assessed byELISAs, and fasting blood was obtained at baseline and after 4 weeks to compare glucose, insulin and insulin resistance parameters. Results: All participants randomised in the study completed the intervention.Systolic BP was significantly reduced following PE from 120.3 ± 13.3 to 115.6 ± 13.1 mmHg (P = 0.012). There was a reduction in the HOMA-IR levels from2.22 ± 2.62 to 1.61 ± 1.88 (P = 0.045), and glucose, insulin and uric acid alldecreased from baseline. No significant changes were recorded in volunteerstaking the placebo. PEconsumption caused a significant drop of salivary cortisol levels (am; 39.5 ± 19.6%, p < 0.001 and noon; 43.1 ± 32.3%, p = 0.016). The salivary cortisol/cortisone ratio was also significantly reduced (am from 1.11 ± 0.51 to 0.55 ± 0.26, p < 0.001, noon 1.57 ± 0.85 to 0.75 ± 0.72, p < 0.001 and pm; 1.22 ± 0.90 to 0.74 ± 0.59, p = 0.011). Physical (p = 0.018) and social functioning (p = 0.021), pain (p = 0.003), general health (p = 0.008) and overall Quality of Life score (p = 0.007) were significantly improved in those taking the PE capsules. The intervention was delivered successfully with no withdrawals. Conclusions: These results suggest that PE intake rich in biophenolsmay ameliorate cardiovascular risk factors, reduce stress levels and improve perceived health related quality of life. The reduction in salivary cortisol levels may prove beneficial for people suffering from chronic stress. This exploratory study provides useful information required to conduct a definitive trial. Keywords: Pomegranate; Cardiovascular risk factors; Blood pressure; Insulin sensitivity; Cortisol; Quality of life. Citation: Angela Stockton., et al. “Effect of Pomegranate Extract Consumption on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors, Stress Hormones, and Quality of Life in Human Volunteers: An Exploratory Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial”. EC Nutrition 2.4 (2015): 396-411. Trial Registration: This trial was registered with The Clinical Trials.gov as NCT02005939.
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Background It has been suggested that coffee may affect the gut-brain axis with conflicting outcomes. Moreover, there is insufficient evidence to determine whether the type or temperature of coffee consumed will have a different impact on the gut-brain axis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of acute coffee consumption on the following: 1. self-reported GI symptoms and salivary gastrin, 2. stress indices [salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase (sAA)] and psychometric measures, and 3. blood pressure (BP), in healthy, daily coffee consuming individuals in non-stressful conditions. Methods This was a randomized, double blind, crossover clinical trial, in which 40 healthy individuals (20 men, 20 women), 20–55 years of age, randomly consumed four 200 ml coffee beverages containing 160 mg caffeine (hot and cold instant coffee, cold espresso, hot filtered coffee), 1 week apart. Salivary samples and psychometric questionnaires were collected at baseline and post-coffee consumption at 15,30, and 60 min for salivary gastrin and sAA measurements and at 60,120, and 180 min for cortisol measurements. BP was measured at beginning and end of each intervention. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT02253628 Results Coffee consumption significantly increased sAA activity (P = 0.041), with significant differences only between cold instant and filter coffee at 15 and 30 min post-consumption (P < 0.05). Coffee temporarily increased salivary gastrin, without differences between coffee types. Coffee did not affect salivary cortisol or self-reported anxiety levels. Coffee consumption significantly increased BP, within the healthy physiological levels, in a gender specific manner at the end of the experimental periods, without differences between coffee types. Conclusion Acute coffee consumption in non-stressful conditions activated sAA and BP but not salivary cortisol, indicating activation of the sympathetic nervous system. Post-coffee sAA increase without a concomitant cortisol increase may also indicate that coffee may have some anti-stress properties.
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Natural plant remedies have been used for thousands of years to offer prevention, relief and cure for all types of illnesses, and people in the ancient times believed that good and sufficient food was vital for the body survival, to perform better and deter various dis-eases. Epidemiological studies suggest that diets high in polyphenols may have a protective effect against oxidative stress and play a critical role in the prevention of some common diseases such as hypertension, diabetes and obesity. However, the diversity and com-plexity of these compounds implies that much remains to be elucidated concerning the mechanisms by which these compounds influ-ence health. We have recently reported that dark chocolate (Barry Callebout, Belgium) and pomegranate juice or extract consump-tion can reduce fasting blood glucose levels, insulin resistance, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The effects of green coffee bean extract, green tea and grape juice on blood pressure and glucocorticoids were also investigated and compared in healthy volunteers of different age, gender and BMI. There is now growing evidence that polyphenols supplements and food rich in polyphenols may play a critical role in the prevention of several contemporary diseases such as obesity and cancer. I suggest that it is absolutely vital to realize that the intake of polyphenols-rich foods has to be considered as protective measure against the development of the epidemic of chronic diseases rather than a cure, at least for the present time. Therefore, changing the dietary habits and culture has to start at an earlier stage in life, particularly in the UK and Europe. In conclusion, over the last few decades, there has been tremendous surge of attention in the action of natural polyphenols and their effects on various body functions and metabolic processes. However despite the huge increased research throughout the world and interest by the public, the majority of the health benefits and physiological ac-tivities attributed to nutrients and food products require further research to elucidate the mechanism/s of action, and side effects. (10) (PDF) Emad AS Al-Dujaili. “Natural Polyphenols: Potential for Disease Prevention”. Review Article, EC Nutrition 2.2 (2015): 337-345.. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/288182361_Emad_AS_Al-Dujaili_Natural_Polyphenols_Potential_for_Disease_Prevention_Review_Article_EC_Nutrition_22_2015_337-345 [accessed May 21 2020].
