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Effect of different levels of honey on physiological, growth and carcass traits of broiler chickens during dry season

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p> The objective of this trial was to investigate the effect of different levels of honey in drinking water on the responses of broiler chickens during dry season in hot humid tropics. Three hundred Oba Marshall broiler chicks were used for this study. The day-old chicks were randomly assigned to five treatment groups with each treatment having four replicates of 15 birds. The first 4 treatment groups were daily supplied drinking water without honey (0H), with 20 ml (20H), 40 ml (40H) and 60 ml (60H) of honey per liter of water. The fifth group received drinking water supplemented with 500 mg vitamin C per liter of water (C). Records on daily weight gain (WG) and feed intake (FI) were taken. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was calculated as the ratio of gain to feed consumed. The supplementation of honey in the drinking water for broiler chickens in 60H during hot dry season in the hot humid tropics improved some stress indices, body weight gain and relative spleen weight. </p
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Acta argiculturae Slovenica, 108/1, 45–53, Ljubljana 2016
doi:10.14720/aas.2016.108.1.5 COBISS: 1.01
Agris category code: L02, L51
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF HONEY ON PHYSIOLOGI
CAL, GROWTH AND CARCASS TRAITS OF BROILER CHICKENS
DURING DRY SEASON
Oyegunle Emmanuel OKE 1, 2, Faith O. SORUNGBE 1, Monsuru Oladimeji ABIOJA 1, Oluwad-
amilola OYETUNJI 1, Anuoluwapo Olamide ONABAJO 1
Received January 13, 2016; accepted May 17, 2016.
Delo je prispelo 13. januarja 2016, sprejeto 17. maja 2016.
1 Federal University of Agriculture, Department of Animal Physiology, PMB 2240, Abeokuta, Nigeria
2 Corresponding author, e-mail: emaoke7@yahoo.co.uk
Eect of dierent levels of honey on physiological, growth and
carcass traits of broiler chickens during dry season
e objective of this trial was to investigate the eect of
dierent levels of honey in drinking water on the responses of
broiler chickens during dry season in hot humid tropics. ree
hundred Oba Marshall broiler chicks were used for this study.
e day-old chicks were randomly assigned to ve treatment
groups with each treatment having four replicates of 15 birds.
e rst 4 treatment groups were daily supplied drinking water
without honey (0H), with 20 ml (20H), 40 ml (40H) and 60
ml (60H) of honey per liter of water. e h group received
drinking water supplemented with 500 mg vitamin C per liter
of water (C). Records on daily weight gain (WG) and feed in-
take (FI) were taken. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was calcu-
lated as the ratio of gain to feed consumed. e supplementa-
tion of honey in the drinking water for broiler chickens in 60H
during hot dry season in the hot humid tropics improved some
stress indices, body weight gain and relative spleen weight.
Key words: poultry; broiler chickens; animal nutrition;
honey; growth; physiological traits; carcass traits; hot dry sea-
son
Učinek dodajanja različnih količin medu na ziološke, rastne
in klavne lastnosti pitovnih piščancev v sušnih razmerah
Cilj raziskave je bil proučiti vpliv dodajanja različnih ko-
ličin medu v pitno vodo pitovnih piščancev med vročim in su-
him obdobjem v vročih in vlažnih tropih. Za to študijo smo
uporabili 300 pitovnih piščancev provenience Oba Marshall.
Enodnevni piščanci so bili naključno razporejeni v pet posku-
snih skupin, s štirimi ponovitvami s po 15 piščanci v vsaki sku-
pini. V prvih štirih skupinah so piščanci dobivali pitno vodo
brez medu (0H), z 20 ml (20H), 40 ml (40H) in 60 ml (60H)
medu na liter vode. Peta skupina je dobivala pitno vodo, dopol-
njeno s 500 mg vitamina C na liter vode (C). Merili smo dnevne
priraste (WG) in količino zaužite krme (FI). Izkoriščanje krme
(FCR) smo izračunali kot razmerje med prirastom in porabo
krme. Dodatek medu v pitni vodi za pitovne piščance v skupini
60H v vročem in sušnem obdobju v vročih in vlažnih tropih je
izboljšal nekatere pokazatelje stresa, pitovne lastnosti in pove-
čal relativno maso vranice.
Ključne besede: perutnina; pitovni piščanci; prehrana ži-
vali; med; rast; zološke lastnosti; klavne lastnosti; vroče sušno
obdobje
bient temperature and high humidity which have been
reported to aect the productive performance of chick-
ens (Ahmad et al., 2005; Daghir, 2008). Great losses are
being encountered in broiler production in Nigeria every
year due to the eect of heat-stress. e loss is attributed
to the fact that the birds have rapid metabolism, high
body temperature and no sweat gland (Abioja, 2010).
In South Western Nigeria, environmental tempera-
ture is oen higher than the recommended temperature
of 18–21 °C (Charles et al., 2002) for optimal productiv-
ity of growing broiler chickens particularly during the
1 INTRODUCTION
Broiler chicken production plays a vital role in food
security for the fast increasing human population in Ni-
geria due to the short production cycle, high feed e-
ciency and growth rate of the birds. e birds are how-
ever faced with the challenges of coping with the ever
changing elements of weather, especially the ambient
temperature typically during growing-nishing phase in
the tropics. is is partly due to the fact that the tropics
and sub-tropics are faced with the challenge of high am-
Acta agriculturae Slovenica, 108/1 – 2016
46
O. E. OKE et al.
dry season which usually occurs between the month of
November and March. As a result of this peculiarity, a
passable and appropriate measures that can ameliorate
the adverse eect of the environmental factors to the bar-
est minimum to ensure optimum broiler production in
the hot dry season are essential.
Some of the methods recommended to alleviate
the adverse eects of high ambient temperature includ-
ing housing, ventilation, air conditioning and cooling
systems are now issues that are probably applicable on a
regional basis (Armstrong et al., 1999; Yalcin et al., 2001).
However, some of these methods cannot be applied in
developing countries including Nigeria because of their
impracticability and high cost. Instead, nutritional ma-
nipulation with its low cost is a common approach in
poultry production (Austic, 1985; Leeson, 1986; Shane,
1988). Results from various studies (Sayed and Shoeib,
1996; Yahav and McMurty, 2001; Curca et al., 2004; Ara-
das et al., 2005; Gonzalez-Esquerra and Leeson, 2006;
Ramnath et al., 2008; Zhang et al., 2009; Abioja et al.,
2011) on several measures taken to abridge the eect of
heat stress in poultry with the use of several therapeutic
agents remain inconclusive. Moreover, several natural
substances that are rich in antioxidants have also been
used on heat-stressed chickens. ese include bee pollen
(Wang et al., 2005), ginger root (Zhang et al., 2009), etc.
e use of honey has however received a meagre atten-
tion.
