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Abstract

German Volume Training (GVT), or the 10 sets method, has been used for decades by weightlifters to increase muscle mass. To date, no study has directly examined the training adaptations following GVT. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a modified GVT intervention on muscular hypertrophy and strength. Nineteen healthy males were randomly assign to 6 weeks of 10 or 5 sets of 10 repetitions for specific compound resistance exercises included in a split-routine performed 3 times per week. . Total and regional lean body mass, muscle thickness, and muscle strength were measured before and after the training program. Across groups, there were significant increases in lean body mass measures, however greater increases in trunk (p = 0.043; ES = -0.21) and arm (p = 0.083; ES = -0.25) lean body mass favored the 5-SET group. No significant increases were found for leg lean body mass or measures of muscle thickness across groups. Significant increases were found across groups for muscular strength, with greater increases in the 5-SET group for bench press (p = 0.014; ES = -0.43) and lat pull-down (p = 0.003; ES = -0.54). It seems that the modified GVT program is no more effective than performing 5 sets per exercise for increasing muscle hypertrophy and strength. To maximize hypertrophic training effects it is recommended that 4-6 sets per exercise be performed, as it appears gains will plateau beyond this set range and may even regress due to overtraining.

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... 2.2 Volume. Weekly training volume (repetitions x sets) can be altered directly by manipulating the number of sets per session [10][11][12][13], the number of repetitions per set (e.g., by training to volitional fatigue or not) [14][15][16]*, or the number of training sessions per week [17][18][19]; however, weekly training volume is also indirectly altered by manipulating load [5,6,9,[20][21][22] or time under tension [23]. Regardless, increased volume (or volume-load [load x repetitions x sets]) does not, beyond a certain point, necessarily augment RET-induced changes in muscular strength [5, 7, 9-19, 21, 22, 24, 25]*/**. ...
... Regardless, increased volume (or volume-load [load x repetitions x sets]) does not, beyond a certain point, necessarily augment RET-induced changes in muscular strength [5, 7, 9-19, 21, 22, 24, 25]*/**. In fact, it seems that performing excessive weekly training volume results in a plateau or inferior changes in RET-induced strength (>15 sets per muscle group per week) [12,13], which is likely due to insufficient recovery. A definitive study by Mattocks et al [7]** compared individuals that performed five 1RM tests (i.e., five repetitions) per session to a traditional RET regime (four sets of 8-12 repetitions per session) and found that, after eight weeks of RET and a 10-fold difference in volume and volume-load, 1RM strength increased similarly between conditions. ...
... Accordingly, as recommended by both the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) [40] and National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA) [41], recent evidence suggests that RET-induced changes in 1RM strength are greater when participants perform regular strength assessments with near-maximal loads (>85 %1RM) [1-5]**. In addition, recent evidence suggests that increasing inter-set rest (>2 min) [31,32] and moderating weekly training volume (<15 sets/muscle group/week) [12,13] may improve RET-induced muscular strength in resistance-trained individuals. Otherwise, though not the focus of this review, increased protein intake up to at least 1.6 g/kg of body mass/day may provide a small but statistically significant benefit on RET-induced muscular strength as detailed elsewhere [42]. ...
Article
Resistance exercise training (RET)-induced increases in voluntary 1RM strength are greater with higher loads and training by replicating (or close) the strength test. In contrast, RET-induced muscular hypertrophy is primarily mediated by intensity of effort, which is achieved by performing RET to volitional fatigue and with an internal focus on contracting a muscle throughout the exercise range of motion. In addition, RET-induced muscular hypertrophy is augmented by increasing training volume, but with diminishing returns. Other training variables such as volume-load, inter-set rest, and time under tension have negligible effects on RET-induced changes in muscle size or strength. We conclude that an uncomplicated, evidence-based approach to optimizing RET-induced changes in muscle size and strength follows the FITT principle: frequency, intensity (effort), type, and time.
... In these studies, a larger effect size was observed, favoring the high training volume group. In the four remaining measurements (Amirthalingam et al., 2017;Aube et al., 2020), no significant differences were observed between groups, and the effect size did not favor any of the groups. Regarding the improvement percentage, in four out of the seven measurements (Brigatto et al., 2019;Schoenfeld et al., 2019a;Aube et al., 2020), larger gains were observed in the HV group (13.3, 9.4, 12.5 and 13.7% respectively) and, in the other three (Amirthalingam et al., 2017;Aube et al., 2020), in the MV groups (4.9, 6.9, 7.5% respectively). ...
... In the four remaining measurements (Amirthalingam et al., 2017;Aube et al., 2020), no significant differences were observed between groups, and the effect size did not favor any of the groups. Regarding the improvement percentage, in four out of the seven measurements (Brigatto et al., 2019;Schoenfeld et al., 2019a;Aube et al., 2020), larger gains were observed in the HV group (13.3, 9.4, 12.5 and 13.7% respectively) and, in the other three (Amirthalingam et al., 2017;Aube et al., 2020), in the MV groups (4.9, 6.9, 7.5% respectively). ...
... In one of them, significant differences were observed between HV and LV (Schoenfeld et al., 2019a), and in another study significant differences were observed between HV and MV, and between HV and LV (Radaelli et al., 2015). Among the remaining studies, a larger effect size between groups was observed in one of them, favoring the HV group (Brigatto et al., 2019); in another one, a larger effect size favoring the MV (Heaselgrave et al., 2019); and, in the last one, no significant differences were observed (Amirthalingam et al., 2017). Regarding the improvement percentage, larger gains in the HV group (17.5, 3, 6.9%) were observed in three out of five studies (Brigatto et al., 2019;Radaelli et al., 2015;Schoenfeld et al., 2019a), respectively, and in the MV group (7.2 and 8.5%) in the remaining two (Amirthalingam et al., 2017;Heaselgrave et al., 2019), respectively. ...
Article
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The main goal of this study was to compare responses to moderate and high training volumes aimed at inducing muscle hypertrophy. A literature search on 3 databases (Pubmed, Scopus and Chocrane Library) was conducted in January 2021. After analyzing 2083 resultant articles, studies were included if they met the following inclusion criteria: a) studies were randomized controlled trials (with the number of sets explicitly reported), b) interventions lasted at least six weeks, c) participants had a minimum of one year of resistance training experience, d) participants' age ranged from 18 to 35 years, e) studies reported direct measurements of muscle thickness and/or the cross-sectional area, and f) studies were published in peer-review journals. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the qualitative analysis, whereas just six were included in the quantitative analysis. All participants were divided into three groups: "low" (<12 weekly sets), "moderate" (12-20 weekly sets) and "high" volume (>20 weekly sets). According to the results of this meta-analysis, there were no differences between moderate and high training volume responses for the quadriceps (p = 0.19) and the biceps brachii (p = 0.59). However, it appears that a high training volume is better to induce muscle mass gains in the triceps brachii (p = 0.01). According to the results of this review, a range of 12-20 weekly sets per muscle group may be an optimum standard recommendation for increasing muscle hypertrophy in young, trained men.
... However, meta-analyses suggest that a linear dose-response relationship exists between volume and both strength 5 and hypertrophy 6 suggesting the superiority of higher volume training and recommending that one should perform at least 10 sets per week for each muscle group. Recently data from studies also appear to support a linear relationship suggesting that higher volumes might be necessary to optimize adaptations 7,8 , while others suggest little influence of volume 9 , or even that exceeding a certain amount of volume might be detrimental to muscle strength and body composition 10 . ...
... Recent studies however have examined much higher weekly set volumes and appear to support a linear relationship suggesting that higher volumes might be necessary to bring optimal adaptations in untrained subjects 7,8 . Others, however, suggest little influence of volume 9 , or even that exceeding a certain amount of volume might be detrimental to muscle strength and body composition 10,12 . Thus, it might be that higher volumes may result in some degree of overtraining. ...
... According to Wernbom et al. 13 it seems that muscle hypertrophy plateaus beyond a certain volume and, exceeding that point may lead to negative results. Evidence for negative results due to increased resistance training volume were presented by Amirthalingam et al. 10 , when comparing the effects of six weeks of a higher (~14 sets per muscle group per week) versus lower volume (~9 sets per muscle group per week) RT programs in body composition, muscle size and strength of trained men. The results showed significant increases in lean body mass measures, with greater increases in trunk and arm lean body mass for the lower volume group; moreover, the increases for bench press and lat pull-down 1RM were also higher for the lower volume group. ...
Article
Purpose: To compare the effects of different resistance training volumes on muscle performance and hypertrophy in trained men. Methods: 37 volunteers performed resistance training for 24 weeks, divided into groups that performed five (G5), 10 (G10), 15 (G15) and 20 (G20) sets per muscle group per week. Ten repetition maximum (10RM) tests were performed for the bench press, lat pull down, 45º leg press, and stiff legged deadlift. Muscle thickness (MT) was measured using ultrasound at biceps brachii, triceps brachii, pectoralis major, quadriceps femoris and gluteus maximus. All measurements were performed at the beginning (pre) and after 12 (mid) and 24 weeks (post). Results: All groups showed significant increases in all 10RM tests and MT measures after 12 and 24 weeks when compared to pre (p <0.05). There were no significant differences in any 10RM test or changes between G5 and G10 after 12 and 24 weeks. G5 and G10 showed significantly greater increases for 10RM than G15 and G20 for most exercises at 12 and 24 weeks. There were no group by time interaction for any MT measure. Conclusions: The results bring evidence of an inverted "U shaped" curve for the dose response curve for muscle strength. Whilst the same trend was noted for muscle hypertrophy, the results did not reach significance. Five to 10 sets per week might be sufficient for bringing about optimal gains in muscle size and strength in trained men over a 24-week period.
... This is a secondary analysis of data from a previous study (targeting muscle hypertrophy and strength) that did not report results for muscular endurance. 28 It was hypothesised that greater increases in muscular endurance would result following 10-SET compared to 5-SET. A secondary outcome of this study was muscle strength (absolute and relative). ...
... The 10-SET intervention was based upon a German Volume Training session which traditionally involves 10 sets of 10 repetitions (i.e., 100 repetitions) for a compound resistance exercise, with no more than two exercises completed in a training session. 28 The rationale behind including additional exercises was to create a training program which was thought to be more consistent with a split routine, commonly used by experienced resistance trainers. Since the subjects were resistance trained the authors also wanted to reduce the risk detraining or performing extra training outside of the study due to significant reductions in resistance training volumes per muscle group (especially in the 5-SET) and lack of exercise variety. ...
... correct exercise technique) has previously been described. 28 The heaviest load that was successfully lifted for a repetition was recorded as the 1RM. The test-retest for the 1RM was assessed on two separate days (greater than 72 hours apart) in six of the subjects with the ICC and CV ranging from 0.90 to 0.92 and 4.9-6.0%, ...
Article
Background: A paucity of research exists examining whether resistance training with a greater number of sets per exercise enhances the development of muscular endurance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ten sets versus five sets of resistance training on muscle endurance. Methods: Fifteen healthy males (age 23.7 ± 4.6 y) with at least 1 year resistance training experience were randomly assigned to 6 weeks of 10 sets (10-SET) or 5 sets (5-SET) of 10 repetitions at 60-80% one-repetition maximum (1RM) for specific compound resistance exercises with rest intervals between sets of 60-90 s and 60 s between exercises, performed 3 times per week. Relative muscle endurance test was assessed via maximal repetitions using 70% 1RM for the bench press, lat pulldown and leg press. Results: There was a significant increase in the number of repetitions to failure in the muscle endurance test for the leg press in 10-SET (40.9%, p = 0.04) and 5-SET (27.9%; p = 0.03), although no statistical differences between groups in the post-intervention results. Both groups increased volume-load in the muscle endurance test for the bench press (≥14.3%, p<0.05) and leg press (≥36.7%, p<0.05), but there were no statistical differences between groups in the post-intervention results. Conclusions: Findings suggest that performing 10 sets compared to 5 sets of resistance training does not enhance the development of relative muscle endurance. The volume-load accrued within an individual set rather than across sets may be of greater importance when targeting muscular endurance.
... However, meta-analyses suggest that a linear dose-response relationship exists between volume and both strength 5 and hypertrophy 6 suggesting the superiority of higher volume training and recommending that one should perform at least 10 sets per week for each muscle group. Recently data from studies also appear to support a linear relationship suggesting that higher volumes might be necessary to optimize adaptations 7,8 , while others suggest little influence of volume 9 , or even that exceeding a certain amount of volume might be detrimental to muscle strength and body composition 10 . ...
