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Red list of threatened species. Version 2013.2 <www.iucnredlist.org

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... These changes have important ecological consequences for urban habitats. The loss of significant populations of various species and entire habitats in urban and peri-urban environments has been documented by many researchers [1,2, 3,4]. ...
... The phosphate concentration was determined using calibration curves. 3 and HCl) at a ratio of 3:1 until a transparent solution was obtained. They were then connected to the atomic absorption spectrometer for the detection of the various concentrations of the heavy metals. ...
Article
Aims: This study was aimed at determining the ecological health of two roadside streams across the Tiko-Douala highway, Cameroon, and investigating the phytoremediation potentials of dominant aquatic macrophytes within these streams. Study Design: Water, sediments, and aquatic plant samples were collected from Camp 7 and Moqouo streams, and analyzed for ammonium nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, phosphates, magnesium, cadmium, and lead, including other relevant water quality parameters. Place and Duration of Study: In the Life Science Laboratory of the University of Buea, and Soil and Water Laboratory of the University of Dschang, Cameroon between June 2021 and June 2022. Methodology: Six water samples and six sediment samples were collected per stream, and two of the most dominant plant species (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach (Poaceae) and Dicanthelium clandestinum L. (Poaceae) from Camp 7, Commelina benghalensis L. (Commelinaceae) and Oldenlandia corymbosa L.(Rubiaceae) from Moqouo stream) were collected for heavy metal analysis. Heavy metal concentration and bioaccumulation factors were determined for each plant. Results: High concentrations of phosphates were recorded in Camp 7 (1.19 mg/L) and Moqouo (2.17 mg/L) streams. Dissolved oxygen levels were 0.69 mg/L and 0.80 mg/L in Camp 7 and Moqouo respectively. Sediment cadmium levels ranged from 0.33± 0.02 to 0.63± 0.16 mg/kg, and lead ranged from 0.34 ±0.03 to 0.37 ± 0.12 mg/kg in Moqouo and Camp 7 respectively. Conclusion: The Mouqouo and Camp 7 streams are rich in phosphates and thus not suitable for drinking and irrigation. Cadmium and lead in stream water were within the permissible limits but sediments contained higher concentrations than water and therefore they could be released gradually into the water column. All plants in the study except (Dicanthelium cladestinum) accumulated cadmium and lead, and could be potential plants for the phytoremediation of these metals.
... Although E. itajara populations started to recover in US waters due to a 30-year moratorium, in other parts of the Atlantic, despite legislation, poaching and/or a total lack of enforcement continued (Giglio et al., 2014;IUCN, 2018). The species is presently classified as "vulnerable" in the current global assessment (IUCN, 2018) due to recovery observed in part of its range, while population trends in a large part of its distribution are uncertain, including in Brazil, Cuba, Mexico, and Belize. ...
... Although E. itajara populations started to recover in US waters due to a 30-year moratorium, in other parts of the Atlantic, despite legislation, poaching and/or a total lack of enforcement continued (Giglio et al., 2014;IUCN, 2018). The species is presently classified as "vulnerable" in the current global assessment (IUCN, 2018) due to recovery observed in part of its range, while population trends in a large part of its distribution are uncertain, including in Brazil, Cuba, Mexico, and Belize. The "Threatened" conservation status may attract research attention to a species, making it a priority for the application of research funds (Parsons, 2016), while fishing bans can hamper the opportunity to collect fisheriesdependent data. ...
Article
Here, we investigate the evolution of scientific literature on the Goliath grouper (Epinephelus itajara), the largest grouper species in the Atlantic. This species was considered threatened according to the IUCN for nearly three decades due to overfishing and has been protected from fishing in a large part of its range. For the purpose of evaluating the scientific production on an endangered species banned from fishing, we present a scientometry and synthesis review analyzing the literature produced in the timeline and their studies content. To this end, we set up an almost 60‐year literary database through the Scopus, Web of Science and Google Academic platforms. We analyze the publication and knowledge area patterns over the time in the world and in Brazil. We also feature the main areas, locations, ecosystems and types of those researches and briefly describing the main records found in each decade. An increase in the number of publications was observed from the 1990s onwards worldwide, and particularly in Brazil from the 2000s, coinciding with the pioneering legislations for species protection. Most of the studies were classified within ecology and conservation and took place in countries that implemented moratoriums and had extensive areas of mangroves. Thus, fishing moratorium, classification as endangered, mangroves distribution and conservation all play a role in the studies distribution and contribute positively for the knowledge as well as supporting conservation strategies for the species and its ecosystems of occurrence.
... Abundance of a species in an area is largely dependent upon a suitable habitat having all the resources required for its survival and reproduction (Whittaker et al. 1973;Krausman 1999). Ibises were included under the order Pelecaniformes and the family Threskiornithidae of class Aves (IUCN 2016) which includes the averagesized waders having a probing type downwardly curved beak (Hancock et al. 2001;IUCN 2016). Black-headed Ibis Threskiornis melanocephalus and Red-naped Ibis Pseudibis papillosa are the most widely distributed species of northern and western India (Hancock et al. 2001;Ali & Ripley 2007;BirdLife International 2012). ...
... Abundance of a species in an area is largely dependent upon a suitable habitat having all the resources required for its survival and reproduction (Whittaker et al. 1973;Krausman 1999). Ibises were included under the order Pelecaniformes and the family Threskiornithidae of class Aves (IUCN 2016) which includes the averagesized waders having a probing type downwardly curved beak (Hancock et al. 2001;IUCN 2016). Black-headed Ibis Threskiornis melanocephalus and Red-naped Ibis Pseudibis papillosa are the most widely distributed species of northern and western India (Hancock et al. 2001;Ali & Ripley 2007;BirdLife International 2012). ...
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The Black-headed Ibis and Red-naped Ibis are large wading birds of the order Pelecaniformes. This study documents abundance and threats affecting both species at Dighal, Gochhi, and Chhochhi villages located in Jhajjar district, Haryana, India. Field visits were made twice a month at each site from October 2020 to September 2021. Dighal had proportionately the largest populations of both species. Black-headed Ibis were most abundant in wetlands and Red-naped Ibis in agricultural areas. Populations of both species did not vary among seasons. Major threats observed included dumping of solid waste, fishing, growth of weeds, release of untreated sewage, collisions with transmission lines, grazers (e.g., cattle and goats), and stray dogs. The findings of this study suggest that despite having sizable populations near Dighal, both species face major threats and conservation efforts will require monitoring and management of ibis habitat.