Honey is a complex product and contains natural
anti-oxidants. Antioxidants play a major role in the pro-
tection of cells from reactive oxygen species (ROS) by
reducing chemical radicals and preventing the process
of lipid peroxidation (Yu, 1994). When compared to
synthetic vitamin C that is conventionally used, honey
is more readily available while vitamin C may not be
readily available especially to the local farmers. Honey
is a good example of natural substance that contains
phytochemicals such as vitamin C, thiamine, riboavin,
pyridoxine, pantothenic acid, nicotinic acid, phenolic
compounds, and enzymes glucose oxidase, catalase, and
peroxidise. Honey has been used by man for several pur-
poses especially as an antioxidant. However, there is a
dearth of reports on the use of h oney in poultry produc-
tion. Our previous study (Abioja et al., 2010) on the in-
clusion levels of honey (0, 10, 20 ml) in drinking water of
broiler chickens neither aected the growth nor reduced
the body temperature while there was no change in the
physiological responses and haematology on adding 0
and 10 ml of honey but slight change in physiological re-
sponses occurs on adding 20 ml of honey. erefore this
trial was carried out to determine if an increase in the in-
clusion levels of honey (20, 40, 60 mls) in drinking water
of broiler chickens from day-old to 8weeks old would in-
uence more changes in the physiological responses and
also bring about the possibility of better performance of
broiler chickens. is study therefore aimed at determin-
ing the eect of dierent levels of honey on the physio-
logical response of broiler chicken during hot-dry season
2 MATERIALS AND METHODS
2.1 EXPERIMENTAL SITE
e experiment was carried out at the poultry unit
of Directorate of University Farms (DUFARMS) and the
laboratory, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta
(FUNAAB). e University is located on latitude 7°10’N,
longitude 3°2’E and altitude 76 m above sea level. It lies
between South-Western part of Nigeria with a prevailing
tropical climate with a mean annual rainfall of 1,037 mm,
and annual mean temperature and relative humidty of
34 °C and 82 %, respectively (Amujoyegbe et al., 2008).
e vegetation in the University represents the inter-
phase between the tropical rain forest and the derived sa-
vannah. e average maximum and minimum tempera-
ture during the period of the experiment was 35.5 °C and
23.8 °C, respectively while relative humidity was 92 %.
2.2 EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS AND PROCE
DURE
ree hundred Oba Marshall broiler day-old chicks
purchased from a reputable hatchery at one day of age
were used for this study. e brooding temperature was
maintained at 35 °C for the rst two days then decreased
gradually until 21 days of age. e light regime was 23L:
1D. e vaccination schedule for commercial broiler
chickens was followed. e chicks were randomly as-
signed to ve treatment groups with each treatment hav-
ing four replicates of 15 birds in a completely randomized
design at day 21. e rst 4 treatment groups were daily
supplied drinking water without honey (0H), with 20 ml
(20H), 40 ml (40H) and 60 ml (60H) of honey per liter
of water. e h group received drinking water supple-
mented with 500 mg vitamin C per liter of water (C).
e birds were kept on deep-litter oor in an open-
sided poultry house. e birds were oor-brooded for
three weeks on wood-shavings. Additional sources of
heat were provided during the brooding period. e
chicks were fed ad libitum with standard starter mash
and thereaer with nisher mash. Water at ambient tem-
perature was supplied ad libitum throughout the period
of the experiment. e composition of the diet is shown
in Table 1.
Acta agriculturae Slovenica, 108/1 – 2016 47
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF HONEY ON PHYSIOLOGICAL, GROWTH ... OF BROILER CHICKENS DURING DRY SEASON
2.3 DATA COLLECTION
2.3.1 GROWTH PERFORMANCE
Bodyweight of the birds in each replicate were mon-
itored using a sensitive scale every week during the ex-
periment. Records on daily weight gain (WG) and feed
intake (FI) were taken. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was
calculated as the ratio of gain to feed consumed.
2.3.2 RELATIVE WEIGHTS OF ORGANS
At 56 days of age, 2 birds per replicate were slaugh-
tered. e birds were dissected and the weights of liver,
kidney, lungs, spleen, breast meat, gizzard, drum stick,
shank, thigh, tibia, small intestine, proventriculus, ab-
dominal fat pad, gastrointestinal tract, bursa of Fabricius,
thymus, heart were taken and relative weights were de-
termined as a percentage of birds bodyweights.
2.3.3 HAEMATOLOGY AND SERUM ANALYSIS
Blood samples were collected from two randomly
picked birds from each replicate once a week via brachial
vein into ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) an-
ticoagulant and immediately mixed gently to avoid clot-
ting. Blood samples were analysed for haemoglobin (Hb),
Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Total Erythrocyte Count
(TEC), Total Leukocyte Count (TLC) and Dierential
Leukocyte Count (DLC). Hb estimation was determined
by cyanmethaemoglobin method and PCV by microhe-
matocrit method (Bernard et al., 2000). TEC and TLC
were determined using Neubaurs hemocytometer and To-
luidine blue (0.015 %) saline as diluent (Brar et al., 2002).
e blood lms stained with Wright’s stain (Benjamin,
1985) was studied for DLC. Mean cell volume (MCV),
mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and mean corpus-
cular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were calculated
(Stockham and Scott, 2002).
e blood samples were also analyzed for serum me-
tabolites including serum total protein, albumin, globu-
lin and creatinine. Serum glucose was determined col-
orimetrically using the method described by Braham and
Trinder (1969). e total serum protein was determined
according to the method of Colowick and Kaplan (1955)
while serum albumin and globulin was determined using
bromocresol purple method of Varley et al., (1980). Serum
corticosterone was determined using radio immunoassay
(RIA) technique as described by Darras et al. (1992).
2.4 STATISTICAL ANALYSIS
All data collected were subjected to analysis of vari-
ance using the procedure of SAS (1999). Signicantly
dierent means were compared using Duncan Multiple
Range Test.
3 RESULTS
3.1 SERUM CHEMISTRY
e eect of dierent levels of honey on serum pa-
rameters in broiler chickens at nisher phase during hot-
dry season is shown in Table 2. e blood glucose level
in 0H and 60H treatment groups were similar but higher
than those birds in 40H, 20H and C treatment groups.