... Recent studies however have examined much higher weekly set volumes and appear to support a linear relationship suggesting that higher volumes might be necessary to bring optimal adaptations in untrained subjects 7,8 . Others, however, suggest little influence of volume 9 , or even that exceeding a certain amount of volume might be detrimental to muscle strength and body composition 10,12 . Thus, it might be that higher volumes may result in some degree of overtraining. ...
... According to Wernbom et al. 13 it seems that muscle hypertrophy plateaus beyond a certain volume and, exceeding that point may lead to negative results. Evidence for negative results due to increased resistance training volume were presented by Amirthalingam et al. 10 , when comparing the effects of six weeks of a higher (~14 sets per muscle group per week) versus lower volume (~9 sets per muscle group per week) RT programs in body composition, muscle size and strength of trained men. The results showed significant increases in lean body mass measures, with greater increases in trunk and arm lean body mass for the lower volume group; moreover, the increases for bench press and lat pull-down 1RM were also higher for the lower volume group. ...
... Also, squats and deadlifts are traditionally used in GVT but were changed to leg press and lunges. The results from the previous study showed that no additional gains in muscle hypertrophy can be achieved when following a modified version of the GVT program compared to training with five sets over a duration of six weeks [19]. ...
... Likewise, Marshall et al. [6] found no differences in squat 1RM when comparing four sets to eight sets following a six-week squat training program, although a significant increase in squat 1RM was observed for eight sets compared to one set. However, due to the relatively short duration of our previous study (i.e., six weeks) [19] as well as the other studies noted above, it is unknown whether this may have affected the results. For instance, Stark et al. [21] concluded that a resistance training protocol tailored for muscle strength and hypertrophy should be at least 10-12 weeks duration involving 3-5 sessions per week. ...
... Previously it was thought that following a modified GVT program for six weeks duration might be too short a timeframe for significant muscle hypertrophy adaptations to be observed [19]. Therefore, extending the duration of the modified GVT program to at least 10-12 weeks might be required to allow for these muscle adaptations [21]. ...
Article
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This study investigated the effect of a 12-week modified German Volume Training intervention, or the 10 sets method, on muscle strength and hypertrophy. Twelve healthy males were randomly assigned to either a 5-SET or 10-SET group and performed 5 or 10 sets, respectively, of 10 repetitions at 60-80% one-repetition maximum (1RM). Muscle strength and body composition measures were taken at baseline, six weeks, and after 12 weeks of training. No significant changes in total, trunk, and arm lean mass were found within and between groups at any time point. There was no significant difference between groups for lean leg mass. However, a decrease in lean leg mass was observed within the 10-SET group between six and 12 weeks (p = 0.02). An increase in 1RM bench press was found within the 5-SET group at week 6 (p = 0.001) and 12 (p = 0.001) when compared to baseline, while no increases in 1RM leg press were observed at any time point within any group. No significant differences were found for 1RM bench press and leg press between groups. For 1RM bench press moderate effect sizes (ES) favored 5-SET and for 1RM leg press small ESs favored 10-SET. Findings suggest performing >5 sets per exercise does not promote greater gains in muscle strength and hypertrophy. Future research should aim to substantiate these preliminary findings in a larger cohort.
... Both groups performed 8-12 repetitions of biceps curl, lat pull-down, abdominal crunches, back extensions, and seated rows. Amirthalingam et al. [47] investigated the effects of 5 vs. 10 sets per exercise of rt volume on arm and thigh muscle hypertrophy. the 10 or 5 sets were implemented in the first 2 multi-joint exercises of each training session, resulting in approximately 14 and 24 weekly sets per muscle group. ...
... With regard to the set end points, in the study by Hass et al. [45], the participants performed self-selected repetition maximum; the rPE results suggest that both groups progressed the effort similarly. six studies applied sets until muscle failure [44][45][46][49][50][51] and 2 studies performed repetitions maximum [47,48]. ...
... In contrast to these findings, another study found no benefits of going over 10 sets per week; in fact, there was a trend for decreasing results when exceeding this number [50]. therefore, challenging the 'volume-based theory,' recent studies investigating the effects of rt volume on muscle hypertrophy and lean body mass in resistance-trained subjects have suggested that a plateau exists when rt is performed with high intensity of effort (i.e. until momentary muscle failure) and further increases in the number of sets provide no benefit and even can promote a reduction in the results [47,48,50,51]. this is in agreement with a previous suggestion by Wernbom et al. [18] that there is a plateau in muscle hypertrophy after a certain volume has been reached and there might be even a decline when the volume is extended beyond that point. these findings corroborate an early study by Ostrowski et al. [44] that reported similar muscle hypertrophy between groups performing 3, 6, and 12 weekly sets per muscle group. ...
Article
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Purpose. To conduct a narrative review of relevant studies comparing the impact of different resistance training (RT) volumes on muscle hypertrophy and lean body mass. Methods. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were clinical trials comparing the effects of different RT volumes on muscle hypertrophy and body composition. Overall, 22 articles were considered relevant and included in this review after an extensive literature hand search of the following databases: SciELO, PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, LILACS, and Web of Science. Results. Of the 22 studies, 6 showed greater effects of high-volume, 1 showed greater effects of low-volume, and the remaining studies showed no difference between high- and low-volume RT. Five studies that revealed better results for higher volume were performed in untrained people, 1 concerned trained people, and the study that presented better results for lower volume referred to trained subjects. High heterogeneity was observed in the studies’ methodology regarding training protocols, population characteristics, length of intervention, supervision status, and measures of muscle size and body composition. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that muscle size and lean body mass are not mainly affected by RT volume and that other variables, especially the intensity of effort, should be considered in RT prescription. In this sense, increased volume could be beneficial, especially when training with low effort or when effort is not well controlled. However, it is important to note that there seems to be a ceiling effect and the use of higher volumes might be detrimental to muscle hypertrophy over a long term.
... Although Radaelli et al. [18] reported differences between groups for quadriceps muscle thickness, the same was not true for elbow flexors, which was similar to what was found in a study of young women [19]. Of the three known studies comparing the effects of RT volume on muscle mass in resistance-trained subjects [14,20,21], none showed a significant difference between higher and lower training volumes. It is also important to cite a recent review [22] reporting that that ''[…] it is not possible to conclude that high volume of sets offers better results than low volume of sets for upper body muscle hypertrophy, and vice versa''. ...
... Interestingly, Figueiredo et al. [1] cite Amirthalingam et al. [21] but seem to neglect it as contradictory evidence for the benefits of increasing volume. The study compared RT protocols involving 10 or 5 sets for compound exercises and found greater increases in trunk and arm lean mass, as well as for bench press and lat pull-down 1 repetition maximum (RM), with 5 sets. ...
... It is important to note that the majority of previous studies have been carried out in males, with the few conducted with females using elderly women and or/untrained participants. The few studies performed with young trained participants involved men (23)(24)(25)(26) or a mixed sample of men and women (27). Whilst many studies reported that men and women show similar results after an RT program (2), their acute responses have been shown to differ, especially regarding fatigability (28,29) and muscle recovery (30), which might suggest that manipulating training volume might have a different impact on women when compared to men. ...
... In a recent study, Amirthalingam et al. (23) compared the effects of a higher (~14 sets per muscle group per week) versus lower volume (~9 sets per muscle group per week) RT intervention upon body composition, muscle size, and strength. Training involved a split routine, with each exercise performed once per week for 6 weeks. ...
Article
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Introduction: The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of different volumes of resistance training (RT) on muscle performance and hypertrophy in trained women. Methods: The study included 40 volunteers that performed RT for 24 weeks divided in to groups that performed five (G5), 10 (G10), 15 (G15) and 20 (G20) sets per muscle group per session. Ten repetition maximum (10RM) tests were performed for the bench press, lat pull down, 45º leg press, and stiff legged deadlift. Muscle thickness (MT) was measured using ultrasound at biceps brachii, triceps brachii, pectoralis major, quadriceps femoris, and gluteus maximus. Results: All groups significantly increased all MT measures and 10RM tests after 24 weeks of RT (p<0.05). Between group comparisons revealed no differences in any 10RM test between G5 and G10 (p>0.05). G5 and G10 showed significantly greater 10RM increases than G15 for lat pulldown, leg press and stiff legged deadlift. 10RM changes for G20 were lower than all other groups for all exercises (p<0.05). G5 and G10 showed significantly greater MT increases than G15 and G20 in all sites (p<0.05). MT increased more in G15 than G20 in all sites (p<0.05). G5 increases were higher than G10 for pectoralis major MT, while G10 showed higher increases in quadriceps MT than G5 (p<0.05). Conclusions: Five to 10 sets per week might be sufficient for attaining gains in muscle size and strength in trained women during a 24-week RT program. There appears no further benefit by performing higher exercise volumes. Since lack of time is a commonly cited barrier to exercise adoption, our data supports RT programs that are less time consuming, which might increase participation and adherence.
... German volume training (GVT), or 10 sets system, requires performing 10 sets of 10 repetitions at ∼ 60% 1-RM in no more than two compound exercises [13,14]. It is speculated that the high training volume produces an elevated metabolic stress, which may optimize/maximize the increases in muscle strength and mass compared to TRAD [75]. ...
... Only Amirthalingam et al. [75] compared the effects of GVT and TRAD. Nineteen young resistance-trained (at least 1 year of RT) men were randomized into GVT (n = 10) and TRAD (n = 9) groups. ...
Article
To optimize/maximize increases on muscle strength and mass in well resistance-trained individuals, the use of resistancetraining (RT) systems have been widely recommended by powerlifters, bodybuilders and coaches. These systems may be characterized as advanced techniques that manipulate specific RT variables emphasizing physiologic mechanisms. However, there is a lack of evidence on literature supporting the advantages of RT systems on muscle strength and mass increases compared with traditional RT performed with constant sets, repetitions and load. It is possible that these equivocal findings are associated with methodological limitations that preclude the correct interpretation of the results. Therefore, the purpose of the present review article was to critically analyze studies and draw conclusions on the effects of RT systems on muscle strength and mass enhancements. The evidence available so far does not allow the determination of wheter RT systems can optimize/maximize increases in muscle strength and mass when compared to traditional RT.
... There is a limit to the number of good quality sets due to fatigue (Boyas & Guevel, 2011), but this threshold is different for each individual. Some studies have shown favorable outcomes to strength when training at a lower number of sets per session is introduced (Amirthalingam et al., 2017). Amirthalingam et al. (2017) concluded that exercising at 4-6 sets per muscle group within a workout was optimal for muscular adaptations and increasing the number of sets within a session to greater than this number did not appear to produce a greater effect. ...
... Some studies have shown favorable outcomes to strength when training at a lower number of sets per session is introduced (Amirthalingam et al., 2017). Amirthalingam et al. (2017) concluded that exercising at 4-6 sets per muscle group within a workout was optimal for muscular adaptations and increasing the number of sets within a session to greater than this number did not appear to produce a greater effect. An increase in total training volume (repetitions × set × intensity) in one session and, therefore, nearer to failure has also been shown to significantly increase the recovery time needed (Pareja-Blanco et al., 2018). ...
Article
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Background In resistance training, the role of training frequency to increase maximal strength is often debated. However, the limited data available does not allow for clear training frequency “optimization” recommendations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of training frequency on maximal muscular strength and rate of perceived exertion (RPE). The total weekly training volume was equally distributed between two and four sessions per muscle group. Methods Twenty-one experienced resistance-trained male subjects (height: 1.85 ± 0.06 m, body mass: 85.3 ± 12.3 kg, age: 27.6 ± 7.6 years) were tested prior to and after an 8-week training period in one-repetition maximum (1RM) barbell back squat and bench press. Subjects were randomly assigned to a SPLIT group ( n = 10), in which there were two training sessions of squats and lower-body exercises and two training sessions of bench press and upper-body exercises, or a FULLBODY group ( n = 11), in which four sessions with squats, bench press and supplementary exercises were conducted every session. In each session, the subjects rated their RPE after barbell back squat, bench press, and the full session. Results Both groups significantly increased 1RM strength in barbell back squat (SPLIT group: +13.25 kg; FULLBODY group: +14.31 kg) and bench press (SPLIT group: +7.75 kg; FULLBODY group: +8.86 kg) but training frequency did not affect this increase for squat ( p = 0.640) or bench press ( p = 0.431). Both groups showed a significant effect for time on RPE on all three measurements. The analyses showed only an interaction effect between groups on time for the RPE after the squat exercise ( p = 0.002). Conclusion We conclude that there are no additional benefits of increasing the training frequency from two to four sessions under volume-equated conditions, but it could be favorable to spread the total training volume into several training bouts through the week to avoid potential increases in RPE, especially after the squat exercise.