... Nowadays, WLP persist only in 21 % of their historical distribution range, and the increasing local extinctions in several countries have driven the IUCN to raise its category from "near threatened" to "vulnerable", and to consider the species as "high risk of extinction in the wild" since 2012 (IUCN, 2022). In recent decades, serological studies in wild peccaries have evidenced the presence of infectious diseases that could impair their health and population dynamics (De Castro et al., 2014;Karesh et al., 1998;Morales et al., 2017;Romero Solorio, 2010), including diseases usually present in domestic livestock (Herrera et al., 2008;Freitas et al., 2009). ...
Article
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Infectious diseases are increasingly emerging and spreading globally, ending up being considered a threat to biodiversity. In the Amazon region, repeated disappearance episodes of local populations of white-lipped peccaries have been reported during the last decades. These population crashes remain poorly understood, but current knowledge suggests a potential role of infectious diseases. We conducted a systematic quantitative literature review on infectious diseases affecting suiform species in the Amazon region, analyzing the current knowledge on the topic, and identifying health threats for peccaries. We found that information on the health status of free-ranging peccaries in the Amazon region is scarce, geographically uneven, and mostly cross-sectional. We recommend working with local communities and using alternative participatory sampling methodologies to address the logistical problem of working in this wilderness setting. Furthermore, we emphasize the importance of developing studies with broader geographical coverage and multidisciplinary approaches, especially in areas where episodes of disappearance of white-lipped peccaries have already been observed.
... Four threatened atelin primates occur in the Yungas Peruanas: Tschudi's woolly monkey, Lagothrix lagothricha tschudii Pucheran, 1857 (Data Deficient on the IUCN List of Threatened Species); the yellow-tailed woolly monkey, Lagothrix flavicauda (Humboldt, 1812) (Critically Endangered); the white-bellied spider monkey, Ateles belzebuth É. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1806 (Endangered); and the black-faced black spider monkey, Ateles chamek (Humboldt, 1812) (Endangered) (Aquino and Encarnación 1994;Shanee et al. 2013aShanee et al. , 2013bShanee and Shanee 2018a;Peru, MINAGRI 2014;Aquino et al. 2015aAquino et al. , 2017bAquino et al. , 2020IUCN 2020). Lagothrix flavicauda was included on the list of the 25 most threatened primate species in 2000 and from 2006 to 2012 (Mittermeier et al. 2012). ...
Article
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Most of the primate studies in the montane forests of Peruvian Amazonia have been carried out in its northeastern portion, and most have focused on the yellow-tailed woolly monkey, Lagothrix flavicauda. Information gaps remain for much of the forests in this region and the primate species that are found there. Here we report on a survey of L. flavicauda (Critically Endangered) and the White-bellied Spider Monkey Ateles belzebuth (Endangered) and other primates, particularly to assess the status of their populations and identify the anthropogenic threats they face, in the Peruvian Yungas in the northeast of the Región Amazonas. We collected data to estimate abundance in terms of the number of groups detected and their size and location. A preliminary analysis was also carried out to assess anthropic activities that pose threats to the survival of the populations there. The study was conducted from June to August and October 2018. We carried out surveys along line transects and pre-existing trails in three fragments of primary forest in the villages of Flor de la Viña. Cambiopitec and Vista Alegre. In 334 km of surveying, we observed 13 groups of four species. Lagothrix flavicauda was the most frequently sighted (seven groups) and A. belzebuth the least sighted (one group). The other two species seen were the large-headed capuchin Sapajus apella macrocephalus and the Andean white-fronted capuchin Cebus yuracus. Most of the L. flavicauda groups were seen in forests near the village of Flor de la Viña. The single group of A. belzebuth was seen in Vista Alegre. With the exception of Cambiopitec, primates were sighted in extensive forest fragments. The average group size of L. flavicauda was 7.8 individuals (± 4.2; range 4 to 15). For the other species, the numbers of sightings were insufficient to estimate average size. Accordingly, L. flavicauda showed the highest relative abundance 2.42 indiv./10 km and Sapajus a. macrocephalus was the least abundant 0.84 indiv./10 km in Flor de la Viña. Deforestation for agriculture and livestock farming and hunting were the main threats to the survival of these primates. In general, primate richness, the number and size of groups, and the relative abundance that we recorded were similar to those obtained at other sites with similar human activities in the region. The presence of L. flavicauda and A. belzebuth, considered to be the most vulnerable to habitat disturbance, contributed to the local community's awareness of the importance of forest conservation, mainly in Flor de la Viña. The information obtained on the status of L. flavicauda and other primates will reinforce conservation actions at these sites, particularly Vista Alegre, where there is a Regional Conservation Area. It may also foster other sustainable activities involving the participation of local communities, such as ecotourism and agroforestry.
... From extremely limited reports, however, Menelik's bushbucks are primarily browsers butgrazes occasionally (Dankwa-Wiredu and Euler, 2002). Regardless of lack of detailed information on the range and population estimates, the IUCN status record for the species shows that it is locally fairly abundant with less concerned conservation category (IUCN, 2012).However, complete and reliable estimation of population size, information on habitat preference along its ranges have not been made in Ethiopia because of its furtive behavior (Tefera, 2011). Information available on its ecology and biological details are far from complete and quite patchy as well. ...
... The western long-beaked echidna (Zaglossus bruijnii) and Sir David's long-beaked echidna (Zaglossus attenboroughi) of New Guinea are close relatives of the short-beaked echidna and are classified as critically endangered species (IUCN 2016). Knowledge of behaviour and reproduction of these species is limited, and it is hoped that by unravelling the secrets of the short-beaked echidna, learned methods could be applied to support conservation efforts for these species in their native homeland in future. ...
Article
Successful breeding of short-beaked echidnas (Tachyglossus aculeatus acanthion) occurred at Perth Zoo on eight occasions between 2007 and 2012. Here we report the methods used for monitoring and managing breeding females and their young from hatching through to weaning. Growth and development of the young during burrow-life was quantified through regular weighing and maternal care was monitored using video camera surveillance. All young hatched between early August and mid-September and were deposited in nursery burrows in October–November at 58–63 days of age at an average mass of 295 ± 64.3 g. Mothers suckled their young, on average, every 3.3 ± 1.1 days. Young first emerged from their nursery burrow from mid-January into February at an average 169 ± 21 days of age and weighing 1674 ± 511 g, and reached 3 kg in mass at 348 ± 97 days of age. Sexual maturity of two female offspring was attained at 4 years of age. Our observations of maternal care and development of the captive-bred young are consistent with published observations made on wild echidnas. We suggest that important factors for the successful rearing of captive-bred echidnas are enclosure set-up, daily monitoring, combined with a suitably designed and managed nursery burrow that provides a suitable substrate and microenvironment.