Ingredient Starter phase Finisher phase
Maize 46.00 50.00
Soybean meal 18.50 12.00
Groundnut cake 15.00 11.00
Fish meal 2.00 2.00
Wheat oal 12.45 19.05
Bone meal 2.00 2.00
Oyster shell 3.00 3.00
Salt 0.25 0.25
Premix 0.25 0.25
Methionine 0.30 0.25
Lysine 0.25 0.20
100 100
Calculated
Crude protein (%) 23.05 19.91
M.E (Kcal/kg) 2816 2809.6
Ether extract (%) 3.93 3.89
Crude ber (%) 3.67 3.79
Calcium (%) 1.75 1.74
Phosphorus (%) 0.43 0.41
Table 1: Composition of diets for broiler (starter and nisher
phases)
Preglednica 1: Sestava popolne krmne mešanice za pitovne
piščance (začetna in končna faza pitanja)
* 1 kg of premix contains: Vitamin A – 10,000,000 IU; Vitamin
D3 – 2,000,000; Vitamin E – 20,000 IU; Vitamin K – 2,250 mg;
iamine B1 – 1,750 mg; Riboavin B2 – 5,000 mg; Pyridoxine
B6 – 2,750 mg; Niacin – 27,500 mg; Vitamin B12 – 15 mg; Panto-
thenic acid – 7,500 mg; Folic acid – 7,500 mg; Biotin – 50 mg; Choline
chloride – 400 g; Antioxidant – 125 g; Magnesium – 80 g; Zinc –
50 mg; Iron – 20 g; Copper – 5 g; Iodine – 1.2 g; Selenium – 200 mg;
Cobalt – 200 mg
Acta agriculturae Slovenica, 108/1 – 2016
48
O. E. OKE et al.
Moreover, birds on 40H, 20H and C had also similar blood
glucose levels. e level of total protein in the birds in C
and 60H treatment groups were similar but signicantly
higher (p < 0.05) than in birds in 20H and 0H treatments
while those of 40H, 20H and 0H were similar. e triglyc-
eride level of 60H was signicantly higher than those of
other treatment groups. Birds in 40H, 0H, 20H treatment
groups had similar level of triglyceride but lower than that
of C treatment group. Birds in 0H and C treatment group
were similar but higher in aspartate amino-transferase lev-
el than those of the birds in 20H. Birds in C and 60H treat-
ment group were higher in alanine amino-transferase level
than those of 40H treatment group. Also 0H 20H, 60H
and C treatment groups were similar in alanine amino-
transferase levels. Creatine kinase level in 40H was signi-
cantly higher than those of other treatment groups apart
from the birds in 0H which had similar levels. Birds in C
treatment group had similar level of creatine kinase than
those in 20H but lower than the birds in the other treat-
ment groups. Birds in 0H had a signicantly higher level
of creatinine kinase than those of 20H and C treatment
groups. Birds in 0H had higher (p < 0.05) level of serum
corticosterone than those of the other treatment groups.
e level of serum corticosterone recorded in the birds in
20H treatment group was lower (p < 0.05) than those of
0H, 60H, 40H and C treatment group.
Parameters 0H 20H 40H 60H Vit C SEM
Glucose (mg/dl) 124.65a101.90b107.95b125.9a95.8b5.13
Total Protein(g/l) 52.45b52.70b58.55ab 61.15a63.65a1.62
Albumin (g/l) 36.05 34.55 39.45 39.05 41.10 1.20
Globulin (g/l) 16.40 18.15 19.10 21.60 22.55 0.99
Triglyceride(mg/dl) 145.80c123.20c148.25c226.80a185.70b12.50
AST (IU/l) 145.80a112.45b135.60ab 130.85ab 140.40a4.40
ALT (IU/l) 36.70ab 36.40ab 21.85b45.75a57.45a4.38
Creatine kinase (IU/l) 129.15ab 107.90cd 136.15a119.35bc 100.00d4.63
Corticosterone (ng/mL) 237.50a157.00c198.50b203.50b189.50b8.75
Table 2: Eect of dierent levels of honey on serum parameters of broiler chickens at nisher phase
Preglednica 2: Učinek različnih ravni dodajanja medu na parametre krvnega seruma pitovnih piščancev v končnem obdobju pitanja
a, b, c Means within a row with dierent superscripts dier signicantly (p < 0.05). AST – Aspartate amino-transferase; ALT – Alanine amino-transferase
Parameters
Level of honey and vitamin C
SEM0H 20H 40H 60H Vit C
PCV (%) 30.50 27.50 32.00 32.50 37.00 1.57
Haemoglobin (G/Dl) 9.85 8.80 10.55 10.20 11.35 0.44
Red blood cell 2.60 2.30 2.75 2.80 3.15 0.15
White blood cell 10.85 10.20 11.20 10.00 9.80 0.29
Heterophil 30.00 32.00 36.50 30.50 35.50 1.80
Lymphocyte (%) 70.00 66.00 63.50 68.50 63.50 1.85
Eosinophil (%) 0.00 0.50 0.00 0.00 0.50 0.13
Basophil (%) 0.00 0.50 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.10
Monocyte (%) 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 0.50 0.27
HL 0.43 0.51 0.58 0.45 0.56 0.04
MCH (µµG) 38.03 38.18 38.26 37.13 36.32 0.95
MCV (µ3) 117.85 119.31 116.39 117.25 118.21 2.64
MCHC (%) 32.33 32.00 32.87 31.61 30.70 0.35
Table 3: Eect of dierent levels of honey on haematological parameters of broiler chickens at nisher phase during hot-dry season
Preglednica 3: Učinek dodajanja medu na hematološke parametre pitovnih piščancev v končni fazi pitanja v vročem in suhem obdobju
MCV – Mean corpuscular volume, MCH – Mean corpuscular haemoglobin, MCHC – Mean Corpuscular haemoglobin concentration,
HL – Heterophil : lymphocyte ratio, PCV – Packed cell volume
Acta agriculturae Slovenica, 108/1 – 2016 49
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF HONEY ON PHYSIOLOGICAL, GROWTH ... OF BROILER CHICKENS DURING DRY SEASON
Table 3 shows the eect of dierent levels of honey on
haematological parameters of broiler chickens at nisher
phase during the hot-dry season. ere was no signicant
eect of dierent levels of honey on the haematological
parameters of the birds among the treatment groups at the
nisher phase.
3.2 GROWTH PERFORMANCE
Eect of dierent levels of honey on the perfor-
mance of broiler chickens is presented in Table 4. e
weight gain of the birds in 60H treatment group was
higher than those of the birds in the other treatment
groups. e birds in 20H treatment group had similar-
weight gains as those of 40H and C groups. e weight
gain in 0H was lower than those of the other treatment
groups. Also the feed intake of the birds in 0H was lower
than those of the other treatment groups whose values
were similar. e feed conversion ratio was similar across
the treatment groups (p > 0.05).