... Whether it is beneficial to achieve greater volume by adding more sets to exercises in a program or by adding different exercises to the same muscle group is currently unknown. A recent study utilizing ten sets of the same exercises in a training program found no advantage in comparison to five sets in trained subjects [61]. If confirmed, this could indicate that high volume should be achieved by incorporation of different exercises rather than performing a high number of sets of the same exercises, although this effect may be different for highly trained individuals or athletes. ...
Article
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Resistance training is the most effective method to increase muscle mass. It has also been shown to promote many health benefits. Although it is deemed safe and of clinical relevance for treating and preventing a vast number of diseases, a time-efficient and minimal dose of exercise has been the focus of a great number of research studies. Similarly, an inverted U-shaped relationship between training dose/volume and physiological response has been hypothesized to exist. However, the majority of available evidence supports a clear dose-response relationship between resistance training volume and physiological responses, such as muscle hypertrophy and health outcomes. Additionally, there is a paucity of data to support the inverted U-shaped response. Although it may indeed exist, it appears to be much more plastic than previously thought. The overarching principle argued herein is that volume is the most easily modifiable variable that has the most evidenced-based response with important repercussions, be these muscle hypertrophy or health-related outcomes.
... These are step taper, linear taper, exponential taper (slow decay) and exponential taper (fast decay). 3.00) ↑ 1RM LP (4.6%, 0.15) ES calculated using SD of the initial value before taper. ...
Thesis
Maximal strength is a physical quality imperative to success in strength sports and can also play a role in enhancing performance within many other sports. Tapering is a reduction in training load frequently undertaken prior to competitions in order to minimise training related fatigue and thus improve athletic performance. There is currently limited research for athletes and coaches to utilise when planning tapering to maximise strength at key events. This thesis investigated how strength-trained men can best structure the taper period to improve strength performance and attempted to identify the mechanisms underlying any performance improvements. Two literature reviews (Chapters Two and Three) were performed to provide background information regarding training for maximal strength and summarise current knowledge on tapering for maximal strength. The literature revealed that maximal strength training should involve high intensity training (>80% one repetition maximum (1RM)), for multiple sets, with at least two sessions per week for each major muscle group. The current literature indicated that reductions in training volume (by 30-70%) with maintained, or slight increases, in intensity were most effective for improving maximal strength. However, optimal magnitudes of change during the taper were unclear. Short periods of training cessation (less than a week) were also found to be effective at enhancing, or maintaining, maximal strength. The first study (Chapter Four) used a qualitative approach to determine strategies currently utilised by 11 elite New Zealand powerlifters (age = 28.4 ± 7.0 years, best Wilks score = 431.9 ± 43.9 points). Athletes reduced training volume by 58.9 ± 8.4%, while maintaining (or slightly reducing) training intensity. The taper lasted 2.4 ± 0.9 weeks, with the final resistance training session 3.7 ± 1.6 days out from competition. Tapering was performed to achieve maximal recovery, and practices were largely informed through trial and error, with changes based upon ‘feel’. Athletes usually removed accessory exercises and focused primarily upon the competition lifts during the taper. The first training study (Chapter Five) involved a cross-over design to determine the effects of two durations, 3.5 or 5.5 days, of training cessation on performance following four-weeks of training. Eight resistance trained males (age = 23.8 ± 5.4 years, bodyweight (BW) = 79.6 ± 10.2 kg, relative deadlift 1RM = 1.90 ± 0.30 times BW) completed the study. Combined data showed significant performance improvements, compared to pre-training, for both countermovement jump (CMJ) height (P = 0.022) and isometric bench press (IBP) relative peak force (P = 0.011) following short term training cessation (both small effect size (ES) = 0.30). This significant improvement was not present on the final training day, showing that training cessation was an effective means of enhancing strength and power. No significant differences were observed between 3.5 and 5.5 days of training cessation for any measure. These results suggest that a short period of strength training cessation can have positive effects on maximal strength expression, perhaps due to decreased neuromuscular fatigue. The second training study (Chapter Six) also had a cross-over design to determine the effects of two variations in intensity (+5% or -10%) during a one week strength taper with volume reductions (-70%), following four-weeks of training. Eleven strength-trained males (age = 21.3 ± 3.3 years, BW = 92.3 ± 17.6 kg, relative 1RM deadlift = 1.90 ± 0.20 times BW) completed the study. Combined data for both groups showed significant improvements in CMJ height over time (P < 0.001), with significant improvements across all time points (pre- to post-training P = 0.010, ES = 0.23; pre-training to post-taper P = 0.001, ES = 0.37; and, post-training to post-taper P = 0.002, ES = 0.14). Combined data for CMJ flight time: contraction time also showed significant improvements over time (P = 0.004), with significant improvements from pre- to post-training (P = 0.012, ES = 0.27). Combined data for isometric mid-thigh pull (MTP) relative peak force showed significant improvements over time (P = 0.033), with significant increases found from pre- to post-training (P = 0.013, ES = 0.25). The higher intensity taper produced small ES improvements following the taper for CMJ height (ES = 0.43), CMJ flight time: contraction time (ES = 0.42) and MTP relative peak force (ES = 0.37). In contrast, the lower intensity taper only produced a small ES improvement for CMJ height (ES = 0.30). However, differences between groups were not significant. These results indicate that a strength taper with volume reductions can have positive effects on maximal strength and power performance, with a tendency for higher intensity tapering to be more effective. This thesis has documented current tapering practices of strength athletes and demonstrated both short term training cessation and volume reduced strength tapers as effective methods of improving maximal strength following training. When tapering, athletes should make substantial training volume reductions with little changes to training intensity. During a taper, training should focus on competition specific strength exercises, and strength training should cease a few days prior to important events.
... In this pilot study, some individuals were able to increase their powerlifting total through a protocol that only incorporated near maximal attempts. There may be a point at which too much exercise volume may lead to performance decrements (58); however, this can likely be avoided as lower volume approaches often lead to similar changes in muscle size and strength as more high volume approaches (60,61). Of course, there were also participants in the Androulakis-Korakakis et al. (56) investigation who decreased their 1RM across the study period. ...
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The periodization of resistance exercise is often touted as the most effective strategy for optimizing muscle size and strength adaptations. This narrative persists despite a lack of experimental evidence to demonstrate its superiority. In addition, the general adaptation syndrome, which provides the theoretical framework underlying periodization, does not appear to provide a strong physiological rationale that periodization is necessary. Hans Selye conducted a series of rodent studies which used toxic stressors to facilitate the development of the general adaptation syndrome. To our knowledge, normal exercise in humans has never been shown to produce a general adaptation syndrome. We question whether there is any physiological rationale that a periodized training approach would facilitate greater adaptations compared with nonperiodized approaches employing progressive overload. The purpose of this article is to briefly review currently debated topics within strength and conditioning and provide some practical insight regarding the implications these reevaluations of the literature may have for resistance exercise and periodization. In addition, we provide some suggestions for the continued advancement within the field of strength and conditioning.
... This poses another limitation, as the athlete would need to invest considerably more time lifting to achieve the same hypertrophy. For instance, the authors cite evidence that up to 15 sets per muscle group per week lead to superior increases in muscle size [4,5]. An athlete training 8 muscle groups per week for 15 sets each would be performing 120 sets; 120 sets of 10 repetitions lasting four seconds each is 80 min. ...
... Por otro lado, dos han sido los estudios que han intentado demostrar la eficacia de volumen de entrenamiento del denominado método alemán o German Volume Training (GVT) o 10x10 (10 series de 10 repeticiones) en sujetos entrenados en comparación a un protocolo de 5x10 en los aumentos de masa muscular. En ambos,(Amirthalingam et al., 2017a) (Hackett et al., 2018) realizar 10 series por ejercicio no supuso mejores resultados que 5. Hay que destacar el hecho de que, en ambos, el volumen por grupo muscular y semana para el grupo que realizó el entrenamiento de volumen alemán fue de entre 10-14 series, ya que realizaban ejercicios accesorios a parte del entrenamiento de 10x10 con el objetivo de, según los autores, mejorar la adherencia al programa de entrenamiento.Se podría intuir entonces que, aunque las series semanales sean la variable más importante de cara a la hipertrofia, existe un límite de volumen a partir del cual los resultados empiezan a ser peores. No obstante, la importancia del volumen de entrenamiento se manifiesta indudablemente por el hecho de que cuando esta variable se iguala, variaciones en la intensidad(Morton et al., 2016) o frecuencia de entrenamiento(Brad J Schoenfeld, Ratamess, Peterson, Contreras, & Tiryaki-Sonmez, 2015) no suponen diferencias tanto en masa muscular como en fuerza. ...
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Variables de influencia en el proceso de hipertrofia en adultos sanos y su importancia en la elaboración de programas de entrenamiento
... Although some evidence points to optimal volumes at ;30+ sets per muscle group per week (4,22,25), other evidence indicates peak magnitudes in hypertrophy at 6-18 sets, with no further increases at higher volumes (12,19). Most problematic is in some research where 14-28 sets produced no hypertrophy from baseline, compared with positive outcomes in groups performing 9-18 weekly sets per muscle group (1,9). ...
... The fact that the participants of the MAX group performed only single-set, single-repetition sets with high loads throughout the entire training intervention might have allowed them to become better at performing that specific task as seen in previous research looking at repeated 1RM tests as a mean of increasing strength [9]. Literature supports the idea that increases in strength can be achieved with both high and low volumes of training [14][15][16] but there is currently very little data on powerlifters and specifically the 'daily max' method. Zourdos et al. [4], is the only study that looked at something similar to a 'daily max' protocol but as previously mentioned it investigated only the SQ and its participants trained with a very high training frequency. ...
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The present study looked to examine reduced volume ‘daily max’ (near max loads) training compared to higher volume periodized training in powerlifters preparing for competition. Ten competitive powerlifters were split into 2 groups (MAX group and PER group) and participated in a 10-week training intervention either following a “daily max” training protocol or a traditional periodized training protocol while preparing for competition. All participants underwent 1RM testing for squat (SQ), bench press (BP) and deadlift (DL) prior to the 10-week intervention. The MAX group performed single sets of single repetitions using a load equating to an RPE rating of 9–9.5 while the PER group performed higher volume periodized training with loads ranging from 70%1RM up to 93%1RM as well as a taper at the final weeks of the training intervention. Both groups were tested after the 10-week training intervention at the Greek IPF-affiliate National Championships. In the PER group, powerlifting (PL) total increased for P1 and P3 by 2% and 6.5% respectively while P2 experienced no change. In the MAX group PL total increased for P1 and P2 by 4.8% and 4.2% respectively while it decreased by 0.5%, 3.4% and 5% for P3, P4 and P5 respectively. In the MAX group peri PL total increased for P1–4 by 3.6%, 4.2%, 4.5% and 1.8% respectively while it decreased by 1.2% for P5. The results of this pilot study show that single-set, single-rep, RPE based ‘daily max’ training may be a favorable strategy for some beginner-intermediate powerlifters preparing for competition while it may lead to performance decreases for others. Further, it suggests that performance may be comparable to traditional periodized training during shorter training cycles, though future work with larger samples is needed to further test this. Practically ‘daily max’ training may be useful for PL athletes looking to maintain strength during periods with limited training time available.
... For strength and power athletes, completing high repetition sets will inevitably lead to training with lower loads. This could, in turn, mute pathways associated with desired hypertrophic adaptations and produce unwanted training effects such as increased type I fCSA [78,79]. In a metaanalysis by Grgic and Schoenfeld [80], it was suggested that high-load training emphasizes type II muscle hypertrophy [81], whereas low-load stimulates greater growth of type I muscle fibers [82,83]. ...
