ArticlePDF Available


The aim of this research is to put forward the intellectual structure of STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) education concept in educational research. STEM education has emerged as a highly accepted paradigm in education especially in the USA and European countries in recent years. The theoretical substructure of STEM education that is seen as an important factor in attaining the expected qualities in human profile for the changing conditions of the 21st century has started to be formed. STEM education prioritizes team study and interdisciplinary approach. It is of great importance to put forward the intellectual structure of STEM education, that will play an important role in training people for the conditions of the present day, for better comprehension by the researchers, curriculum developers and practitioners. Moreover, when the literature on this concept is investigated, lack of comprehension of the concept and vision is seen. For this reason, the investigation of the development and current status of STEM education will contribute to literature in terms of understanding the intellectual structure of the concept. The dataset of the study is composed of all types of studies in at least one of the categories of Education & Educational Research and “Education, Scientific Disciplines” published in Web of Science (WoS). Basing on WoS categories the relationship of the concept with other disciplines have been examined and visualized with web graphics on the accessed publications. It has been possible to refer to which focus the scientific data has been developed nourishing via the journals by mapping the journals in the dataset as citation giving and citation attaining. In addition to these, contribution of disciplines and countries to STEM education has been compared.
The purpose of this research is to provide knowledge about the implementation of tools and useful elements in STEM-STEAM education, in a universal way, through a systematic review of the literature. The methodology SLR used is applied to engineering and education. 92 articles were selected from the Scopus database. The results allow identifying that STEM-STEAM education is implemented based on educational policies and reforms to improve teaching and learning, with the purpose of developing skills for problem-solving, fostering creativity, critical thinking, communication, collaboration, data management, and analysis, as well as the use of learning environments with the implementation of curricula that integrate the subjects of science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and art in an interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary manner. In conclusion, this type of education allows for quality education in the educational institutions, through the use of different tools that allow active, localized, goal-oriented, collaborative, and meaningful learning.
The blockchain was first discussed in the financial sector. However, it has been the subject of debate in many different sectors today due to several advantages such as data security, privacy, and auto control. The records that are linked together by the encryption technologies form blocks and these blocks form the blockchain. Each block has a hash code that allows its connection to the previous block. In this way, it is ensured that the subject and context can be stored without being broken. With this structure, it is possible to say that the blockchain has many advantages in data storage, organization, and management. Due to these advantages, there is an increased interest in blockchain technology both in academia and in the private sector. However, there is still a gap in blockchain information related to blockchain inventions, therefore the aim of this paper is to describe the social and intellectual structure of blockchain research over scientific papers and patent analysis. To do that, we have extracted 4502 research papers from scientific databases. Data was gathered from the Web of Science. Bibliometrics and scientometrics methods were used to analyze the data. Network theory and social network analysis metrics were used in the creation of visuals, and collaborations in the context of authors, countries, and institutions were examined. H-index, dominance ranking, and citation analysis was used to reveal the intellectual structure of the area. Our objective is to understand the current research topics, challenges, and future directions regarding Blockchain technology from the intellectual, social structure, and intellectual property perspectives. In this context, the research questions we seek to answer in our research are to stimulate theory and understanding about blockchain studies by combining the main bibliometrics indicators and patent analytics. Finally, the basic dynamics for the patenting status and commercialization of blockchain technology have been assessed in terms of developed sectors and sectors open to development. The aspects of social, intellectual, and commercialization of the area were determined through these visuals and analysis, which will help researchers and other practitioners of the field. In terms of Low Aggregate Constraint Values, it is seen that the G05D1 is the most open area for improvement in blockchain technologies. On the other hand, it has been observed that the technology class with the highest saturation level is the technologies in the field of general-purpose storage technologies and programs such as G06F1.