3.3 RELATIVE WEIGHTS OF ORGANS
Eect of dierent levels of honey on the relative
weights of organs of broiler chickens is presented in Ta-
ble 5. e body weights of the birds in 20H and 40H were
signicantly higher (p < 0.05) than that of OH group. e
weights of the birds in 60H and C group were similar but
higher than the weights recorded in the other treatment
groups. e relative weights of liver in broiler chickens in
0H group were signicantly higher (p < 0.05) than those
of other treatment groups. e liver relative weights of
the birds in 40H goup were higher than those of 20H,
60H and C group. e relative weights of kidney of the
birds in 40H, 60H and C group were similar but signi-
cantly higher (p < 0.05) than those of 0H and 20H. e
relative weight of the lungs of the birds in 0H was sig-
nicantly higher than those of other treatment groups.
e heart weights of the birds in 0H group were signi-
cantly higher (p < 0.05) than those of the other treatment
groups. e relative weight of small intestine in broiler
chicken of 0H group was signicantly higher (p < 0.05)
than those of the other treatment groups. e birds in
40H group had a signicantly higher (p < 0.05) weights
than those of 60H and C treatment groups. e relative
weight of proventriculus of the birds in 0H group was
signicantly higher (p < 0.05) than those of the other
treatment groups. e relative weights of empty gizzard
in 60H and C group were similar but signicantly higher
(p < 0.05) than that of 40H group whose value was also
higher than that of 20H group. e relative weights of
breast meat of the birds in 20H and 40H group were sim-
ilar but signicantly higher (p < 0.05) than those of 0H,
60H and C treatment groups whose values were similar.
e relative weight of thigh in 0H group was signi-
cantly higher (p < 0.05) than those of the other treatment
groups. e values recorded for the birds in 40H were
higher than those of the birds in 60H and C treatment
groups whose values were similar. e shank relative
weight recorded in the birds in 60H was higher than in
those of the other treatments. e drum stick weight was
also higher in the birds in 60H than the birds in the other
treatment groups. e value for 40H was also higher than
those of 0H and C treatment groups. e GIT relative
weights recorded in the birds in 60H were higher than
those of the other treatment groups. e values in 20H
and 40H were comparable but higher than those of 0H
and C treatment groups.
e relative weights of tibia in 40H were comparable
to those of 60H and C treatment groups but signicantly
higher (p < 0.05) than those of 0H and 20H groups, which
were similar to those of 60H and C treatment groups.
Eect of dierent levels of honey on the relative
weights of lymphoid organs of broiler chickens at nisher
phase during hot-dry season is presented in Table 6. e
relative weight of thymus of the birds in 40H was similar
Parameters
Levels of inclusion honey
Vit C SEM0H 20H 40H 60H
Initial body weight at 4wks (g) 590.52 588.28 586.69 585.41 587.96 2.04
Final body weight (g) 1785.10d1839.44c1855.45b1887.62a1828.36c7.89
Weight gain (g) 1194.59d1251.16bc 1268.76b1302.21a1240.42c8.59
Feed intake (g) 2783.10b2992.05a2973.93a3028.06a2963.39a26.00
Feed conversion ratio 2.32 2.39 2.34 2.32 2.39 0.01
Mortality 00000
Table 4: Eect of dierent levels of honey on performance of broiler chickens at nisher phase
Preglednica 4: Učinek različnih ravni dodanega medu na proizvodne lastnosti pitovnih piščancev v končni fazi pitanja
a, b, c, d Means within rows with dierent superscripts dier signicantly (p < 0.05)
Acta agriculturae Slovenica, 108/1 – 2016
50
O. E. OKE et al.
to that of 60H but signicantly higher than those of 20H,
0H and C treatment groups. However the relative weights
of thymus in broiler chicken of 0H, 20H and C treatment
groups were similar. e relative weights of spleen of the
birds in 40H, 60H and C group were similar but signi-
cantly higher (p < 0.05) than that of 0H and 20H. e
weights recorded in the birds in 20H were signicantly
higher (p < 0.05) than that of 0H.
4 DISCUSSION
Enhanced levels of serum ALT, AST and LDH are
used as indicators of liver damage (Ozaki et al., 1995). In
the present study, the activity of AST and ALT enzymes
did not follow a consistent trend with the inclusion of
honey in the drinking water of broilers during stress. is
supports the ndings of Hosseini-Vashan et al. (2012)
who reported that turmeric powder depressed AST in
heat stressed broiler due to the antioxidant curcumin
which is a component of the additive. e similarity in
levels of serum albumin and globulin in the birds oered
dierent levels of honey and ascorbic acid in the present
study diers from the ndings of Al-Shanti (2005) who
found that supplementing heat stressed broilers with 1 g
vitamin C/l drinking water had no eect on blood albu-
min and globulin
e present study showed that inclusion of honey at
Parameters
Level of honey and vitamin C
SEM0H 20H 40H 60H Vit C
Body weight (kg) 1.70c2.03b2.05b2.25a2.35a0.077
Liver (%) 2.60a2.03c2.27b2.11c2.05c0.072
Kidney (%) 0.12b0.14b0.16a0.16a0.16a0.006
Lungs (%) 0.54a0.51b0.49bc 0.48cd 0.46d0.010
Heart (%) 0.72a0.42b0.43b0.46b0.46b0.038
Small intestine (%) 3.08a2.73bc 2.87b2.66cd 2.55d0.062
Proventriculus (%) 2.66a2.39b2.44b2.25c2.17c0.058
Empty gizzard (%) 0.25d2.14c2.31b2.44a2.43a0.280
Abdominal fat (%) 1.62 1.58 1.69 1.63 1.58 0.018
Breast meat (%) 17.76b19.10a19.15a17.61b16.95b0.312
igh (%) 18.88a9.15d12.23b11.17c10.72c1.129
Shank (%) 2.73b2.74b2.95b5.08a2.648b0.312
Drum stick (%) 4.53cd 4.74bc 4.93b5.65a4.35d0.153
Tibia (%) 0.788b0.803b0.94a0.88ab 0.87ab 0.020
GIT (%) 15.505c16.66b16.92b18.85a14.93c0.463
Table 5: Eect of dierent levels of honey on the relative weight of organs of broiler chickens at nisher phase during hot-dry season
Preglednica 5: Učinek dodajanja različnih količin medu na relativno maso organov pitovnih piščancev v končni fazi pitanja v vročem in
suhem obdobju
a, b, c Means within a row with dierent superscripts dier signicantly (p < 0.05)
Parameters
Level of honey and vitamin C
SEM0H 20H 40H 60H Vit C
Spleen (%) 0.017c0.029b0.038a0.383a0.039a0.075
ymus (%) 3.082bc 3.867b4.019a3.882ab 3.831b0.035
Bursa (%) 0.560 0.545 0.576 0.562 0.553 0.005
Table 6: Eect of dierent levels of honey on the relative weight of lymphoid organs of broiler chickens at nisher phase during hot-dry
season
Preglednica 6: Učinek dodajanja različnih količin medu na relativno maso limfatičnih organov pitovnih piščancev v končni fazi pitanja
v vročem in suhem obdobju
a, b, c Means within a row with dierent superscripts dier signicantly (p < 0.05)
Acta agriculturae Slovenica, 108/1 – 2016 51
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF HONEY ON PHYSIOLOGICAL, GROWTH ... OF BROILER CHICKENS DURING DRY SEASON
60 ml/l improved the total serum protein. Similar reports
were obtained by Giurgea et al. (1981) who indicated
that daily administration of propolis extract to chickens
had a signicant eect on the serum. On the contrary,
Al-Shanti (2005) reported that supplementing vitamin C
to the heat-stressed broilers had no eect on blood total
protein. is may be due to the dierence in the strains
of the birds used for the experiment. e decrease in the
serum glucose levels of the birds oered honey at 20 and
40 ml/l and vitamin Cin this trial corroborates the nd-
ings of Hazim et al. (2001) who reported an improve-
ment in the blood glucose level of broiler birds whose
diets were supplemented with ascorbic acid (at 0, 150,
300 and 450 mg / kg diet) during summer months.