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While strength is indeed a skill, most discussions have primarily considered structural adaptations rather than ultrastructural augmentation to improve performance. Altering the structural component of the muscle is often the aim of hypertrophic training, yet not all hypertrophy is equal; such alterations are dependent upon how the muscle adapts to the training stimuli and overall training stress. When comparing bodybuilders to strength and power athletes such as powerlifters, weightlifters, and throwers, while muscle size may be similar, the ability to produce force and power is often inequivalent. Thus, performance differences go beyond structural changes and may be due to the muscle's ultrastructural constituents and training induced adaptations. Relative to potentiating strength and power performances, eliciting specific ultrastructural changes should be a variable of interest during hypertrophic training phases. By focusing on task-specific hypertrophy, it may be possible to achieve an optimal amount of hypertrophy while deemphasizing metabolic and aerobic components that are often associated with high-volume training. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to briefly address different types of hypertrophy and provide directions for practitioners who are aiming to achieve optimal rather than maximal hypertrophy, as it relates to altering ultrastructural muscular components, to potentiate strength and power performance.
... Participants could choose to complete the 1RM tests for the bench press or squat first, with the deadlift being the last exercise completed. The 1RM test involved a protocol that has previously been used by the researchers [18,19]. For each exercise, a thorough warmup was conducted which involved performing repetitions at light loads and then progressing to heavier loads. ...
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Background Powerlifting exercises are commonly performed by athletes and recreational trainers for increasing muscle strength. Increased performance for these exercises may promote beneficial outcomes, especially in terms of bone health. The aim of this study was to examine whether powerlifting exercise performance and muscle mass indices are associated with bone mineral density. Methods Fifty-one males (median age 24.0 years) with resistance training experience (median 5.0 years) performed one-repetition maximum tests for the bench press, squat and deadlift. Muscle mass indices and bone mineral density were assessed via a whole-body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan. Stronger and weaker participants were directly compared for fat-free mass, lean mass and bone mineral density. Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient analyses were used to determine whether powerlifting exercise performance is related with muscle mass indices and bone mineral density. Results Stronger participants had greater fat-free mass, appendicular lean mass, and bone density (p < 0.01). For all muscle mass indices (e.g., fat-free mass and appendicular lean mass) there were small to strong positive relationships found with bone mineral density (rs = 0.28–0.65; p < 0.05). Small to strong relationships were found between powerlifting exercise performance and bone mineral density for the majority of regions (rs = 0.29–0.65, p < 0.05). Powerlifting exercise performance was not related with leg bone mineral density. Conclusion Focusing on improving powerlifting exercise performance and muscle mass appears to be beneficial for improving bone mineral density in young men. However, since this was a cross-sectional study causality cannot be established.
... The SST session consisted of eight repetitions (of 85% of 1-RM) to failure, i.e., inability to complete a higher the volume of training, the longer the hypotensive effect, 6 others have suggested that high-and low-volume training have similar effects on BP. 11 More advanced methods of RT have been developed over years, such as the German volume training (GVT) [13][14][15] and the sarcoplasm stimulating training (SST), 16,17 but no effect of these programs on BP have been reported so far. Thus, the objective of this study is to assess the acute response of BP to different methods of RT in trained individuals. ...
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Background Resistance training is used in different exercise programs, with different objectives and different levels of physical fitness. Training-related variables, such as volume, rest time and intensity, can affect the response of blood pressure (BP), but studies on the effect of these variables on BP are still needed. Objective To evaluate the acute response of BP in trained individuals undergoing two different methods of resistance training. Methods The sample was divided into three groups: (1) the German volume training (GVT) (n= 15), which consisted of 10 series of 10 repetitions at 50% of 1-repetition maximum (RM) with intervals of 30 seconds; (2) the sarcoplasm stimulating training (SST) (n= 16), performed at 8 RM and 85% of 1-RM and interval of 10 seconds until failure, followed by removal of 20% of weight and repetition of the whole series (total of three sets), and the control group (CG) (n= 15) who underwent BP measurements only. The two-way repeated measures ANOVA was used for analysis of variations, and a p< 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results In the within-group analysis, a significant lowering of systolic blood pressure (SBP) was found at 10 minutes (125.4±10.8 mmHg, p= 0.045) and 20 minutes (124.5±8.5 mmHg, p= 0.044) post-training compared with immediately after training. In the between-group comparison, higher SBP values were observed immediately after training in the SST group (142.1±28.2, p= 0.048) compared with the CG. Conclusion High-volume and high-intensity resistance training programs did not cause abnormal changes in blood pressure. (Int J Cardiovasc Sci. 2021; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)
... German Volume Training (GVT) is a popular strategy employed by bodybuilders to break through plateaus and avoid training monotony, although its effectiveness in this regard remains questionable [10,11]. The GVT method involves performing 10 sets of 10 repetitions at~60% 1-RM with limited rest periods between sets (~20e30 s). ...
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Bodybuilding is a sport in which competitors’ physiques are judged on their muscular size, symmetry, and leanness, as displayed in a number of different poses. In the pre-competitive period, bodybuilders attempt to reduce body fat stores as much as possible while maintaining fat-free mass (FFM). This is achieved via a sustained negative energy balance, generally induced by a combination of decreased energy intake and increased energy expenditure. This study aimed to assess the ability of bodybuilders to resist fatigue during resistance exercise based German Volume Training (GVT), as well as the affective response after carbohydrate refeed following four weeks of moderate or severe energy restriction. Eleven male bodybuilders (28.4 ± 2.3 years old) with experience in competitions were randomized into two groups: Moderate Energy Restriction (MER; n=6) or Severe Energy Restriction (SER; n=5). On the 2nd day (during energy restriction) and 7th day (during refeed) of the fourth week, both groups completed two leg press protocols involving the GVT method. After the first and last workout protocol subjects were assessed for muscle soreness using the visual-analog scale (VAS), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), affective response, lactate, and creatine kinase. Anthropometric analysis indicated that a reduction of 3.7 and 3.2% in body mass corresponded to a loss of 16.0 and 17.6% of fat mass for the MER and SER groups, respectively, with both groups maintaining FFM. Blood CK and VAS values were reduced only in SER. Our results suggest that a carbohydrate refeed may help to attenuate the perception of muscle soreness and maintain exercise performance, especially when severe energy restriction is combined with an intense training protocol such as GVT.
... Resistance training (RT) is an important way to intervene in health by improving muscle efficiency (Benito et al., 2020), causing muscle hypertrophy (Schoenfeld et al., 2019), and also enhancing all organic physiology (Amirthalingam, 2017;Vianna et al., 2014). Thus, studies important direct indicators to make the activity more efficient for any individual or group that comes to practice them (ACSM, 2011;Fragala et al., 2019). ...
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Acute hemodynamic responses are not different for mono and multiarticular exercises for the same muscle group As respostas hemodinâmicas agudas não são diferentes para exercícios mono e multiarticulares para o mesmo grupo muscular Las respuestas hemodinámicas agudas no son diferentes para ejercicios de articulaciones únicas y multiarticulares para el mismo grupo de músculos Abstract Introduction: Different mechanical behaviors in resistance training can result in certain changes in the cardiovascular system. Objective: To verify the acute behavior of the main cardiovascular variables (heart rate, blood pressure, and double product) when performing resistance training with mono and multiarticular exercises. Methods: 10 male subjects participated in the study (26 ± 4 years; 81 ± 6 kg; 1.77 ± 2 m; 23 ± 1 kg / m2). They performed a test and retest for 8RM in the bench press and crucifix exercises on the machine. After the loads were outlined, they performed the intervention with the exercises, initially with a monoarticular activation containing two sets of 12 repetitions with 50% of the load acquired in the 8RM test of each exercise, using an interval of 60 seconds between one set and another. Additionally, three sets of 8 repetitions (80% 8RM) were performed with an interval between sets of 120 seconds. The execution speed was determined at a moderate level (2s for concentric, 2s for eccentric). It was measured before and during (series 1, series two, and series 3. Named as moments) heart rate exercises using POLAR, model RS800CX Multisport® and blood pressure using OMRON M6 (HEM-7001-E) ®. Then, the double product was calculated using the formula [HR (bpm) X SBP (mmHg)]. Results: In the heart rate analysis, there was an intra-condition difference for moments 1, 2, and 3 compared to rest (p <0.000). In the inter-condition comparison, no differences were observed for rest (p = 0.994) and for moments 1, 2 and 3 (p> 0.999). In systolic blood pressure, intra-conditions, differences were observed for moments 1, 2, and 3 compared to rest (p <0.000). In the inter-condition Research, Society and Development, v. 10, n. 8, e41310817002, 2021 (CC BY 4.0) | ISSN 2525-3409 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v10i8.17002 2 comparisons, there were no differences between rest (p> 0.999), moment 1 (p = 0.714), 2 (p = 0.999) and 3 (p> 0.999). For diastolic blood pressure, intra conditions, for bench press no significant differences were found for moments 1 (p = 0.331), 2 (p = 0.505) and 3 (p = 0.505) when compared to rest. In the same way it was for the crucifix, wherein the comparison with rest, no difference was observed in moments 1 (p = 0.849), 2 (p = 0.195) and 3 (p = 0.105). In the same sense, no difference was also observed in the comparisons between conditions for rest (p> 0.999), moment 1 (p = 0.999), 2 (p = 0.989) and 3 (p = 0.948). Finally, the double product in intra-condition comparisons found differences between moments 1, 2, and 3 compared to rest (p <0.000). However, in the inter-condition comparisons, no difference was observed at rest (p = 0.999), moment 1 (p = 0.868), 2 and 3 (p> 0.999). Conclusion: It is suggested that resistance training composed of mono and multi-joint exercises offers differences in hemodynamic responses but without differences between the types of mechanics applied by the exercises. Therefore, these results offer a partiality of what can happen with heart rate, blood pressure, and double product. Resumo Introdução Diferentes comportamentos mecânicos no treinamento resistido pode resultar em determinadas alterações no sistema cardiovascular. Objetivo: Verificar o comportamento agudo das principais variáveis cardiovasculares (Frequência cardíaca, pressão arterial e duplo produto) na realização de treinamento resistido com exercícios mono e multiarticulares. Metodos: 10 indivíduos do sexo masculino participaram do estudo (26±4 years; 81±6 kg; 1,77±2 m; 23±1 kg/m 2). Realizaram teste e reteste para 8RM nos exercícios supino reto e crucifixo na máquina. Após o delineamento das cargas, realizaram a intervenção com os exercícios, inicialmente com uma ativação mioarticular contento 2 séries de 12 repetições com 50% da carga adquirida no teste de 8RM de cada exercício, utilizando um intervalo de 60 segundos entre uma série e outra. Adicionalmente, foram realizadas 3 séries de 8 repetições (80% 8RM) com intervalo entre séries de 120 segundos. A velocidade de execução foi determinada em nível moderado (2s para concêntrica, 2s para excêntrica). Foi medida antes e durante (série 1, série 2 e série 3. Nomeadas como momentos) os exercícios a frequência cardíaca utilizando POLAR, modelo RS800CX Multisport ® e a pressão arterial usando o OMRON M6 (HEM-7001-E) ®. Adiante, foi calculado o duplo produto através da fórmula [HR (bpm) X SBP (mmHg)]. Resultados: Na análise da frequência cardíaca, houve diferença intra condições para os momentos 1, 2 e 3 quando comparado com repouso (p<0.000). Na comparação inter condições não foi observado diferenças para rest (p=0.994) e para os momentos 1, 2 e 3 (p>0.999). Na pressão arterial sistólica, intra condições, foi observado diferenças para os momentos 1, 2 e 3 quando comparados com repouso (p<0.000). Nas comparações inter condições, não foram observadas diferenças entre repouso (p>0.999), momento 1 (p=0.714), 2 (p=0.999) e 3 (p>0.999). Para pressão arterial diastólica, intra condições, para supino reto não foram encontradas diferenças significativas para os momentos 1 (p=0.331), 2 (p=0.505) e 3 (p=0.505) quando comparado com repouso. Da mesma forma