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Background: Pomegranate extract (PE) provides a rich and varied source of biophenols, which can act as powerful antioxidants. The most abundant being ellagitannins, anthocyanins, and ellagic and gallic acid derivatives.. Evidence suggests that pomegranate juice consumption may alleviate cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. This exploratory study investigates the effect of PEconsumption on blood pressure (BP), insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), stress hormone levels (cortisol/cortisone) and quality of life in healthy human volunteers. Methods: Seven males and 22 females(n = 29) participated in a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled exploratory study (BMI: 25.05 ± 3.91 kg/m², age: 34.5 ± 13.7 years). All participants consumed either one PE (Pomanox, Pomegreat) or a placebo capsule daily, after a meal, for 4 weeks. Dietary history and habits and the health related Quality of Life questionnaire (Rand 36) were recorded pre- and post-intervention. BP, salivary cortisol and cortisone levels (am, noon, and pm) were assessed byELISAs, and fasting blood was obtained at baseline and after 4 weeks to compare glucose, insulin and insulin resistance parameters. Results: All participants randomised in the study completed the intervention.Systolic BP was significantly reduced following PE from 120.3 ± 13.3 to 115.6 ± 13.1 mmHg (P = 0.012). There was a reduction in the HOMA-IR levels from2.22 ± 2.62 to 1.61 ± 1.88 (P = 0.045), and glucose, insulin and uric acid alldecreased from baseline. No significant changes were recorded in volunteerstaking the placebo. PEconsumption caused a significant drop of salivary cortisol levels (am; 39.5 ± 19.6%, p < 0.001 and noon; 43.1 ± 32.3%, p = 0.016). The salivary cortisol/cortisone ratio was also significantly reduced (am from 1.11 ± 0.51 to 0.55 ± 0.26, p < 0.001, noon 1.57 ± 0.85 to 0.75 ± 0.72, p < 0.001 and pm; 1.22 ± 0.90 to 0.74 ± 0.59, p = 0.011). Physical (p = 0.018) and social functioning (p = 0.021), pain (p = 0.003), general health (p = 0.008) and overall Quality of Life score (p = 0.007) were significantly improved in those taking the PE capsules. The intervention was delivered successfully with no withdrawals. Conclusions: These results suggest that PE intake rich in biophenols may ameliorate cardiovascular risk factors, reduce stress levels and improve perceived health related quality of life. The reduction in salivary cortisol levels may prove beneficial for people suffering from chronic stress. This exploratory study provides useful information required to conduct a definitive trial. Keywords: Pomegranate; Cardiovascular risk factors; Blood pressure; Insulin sensitivity; Cortisol; Quality of life. Citation: Angela Stockton., et al. “Effect of Pomegranate Extract Consumption on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors, Stress Hormones, and Quality of Life in Human Volunteers: An Exploratory Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial”. EC Nutrition 2.4 (2015): 396-411. Trial Registration: This trial was registered with The Clinical Trials.gov as NCT02005939.
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Cancer is the second leading cause of death and is becoming the leading one in old age. Vegetable and fruit consumption is inversely associated with cancer incidence and mortality. Currently, interest in a number of fruits high in polyphenols has been raised due to their reported chemopreventive and/or chemotherapeutic potential. Pomegranate has been shown to exert anticancer activity, which is generally attributed to its high content of polyphenols. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of known targets and mechanisms along with a critical evaluation of pomegranate polyphenols as future anticancer agents. Pomegranate evokes antiproliferative, anti-invasive, and antimetastatic effects, induces apoptosis through the modulation of Bcl-2 proteins, upregulates p21 and p27, and downregulates cyclin-cdk network. Furthermore, pomegranate blocks the activation of inflammatory pathways including, but not limited to, the NF-κB pathway. The strongest evidence for its anticancer activity comes from studies on prostate cancer. Accordingly, some exploratory clinical studies investigating pomegranate found a trend of efficacy in increasing prostate-specific antigen doubling time in patients with prostate cancer. However, the genotoxicity reported for pomegranate raised certain concerns over its safety and an accurate assessment of the risk/benefit should be performed before suggesting the use of pomegranate or its polyphenols for cancer-related therapeutic purposes.