e creatine kinase levels of the birds oered honey
was not elevated comapred with the birds oered ordi-
nary water in this study. e lower levels observed in the
birds oered 20 ml/l and vitamin C in the present study
may indicate that honey supplementation did not impair
the function of the kidney. Also the corticosterone lev-
els of broiler chickens supplemented with honey were
lower than in the 0H group. is suggests that addition
of honey up to 60H helped in ameliorating heat stress in
broiler chickens compared to 0H group. is is in agree-
ment with previous studies (Mckee and Hurrison, 1995;
Mahmoud et al., 2004) which reported that the improved
performance resulting from the use of ascorbic acid was
associated with the suppressed stress response indicated
by reduction in plasma corticosterone level. Stressors
such as high environmental temperature induce a cascade
of neural and hormonal events, beginning with hypotha-
lamic stimulation and the production of corticotrophin-
releasing factor, which stimulates the anterior pituitary to
produce adrenocorticotropic hormone, and ending with
stimulation of adrenal cortical tissue by adrenocortico-
tropic hormone to increase the production and release of
corticosteroids, primarily corticosterone in birds (Siegel,
1995). e reduction in the levels of serum corticoster-
one in birds oered varying levels of honey in this study,
implies that addition of honey in the drinking water of
broiler chickens had an ameliorative eect on the birds
and they were able to cope with the hot dry season and to
perform better than the birds in the control group.
e higher body weights recorded in the birds in
60H in the present study are in conformity with the re-
port of Gross (1988) who reported that dietary vitamin
C improved growth performance in broilers. e higher
weights of birds associated with higher dosage of honey
beyond 20 ml in this study suggest that this level con-
tained potent antioxidant which was benecial to the
birds during stress. e present observation is an im-
provement on our previous ndings (Abioja et al., 2010)
where it was reported that there was no signicant dier-
ence in the weights of broiler chickens oered honey up
to 20 ml/l in drinking water. is could therefore be ex-
plained by the fact the doses of honey (20 ml/l of water)
administered in the previous study was not high enough
to cause a positive eect. e higher feed intake observed
in the birds oered dietary vitamin C and honey in the
present study corresponds to the report of Bonomi et al.
(1976) who found an increase in feed intake when propo-
lis was fed to laying hens.
Addition of honey to the drinking water of heat-
stressed birds had no signicant eect on PCV, RBC,
WBC, heterophil, lymphocyte, eosinophil, monocyte,
basophil, MCH, MCV, MCHC, haemoglobin and HL.
e PCV values of all the experimental birds were within
the normal range for chickens (24.9–45.2 %) as reported
by Mitruka et al. (1997). Also all HB, MCV, MCH and
MCHC values of all experimental birds were within the
normal range for chickens (7–13, 90–140, 33–47 and
26–35, respectively).
is study has shown that relative weights of tibia
were improved by addition of honey to the drinking
water of broiler chickens especially at high dose (40H).
is might be adduced to the improvement in calcium
metabolism of the birds. e higher relative weight of
the tibiae is concurrent with the ndings of Abioja et al.
(2012) who observed that addition of honey up to 20 ml/l
of water for broiler chickens improved tibiae weight. e
present study has further validated the fact that a dose
higher than 20 ml/l is benecial to the birds during hot
dry season in Nigeria.
e relative weight of thymus was increased by the
addition of 40 ml honey/l of water. Heat stress has been
reported to inhibit immune functions in chickens (Curca
et al. (2003); Mashaly et al. (2004). Surgical removal of
thymus has been used to demonstrate its immunologic
role (Panigraphi et al., 1971). Ecacy of Sb-Asper-C, a
combined ascorbic acid and acetylsalicylic acid treat-
ment in reducing the eects of heat stress was tested in
broilers by Anwar et al. (2004). e authors reported
that the treatment increased the ratio of thymus to body
weight. e thymus of heat-stressed chickens not supple-
mented with Sb-Asper-C was atrophied. e increase in
the thymus in the present study supports the ndings of
Abioja et al. (2012) that honey up to 20 ml per liter of
water reduces the eect of heat stress on thymus.
Increased liver weight has been regarded as one of
the indices of stress conditions (Puvadolpirod and ax-
ton, 2000). e reduced liver relative weights observed
in the birds oered honey in the present study points to
the fact that the antioxidant content in the honey used in
this study was potent enough to cause change in stress
resistancy. e similarity in the relative liver weights of
Acta agriculturae Slovenica, 108/1 – 2016
52
O. E. OKE et al.
the birds oered vitamin C and honey is an indication
that the use of honey can replace vitamin C during stress.
e gastrointestinal tract is responsive to stressors
(Collins et al., 2012; Dinan and Cryan, 2012). e higher
gastrointestinal relative weights of the birds that were of-
fered honey in this study suggests that inclusion of honey
in the water of the birds ameliorated the eects of heat
stress on birds. is is in accordance with the ndings
of Mitchell and Carlisle (1992) who reported that heat
stress lowered the wet and dry weight of small intestine.
Moreover, Hu et al. (2010) also reported that adminis-
tration of corticosterone lowered small intestinal weight
and shortened small intestinal length in broiler chickens.
5 CONCLUSIONS
Addition of 20H/l of drinking water for broilers may
be useful in ameliorating eects of heat stress as it im-
proved some stress indices (serum glucose, corticoster-
one and creatine kinase), feed intake, body weight gain
and mass of lymphoid organ (spleen). e present study
has also shown that the use of honey may serve as an an-
tioxidant for the replacement of vitamin C during stress
conditions.
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... and 1747.44 g) respectively. the positive improvements might be due to the fact that the bee honey is a good source of carbohydrates, vitamins (A, B1, B2, B3 and biotin), enzymes, flavonoids, fatty acids and minerals, which are all important in enhancement growth performance and also, these findings can be attributed antimicrobial potential of the components of the BH and BPr, resulting in better intestinal health and improving digestion and absorption (Sakine et al., 2016;Osunkeye et al., 2016;Oyegunle et al., 2016;Rabie et al., 2018). The achieved results agreed with those of Hegazi et al. (2013) who found that Table 2. indicate that FC per chicks was decreased by feeding BH (T2) or BPr (T3) and increased by feeding CS (T1) or BH + BPr (T4) compared with those fed control diets. ...
... PI followed by those fed (T2 diets, 107.35), and chicks fed control diets had the lowest PI (86.21). These results are in agreement with Oyegunle et al. (2016), Kazem et al. (2017) and Roodsari et al. (2004) who stated that the chicks fed a diet with BH or BPr were characterized by significantly better FCR weight gain, compared to chicks received control diet. On the other hand, the present results are in contrast with the findings of Osunkeye et al. (2016) and Duarte et al. (2013) who noticed that inclusion BH or BPr in broiler chicks diets did not significantly improve FCR compared to the control group. ...