foi para o crucifixo, onde na comparação com repouso, nenhuma diferença foi observada nos momentos 1 (p=0.849), 2 (p=0.195) e 3 (p=0.105). No mesmo sentido, nenhuma diferença também não foi observada nas comparações inter condições para repouso (p>0.999), momento 1 (p=0.999), 2 (p=0.989) e 3 (p=0.948). Por fim, o duplo produto nas comparações intra condições foram encontradas diferenças para os momentos 1, 2 e 3 quando comparados com o repouso (p<0.000). Mas, nas comparações inter condições, nenhuma diferença foi observada em repouso (p=0.999), momento 1 (p=0.868), 2 e 3 (p>0.999). Conclusão: Sugere-se que o treinamento resistido composto por exercícios uni e multi articular oferecem diferenças nas respostas hemodinâmicas, porém sem diferenças entres os tipos de mecânicas aplicadas pelos exercícios. Portanto, estes resultados oferecem uma parcialidade do que pode acontecer com a frequência cardíaca, pressão arterial e duplo produto. Palavras-chave: Treinamento resistido; Biomecânica; Frequência cardíaca; Pressão arterial; Duplo produto. Resumen Introducción Diferentes comportamientos mecánicos en el entrenamiento de resistencia pueden resultar en ciertos cambios en el sistema cardiovascular. Objetivo: Verificar el comportamiento agudo de las principales variables cardiovasculares (frecuencia cardíaca, presión arterial y doble producto) en el entrenamiento de resistencia con ejercicios uni y multiarticulares. Métodos: participaron 10 individuos del sexo masculino (26 ± 4 años; 81 ± 6 kg; 1,77 ± 2 m; 23 ± 1 kg / m2). Realizaron una prueba y una nueva prueba de 8RM en los ejercicios de press de banca y crucifijo en la máquina. Tras delimitar las cargas, realizaron la intervención con los ejercicios, inicialmente con una activación mioarticular conteniendo 2 series de 12 repeticiones con el 50% de la carga adquirida en el test 8RM de cada ejercicio, utilizando un intervalo de 60 segundos entre una serie y otra.. Además, se realizaron 3 series de 8 repeticiones (80% 8RM) con un intervalo entre series de 120 segundos. La velocidad de ejecución se determinó a un nivel moderado (2 s para concéntrico, 2 s para excéntrico). La frecuencia cardíaca con el modelo POLAR RS800CX Multisport® y la presión arterial con el OMRON M6 (HEM-7001-E) ® se midieron antes y durante (serie 1, serie 2 y serie 3. Nombrados como momentos). A continuación, se calculó el producto doble usando la fórmula [HR (lpm) X PAS (mmHg)]. Resultados: En el análisis de la frecuencia cardíaca, hubo una diferencia dentro de las condiciones para los momentos 1, 2 y 3 en comparación con el reposo (p <0,000). En la comparación entre condiciones, no se observaron diferencias para el reposo (p = 0,994) y para los momentos 1, 2 y 3 (p> 0,999). En la presión arterial sistólica, intracondiciones, se observaron diferencias para los momentos 1, 2 y 3 cuando se comparó con el reposo (p Research, Society and Development, v. 10, n. 8, e41310817002, 2021 (CC BY 4.0) | ISSN 2525-3409 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v10i8.17002 3 <0,000). En las comparaciones entre condiciones, no se observaron diferencias entre reposo (p> 0,999), momento 1 (p = 0,714), 2 (p = 0,999) y 3 (p> 0,999). Para la presión arterial diastólica, intracondiciones, para press de banca, no se encontraron diferencias significativas para los momentos 1 (p = 0.331), 2 (p = 0.505) y 3 (p = 0.505) al compararlos con el reposo. Lo mismo ocurrió con el crucifijo, donde en comparación con el reposo, no se observó diferencia en los momentos 1 (p = 0,849), 2 (p = 0,195) y 3 (p = 0,105). Del mismo modo, no se observó diferencia en las comparaciones entre las condiciones de reposo (p> 0,999), momento 1 (p = 0,999), 2 (p = 0,989) y 3 (p = 0,948). Finalmente, el producto doble en las comparaciones intra-condición se encontraron diferencias para los momentos 1, 2 y 3 en comparación con el reposo (p <0,000). Pero, en las comparaciones entre condiciones, no se observaron diferencias en reposo (p = 0,999), momento 1 (p = 0,868), 2 y 3 (p> 0,999). Conclusión: Se sugiere que el entrenamiento de resistencia consistente en ejercicios uni y multiarticulares ofrece diferencias en las respuestas hemodinámicas, pero sin diferencias entre los tipos de mecánicas aplicadas por los ejercicios. Por lo tanto, estos resultados ofrecen una parcialidad de lo que puede suceder con la frecuencia cardíaca, la presión arterial y el doble producto.
... In this sense, it is known that more fatigue produced by resistance training will not always induce more strength gains (Pareja-Blanco et al. 2017, which means that the same stimulus to get stronger was provoked when less fatigue occurred. About hypertrophy measurements, although higher training volume is associated with higher muscle gains (Krieger 2010;Schoenfeld et al. 2017aSchoenfeld et al. , 2019a, it has been shown that there is a volume threshold from which more training volume does not mean more muscle gains, or even less muscle gains (Amirthalingam et al. 2017;Heaselgrave et al. 2019). Knowing that more training volume provoke more fatigue (Bartolomei et al. 2017), these results demonstrate that more fatigue does not always cause more muscle growth. ...
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Resistance training is frequently performed with the goal of stimulating muscle hypertrophy. Due to the key roles motor unit recruitment and mechanical tension play to induce muscle growth, when programming, the manipulation of the training variables is oriented to provoke the correct stimulus. Although it is known that the nervous system is responsible for the control of motor units and active muscle force, muscle hypertrophy researchers and trainers tend to only focus on the adaptations of the musculotendinous unit and not in the nervous system behaviour. To better guide resistance exercise prescription for muscle hypertrophy and aiming to delve into the mechanisms that maximize this goal, this review provides evidence-based considerations for possible effects of neural behaviour on muscle growth when programming resistance training, and future neurophysiological measurement that should be tested when training to increase muscle mass. Combined information from the neural and muscular structures will allow to understand the exact adaptations of the muscle in response to a given input (neural drive to the muscle). Changes at different levels of the nervous system will affect the control of motor units and mechanical forces during resistance training, thus impacting the potential hypertrophic adaptations. Additionally, this article addresses how neural adaptations and fatigue accumulation that occur when resistance training may influence the hypertrophic response and propose neurophysiological assessments that may improve our understanding of resistance training variables that impact on muscular adaptations.
... 4-6 sets per exercise were optimal for maximizing hypertrophic training effects. Further, muscle gains plateau and may even regress due to overtraining [49]. ...
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The plateau effect in training is a significant obstacle for professional athletes and average subjects. It evolves from both the muscle-nerve-axis-associated performance and various cardiorespiratory parameters. Compensatory adaptation mechanisms contribute to a lack of continuous improvement with most exercise regimens. Attempts to overcome this plateau in exercise have been only partially successful, and it remains a significant unmet need in both healthy subjects and those suffering from chronic neuromuscular, cardiopulmonary, and metabolic diseases. Variability patterns characterize many biological processes, from cellular to organ levels. The present review discusses the significant obstacles in overcoming the plateau in training and establishes a platform to implement subject-tailored variability patterns to prevent and overcome this plateau in muscle and cardiorespiratory performance.
... Another study found no significant differences in fat-free mass increases when training with 8 sets versus 4 sets or 1 set, although the mean results indicated better results with 8 sets to failure [50]. A recent study found that performing 14 sets had smaller improvements in hypertrophy and strength compared to 8 sets per muscle group (muscle training frequency once per week) [51], while another one found that only 5 sets resulted in increases of strength compared to a 10 sets protocol [52]. Thus, the results of this study, especially for 3 and 5 sets are in agreement with the literature. ...
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Increases in strength and muscle mass can be achieved with weight training and adequate recovery (including nutrition and sleep). The time course of recovery and adaptation (super-compensation) for different number of sets has not been adequately investigated in the literature. A 40-year-old well-trained male exercised the chest with (a) 3 sets of bench press, (b) 5 sets of bench press, (c) 5 sets of bench press and 4 sets of dips, all to momentary concentric muscular failure during a 6 months body split program. The recovery was assessed by comparing the number of repetitions of the first bench press set to the previous training session. The results showed that with 3 and 5 sets to failure adaptation (+1 repetition) took place after 5 days. 9 sets needed 7 days for recovery and no adaptation took place. The adaptation was faster when exercising the chest without training the back and/or legs, indicating that Selye's adaptation energy (resources potential) might be applicable to weight training as well. Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and motivation (mood) were found to be useful indexes of recovery. Implications on training volume and frequency and how the findings can be applied in practice are discussed.
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Baz-Valle, E, Fontes-Villalba, M, and Santos-Concejero, J. Total number of sets as a training volume quantification method for muscle hypertrophy: A systematic review. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-This review aimed to determine whether assessing the total number of sets is a valid method to quantify training volume in the context of hypertrophy training. A literature search on 2 databases (PubMed and Scopus) was conducted on May 18, 2018. After analyzing 2,585 resultant articles, studies were included if they met the following criteria: (a) studies were randomized controlled trials, (b) studies compared the total number of sets, repetition range, or training frequency, (c) interventions lasted at least 6 weeks, (d) subjects had a minimum of 1 year of resistance training experience, (e) subjects' age ranged from 18 to 35 years, (f) studies reported morphologic changes through direct or indirect assessment methods, (g) studies involved participants with no known medical conditions, and (h) studies were published in peer-reviewed journals. Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria. According to the results of this review, the total number of sets to failure, or near to, seems to be an adequate method to quantify training volume when the repetition range lies between 6 and 20+ if all the other variables are kept constant. This approach requires further development to assess whether specific numbers of sets are key to inducing optimal muscle gains.
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The manipulation of resistance training (RT) variables is widely considered an essential strategy to maximize muscular adaptations. One variable that has received substantial attention in this regard is RT volume. This paper provides evidence-based guidelines as to volume when creating RT programs designed to maximize muscle hypertrophy.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate sex differences in fatigability and recovery from resistance exercise. Male and female subjects with at least one year of bench press experience (N = 21 males and 21 females) performed a fatigue protocol consisting of barbell bench press with 75% 1RM loads for sets of 5 repetitions, with 90 seconds between sets, until concentric failure. Recovery was monitored for the subsequent 72 hours using subjective ratings of soreness and estimated 1RM strength derived from load-velocity profiles. The female subjects completed more reps during the fatigue protocol (Females: 58.3 ± 27.3; Males: 29.6 ± 10.6; p = 0.0001), but post-training soreness and recovery of estimated 1RM strength did not significantly differ between sexes. Results suggest that women fatigue slower than men during multiple sets of bench press, and can recover from training at a similar rate despite completing a larger relative workload.
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Abstract There has been much debate as to optimal loading strategies for maximising the adaptive response to resistance exercise. The purpose of this paper therefore was to conduct a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials to compare the effects of low-load (≤60% 1 repetition maximum [RM]) versus high-load (≥65% 1 RM) training in enhancing post-exercise muscular adaptations. The strength analysis comprised 251 subjects and 32 effect sizes (ESs), nested within 20 treatment groups and 9 studies. The hypertrophy analysis comprised 191 subjects and 34 ESs, nested with 17 treatment groups and 8 studies. There was a trend for strength outcomes to be greater with high loads compared to low loads (difference = 1.07 ± 0.60; CI: -0.18, 2.32; p = 0.09). The mean ES for low loads was 1.23 ± 0.43 (CI: 0.32, 2.13). The mean ES for high loads was 2.30 ± 0.43 (CI: 1.41, 3.19). There was a trend for hypertrophy outcomes to be greater with high loads compared to low loads (difference = 0.43 ± 0.24; CI: -0.05, 0.92; p = 0.076). The mean ES for low loads was 0.39 ± 0.17 (CI: 0.05, 0.73). The mean ES for high loads was 0.82 ± 0.17 (CI: 0.49, 1.16). In conclusion, training with loads ≤50% 1 RM was found to promote substantial increases in muscle strength and hypertrophy in untrained individuals, but a trend was noted for superiority of heavy loading with respect to these outcome measures with null findings likely attributed to a relatively small number of studies on the topic.