... Hampir setengah dari 22 spesies yang ada dikategorikan terancam punah, dan semua spesies dari burung megapodiidae jumlahnya menurun (Sinclair, 1995). Hingga saat ini burung dari keluarga megapodiidae masuk kedalam red list endanger species dan diperkirakan akan mengalami penurunan jumlah spesies (IUCN, 2016). Penurunan jumlah spesies dari keluarga megapodiidae dikhawatirkan akan mengurangi kelimpahan spesies endemik yang ada. ...
Article
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Gen clock merupakan salah satu gen yang berperan penting dalam mengontrol ritme harian dan perilaku hewan. Beberapa jenis burung memiliki kerentanan terhadap kondisi fisik lingkungan yang berubah-ubah, seperti kelompok burung dari famili megapodiidae. Urutan nukleotida gen target diperoleh dari beberapa spesies Megapodiidae di GenBank dengan kode akses KY762758.1 (Megapodius eremite) dan KY762668.1 (Alectura lathami). Penelitian ini menggunakan metode komputasi, semua data yang diperoleh dihasilkan dari analisis secara in silico urutan nukleotida gen target. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisis beberapa informasi penting, terkait filogenetik dan perkembangan database gen clock pada Megapodiidae di GenBank. Urutan nukleotida gen clock pada Megapodius eremite mempunyai panjang 530 bp, nilai identitas 100 % (530/530), Gaps 0 % (0/530), Strand Plus/Plus, Expect 0.0 dan Skor 961 bits (520). Urutan nukleotida gen clock pada Alectura lathami mempunyai panjang 522 bp, nilai identitas 97 % (514/530), Gaps 1 % (8/530), Strand Plus/Plus, Expect 0.0 dan Skor 894 bits (484). Hasil Run BLAST menggambarkan bahwa informasi sequence gen clock pada Megapodiidae masih sangat jarang dikaji dan diteliti, sehingga informasi dasar terkait gen clock dari sebagian besar spesies kelompok Megapodiidae belum terdaftar di GenBank sehingga hal ini sangat mempengaruhi studi lanjut terkait gen clock pada Megapodiidae yang sangat dibutuhkan untuk keperluan riset-riset selanjutnya dibidang molekuler atau bahkan konservasi.
... The rapid climate change has further aggravated the situation due to unpredictable and extreme weather conditions. The [1,2]. Such a situation has caused an uproar in the scientific community, which is now again diverting its attention to exploit the natural diversity. ...
Article
Physalis minima L. is known to possess numerous medicinal properties and has a potential to be utilized as a fruit plant. But the environment induced variations in biochemical constitution of this plant have not been identified. The present study was carried out for biochemical characterization of different populations of Physalis minima L. plants of Bihar and determine the correlation between medicinal and fruit value of the plant. Nineteen quantitative biochemical parameters were recorded for 70 plants of seven populations. Substantial variations, within and between populations, for all the biochemical characters was observed. The findings indicated the presence of positive and negative correlation within and between the nutritive and medicinal parameters of the plants. The biochemical characters were successfully able to distinguish the populations into different groups. The study thus concludes that the P. minima L. plants which have high medicinal value will also have highly nutritious fruits. It was also ascertained that the biochemical characters can be used as markers to characterize the plants and determine the relatedness between the plants of different regions. The information will thus enable easy selection of the commercially beneficial plants.
... The colour terms and general features follow the Kew Plant Glossary (Beentje 2016). The preliminary conservation status followed the International Union for Conservation of Nature Guidelines (IUCN, 2012(IUCN, , 2019 Diagnosis:-Similar to T. glaziovii, but differs by zygomorphic flowers, perianth tube gibbous and internally densely pilose, annulus surrounded by a prominent star-shaped 6-lobed ornamentation with acute apices, densely pilose, margin ciliate; outer perianth lobes cordate and glabrous ovary with stigma sharply trilobed and densely pilose. ...
Article
A new species of Thismia (Thismiaceae) from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest is described and illustrated. Thismia cordata belongs to T. subg. Ophiomeris sect. Ophiomeris, and is mainly characterized by its flowers zygomorphic with gibbous perianth tube which is densely pilose on the inner surface, annulus surrounded by a prominent star-shaped ornamentation of 6-lobes with apex acute, densely pilose, outer perianth lobes ovate with base cordate, stamens with connective falcate, ovary glabrous, and stigma sharply trilobed, densely pilose. Detailed description, illustrations, notes on distribution, and preliminary conservation assessment are provided below.
... Ringed Seals (Pusa) 12 Harbour seal 13 Spotted Seals (Phoca) 14 Grey Seal (Halichoerus) 15 ، ‫پ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ی‬ ‫تغ‬ ‫رات‬ ‫ا‬ ‫یی‬ ‫رات‬ ‫هوا‬ ‫و‬ ‫آب‬ ‫یی‬ ‫رو‬ ‫ی‬ ‫مح‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ست‬ ‫در‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫یی‬ ‫بس‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ار‬ ‫است‬ ‫دشوارتر‬ . ‫پ‬ ‫تنها‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ها‬ ‫یی‬ ‫مق‬ ‫در‬ ‫ی‬ ‫اس‬ ‫وس‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ممکن‬ ‫است‬ ، ‫که‬ ‫بس‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ار‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫از‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ن‬ ‫پ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ق‬ ‫اساس‬ ‫بر‬ ‫ها‬ ‫ی‬ ‫اس‬ ‫با‬ ‫ت‬ ‫غ‬ ‫یی‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ی‬ ‫است‬ ‫ب‬ ‫انتقال‬ ‫در‬ ‫که‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ها‬ ‫دوره‬ ‫ی‬ ‫قبل‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ی‬ ‫خنال‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ب‬ ‫و‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ی‬ ‫خنال‬ ‫ی‬ ‫داده‬ ...
Conference Paper
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The Caspian seal is the only mammal in the Caspian Sea and an endemic species for these enclosed water ecosystems. The life cycle of the Caspian seal includes three periods: (1) reproductive activities, (2) molting, which occurs in the northern part of the Caspian Sea, and (3) migration and foraging, which occurs in the middle and southern regions of the Caspian Sea. The Caspian Sea, as a closed water ecosystem, is strongly influenced by the amount of incoming water and surface evaporation. During the current century, the level of the lakes is greatly reduced due to the increase in surface temperature and excessive evaporation. According to the pervious researches, the Caspian Sea is one of the critical areas in terms of water level reduction. According to various forecasts, the water level in the Caspian Sea will decrease from 9 to 18 meters by the end of this century. The drastic decrease in the amount of breeding places and haul-out areas outside the water of breeding pinnipeds on the ice of the Northern Hemisphere will continue in this century and will have severe consequences for species such as the Caspian seal and the Baikal seal that live in closed water ecosystems. In conclusion, it can be concluded that due to global climate changes and the subsequent loss or reduction of the area of the fertile and productive northern plateau of the Caspian Sea, as well as the winter sea ice, the challenges of this species will increase for survival. In addition, the indirect effects of global climate changes, such as economic, political, and social disturbances in the countries around the Caspian ecosystem, can worsen the living conditions of this species.