... Under the condition of the present study all chicks appeared healthy and the total mortality rate was 2.67% (4 chicks) during the total experimental period (35 days). Hence, it seems that, different growth promoters (bee, honey or propolis) had positively influenced health conditions and mortality due to a strong effect of antimicrobial action and the presence of micronutrients, which have a positive effect of chicks health (Oyegunle et al., 2016 ;Canogullari et al., 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of feeding broiler chicks on corn soybean meal diets supplemented with bee honey (BH), bee propolis (BPr) or both as alternative of colistin sulfate (CS) on growth performance, tibia characteristics and some blood plasma parameters. A total number of 150 one-day old chicks of (cobb) strain were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments (5 treatments, 3 replicate groups, 10 chicks in each group). The treatments were: control without supplementation; T1 (CS) 0.01%; T2 (BH) 0.10%; T3, (BPr) 0.05% and T4 (BH, 0.10% + BPr 0.05%). Results showed that: chicks fed diets supplemented with different feed additives (T1-4)) recorded significantly (P0.05) increased body weight and body weight gain. Feed consumption was not affected by adding CS, BH or BPr during experiment period days of age (1-35). The best significant feed conversion ratio was recorded for chicks fed (T2-4) diets compared with control treatment. Tibia characteristics tibia dry weight, width, seeder index, breaking strength and ash% were insignificantly different within all treatments except tibia, wet weight, length, calcium % and phosphorus %) for chicks fed T4 diets which recorded the highest significant figures. Plasma calcium and phosphorus concentrations appeared insignificantly among different dietary treatments. It could be recommended from this study to supplemented 0.10% bee honey with or without 0.05% bee propolis to broiler diets under free antibiotic feeding conditions.
... and 1742.34 g). These results agreed with (Obun et al., 2008;Hegazi et al., 2013;Osunkeye et al., 2016;Oyegunle et al., 2016;Sakine et al., 2016;Abuoghaba andIsmail 2018 andklaric et al., 2018) they indicated that addition of BH or BP in broiler diets led to significant increases in LBW and BWG. But disagreed with (Monsuru et al., 2012) who didn't found significant effects on LBW or BWG by bee honey addition in broiler diets. ...
... Under the conditions of the present study all chicks appeared healthy and total mortality rate was 2.0% (3 chicks) during the total experimental period (35 days) and it seems that inclusion of different levels of bee honey and bee pollen or both (T 2-4 ) had positively influenced health conditions and mortality rate (Table). This result agreed with Obun et al. (2008); Hegazi et al. (2013) and Oyegunle et al. (2016) they reported that dietary supplementation of BH could reduce the mortality rate, this might be account for improving the immune response (Gheldof, 2002 andHegazi et al., 2013). In addition, BH stimulates the activity of leukocytes, stimulates lymphocytes proliferation and activates phagocytes, the honey stimulates monocytes to release cytokines, which are activators of immune response to infection. ...
... This result agreed with Mansurea et al. (2012), Oyegunle et al. (2016) and Rabie et al. (2018) they showed that addition of BH or BP in broiler diets improved the percentage of tibia weight and increased the percentage of calcium and phosphorus. These results might be due to improving calcium and phosphorus metabolism, as a result of the vitamin D content in BH and BP. ...
... These results partly agree with those of Oke et al. (2016), who reported that there were an increase in the percentage of carcass weight, liver, heart, gizzard and edible parts due to addition of BH at levels of 20, 40 and 60 ml/ liter in drinking water. Also, Obun et al. (2008) reported that the addition of BH in finisher broiler diets increased the percentage of abdominal fat. ...
... means of total protein and globulin than did other dietary treatments. These results agree with those of Oke et al. (2016), Osakwe and Igwe (2015) and Obun et al. (2008), who reported that addition of BH in broiler diets improved plasma concentrations of total protein, globulin and A/G ratio, which might be attributed to improvement in digestion of crude protein and thus more availability of amino acids required for endogenous protein biosynthesis induced by oral administration with BH. Also, the increase in globulin level with increasing dietary or drinking water levels of BH could be attributed to the improved immune status of birds (Gheldof and Engeseth 2002), through better efficacy of the liver to synthesize enough globulins for immunological functions. ...
... Dietary BH supplementation to broiler chickens caused numerical decreases in plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides compared with that of control group (Table 3). These results agree with those of Oke et al.(2016) and Osakwe and Igwe (2015), who reported that the reduction in blood cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations was the most beneficial effect of BH on the blood lipid profile. On the other hand, our results disagree with Osunkeye et al. (2016), who indicated that BH supplementation had no effect on plasma cholesterol and triglycerides in broiler chickens. ...
... Most importantly, HE maintains broiler health by altering the microbial community structure and creating a microbial balance in the gastrointestinal tract. Previous studies have reported that diets supplemented with propolis, royal jelly, honey, and bee pollen can improve the growth performance of quails, and that adding honey to the drinking water of broilers can increase weight gain and feed intake and reduce feed conversion ratio (Babaei et al., 2016;Emmanuel et al., 2016). The findings of the above study corroborate the results we obtained. ...
... The thymus, bursa and spleen are the most important immune organs in poultry and it is generally accepted that immunosuppression is associated with a decrease in the relative weight of immune organs, while an increase in the relative weight of immune organs reflects an increase in immunity (Leticia et al., 2006). In this study, the addition of HE to the broiler diet had no effect on the thymus and bursa, which was somewhat of a departure from the previous findings (Emmanuel et al., 2016). May be due to differences in age. ...
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Although many studies have already described the physiological effects of bee products, such as honey, propolis, pollen and royal jelly, on livestock farming, the health benefits of the honeycomb are still not fully understood. The problem of drug residues and bacterial resistance caused by the abuse of antibiotics is becoming increasingly serious. For this reason, a safe, green substitute has to be sought. We conducted a comparative study of honeycomb extract (HE) and an antibiotic on growth performance, carcass traits, immunity, antioxidant function and intestinal microorganisms of yellow bantam broilers. A total of 480 21-day-old female yellow bantam broilers were randomly divided into 5 groups of 6 replicates of 16 birds each. The five groups were as follows, with birds receiving a basal diet supplemented with 150 ppm (mg/kg) of chlortetracycline (CTE), a basal diet without HE (control group), and a basal diet with 0.1%, 0.15% or 0.2% HE for 60 days. The results showed that HE addition significantly increased average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), decrease feed gain ratio (F/G) from 21 to 80 and 51 to 80 days of age compared to the control group, with all three HE addition groups having statistically identical values to the antibiotic group. HE implementation dramatically increased spleen index, serum immunoglobulin A (IgA), immunoglobulin M (IgM), glutathione peroxide (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and total cecum bacteria and Lactobacillus compared to the control group, numerically at the same level as, or even better than, the antibiotic group. HE and CTE both markly reduced serum malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration compared to the control group, with higher concentrations of HE reducing the effect more dramatically than antibiotics. Both HE and CTE significantly raised dressed yield compared to the control group. In summary, HE, as a potential antibiotic alternative, improved growth performance, carcass traits, immune function, serum antioxidant capacity and intestinal microorganismsin yellow bantam broilers. According to the cubic regression analyses, the recommended supplemental dose of HE was calculated to be 0.15-0.17% for female yellow bantam broilers between 21 and 80 days of age.