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Regimented resistance training has been shown to promote marked increases in skeletal muscle mass. Although muscle hypertrophy can be attained through a wide range of resistance training programs, the principle of specificity, which states that adaptations are specific to the nature of the applied stimulus, dictates that some programs will promote greater hypertrophy than others. Research is lacking, however, as to the best combination of variables required to maximize hypertophic gains. The purpose of this study was to investigate muscular adaptations to a volume-equated bodybuilding-type training program versus a powerlifting-type routine in well-trained subjects. 17 young men were randomly assigned to either an HT group that performed 3 sets of 10RM with 90 seconds rest or an ST group that performed 7 sets of 3RM with 3 minutes rest. After 8 weeks, no significant differences were noted in muscle thickness of the biceps brachii. Significant strength differences were found in favor of ST for the 1RM bench press and a trend was found for greater increases in the 1RM squat. In conclusion, this study showed both bodybuilding- and powerlifting-type training promote similar increases in muscular size, but powerlifting-type training is superior for enhancing maximal strength.
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Protein timing is a popular dietary strategy designed to optimize the adaptive response to exercise. The strategy involves consuming protein in and around a training session in an effort to facilitate muscular repair and remodeling, and thereby enhance post-exercise strength- and hypertrophy-related adaptations. Despite the apparent biological plausibility of the strategy, however, the effectiveness of protein timing in chronic training studies has been decidedly mixed. The purpose of this paper therefore was to conduct a multi-level meta-regression of randomized controlled trials to determine whether protein timing is a viable strategy for enhancing post-exercise muscular adaptations. The strength analysis comprised 478 subjects and 96 ESs, nested within 41 treatment or control groups and 20 studies. The hypertrophy analysis comprised 525 subjects and 132 ESs, nested with 47 treatment or control groups and 23 studies. A simple pooled analysis of protein timing without controlling for covariates showed a small to moderate effect on muscle hypertrophy with no significant effect found on muscle strength. In the full meta-regression model controlling for all covariates, however, no significant differences were found between treatment and control for strength or hypertrophy. The reduced model was not significantly different from the full model for either strength or hypertrophy. With respect to hypertrophy, total protein intake was the strongest predictor of ES magnitude. These results refute the commonly held belief that the timing of protein intake in and around a training session is critical to muscular adaptations and indicate that consuming adequate protein in combination with resistance exercise is the key factor for maximizing muscle protein accretion.
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This study examined the effects of different volumes of resistance training on muscle size and function over a 10-wk period. Low volume = 3 sets per muscle group per week; moderate = 6 sets; high = 12 sets. Twenty-seven men with 1-4 yrs weight training experience were randomly assigned to the different training volumes and trained 4 days a week. A periodized routine was used; exercises, training intensity, and number of training days were the same for each group. The only variation between conditions was the number of sets per exercise. Pre and post measurements assessed muscular size via ultrasound; strength via maximum squat and bench press; and power via vertical jump and bench press throw. Urinary concentrations of test-osterone and cortisol were also analyzed to assess the responses to training conditions. All 3 training volumes significantly (p < 0.05) increased muscle size, strength, and upper body power, with no significant between-group differences. There were no significant changes in hormonal concentrations. The results support the use of low volume training for muscular development over a 10-wk period. (C) 1997 National Strength and Conditioning Association
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The quest to increase lean body mass is widely pursued by those who lift weights. Research is lacking, however, as to the best approach for maximizing exercise-induced muscle growth. Bodybuilders generally train with moderate loads and fairly short rest intervals that induce high amounts of metabolic stress. Powerlifters, on the other hand, routinely train with high-intensity loads and lengthy rest periods between sets. Although both groups are known to display impressive muscularity, it is not clear which method is superior for hypertrophic gains. It has been shown that many factors mediate the hypertrophic process and that mechanical tension, muscle damage, and metabolic stress all can play a role in exercise-induced muscle growth. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is twofold: (a) to extensively review the literature as to the mechanisms of muscle hypertrophy and their application to exercise training and (b) to draw conclusions from the research as to the optimal protocol for maximizing muscle growth.
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Previous meta-analyses have compared the effects of single to multiple sets on strength, but analyses on muscle hypertrophy are lacking. The purpose of this study was to use multilevel meta-regression to compare the effects of single and multiple sets per exercise on muscle hypertrophy. The analysis comprised 55 effect sizes (ESs), nested within 19 treatment groups and 8 studies. Multiple sets were associated with a larger ES than a single set (difference = 0.10 +/- 0.04; confidence interval [CI]: 0.02, 0.19; p = 0.016). In a dose-response model, there was a trend for 2-3 sets per exercise to be associated with a greater ES than 1 set (difference = 0.09 +/- 0.05; CI: -0.02, 0.20; p = 0.09), and a trend for 4-6 sets per exercise to be associated with a greater ES than 1 set (difference = 0.20 +/- 0.11; CI: -0.04, 0.43; p = 0.096). Both of these trends were significant when considering permutation test p values (p < 0.01). There was no significant difference between 2-3 sets per exercise and 4-6 sets per exercise (difference = 0.10 +/- 0.10; CI: -0.09, 0.30; p = 0.29). There was a tendency for increasing ESs for an increasing number of sets (0.24 for 1 set, 0.34 for 2-3 sets, and 0.44 for 4-6 sets). Sensitivity analysis revealed no highly influential studies that affected the magnitude of the observed differences, but one study did slightly influence the level of significance and CI width. No evidence of publication bias was observed. In conclusion, multiple sets are associated with 40% greater hypertrophy-related ESs than 1 set, in both trained and untrained subjects.
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There has been considerable debate over the optimal number of sets per exercise to improve musculoskeletal strength during a resistance exercise program. The purpose of this study was to use hierarchical, random-effects meta-regression to compare the effects of single and multiple sets per exercise on dynamic strength. English-language studies comparing single with multiple sets per exercise, while controlling for other variables, were considered eligible for inclusion. The analysis comprised 92 effect sizes (ESs) nested within 30 treatment groups and 14 studies. Multiple sets were associated with a larger ES than a single set (difference = 0.26 +/- 0.05; confidence interval [CI]: 0.15, 0.37; p < 0.0001). In a dose-response model, 2 to 3 sets per exercise were associated with a significantly greater ES than 1 set (difference = 0.25 +/- 0.06; CI: 0.14, 0.37; p = 0.0001). There was no significant difference between 1 set per exercise and 4 to 6 sets per exercise (difference = 0.35 +/- 0.25; CI: -0.05, 0.74; p = 0.17) or between 2 to 3 sets per exercise and 4 to 6 sets per exercise (difference = 0.09 +/- 0.20; CI: -0.31, 0.50; p = 0.64). There were no interactions between set volume and training program duration, subject training status, or whether the upper or lower body was trained. Sensitivity analysis revealed no highly influential studies, and no evidence of publication bias was observed. In conclusion, 2 to 3 sets per exercise are associated with 46% greater strength gains than 1 set, in both trained and untrained subjects.
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It is widely believed that women experience less skeletal muscle hypertrophy consequent to heavy-resistance training than men. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesis using both traditional indirect indicators as well as a direct measure of muscle size. Seven male experimental (ME), 8 female experimental (FE), and 7 control subjects were studied before and after a 16-wk weight training program, in which ME and FE trained 3 days.wk-1 at 70 to 90% of maximum voluntary contraction using exercise designed to produce hypertrophy of the upper arm and thigh. Strength increased significantly (P less than 0.05) in ME and FE, respectively, on elbow flexion (36.2 and 59.2%), elbow extension (32.6 and 41.7%), knee flexion (12.8 and 24.4%), and knee extension (28.8 and 33.9%) tests. Absolute changes were significantly greater in ME than FE in 2 of the 4 tests, whereas percentage changes were not significantly different. Substantial muscle hypertrophy occurred in the upper arms of both ME and FE as evidenced by significant increases in upper arm circumference (7.9 and 7.9%), bone-plus-muscle (B+M) cross-sectional area (CSA) estimated by anthropometry (17.5 and 20.4%), and muscle CSA determined from computed tomography scanning (15.9 and 22.8%). Changes by ME and FE were not significantly different, except for the absolute increase in estimated B+M CSA, which was significantly greater in ME (11.2 vs 7.4 cm2). No muscle hypertrophy occurred in the thigh of either ME and FE as evidenced by non-significant changes in thigh circumference (1.7 and 2.3%), B+M CSA (4.9 and 6.1%), and muscle CSA (2.9 and 2.9%). Changes by ME and FE in body weight, fat-free weight, and fat weight were not significant.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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To use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to validate estimates of muscle and adipose tissue (AT) in lower limb sections obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) modelling. MRI measurements were used as reference for validating limb muscle and AT estimates obtained by DXA models that assume fat-free soft tissue (FFST) comprised mainly muscle: model A accounted for bone hydration only; model B also applied constants for FFST in bone and skin and fat in muscle and AT; model C was as model B but allowing for variable fat in muscle and AT. Healthy men (n = 8) and women (n = 8), ages 41-62y; mean (s.d.) body mass indices (BMIs) of 28.6 (5.4) kg/m2 and 25.1 (5.4) kg/m2, respectively. MRI scans of the legs and whole body DXA scans were analysed for muscle and AT content of thigh (20 cm) and lower leg (10 cm) sections; 24h creatinine excretion was measured. Model A overestimated thigh muscle volume (MRI mean, 2.3 l) substantially (bias 0.36 l), whereas model B underestimated it by only 2% (bias 0.045 l). Lower leg muscle (MRI mean, 0.6 l) was better predicted using model A (bias 0.04 l, 7% overestimate) than model B (bias 0.1 l, 17% underestimate). The 95% limits of agreement were high for these models (thigh, +/-20%; lower leg, +/-47%). Model C predictions were more discrepant than those of model B. There was generally less agreement between MRI and all DXA models for AT. Measurement variability was generally less for DXA measurements of FFST (coefficient of variation 0.7-1.8%) and fat (0.8-3.3%) than model B estimates of muscle (0.5-2.6%) and AT (3.3-6.8%), respectively. Despite strong relationships between them, muscle mass was overestimated by creatinine excretion with highly variable predictability. This study has shown the value of DXA models for assessment of muscle and AT in leg sections, but suggests the need to re-evaluate some of the assumptions upon which they are based.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the immunohistochemical expression of androgen receptors (AR) in human vastus lateralis and trapezius muscles and to determine whether long-term strength training and self-administration of androgenic-anabolic steroids are accompanied by changes in AR content. Biopsy samples were taken from eight high-level power-lifters (P), nine high-level power-lifters who used anabolic steroids (PAS) and six untrained subjects (U). Myonuclei and AR were visualised in cross-sections stained with the monoclonal antibody against AR and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole. The proportion of AR-containing myonuclei per fibre cross-section was higher in the trapezius than in the vastus lateralis (P<0.05). In the trapezius, the proportion of AR-containing myonuclei was higher in P compared to U and in PAS compared to both P and U (P<0. 05). On the contrary, in the vastus lateralis, there were no differences in AR content between the three groups. Myonuclear number in both muscles was higher in P compared to U and in PAS compared to both P and U (P<0.05). In conclusion, AR content differs greatly between human neck and limb muscles. Moreover, the regulation of AR-containing myonuclei following training and self-administration of androgenic-anabolic steroids is muscle dependent.
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Using ultrasound, muscle thickness and fascicle angles from aponeurosis were evaluated before, during and after 20 days bed rest (BR). Subjects were healthy adults (4 women and 4 men). Measurements were carried out before and after BR and after 10 weeks of recovery, respectively. Muscle measurements were taken at nine sites in trunk and upper and lower extremities, respectively. For the m. triceps brachii, m. vastus lateralis, and m. gastrocnemius medialis, fascicle angles from the aponeurosis as well as muscle thickness were measured. There was a high statistical significant correlation between muscle thickness and cross-sectional area for quadriceps muscles, suggesting applicability of muscle thickness for evaluation of muscle size. Muscle thickness decreased in muscles of the lower extremity by 2.1-4.4 % after bed rest. In triceps brachii and vastus lateralis muscles, there were no prominent changes in muscle thickness and fascicle angles. It was concluded that muscle morphology deteriorates with changes in muscle architecture by bed rest but the response is small and muscle-specific. It was also suggested that bed rest affects not only muscle mass but muscle tone as well.