... Brazilian beaches and waters host five species of sea turtles, including the loggerhead (Caretta caretta), olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea), green (Chelonia mydas), hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata), and leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) turtles (Marcovaldi and Marcovaldi 1999). All five species are classified in threat categories on the IUCN Red List (i.e., vulnerable, endangered, critically endangered;IUCN 2015), and all are included in the Brazilian list of threatened species (MMA 2014). During the last decade, southwestern Atlantic Ocean populations of loggerhead, olive ridley, and hawksbill turtles have shown significant increases in abundance of nesting females (Marcovaldi and Chaloupka 2007;Silva et al. 2007), while green and leatherback turtle nesting populations have been stable (Thomé et al. 2007;Almeida et al. 2011a). ...
... We set each species conservation goal by taking into consideration two partial goals proposed by Fajardo et al. (2014): Degree of Threat goal and Distribution goal. Degree of Threat goal is the minimum percentage of species distribution to be covered by protected areas based on the conservation status of the species, which was either obtained from the IUCN Red List (published and unpublished assessments) or calculated by a Red List specialist in our team following the IUCN Red List categories and criteria (IUCN, 2018). Although methods have been developed to assign provisional threat categories to species assessed as Data Deficient (de Oliveira Caetano et al., 2022), we maintained DD species under that status in this study as they were all evaluated by Red List specialists prior to running the analyses. ...
Article
The continuous decline in biodiversity despite global efforts to create new protected areas calls into question the effectiveness of these areas in conserving biodiversity. Numerous habitats are absent from the global protected area network, and certain taxonomic groups are not being included in conservation planning. Here, we analyzed the level of protection that the current protected area system provides to viper species in the Neotropical region through a conservation gap analysis. We used distribution size and degree of threat to set species-specific conservation goals for 123 viper species in the form of minimum percentage of their distribution that should be covered by protected areas, and assessed the level of protection provided for each species by overlapping their distribution with protected areas of strict protection. Furthermore, using species richness and evolutionary distinctiveness as priority indicators, we conducted a spatial association analysis to detect areas of special concern. We found that most viper species have <1/4 of their distribution covered by protected areas, including 22 threatened species. Also, the large majority of cells containing high levels of species richness were significantly absent from protected areas, while evolutionary distinctiveness was particularly unprotected in regions with relatively low species richness, like northern Mexico and the Argentinian dry Chaco. Our results provide further evidence that vipers are largely being excluded from conservation planning, leaving them exposed to serious threats that can lead to population decline and ultimately extinction.
... Taxus, honored as the 'living fossil of plants', is the most diverse and widespread genus within Taxaceae [1], and is one of the ancient species originating from the Late Cretaceous [2]. However, most Taxus species are either endangered or near threatened due to slow-growing, weak reproductive capacity, scattered distribution, and the illegal trade and excessive exploitation of its bark and leaves for taxol [3]. All native Taxus species in China have been listed as endangered and national first-class protected plants due to their narrow inhabit niche and decreasing population [4], and India has prohibited/restricted the export of native Taxus [5]. ...
Article
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The taxonomy of an ancient gymnosperm genus Taxus, with high value in horticulture and medicine, is perplexing because of few reliable morphological characters for diagnosing species. Here, we performed a comprehensive investigation of the evolutionary dynamics of Taxus chloroplast genomes and estimated phylogenetic relationships, divergence times, and ancestral distributions of Taxus species by comparing 18 complete chloroplast genomes. The variations across the chloroplast genome of different Taxus species indicated that remarkably varied genome variations across lineages have reshaped the genome architecture. Our well-resolved phylogeny supported that T. brevifolia Nutt. was basal lineages followed by the other North America lineages. Divergence time estimation and ancestral range reconstruction suggested that the Taxus species originated in North America in the Late Cretaceous and revealed that extant Taxus species shared a common ancestor whose ancestral distribution area was probably in North America and afterwards the earliest members expanded to Southeast Asia from where Chinese Taxus species originated. The predominant European species have more closer relationship with the Eastern Asian species and the speciation of Eurasia species arose from several dispersal and vicariance events in the Miocene. Genome-wide scanning revealed 18 positively selected genes that were involved in translation and photosynthesis system in Taxus, which might be related to the adaptive evolution of Taxus species. The availability of these complete chloroplast genomes not only enhances our understanding of the elusive phylogenetic relationships and chloroplast genome evolution such as conservation, diversity, and gene selection within Taxus genus but also provides excellent templates and genetic bases for further exploration of evolution of related lineages as well as for plant breeding and improvement.
... As a consequence of the destruction of nesting habitats and fishing bycatch, the Environmental Protection of Biodiversity and Conservation (EPBC) Act (1999) has classified the Flatback Turtle as Endangered. The Flatback is the only marine turde that the International Union for Conservation of Nature lists globally as Data Deficient (IUCN 2010). Marine turtles are becoming increasingly threatened as a result of commercial fishing bycatch, boat strike, illegal harvesting of eggs and adults, and an increase in nesting habitat destruction (Limpus 1995;Whiting & Guinea 2003). ...
... It is currently unknown how C. yucatanicus populations are responding to changes caused in their habitat after years of natural and anthropogenic impacts. Even though in Mexico in the federal legislation, the Mexican regulation "NOM-059-2010", the species C. yucatanicus is listed as "endangered" [34], IUCN reports it only as "near threatened" a lower risk category [35]. ...
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Identifying connectivity patterns among remnant bird populations and their relationship with land use practices and subjacent habitat fragmentation is key for implementing appropriate management strategies for species conservation. The coastal thorn scrub forest and dune vegetation complex in the northern Yucatan Peninsula has been affected by coastal development. These human induced processes of land use change can affect the Yucatan Wren ( Campylorhynchus yucatanicus ), an endemic bird to this vegetation types with a narrow distribution. To identify possible anthropogenic barriers to connectivity of populations of C. yucatanicus , we collected 140 samples from 14 localities and used seven nuclear microsatellite loci to describe the current structure and genetic diversity of populations of C. yucatanicus . We explored the relationship between the genetic variability of populations and landscape structure through regression models. In addition, we described the relationship between genetic distance and landscape resistance. We found four genetic populations with Bayesian clustering methods. Human settlements and availability of adequate habitat limit the connectivity between sites due to ongoing land use changes. We suggest some management actions for conservation of this species, and we propose to change the IUCN threat category to "endangered" because of today the species has a more restricted distribution, small population, habitat degradation, loss of connectivity, and loss of genetic variability.