... They attributed that to the improving digestion and absorption due to antimicrobial, antioxidative activity in additive to several enzymes of bee honey, which supported the digestive system to improve the feed conversion ratio. Moreover, Oyegunle et al. (2016), Hegazi et al. (2013) and Obun et al., (2008), reported that dietary supplementation of bee honey clear the mortality rate, this might be improving the immune organs and stimulates the activity of leukocytes, stimulated lymphocytes proliferation and activity phagocytes to release cytokines which are activities of immune response to infection. (Abuharfeil et al., 1999). ...
... The corresponding values ranged between 74.29 and 45.23 for breast %, while 2720 and 28.90 for thigh % and ranged between (15.51 and 16.70) for drumstick % and ranged between 10.33 and 11.95 for wing %, however the differences were insignificant. These results agreed with Oyegunle et al. (2016) who reported that, there are increase in the percentage of carcass, liver, heart, gizzard and edible parts with addition bee honey in drinking water. However, Monsuru et al. (2012) indicated that no significant effect in slaughter weight dressing and gizzard % when they added bee honey in drinking water. ...
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The current study aimed to determine the effect of feeding different dietary levels of bee honey (BH) as alternative to Erythromycin (ER) antibiotic in broiler diets on growth performance, carcass traits and economic efficiency. A total number 150 Cobb broiler chicks (one-day-old) were randomly allocated into 5 dietary treatments. The main results obtained can be summarized as follows: chicks fed basal diets (control) reflected the lowest significant (P0.05) body weight and body weight gain compared with those fed different dietary treatments (T1-4). Feeding diets containing BH (T2-3) showed the highest significant (P0.05) body weight and body weight gain compared with control group. Feed consumption was not affected by adding ER or BH during overall experiment period (1-35 d) of age. The best values of feed conversion ratio, energy and protein conversion ratios and performance index were recorded for the groups supplied with different levels of BH (T2-4). Percentage of Carcass characteristics except (heart and nick) and carcass parts, showed insignificant figures when chicks fed different dietary treatments. The highest economic efficiency values were detected for the chicks fed diets supplemented with 1000 g/ton BH and the values was 42% compared with control group. It could be concluded from this study that supplementing cobb chicks diets with bee honey (BH) have beneficial effect on broiler chicks performance, economic efficiency and could be used as growth promoter. INTRODUCTION Honey is a sweet, viscous food substance produced by bees, bees produce honey from the sugary secretions of plants. Honey is a very concentrated water solution of two sugars, dextrose and laevulose, with small quantities of at least 22 other more complex sugars. Many other elements also occur in honey, but this sugar is, by far the main components, the principal physical characteristics and behavior of honey are due to its sugars, but the minor constituents such as flavoring materials, pigments, acids, and minerals, are mostly responsible for different among individual honey types (Crane, 1990). The carbohydrates are the foremost constituents, comprising about 95% of the honey based on dry weight and the major sugars are the monosaccharides fructose and glucose. Additionally, about 25 different oligosaccharides have been noticed. The major oligosaccharides in honey, are the disaccharides sucrose, maltose, trehalose and turanose outside carbohydrates, honey
... Accumulating evidence indicates that the phytochemical in the phytogenic feed additives can ameliorate the adverse effects of hyperthermia on animals in the tropics. Our studies (Abioja et al., 2012;Oke et al., 2016;Njoku et al., 2017;Oke et al., 2017a,b;Oke, 2018a,b;Oke et al., 2021) on amelioration of thermal stress on animals using different phytogenic feed additives have yielded some promising results. Supplementation of antioxidant is useful in reversing negative effects of thermal stress the reproductive and productive performance of sheep (Alamer, 2011). ...
Article
Tropical environments are characterized by persistently high temperature and relative humidity and the harsh environmental conditions pose a serious limitation on the optimal performance of the animals raised in this region. Heat stress causes deleterious effects on welfare, immunology and physiology of farm animals with a resultant impact on their productivity as the use of body resources is re-organized and the metabolic priorities of animals shift away from production, growth, health and reproduction. It is imperative to understand the mechanisms involved in the thermoregulation of animals under tropical conditions in order to develop appropriate strategies for their improvement. This review focuses on the available data on the increasing global temperature and the adverse impact of tropical conditions on animals’ adaptive mechanism affected during thermal stress on production performance, intestinal and ileal microbiome, physiological responses, antioxidant system, metabolic responses, cellular and molecular response, adaptive mechanism strategies to heat stress and also strategies to palliate environmental stress on livestock under humid tropical conditions including environmental manipulation, genetic opportunity, epigenetic and feeding modification. Overall, the present review has identified the disturbance in the physiological indices of tropical livestock and the need for concerted efforts in ameliorating the adverse impacts of high ambient temperature aggravated by high humidity on livestock in tropical environments. Further research is needed on genotype-by-environment interaction on the thermotolerance of different livestock species in the tropics.
... The probable mechanism of action of plant products has been found to be through their beneficial effect on gut microflora by reducing the number of pathogenic organisms, resulting in increased nutrient availability for the host [22][23][24][25]. Due to their nutritional and medical properties, herbal and bee products are now used as dietary supplements in poultry production on a large scale [26][27][28][29][30][31][32]. Additionally, they are progressively used for in vivo feeding techniques as multiple functions such as nutrients for growth and immune stimulation in young chicks [33]. ...
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The quality and safety attributes of poultry products have attracted increasing widespread attention and interest from scholarly groups and the general population. As natural and safe alternatives to synthetic and artificial chemical drugs (e.g., antibiotics), botanical products are recently being used in poultry farms more than 60% of the time for producing organic products. Medicinal plants, and honeybee products, are natural substances, and they were added to poultry diets in a small amount (between 1% and 3%) as a source of nutrition and to provide health benefits for poultry. In addition, they have several biological functions in the poultry body and may help to enhance their welfare. These supplements can increase the bodyweight of broilers and the egg production of laying hens by approximately 7% and 10% and enhance meat and egg quality by more than 25%. Moreover, they can improve rooster semen quality by an average of 20%. Previous research on the main biological activities performed by biotics has shown that most research only concentrated on the notion of using botanical products as growth promoters, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial agents. In the current review, the critical effects and functions of bee products and botanicals are explored as natural and safe alternative feed additives in poultry production, such as antioxidants, sexual-stimulants, immuno-stimulants, and for producing healthy products.