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Public health guidelines primarily focus on the promotion of physical activity and steady-state aerobic exercise, which enhances cardiorespiratory fitness and has some impact on body composition. However, research demonstrates that resistance exercise training has profound effects on the musculoskeletal system, contributes to the maintenance of functional abilities, and prevents osteoporosis, sarcopenia, lower-back pain, and other disabilities. More recent seminal research demonstrates that resistance training may positively affect risk factors such as insulin resistance, resting metabolic rate, glucose metabolism, blood pressure, body fat, and gastrointestinal transit time, which are associated with diabetes, heart disease, and cancer. Research also indicates that virtually all the benefits of resistance training are likely to be obtained in two 15- to 20-min training sessions a week. Sensible resistance training involves precise controlled movements for each major muscle group and does not require the use of very heavy resistance. Along with brief prescriptive steady-state aerobic exercise, resistance training should be a central component of public health promotion programs.
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Although there are well documented protective health benefits conferred by regular physical activity, most individuals of all ages are not physically active at a level for sufficient maintenance of health. Consequently, a major public health goal is to improve the collective health and fitness levels of all individuals. The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and other international organisations have established guidelines for comprehensive exercise programmes composed of aerobic, flexibility and resistance-exercise training. Resistance training is the most effective method available for maintaining and increasing lean body mass and improving muscular strength and endurance. Furthermore, there is an increasing amount of evidence suggesting that resistance training may significantly improve many health factors associated with the prevention of chronic diseases. These health benefits can be safely obtained by most segments of the population when prescribed appropriate resistance-exercise programmes. Resistance-training programmes should be tailored to meet the needs and goals of the individual and should incorporate a variety of exercises performed at a sufficient intensity to enhance the development and maintenance of muscular strength and endurance, and lean body mass. A minimum of 1 set of 8 to 10 exercises (multi-joint and single joint) that involve the major muscle groups should be performed 2 to 3 times a week for healthy participants of all ages. More technical and advanced training including periodised multiple set regimens and/or advanced exercises may be more appropriate for individuals whose goals include maximum gains in strength and lean body mass. However, the existing literature supports the guidelines as outlined in this paper for children and adults of all ages seeking the health and fitness benefits associated with resistance training.
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The popularity of resistance training has grown immensely over the past 25 years, with extensive research demonstrating that not only is resistance training an effective method to improve neuromuscular function, it can also be equally effective in maintaining or improving individual health status. However, designing a resistance training programme is a complex process that incorporates several acute programme variables and key training principles. The effectiveness of a resistance training programme to achieve a specific training outcome (i.e. muscular endurance, hypertrophy, maximal strength, or power) depends on manipulation of the acute programme variables, these include: (i) muscle action; (ii) loading and volume; (iii) exercise selection and order; (iv) rest periods; (v) repetition velocity; and (vi) frequency. Ultimately, it is the acute programme variables, all of which affect the degree of the resistance training stimuli, that determine the magnitude to which the neuromuscular, neuroendocrine and musculoskeletal systems adapt to both acute and chronic resistance exercise. This article reviews the available research that has examined the application of the acute programme variables and their influence on exercise performance and training adaptations. The concepts presented in this article represent an important approach to effective programme design. Therefore, it is essential for those involved with the prescription of resistance exercise (i.e. strength coaches, rehabilitation specialists, exercise physiologists) to acquire a fundamental understanding of the acute programme variables and the importance of their practical application in programme design.
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Purpose: This study aimed to ascertain whether training-induced muscle hypertrophy is accompanied by an increase in the aponeurosis width, and to infer its impact on the training-induced increase in the pennation angle. Methods: Eleven young men completed a resistance training program of unilateral knee extensions for 12 weeks. Before and after training, anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSA) of the vastus lateralis and its distal aponeurosis width in the transverse plane were measured with magnetic resonance imaging. The pennation angle and fascicle length were also determined with ultrasonography at the midbelly of the muscle. The effect of change in aponeurosis width on the magnitude of training-induced increase in pennation angle was estimated by using a parallelepipedon model. Results: After the training, there were significant increases in ACSA (10.7 ± 7.6 %), pennation angle (10.8 ± 7.3 %) and aponeurosis width (1.9 ± 3.1 %), whereas no significant change was found in the fascicle length. The model simulation shows that the increase in aponeurosis width by 1.9 % reduces the magnitude of increase in pennation angle by only 0.4°. Conclusions: These results indicate that (1) the aponeurosis width of the vastus lateralis increases after 12 weeks of resistance training and (2) the increase in the aponeurosis width accompanying muscle hypertrophy by the amount of ~10 % does not substantially affect the increase in pennation angle.
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Objectives: Sonography of muscle architecture provides physicians and researchers with information about muscle function and muscle-related disorders. Inter-rater reliability is a crucial parameter in daily clinical routines. The aim of this study was to assess the inter-rater reliability of sonographic muscle architecture assessments and quantification of errors that arise from inconsistent probe positioning and image interpretation. Methods: The medial gastrocnemius muscle of 15 healthy participants was measured with sagittal B-mode ultrasound scans. The muscle thickness, fascicle length, superior pennation angle, and inferior pennation angle were assessed. The participants were examined by 2 investigators. A custom-made foam cast was used for standardized positioning of the probe. To analyze inter-rater reliability, the examinations of both raters were compared. The impact of probe positioning was assessed by comparison of foam cast and freehand scans. Error arising from picture interpretation was assessed by comparing the investigators' analyses of foam cast scans independently. Reliability was expressed as the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), inter-rater variability (IRV), Bland-Altman analysis (bias ± limits of agreement [LoA]), and standard error of measurement (SEM). Results: Inter-rater reliability was good overall (ICC, 0.77-0.90; IRV, 9.0%-13.4%; bias ± LoA, 0.2 ± 0.2-1.7 ± 3.0). Superior and inferior pennation angles showed high systematic bias and LoA in all setups, ranging from 2.0° ± 2.2° to 3.4° ± 4.1°. The highest IRV was found for muscle thickness (13.4%). When the probe position was standardized, the SEM for muscle thickness decreased from 0.1 to 0.05 cm. Conclusions: Sonographic examination of muscle architecture of the medial gastrocnemius has good to high reliability. In contrast to pennation angle measurements, length measurements can be improved by standardization of the probe position.
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Effect size helps readers understand the magnitude of differences found, whereas statistical significance examines whether the findings are likely to be due to chance. Both are essential for readers to understand the full impact of your work. Report both in the Abstract and Results sections.
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Purpose: Muscle hypertrophy in response to resistance training has been reported to occur nonuniformly along the length of the muscle. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the regional difference in muscle hypertrophy induced by a training intervention corresponds to the regional difference in muscle activation in the training session. Methods: Twelve young men participated in a training intervention program for the elbow extensors with a multijoint resistance exercise for 12 wk (3 d · wk(-1)). Before and after the intervention, cross-sectional areas of the triceps brachii along its length were measured with magnetic resonance images. A series of transverse relaxation time (T2)-weighted magnetic resonance images was recorded before and immediately after the first session of training intervention. The T2 was calculated for each pixel within the triceps brachii. In the images recorded after the session, the number of pixels with a T2 greater than the threshold (mean + 1 SD of T2 before the session) was expressed as the ratio to the whole number of pixels within the muscle and used as an index of muscle activation (percent activated area). Results: The percent activated area of the triceps brachii in the first session was significantly higher in the middle regions than that in the most proximal region. Similarly, the relative change in cross-sectional area induced by the training intervention was also significantly greater in the middle regions than the most proximal region. Conclusion: The results suggest that nonuniform muscle hypertrophy after training intervention is due to the region-specific muscle activation during the training session.
Article
Bodybuilding involves performing a series of poses on stage where the competitor is judged on aesthetic muscular appearance. The purpose of this study was to describe training practices and ergogenic aids used by competitive bodybuilders, and to determine whether training practices comply with current recommendations for muscular hypertrophy. A web-based survey was completed by 127 competitive male bodybuilders. The results showed that during the off-season phase of training (OFF), the majority of respondents performed 3-6 sets per exercise (95.3%), 7-12 repetition maximum (RM) per set (77.0%) and 61-120 s recovery between sets and exercises (68.6%). However, training practices changed 6-weeks prior to competition (PRE), where there was an increased number of respondents who reported undertaking 3-4 sets per exercise at the expense of 5-6 sets per exercise (P < 0.001); an increase in the number reporting 10-15RM per set from 7-9RM per set (P < 0.001); and an increase in the number reporting 30-60 s versus 61-180 s recovery between sets and exercises (P < 0.001). Anabolic steroid use was high among respondents competing in amateur competitions (56 out of 73 respondents), while dietary supplementation was used by all respondents. The findings of this study demonstrate that competitive bodybuilders comply with current resistance exercise recommendations for muscular hypertrophy; however these changed prior to competition during which there is a reduction in volume and intensity. This alteration, in addition to an increase in aerobic exercise volume is purportedly used to increase muscle definition. However, these practices may increase the risk of muscle mass loss in natural compared to amateur bodybuilders who reportedly use drugs known to preserve muscle mass.
Article
Ultrasound (US) technique was applied to measure the thickness, crosssectional area (CSA), and internal structure of the quadriceps muscle ih 70-to 80-year-old endurance and power athletes and untrained men. Isometric knee extension strength was higher in the power athletes than in the other groups. The mean values for thickness and CSA did not differ between the athletes and the untrained men. The intensity of the intramuscula echo was, however, lower and the echo reflected from the connective tissue septa and bone was higher in the athletes than in the untrained men. Both the CSA and internal structure of the muscle group correlated signifjaayntly with muscle strength and number of training kilometers per year. The resuits suggest that long-term training maintains the muscle architecture and counteracts the age-related replacement of contractile tissue by other tissues such as fat.
Article
The purpose of this study was to compare serum growth hormone (GH), testosterone (T), cortisol (C), and whole blood lactate (L) responses to single set (1S) versus multiple set (3S) heavy-resistance exercise protocols. Eight recreationally weight-trained men completed two identical resistance exercise workouts (1S vs. 3S). Blood was obtained preexercise (PRE), immediately postexercise (OP), and 5 min (5P), 15 min (15P), 30 min (30P) and 60 min (60P) postexercise and was analyzed for GH, T, C, and L levels. For 1S and 3S, GH, L, and T significantly increased from PRE to OP and remained significantly elevated to 60P, except for 1S. For GH, T, and L, 3S showed significantly greater increases compared to 1S. For C, 3S and 1S were increased significantly from resting at OP, 5P, and 15P; 3S increased compared to 1S at 5P, 15P and 30P. Higher volumes of total work produce significantly greater increases in circulating anabolic hormones during the recovery phase following exercise.
Article
The optimal volume of resistance exercise to prescribe for trained individuals is unclear. The purpose of this study was to randomly assign resistance trained individuals to 6-weeks of squat exercise, prescribed at 80% of a 1 repetition-maximum (1-RM), using either one, four, or eight sets of repetitions to failure performed twice per week. Participants then performed the same peaking program for 4-weeks. Squat 1-RM, quadriceps muscle activation, and contractile rate of force development (RFD) were measured before, during, and after the training program. 32 resistance-trained male participants completed the 10-week program. Squat 1-RM was significantly increased for all groups after 6 and 10-weeks of training (P < 0.05). The 8-set group was significantly stronger than the 1-set group after 3-weeks of training (7.9% difference, P < 0.05), and remained stronger after 6 and 10-weeks of training (P < 0.05). Peak muscle activation did not change during the study. Early (30, 50 ms) and peak RFD was significantly decreased for all groups after 6 and 10-weeks of training (P < 0.05). Peak isometric force output did not change for any group. The results of this study support resistance exercise prescription in excess of 4-sets (i.e. 8-sets) for faster and greater strength gains as compared to 1-set training. Common neuromuscular changes are attributed to high intensity squats (80% 1-RM) combined with a repetition to failure prescription. This prescription may not be useful for sports application owing to decreased early and peak RFD. Individual responsiveness to 1-set of training should be evaluated in the first 3-weeks of training.
Article
The time course of strength gain with respect to the contributions of neural factors and hypertrophy was studied in seven young males and eight females during the course of an 8 week regimen of isotonic strength training. The results indicated that neural factors accounted for the larger proportion of the initial strength increment and thereafter both neural factors and hypertrophy took part in the further increase in strength, with hypertrophy becoming the dominant factor after the first 3 to 5 weeks. Our data regarding the untrained contralateral arm flexors provide further support for the concept of cross education. It was suggested that the nature of this cross education effect may entirely rest on the neural factors presumably acting at various levels of the nervous system which could result in increasing the maximal level of muscle activation.