... As a consequence of the destruction of nesting habitats and fishing bycatch, the Environmental Protection of Biodiversity and Conservation (EPBC) Act (1999) has classified the Flatback Turtle as Endangered. The Flatback is the only marine turtle that the International Union for Conservation of Nature lists globally as Data Deficient (IUCN 2010). Marine turtles are becoming increasingly threatened as a result of commercial fishing bycatch, boat strike, illegal harvesting of eggs and adults, and an increase in nesting habitat destruction (Limpus 1995;Whiting & Guinea 2003). ...
Article
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The endangered Flatback Turtle (Natator depressus) is endemic to the continental shelf of northern Australia and is the only species of marine turtle with such a restricted geographical distribution. Most mature female Flatback Turtles show a high degree of fidelity to their chosen nesting beach, returning to the same beach within the same and successive nesting seasons. Natal homing has been well studied in other species of marine turtles and our findings support the supposition that all marine turtles display a similar degree of natal homing. Our study area is Bare Sand Island, Northern Territory, where we investigated nest site fidelity of female Flatback Turtles and the influence of wind speed, air and sand temperature, and relative humidity on nest site selection. The data were collected during a 46-day period from 12 June 2012. On Bare Sand Island, female Flatback Turtles demonstrate very strong nest site fidelity, with consecutive nests being located 247 m ± 198 s.d. apart. During the peak 2012 breeding season, sand temperatures, wind speed and relative humidity remained constant, however there was a significant difference in the air temperature between nesting days. Our study of the effects of environmental factors on the nesting environment of Flatback Turtles will contribute towards management practices to protect this endangered species.
... Based on a combination of scientific and popular species names and the wordingsephemeral water, ephemeral pond, temporary water, temporary pond, seasonal water, and seasonal pond-we searched in the key book references on Eurasian dragonfly species [45,[47][48][49][50][51] and peer-reviewed literature found in, for example, Web of Science [27,[52][53][54][55] (per March 2016), for which species can occur in temporary water bodies in Europe, regions of origin for species colonizing Europe, or similar latitudes east of Europe and adjacent southern regions. The larval habitat of species not reported to sometimes occur in temporary water bodies was subsequently reviewed to determine whether they had a preference for standing over running water. ...
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We studied how range sizes and shifts in species ranges depend on niche breadth in European dragonflies. We measured range sizes and shifts over a 22-year period (1988–2010) and grouped species into those reproducing in permanent running (perennial lotic) water, permanent standing (perennial lentic) water, and temporary (running or standing) water. Running water species are more specialized and have narrower niches with a more fixed niche position than standing water species. Temporary water species are more generalist and have broader niches without a fixed niche position as clear as permanent water species because they may utilize both temporary and permanent habitats. Running water species have smaller ranges, and some of them have contracted their ranges more than species reproducing in standing or temporary waters; that is, they are especially at risk of habitat loss and climate change because of the joint effects of their narrow niches and small range sizes. Temporary water species track climate changes better than permanent water species. This suggests that ecological specialization may cause contemporary range shifts to lag behind changes in climate and resources. Furthermore, it indicates that recent changes in climate and human land use cause biotic homogenization, where specialists are outperformed and replaced by generalists.
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The main objective of the study was to assess the damages caused by wild boar to the subtropical chir pine forest. The study was carried out in May and June 2022. The presence of wild boar in the study area was assessed by different signs, pug marks, hairs, and burrows of the animal. Moreover, the line transect method was used for the collection of data. Transect line of 6.5 km was laid down in the study area and data was collected up to 50m on either side of the transect line. The measuring tape was used to calculate the damages caused by wild boar to the regeneration of chir pine forest. The damages which are affected by the wild boar are seedlings (54.59%), saplings (35.81%), and poles (9.6%). The seedlings of chir pine forest were highly damaged followed by saplings and poles. The present study shows that seasonal variability migration, disturbance in the food chain, and decline of prey affect the wild boar distribution. Total of 20 damaged sites were encountered directly while 15 sites were reported during the interview by the community in the study area. The data regarding the damages caused by wild boar in different areas was collected from total 272 respondents and the result revealed that the wild boar mostly damage the agricultural crops followed by forest crop, biodiversity, domestic animals and human. The assessment in this study also revealed the fact that wild boar also damage the fertile soil of forest floor. Finally the study also brought out some local management strategies for wild boar i.e. tracking dogs, usage of high intensity sounds, electric wires and different chemicals. This stud also recommend precautionary measures for the mitigation of wild boar conflicts with human beings, and agriculture crops.
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Thesis
Despite many anthropogenic pressures in diverse land-use types, agroforestry practices and remnant forests have played significant roles in biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation. This study aimed to examine the floristic composition, structure, and carbon stocks of tree biomass along environmental gradients in the Kibate Forest and assess the land use and land cover (LULC) dynamics and traditional agroforestry practices across the two agroecological zones in Wonchi District, Ethiopia. Sixty-six (30 × 30 m) plots were established every 100 m distance interval in five transects using systematic sampling for data collection in Kibate Forest. Landsat images were acquired from Earth Explorer and the changes were quantified for the years 1985, 2001, and 2019. Post-classification techniques were employed using ERDAS Imagine 2015, version 15.0, and ArcGIS 10.4.1. A ground survey was conducted with 100 key informants who were selected from 10 sites using a purposive sampling method. Ten sites were selected in the two agroecological zones using a stratified random sampling method. A total of 125 vascular plant species belonging to 104 genera and 52 families were identified in Kibate Forest. Eighteen species were endemic to the Flora area. The two most dominant families, Asteraceae (29 species) and Lamiaceae (eight species) accounted for 30% of the total number of species. The highest numbers (54%) of species were herbs. Of the four community types (viz., Olinia rochetiana-Myrsine melanophloeos, Ilex mitis-Galiniera saxifraga, Erica arborea-Protea gaguedi, and Hagenia abyssinica-Juniperus procera), the highest species richness (82%), evenness, diversity, endemic taxa, and importance value index were recorded in community types 2 and 4. The results showed that environmental variables such as altitude, slope, human impact, and overgrazing by livestock, both with interactions and without interactions significantly (p < 0.05) affected species richness. The mean total tree biomass was 91.9 ± 10.01 Mg. The mean total C stock was 45.9 ± 5.17 Mg ha−1, out of which 38.3 ± 4.31 and 7.7 ± 0.91 Mg ha-1 were stored in above- and belowground C pools, respectively. Total C stock showed a significant (p = 0.04) weak positive correlation with species richness. The highest C stocks (67.4%) per species were contributed only by four species (Juniperus procera, Ilex mitis var. mitis, Nuxia congesta, and Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata). In traditional agroforestry systems, a total of 103 agroforestry plant species belonging to 44 families were documented in the two agroecological zones, 74 were indigenous including seven endemics and 29 exotic species. Fabaceae was the most represented family (13 species) in the agroforestry systems. A mixed farming system was the most frequently (56%) reported source of income. The results of LULC changes from 1985 to 2019 showed that the agroforestry cover and settlement cover including road construction increased with an annual rate change of 0.3 and 2.7%, respectively. These changes corresponded with a decreasing trend of the land covered by forest, cropland, water body, and shrub at a rate of 4.7, 1.3, 0.8, and 0.5%, respectively. Anthropogenic factors are the main drivers and threats to remnant forests in the study area. In conclusion, reducing anthropogenic pressures, the heightening agroforestry practices uniformly, sustainable forest management, and conservation measures through community-based participation should be considered. Typically protecting and planting indigenous and multipurpose plant species are essential as restoration techniques for degraded land-use types.