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The prefrontal cortex (PFC) provides top-down regulation of behavior, cognition, and emotion, including spatial working memory. However, these PFC abilities are greatly impaired by exposure to acute or chronic stress. Chronic stress exposure in rats induces atrophy of PFC dendrites and spines that correlates with working memory impairment. As similar PFC grey matter loss appears to occur in mental illness, the mechanisms underlying these changes need to be better understood. Acute stress exposure impairs PFC cognition by activating feedforward cAMP-calcium- K+ channel signaling, which weakens synaptic inputs and reduces PFC neuronal firing. Spine loss with chronic stress has been shown to involve calcium-protein kinase C signaling, but it is not known if inhibiting cAMP signaling would similarly prevent the atrophy induced by repeated stress. The current study examined whether inhibiting cAMP signaling through alpha-2A-adrenoceptor stimulation with chronic guanfacine treatment would protect PFC spines and working memory performance during chronic stress exposure. Guanfacine was selected due to 1) its established effects on cAMP signaling at post-synaptic alpha-2A receptors on spines in PFC, and 2) its increasing clinical use for the treatment of pediatric stress disorders. Daily guanfacine treatment compared to vehicle control was found to prevent dendritic spine loss in layer II/III pyramidal neurons of prelimbic PFC in rats exposed to chronic restraint stress. Guanfacine also protected working memory performance; cognitive performance correlated with dendritic spine density. These findings suggest that chronic guanfacine use may have clinical utility by protecting PFC gray matter from the detrimental effects of stress.
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Pomegranates have shown great promise as anti-cancer agents in a number of cancers including clinical trials in prostate cancer. We have previously shown pomegranate juice (PGJ) induced apoptosis and preferentially alters the cell cycle in leukemia cell lines compared with nontumor control cells. However, the agents responsible have not yet been fully elucidated. Treatment of four leukemia cell lines with five fractions obtained from PGJ by solid phase extraction demonstrated that only the acetonitrile fractions decreased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels in all leukemia cell lines. Acetonitrile fractions also significantly activated caspase-3 and induced nuclear morphology characteristic of apoptosis. S phase arrest was induced by acetonitrile fractions which matched S phase arrest seen previously following whole PGJ treatments. The acetonitrile fractions contained higher phenol content than whole PGJ whereas only low levels of phenols were seen in any other fraction. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis demonstrated that acetonitrile fractions were enriched in ellagitannins, ellagic acid, and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives but depleted in anthocyanins. Individual treatments with identified compounds demonstrated that the ellagitannin: punicalagin was the most active and mimicked the responses seen following acetonitrile fraction treatment. Bioactive components within pomegranate were confined to the acetonitrile fraction of PGJ. The enrichment in ellagitannins and hydroxycinnamic acids suggest these may provide the majority of the bioactivities of PGJ. Individual treatments with compounds identified demonstrated that the ellagitannin: punicalagin was the most active agent, highlighting this compound as a key bioactive agent in PGJ.
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Azoxymethane (AOM) is a potent carcinogenic agent commonly used to induce colon cancer in rats; the cytotoxicity of AOM is considered to mediate oxidative stress. This study investigated the chemopreventive effect of three natural extracts [pomegranate peel extract (PomPE), papaya peel extract (PapPE) and seaweed extract (SE)] against AOM-induced oxidative stress and carcinogenesis in rat colon. Eighty Sprague-Dawley rats (aged 4 weeks) were randomly divided into 8 groups (10 rats/group). Control group was fed a basal diet; AOM-treated group was fed a basal diet and received AOM intraperitonial injections for two weeks at a dose of 15 mg/kg bodyweight, whereas the other six groups were received oral supplementation of PomPE, PapPE or SE, in the presence or absence of AOM injection. All animals were continuously fed ad-libitum until aged 16 weeks, then all rats were sacrificed and the colon tissues were examined microscopically for pathological changes and aberrant crypt foci (ACF) development, genotoxicity (induced micronuclei (MN) cells enumeration), and glutathione and lipid peroxidation. Our results showed that AOM-induced ACF development and pathological changes in the colonic mucosal tissues, increased bone marrow MN cells and oxidative stress (glutathione depletion, lipid peroxidation) in rat colonic cells. The concomitant treatment of AOM with PomPE, PapPE or SE significantly ameliorated the cytotoxic effects of AOM. The results of this study provide in-vivo evidence that PomPE, PapPE and SE reduced the AOM-induced colon cancer in rats, through their potent anti-oxidant activities.