Article
Ultrasound (US) technique was applied to measure the thickness, cross-sectional area (CSA), and internal structure of the quadriceps muscle in 70- to 80-year-old endurance and power athletes and untrained men. Isometric knee extension strength was higher in the power athletes than in the other groups. The mean values for thickness and CSA did not differ between the athletes and the untrained men. The intensity of the intramuscular echo was, however, lower and the echo reflected from the connective tissue septa and bone was higher in the athletes than in the untrained men. Both the CSA and internal structure of the muscle group correlated significantly with muscle strength and number of training kilometers per year. The results suggest that long-term training maintains the muscle architecture and counteracts the age-related replacement of contractile tissue by other tissues such as fat.
Article
Neuromuscular and hormonal adaptations to prolonged strength training were investigated in nine elite weight lifters. The average increases occurred over the 2-yr follow-up period in the maximal neural activation (integrated electromyogram, IEMG; 4.2%, P = NS), maximal isometric leg-extension force (4.9%, P = NS), averaged concentric power index (4.1%, P = NS), total weight-lifting result (2.8%, P less than 0.05), and total mean fiber area (5.9%, P = NS) of the vastus lateralis muscle, respectively. The training period resulted in increases in the concentrations of serum testosterone from 19.8 +/- 5.3 to 25.1 +/- 5.2 nmol/l (P less than 0.05), luteinizing hormone (LH) from 8.6 +/- 0.8 to 9.1 +/- 0.8 U/l (P less than 0.05), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) from 4.2 +/- 2.0 to 5.3 +/- 2.3 U/l (P less than 0.01), and testosterone-to-serum sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) ratio (P less than 0.05). The annual mean value of the second follow-up year for the serum testosterone-to-SHBG ratio correlated significantly (r = 0.84, P less than 0.01) with the individual changes during the 2nd yr in the averaged concentric power. The present results suggest that prolonged intensive strength training in elite athletes may influence the pituitary and possibly hypothalamic levels, leading to increased serum levels of testosterone. This may create more optimal conditions to utilize more intensive training leading to increased strength development.
Article
Overtraining is defined as an increase in training volume and/or intensity of exercise resulting in performance decrements. Recovery from this condition often requires many weeks or months. A shorter or less severe variation of overtraining is referred to as overreaching, which is easily recovered from in just a few days. Many structured training programmes utilise phases of overreaching to provide variety of the training stimulus. Much of the scientific literature on overtraining is based on aerobic activities, despite the fact that resistance exercise is a large component of many exercise programmes. Chronic resistance exercise can result in differential responses to overtraining depending on whether either training volume or training intensity is excessive. The neuroendocrine system is a complex physiological entity that can influence many other systems. Neuroendocrine responses to high volume resistance exercise overtraining appear to be somewhat similar to overtraining for aerobic activities. On the other hand, excessive resistance training intensity produces a distinctly different neuroendocrine profile. As a result, some of the neuroendocrine characteristics often suggested as markers of overtraining may not be applicable to some overtraining scenarios. Further research will permit elucidation of the interactions between the neuroendocrine system and other physiological systems in the aetiology of performance decrements from overtraining.
Strength gains with resistance training are due to muscle hypertrophy and nervous system adaptations. The contribution of either factor may be related to the complexity of the exercise task used during training. The purpose of this investigation was to measure the degree to which muscle hypertrophy contributes to gains in strength during exercises of varying complexity. Nineteen young women resistance trained twice a week for 20 weeks, performing exercises designed to provide whole-body training. The lean mass of the trunk, legs and arms was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and compared to strength gains (measured as the 1-repetition maximum) in bench press, leg press and arm curl exercises, pre-, mid- (10 weeks) and post-training. No changes were found in a control group of ten women. For the exercise group, increases in bench press, leg press and arm curl strength were significant from pre- to mid-, and from mid- to post-training (P < 0.05). In contrast, increases in the lean mass of the body segments used in these exercises followed a different pattern. Increases in the lean mass of the arms were significant from pre- to mid-training, while increases in the lean mass of the trunk and legs were delayed and significant from mid- to post-training only (P < 0.05). It is concluded that a more prolonged neural adaptation related to the more complex bench and leg press movements may have delayed hypertrophy in the trunk and legs. With the simpler arm curl exercise, early gains in strength were accompanied by muscle hypertrophy and, presumably, a faster neural adaptation.
Article
The aim of the study was to examine the accuracy of fan-beam dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) for measuring total body fat-free mass (FFM) and leg muscle mass (MM) in elderly persons. Participants were 60 men and women aged 70-79 yr and with a body mass index of 17.5-39.8 kg/m(2). FFM and MM at four leg regions were measured by using DEXA (Hologic 4500A, v8.21). A four-compartment body composition model (4C) and multislice computed tomography (CT) of the legs were used as the criterion methods for FFM and MM, respectively. FFM by DEXA was positively associated with FFM by 4C (R(2) = 0.98, SE of estimate = 1.6 kg). FFM by DEXA was higher [53.5 +/- 12.0 (SD) kg] than FFM by 4C (51.6 +/- 11.9 kg; P < 0.001). No association was observed between the difference and the mean of the two methods. MM by DEXA was positively associated with CT at all four leg regions (R(2) = 0.86-0.96). MM by DEXA was higher than by CT in three regions. The results of this study suggest that fan-beam DEXA offers considerable promise for the measurement of total body FFM and leg MM in elderly persons.
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate the time course of skeletal muscle adaptations resulting from high-intensity, upper and lower body dynamic resistance training (WT). A group of 17 men and 20 women were recruited for WT, and 6 men and 7 women served as a control group. The WT group performed six dynamic resistance exercises to fatigue using 8-12 repetition maximum (RM). The subjects trained 3 days a week for 12 weeks. One-RM knee extension (KE) and chest press (CP) exercises were measured at baseline and at weeks 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 for the WT group. Muscle thickness (MTH) was measured by ultrasound at eight anatomical sites. One-RM CP and KE strength had increased significantly at week 4 for the female WT group. For the men in the WT group, 1 RM had increased significantly at week 2 for KE and at week 6 for CP. The mean relative increases in KE and CP strength were 19% and 19% for the men and 19% and 27% for the women, respectively, after 12 weeks of WT. Resistance training elicited a significant increase in MTH of the chest and triceps muscles at week 6 in both sexes. There were non-significant trends for increases in quadriceps MTH for the WT groups. The relative increases in upper and lower body MTH were 12%-21% and 7%-9% in the men and 10%-31% and 7%-8% in the women respectively, after 12 weeks of WT. These results would suggest that increases in MTH in the upper body are greater and occur earlier compared to the lower extremity, during the first 12 weeks of a total body WT programme. The time-course and proportions of the increase in strength and MTH were similar for both the men and the women.
Article
The objective of the study was to determine the precision of total- and regional-body composition measurements from a total-body scan using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). This is critical information necessary to determine the smallest change from baseline that could be detected with statistical significance when conducting longitudinal measurements of body composition variables in an individual. Twenty volunteers were scanned once each day for 4 consecutive days using a Lunar DPX-L densitometer and manufacturer-supplied software (version 1.3z). Coefficients of variation (CV, %) derived from data using the (preferred) extended research mode of analysis were 0.62, 1.89, 0.63, 2.0, 1.11, 1.10, and 1.09% for total-body bone mineral density (BMD), total percentage fat, total body tissue mass, fat mass, lean mass, bone mineral content (BMC), and total bone calcium, respectively. Regional measurements (arm, leg, trunk, pelvis, and spine) were less precise than total body measurements, with CVs in the range of 1% to 3% (but fat mass for arms was 4.26%, trunk 3.08%, BMC 3.65%). Small but statistically significant differences in mean values for most body composition variables were found when data were compared between extended and standard modes of analysis. Inconsistent use of analysis mode in a cohort or when following a patient longitudinally may negatively affect precision. We conclude that the measurement precision of total and regional body composition variables was generally comparable to the precision limits typically associated with lumbar spine and proximal femur BMD data.
Article
The purpose of this study was to compare single and multiple sets of weight training for strength gains in recreationally trained individuals. Sixteen men (age = 21 +/- 2.0) were randomly assigned to 1 set (S-1; n = 8) or 3 set (S-3; n = 8) groups and trained 3 days per week for 12 weeks. One repetition maximum (1RM) was recorded for bench press and leg press at pre-, mid-, and posttest. Subjects trained according to daily undulating periodization (DUP), involving the bench press and leg press exercises between 4RM and 8RM. Training intensity was equated for both groups. Analysis of variance with repeated measures revealed statistically significant differences favoring S-3 in the leg press (p < 0.05, effect size [ES] = 6.5) and differences approaching significance in the bench press (p = 0.07, ES = 2.3). The results demonstrate that for recreationally trained individuals using DUP training, 3 sets of training are superior to 1 set for eliciting maximal strength gains.
Article
Progression in resistance training is a dynamic process that requires an exercise prescription process, evaluation of training progress, and careful development of target goals. The process starts with the determination of individual needs and training goals. This involves decisions regarding questions as to what muscles must be trained, injury prevention sites, metabolic demands of target training goals, etc. The single workout must then be designed reflecting these targeted program goals including the choice of exercises, order of exercise, amount of rest used between sets and exercises, number of repetitions and sets used for each exercise, and the intensity of each exercise. For progression, these variables must then be varied over time and the exercise prescription altered to maintain or advance specific training goals and to avoid overtraining. A careful system of goal targeting, exercise testing, proper exercise technique, supervision, and optimal exercise prescription all contribute to the successful implementation of a resistance training program.
Article
We compared muscle thickness, torque, normalized torque (torque/muscle thickness), and power at 1.05 rad/s and 3.14 rad/s in flexor and extensor muscles of the elbow and knee, and in ankle plantar flexors in young (n = 22, 18–31 years) and older (n = 28, 59–76 years) men. Young men had greater muscle thickness for all muscle groups (p <.01), except elbow extensors, which were similar to older men. Young men had greater torque and power at both velocities for all muscle groups (p <.01), and greater normalized torque at both velocities for the elbow extensors and knee flexors and at the fast velocity for knee extensors. Relative to young mean values, muscle thickness, and torque, normalized torque, and power in the older group were most affected for lower-body measurements, especially at the fast velocity. Torque, normalized torque, and power (especially at fast velocities), and muscle thickness in the lower body are affected more by aging than are upper body measures in men.
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of 11 wk of resistance training to failure vs. nonfailure, followed by an identical 5-wk peaking period of maximal strength and power training for both groups as well as to examine the underlying physiological changes in basal circulating anabolic and catabolic hormones. Forty-two physically active men were matched and then randomly assigned to either a training to failure (RF; n = 14), nonfailure (NRF; n = 15), or control groups (C; n = 13). Muscular and power testing and blood draws to determine basal hormonal concentrations were conducted before the initiation of training (T0), after 6 wk of training (T1), after 11 wk of training (T2), and after 16 wk of training (T3). Both RF and NRF resulted in similar gains in 1-repetition maximum bench press (23 and 23%) and parallel squat (22 and 23%), muscle power output of the arm (27 and 28%) and leg extensor muscles (26 and 29%), and maximal number of repetitions performed during parallel squat (66 and 69%). RF group experienced larger gains in the maximal number of repetitions performed during the bench press. The peaking phase (T2 to T3) after NRF resulted in larger gains in muscle power output of the lower extremities, whereas after RF it resulted in larger gains in the maximal number of repetitions performed during the bench press. Strength training leading to RF resulted in reductions in resting concentrations of IGF-1 and elevations in IGFBP-3, whereas NRF resulted in reduced resting cortisol concentrations and an elevation in resting serum total testosterone concentration. This investigation demonstrated a potential beneficial stimulus of NRF for improving strength and power, especially during the subsequent peaking training period, whereas performing sets to failure resulted in greater gains in local muscular endurance. Elevation in IGFBP-3 after resistance training may have been compensatory to accommodate the reduction in IGF-1 to preserve IGF availability.
The effect of protein timing on muscle strength and hypertrophy: a meta-analysis Effects of different volume-equated resistance training loading strategies on muscular adaptations in well-trained men
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