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Defining demographically independent units and understanding patterns of gene flow between them is essential for managing and conserving exploited populations. The critically endangered scalloped hammerhead shark, Sphyrna lewini , is a coastal semi-oceanic species found worldwide in tropical and subtropical waters. Pregnant females give birth in shallow coastal estuarine habitats that serve as nursery grounds for neonates and small juveniles, whereas adults move offshore and become highly migratory. We evaluated the population structure and connectivity of S . lewini in coastal areas and one oceanic island (Cocos Island) across the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP) using both sequences of the mitochondrial DNA control region (mtCR) and 9 nuclear-encoded microsatellite loci. The mtCR defined two genetically discrete groups: one in the Mexican Pacific and another one in the central-southern Eastern Tropical Pacific (Guatemala, Costa Rica, Panama, and Colombia). Overall, the mtCR data showed low levels of haplotype diversity ranging from 0.000 to 0.608, while nucleotide diversity ranged from 0.000 to 0.0015. More fine-grade population structure was detected using microsatellite loci where Guatemala, Costa Rica, and Panama differed significantly. Relatedness analysis revealed that individuals within nursery areas were more closely related than expected by chance, suggesting that S . lewini may exhibit reproductive philopatric behaviour within the ETP. Findings of at least two different management units, and evidence of philopatric behaviour call for intensive conservation actions for this highly threatened species in the ETP.
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Anthropogenic land-use change continues to be predicated as a major driver of terrestrial biodiversity loss for the rest of this century. It has been determined that the effect of climate change on wildlife population will accelerate the rate and process of decline of global vertebrate populations. We investigated wildlife composition, occupancy, and activity pattern along the larger climate resilient forests that serve as microrefugia for a wide range of species under the escalating climate change. We used camera trap survey covering 250 km2 of climate microrefugia in Dadeldhura hills in far western region of Nepal. We used 62 trapping locations accumulating 1800 trap nights taking 98,916 photographs in 62 days-survey period during the summer season of 2020. We photographed 23 mammalian species with estimated species richness of 30 species (95% CI: 25-34) based on multi-species occupancy model. We estimated overall species occupancy ψ(SE(ψ)) to be 0.87 (0.09) in climatic microrefugia. While human activity predominated throughout the day, the majority of animals was found to exhibit nocturnal temporal patterns. Tiger and hyaena, two of the top predators, were newly discovered in the western Himalayan range of Nepal, with their discovery at the 34 highest elevations of 2511 meters and 2000m, respectively. In Nepal, high-altitude tiger range is characterized by tiger distribution above a 2000 m cutoff representing habitats in the physiographic zone of high mountains and above. Our findings establish a baseline and show that the climatic microrefugia that have been identified have high levels of species richness and occupancy, which characterize the Dadeldhura hill forest ranges as biologically varied and ecologically significant habitat. These areas identified as climatic microrefugia habitats should be the focus of conservation efforts, particularly efforts to reduce human disturbance and adapt to climate change.
Chapter
The Western and Trans-Himalayan region of India is home to several unique and threatened mountain ungulates including Kashmir red deer or Hangul, Kashmir Musk deer, Urial, Argali, Tibetan Antelope or Chiru, Tibetan Gazelle, Wild Yak, and Wild Ass that are endemic to this region. However, this ecologically significant and diverse biodiversity is threatened by climate change, habitat degradation, and fragmentation accompanied by overexploitation in the form of poaching. In locations where the ungulates are common, the situation inevitably leads to human-wildlife conflict. All these have caused many wildlife species to become ecologically isolated, reduced in numbers, and in the process of becoming locally extinct. Over the years, I have undertaken extensive surveys to assess the status of 20 ungulate species inhabiting the Himalayan region belonging to four families, namely Bovidae, Cervidae, Equidae, and Moschidea including the eight out of the 10 most highly endangered ungulates in India, which are unique to this region. The results of our findings on the current status, information on the lesser known aspects of ecology, and critical factors determining the population decline, knowledge gaps, conservation threats, and management suggestions are presented in this paper.
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Madagascar's unique biota is heavily affected by human activity and is under intense threat. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on the conservation status of Madagascar's terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity by presenting data and analyses on documented and predicted species-level conservation statuses, the most prevalent and relevant threats, ex situ collections and programs, and the coverage and comprehensiveness of protected areas. The existing terrestrial protected area network in Madagascar covers 10.4% of its land area and includes at least part of the range of the majority of described native species of vertebrates with known distributions (97.1% of freshwater fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals combined) and plants (67.7%). The overall figures are higher for threatened species (97.7% of threatened vertebrates and 79.6% of threatened plants occurring within at least one protected area). International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List assessments and Bayesian neural network analyses for plants identify overexploitation of biological resources and unsustainable agriculture as the most prominent threats to biodiversity. We highlight five opportunities for action at multiple levels to ensure that conservation and ecological restoration objectives, programs, and activities take account of complex underlying and interacting factors and produce tangible benefits for the biodiversity and people of Madagascar.
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Birds have for a long time been used as indicators of the state of biodiversity and the environment, the context from which they are monitored in this study. The results, from the NatureUganda monitoring prgrammes so far have been able to show that although the National Parks and other protected areas are rich in bird species, many of the best species-rich sites in Uganda are in privately owned sites outside Protected Areas including small-scale mixed agricultural sites and these need some form of protection. They showed a need for promoting community conservation in the country in addition to protected areas.