... Due to their great antioxidant ability, polyphenols, naturally available, are getting increasing attention(Crozier et al., 2009). They could be used to ameliorate performance in heat-stressed bird(Hu et al., 2019;Oke et al., 2016Oke et al., , 2017. ...
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Under tropical climate, broiler production is encumbered by several constraints which make it difficult for them to attain their genetic potential. The scarcity and high price of poultry feed and veterinary services and the harsh environmental conditions with respect to thermal stress are some of the challenges that hinder optimal growth of the birds. Limited availability of feedstuffs, including crucial feed ingredients like maize and oil seedcakes, is an important challenge to the sector, since feed still represents a major cost of producing broiler chickens. Additionally, the problem of climate change, which has become a global concern, is the main problem in broiler production under hot and humid climate. Under high ambient temperature, feed intake decreases, carbohydrates metabolism and protein synthesis efficiency are disturbed. Lipid utilization is lower and glucose or insulin homeostasis is altered while fat deposition and oxidative stress increases. Several strategies are used to ameliorate the effect of heat stress in poultry. The objective of this review was to summarize the challenge in broiler production under hot and humid climate and different approaches to fight heat stress in poultry.
... and in both the doses of VC on day 46 (p<0.001) in comparison of control group. A decrease in blood glucose level was observed in broiler chickens supplemented with VC during summer months (Hazim et al., 2001;Oke et al., 2016). The total serum protein was at significantly higher level in birds supplemented with higher dose of VC on day 23 and 46 (p≤0.05), as compared to control. ...
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Heat stress remains the most important stressor, especially across the tropical regions of the world. In the current study, effects of ascorbic acid were investigated for its impact on summer-induced heat-stress in ducks. A total of 60 twelve weeks old White Pekin ducks were randomly distributed into 3 experimental groups with replicates having 10 birds in each group. The ducks under the therapeutic trial groups were supplemented with vitamin C of 250mg or 500 mg per kg of feed along with a basal diet. This experimental feeding, ad libitum, continued for 7 weeks period. The maximum and minimum temperature along with relative humidity in the pen was recorded on daily basis, throughout the experiment. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for haemato-biochemical and oxidative stress parameters. Vitamin C treatment improved the haemato-biochemical and oxidative parameters alteration caused by summer-induced heat stress in ducks. Therefore, dietary supplementation by vitamin C have significant role in mitigating the summer-induced heat-stress.
... Efficacy of honey and some other naturally occurring materials from plants such as coconut water, olive leaf extract, and propolis during stressful conditions in chickens had been reported in literatures. Honey has recently been reputed as a possible natural source of antioxidant in broiler chickens (Abioja et al. 2012;Osakwe and Igwe 2015;Oke et al. 2016) with some positive results because of its phenolic and flavonoid compounds content and various phytochemicals that possess antioxidant properties. It has been used during acute heat and transportation stress conditions. ...
Chapter
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Global climate change poses a great threat to poultry production. Greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as are released through both natural and anthropogenic sources into the atmosphere. Though poultry production contributes little to the release of GHGs, the subsector has been shown to be greatly affected by climate change and global warming. Poultry production as a major subsector of agriculture has provided the teeming population with a supply of needed animal protein in terms of meat and egg production all over the world. It is yet a major global employer of labour. Though it occupies a vantage position in meeting human needs, it is being threatened by climate change, especially in Africa where necessary structure to tackle the menace is non-existent. Broiler chickens that are reared mainly for chicken meat cannot tolerate the high ambient temperature that prevails mostly in the tropical environment. Chickens are homeotherms that homeostatically regulate core body temperature within a narrow range. Elevated ambient temperature above thermal comfort zone, such as envisaged in climate change scenarios, will trigger series of neuro-endocrine modulations that are detrimental to the welfare and productivity in broiler chickens. Such birds are said to be undergoing heat stress (HS). Negative effects of HS include reduced feed consumption, growth rate, feed digestion and efficiency, immunity, welfare and survivability. Various adaptive measures that could be harnessed by broiler farmers, ranging from housing, feeding, watering, stocking, breeding for thermo-tolerant strains, thermal conditioning, use of phytochemicals, and much more, are reviewed upon in this Chapter.
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An experiment was conducted to determine whether ascorbic acid (AA) increases resistance of female Hubbard x Hubbard broiler chicks to multiple concurrent stressors. Stressors imposed from 10 to 17 d posthatch included 2 x 2 x 2 factorial combinations of beak trimming [(B), sham-operated or beak-trimmed and cauterized], coccidiosis [(C), gavage with 0 or 3 x 10(5) sporulated Eimeria tenella oocysts], and heat stress [(H), 28 vs 33 C]. A starter diet was supplemented with AA to provide 0, 150, or 300 ppm (milligrams per kilogram). This resulted in a 2 x 2 x 2 x 3 factorial design with two six-chick replicates of each of the 24 treatment combinations. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and a level of 95% significance. Ascorbic acid increased feed intake and lowered plasma corticosterone and heterophil:lymphocyte ratios. Heat depressed weight gain and feed intake and elevated heterophil:lymphocyte ratios. Heat and AA interacted to improve weight gain and feed intake and lower heterophil:lymphocyte ratios. Coccidiosis depressed weight gain, feed efficiency, and heterophil:lymphocyte ratios. Coccidiosis and AA interacted to increase feed intake and lower plasma corticosterone and heterophil: lymphocyte ratios. Beak trimming increase heterophil:lymphocyte ratios. Beak trimming and AA interacted to increase feed intake and lower heterophil: lymphocyte ratios. Weight gain and feed efficiency decreased whereas heterophil:lymphocyte ratios increased linearly in unsupplemented birds as a function of stressor "order" (the number of stressors imposed simultaneously) indicating an additive effect of systematically increasing the number of stressors. No changes in feed efficiency or heterophil:lymphocyte ratios were detected as a function of stressor order when AA was provided. Ascorbic acid reduced the slope of the regression equation describing the relationship between weight gain and stressor order. It was concluded that AA, particularly at 150 ppm, enhanced performance of broiler chicks exposed to multiple concurrent environmental stressors.
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The effects of corticosterone (CORT) administration on the weight of small intestine and the expression of nutrient transporter mRNA in the small intestine of broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) were investigated. One hundred and eight sevenday-old birds were randomly divided into two equal groups comprising a control group (CTRL) and an experimental group (CORT). CTRL birds were fed a basal diet and the CORT birds were fed a basal diet containing 30 mg corticosterone/kg from d 8 to 21. At 21 d of age, average daily feed intake (ADFI), serum corticosterone level, small intestinal absolute wet weight and relative weight, and relative abundance of SGLT1, CaBP-D28k, PepT1 mRNA in the duodenum and L-FABP mRNA in the jejunum were determined. The results showed that serum corticosterone level, liver weight and small intestinal relative weight (small intestinal wet weight/body weight) of CORT chickens were about 30.15%, 26.72% and 42.20% higher, respectively, than in the CTRL group (p
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