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This paper compared the proximate composition of Sun-dried Edible Frog (Rana esculenta) with that of Catfish and assessed the social acceptance of Edible Frog for consumption in the study area. Proximate composition and social evaluations were analysed using standard laboratory methods, while a set of questionnaire were used to collect data on social related issues. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics while Chi square was used to test for associations. Results reveal that the Protein (6.95% and 7.3%), Fat (2.09% and 2.14%) and Moisture (9.0% and 9.11%) contents of Edible Frog and Catfish respectively are almost the same. Comparison of Ash content of the sun-dried meat types however varies significantly at P<0.01.). More than halve (53%) of the total population are unaware of the safety of R. esculenta for human consumption. Chi-Square analysis shows a significant difference (p<0.05, X 2 =21.841) among various family sizes in willingness to accept Edible Frog (R.esculenta), if it is more nutritious than other bushmeat types.
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The internet has expanded opportunities for wildlife traders to conduct business globally, but monitoring this activity is often challenging. As monitoring techniques frequently employ language-based searches for particular words, it is important to understand the language traders use, particularly the nomenclature used to refer to traded species. We recorded advert data from four UK websites, focusing on reptiles, which constitute a large proportion of the international pet trade. We analysed whether the language types used by advertisers to refer to individual reptiles were associated with certain trader characteristics. We found English common names were the most frequent name type used to refer to species, regardless of the geographical location of the seller and the CITES Appendix listing of the species. However, scientific names were recorded in twice as many adverts for threatened and Near Threatened species as in adverts for non-threatened species, and only scientific names were used for three families: Anguidae, Pseudaspididae and Sphaerodactylidae. These findings could inform the creation of tailored keyword detection tools, which must account for the numerous language types in use within online wildlife trade communities. Future studies should examine the nuances of language used by other online wildlife trader communities in other contexts, such as different online platforms or different languages. The ultimate aim of these language detection tools will be to track in detail trends in the online reptile trade, offering a better understanding of potentially unsustainable trade patterns and helping authorities to enforce laws against illegal online reptile trade.
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Background The use of ornamental fish as pets has important implications for the conservation of the species used in fish keeping, particularly in relation to overexploitation. Understanding ornamental fish keepers’ relationship with the hobby can provide important information for assessing the potential impacts of the activity. Here, we analyzed the profile of Brazilian ornamental fish keepers and evaluated their preferences and the implications of their choices. Methods Information was obtained by applying questionnaires to 906 ornamental fish keepers participating in fish keeping groups in a social network. The questionnaire contained questions about the species of fish kept (freshwater and marine), techniques used, socio-economic aspects, and associated conservation perspectives. Results Most ornamental fish keepers were young men (20–40 years old), with higher education and monthly income above US$ 530.00. Participants predominantly kept freshwater fish (86%), but marine fish only (5%) or both marine and freshwater hobbyists (9%) were also recorded. A total of 523 species of ornamental fish were kept, most of which comprised freshwater (76% of the total) and exotic species (73%). About a third of the fish species recorded were under national trade restrictions. In addition, about a third of ornamental fish keepers declared that they also had invertebrates. Marine aquariums require a greater financial investment, especially at the beginning, than freshwater aquariums and are also almost entirely based on exotic species. The aesthetic factor is the main motivation associated with practicing this hobby, being color and behavior key factors in choosing fish. A total of 10% of hobbyists have already released fish into the wild, highlighting concerns about potential biological invasions. There is an urgent need to enforce regulations towards restricting ornamental fish keepers’ access to threatened native species and potentially invasive species, as well as measures aimed at informing and raising hobbyists’ awareness of conservation measures related to the hobby.
Chapter
Coastal ecosystems are centres of high biological productivity, but their conservation is often threatened by numerous and complex environmental factors. Citing examples from the major littoral habitats worldwide, such as sandy beaches, salt marshes and mangrove swamps, this text characterises the biodiversity of coastline environments and highlights important aspects of their maintenance and preservation, aided by the analysis of key representative species. Leaders in the field provide reviews of the foremost threats to coastal networks, including the effects of climate change, invasive species and major pollution incidents such as oil spills. Further discussion underscores the intricacies of measuring and managing coastline species in the field, taking into account the difficulties in quantifying biodiversity loss due to indirect cascading effects and trophic skew. Synthesising the current state of species richness with present and projected environmental pressures, the book ultimately establishes a research agenda for implementing and improving conservation practices moving forward.
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Aim: Unravelling the ecological and historical factors that underlie species distributions has challenged ecologists for a long time. Thus, our objective is to understand the role of environmental variables explaining the distribution of three major eco-evolutionary groups of inland fishes (Darlington's divisions: primary, i.e. strict freshwater ; secondary, i.e. salt-tolerant; and peripheral, i.e. diadromous and marine origin), and how these variables are related to fish traits. Location: Iberian Peninsula. Taxon: 51 native and 17 alien inland fish species from the Iberian Peninsula. Methods: We modelled distributions of the most common inland fish species across the Iberian Peninsula to compare the importance of different predictors among the three Darlington's divisions and between native and alien species. To explore the importance of specific environmental variables in determining the distribution of different traits of inland fish, variable importances obtained from species distribution models were subjected to a redundancy analysis. Results: Darlington's divisions differ significantly in salinity tolerance, in distribution overlap, in the importance of distribution predictors and associated life-history traits. Topographic and climatic variables were generally more important than land use and anthropogenic factors in explaining fish distributions. We found significant differences in the importance of variables explaining the distribution of native vs. alien species and especially among Darlington's divisions. River basin was most important for primary native and many alien species. Increasing mean temperature and damming were positively associated with the presence of tolerant, large-bodied and warm-water alien species from more hydrologically stable habitats. Main conclusions: Despite marked differences in the distribution patterns of native and alien species, evolutionary and introduction histories as well as seawater tolerance are central factors explaining the current distribution of inland fishes. Darlington's divisions proved useful for addressing ecological and biogeographical questions at broader spatial scales.
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Bird assemblages in wind farm areas tend to change during the construction and operational phases, causing significant impacts in addition to collision mortality. Most existing studies on this issue are reported from North America and Europe, and it is largely under reported in Asian countries. We assessed patterns of bird assemblage in a wind farm and control areas in Kachchh, India, from October 2012 to May 2014, using point count method (79 sampling points with a 50 m radius). We recorded 54 species of land birds, mainly passerines. Species richness and diversity were higher in the control site, and the abundance of most passerine species was lower in the wind farm area, although the abundance of larks and wheatears was higher in the wind farm areas. Species composition was significantly different in both the sites. This difference is attributed to the presence of wind turbines and a difference in land use pattern.
Article
Ecological limits on population sizes and the number of species a region can sustain are thought to simultaneously produce spatial patterns in population genetic diversity and species richness due to the effects of random drift operating in parallel across population and community levels. Here, we test the extent to which resource‐based environmental limits jointly determine these patterns of biodiversity in amphibians. North America. Amphibians. We repurposed open, raw microsatellite data from 19 species sampled at 554 sites in North America and mapped nuclear genetic diversity at the continental scale. We then tested whether ecological limits defined by resource availability and environmental heterogeneity could simultaneously shape biogeographic patterns in genetic diversity and species richness with structural equation modelling. Spatial patterns of population genetic diversity run opposite patterns of species richness and genetic differentiation. However, while measures of resource availability and niche heterogeneity predict 89% of the variation in species richness, these landscape metrics were poor predictors of genetic diversity. Although heterogeneity appears to be an important driver of genetic and species biodiversity patterns in amphibians, variation in genetic diversity both within and across species makes it difficult to infer general processes producing spatial patterns of amphibian genetic diversity. This result differs from those found in endotherms and may be due to the considerable life history variation found across amphibians.
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This open access book presents (selected) new and innovative developments for sustainable and fish-friendly hydropower. It offers unique insights into the challenges, practices and policies of hydropower developments across 8 European countries, providing examples from on-site studies and European-wide analyses. The case studies throughout the book are practical “real-world” examples, which are intended to serve as inspiration for anyone who would like to know more about how solutions for more sustainable hydropower production can be designed and implemented. Hydropower is an important renewable energy source, which, however, can also impact aquatic ecosystems, fish populations and hydro-morphology. EU and national water, environmental and energy legislation strive for sustainable energy and water resource management as well as the protection of important habitats and species. These have an effect on the requirements and decision making processes for hydropower planning, commissioning and operation. With a high variety of measures existing and site-specific conditions as well as national and EU level legal requirements to consider, it can be difficult to determine, what issues to address and which measures to implement.
Chapter
Animals are the major contributor to biodiversity with the presence of 1,637,932 valid and extant species under 34 phyla, while it is estimated that a total of around 5–30 million species are available on this planet. India contributes only 6.02% of known species of animals with 102,161 species. Apart from Subphylum Vertebrata under the Phylum Chordata, all the animals under 34 phyla are considered as invertebrate faunal communities and harbor a total of 1,518,677 species across the world, while India represents 92,357 species with the share of 6.08% of invertebrate faunal groups under 28 phyla. Despite immense importance and services as well as intrinsic values like pollination, biogeochemical cycles, nutrient cycle, filtration and purification of the ecosystem, protection of coastal areas, providing food, economic sustainability, etc., the invertebrate group of faunal communities remains underprivileged faunal groups. Hence, it is notably important to conserve these significant groups of faunal communities for the sustenance of biodiversity and human welfare.KeywordsBiodiversityEcosystemNicheInvertebrateConservation
Article
Thismia petasiformis is described and illustrated as a new achlorophyllous mycoheterotrophic species discovered in the Brazilian Amazon Forest. The species belongs to Thismia subg. Ophiomeris sect. Pyramidalis by the presence of horizontal cylindrical roots, terete stem with scattered leaves, pyramidal stigma, and stamens flattened with connective not dilated, interstaminal lobes absent and ovary with parietal placentation from the base to the top of the ovary. Thismia petasiformis differs from T. fungiformis by the perianth tube apparently trigonous with slightly curved sides, annulus inconspicuous, and inner perianth lobes forming a single hat-shaped mitre. We present a taxonomic treatment for T. petasiformis, with a detailed description, illustrations and a preliminary assessment of its conservation status following IUCN categories and criteria.
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Mico emiliae has most recently been assessed for The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species in 2015. Mico emiliae is listed as Least Concern.
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Duikers (Cephalophinae, Bovidae) are a group of forest mammals playing crucial roles in forest ecosystems either as prey or as seed dispersers. However, their taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships are still debated, and geo-referenced samples are rare. We collected 17 fecal samples of duikers in Kahuzi-Biega National Park in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, which is part of the Eastern Afromontane Biodiversity hotspot. To identify the species, evaluate the intra-specific genetic variation, and the phylogenetic relationships to other duiker species we used the mitochondrial cytochrome b and control region sequences and compared them with published sequences of 19 species of duikers. In addition, we collected camera-trap images and skull measurements of duikers living in this area. Our results showed that some of the collected samples could not be taxonomically assigned to any other duiker species available on public databases but indeed formed a monophyletic group within the east African red duikers. The camera trap images and morphometric analysis provisionally identify them as black-fronted duikers (C. nigrifrons), presumably the subspecies C. nigrifrons kivuensis Lönnberg, 1919 that was described from the Kivu-Region 100 years ago. This preliminary study shows that this subspecies should be raised to species rank based on molecular data, and stresses that further surveys and phylogenetic studies of east African red duikers are needed for understanding the diversity and evolution of these elusive species.
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The present study is based on the field work carried out in the study sites during January–March 2012 in the day (6-9 am) and (4-9 pm).A total of 10 species viz., Duttaphrynus melanostictus, Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis, Fejervarya sp.1, Fejervarya sp.2, Microhyla ornata, Polypedates maculates, Ramanella variegata, Fejervarya sp.3, Fejervarya aff. granosa and Fejervarya aff. rufescens from two selected sites in Bengaluru region and nine species viz., Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis, Fejervarya caperata, Hylarana temporalis, Indirana beddomii, Indirana gundia, Micrixalus saxicola, Minervarya sahyadris, Nyctibatrachus kempholeyensis and Pseudophilautus amboli from Gundia region of Western Ghats were recorded.
Chapter
Successful species introductions are not homogeneously distributed over the globe, which points to the need to understand why some have succeeded, yet others failed. We summarized information on small carnivore introductions worldwide and assessed whether introduction outcomes (success or failure) supported one or more of the following hypotheses: climate‐matching, propagule pressure, inherent superiority, island susceptibility and Darwin's naturalization hypotheses. Using the literature, we summarized: number of individuals released, mean body size, mean litter size, consumer type, latitude difference, ecoregions difference, congener presence, and mainland or island release. We generated generalized linear models and ranked them using Akaike's Information Criterion and Akaike's weights. We identified 253 documented introduction events of 24 species from five families, with two thirds of them involving the northern raccoon, Procyon lotor , the American mink, Neovison vison , and the small Indian mongoose, Urva [= Herpestes] auropunctata . Overall introduction success was high, with a success rate > 70% for four of the five represented families. We found support for climate‐matching, inherent superiority, and Darwin's naturalization hypotheses. Likelihood of success increased with matching climatic conditions that allow survival, a greater body size together with smaller litter size, a carnivorous diet, and the absence of congeners in the area of introduction. Islands were not more susceptible than the mainland, and the number of individuals introduced did not influence success. As biological invasions become increasingly widespread, understanding the biological and environmental factors affecting introduction success is important for conservation and management.
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