A Study on Computer Teaching Based on Computational Thinking

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The concept of computational thinking has caused wide public concern over the world. How to cultivate students’ computational thinking and creative ability becomes a common question. This paper proposes some suggestions about the curriculum provision of theory courses and experimental teaching of computer science and technology.

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... Dengan logika yang baik dan benar maka masalah efisiensi dalam waktu pengerjaan akan didapatkan. Computational Thinking (CT) adalah sebuah pendekatan dalam proses pembelajaran memiliki peran penting dalam pengembangan aplikasi komputer (Wang & Wang, 2016). Computational Thinking (CT) juga dapat digunakan untuk mendukung pemecahan masalah disemua disiplin ilmu, termasuk humaniora, matematika dan ilmu pengetahuan (Lee, Martin, Denner, Coulter, Allan, Erickson, & Werner, 2011). ...
... Dibandingkan dengan pengaturan isi teori, desain eksperimen tampaknya lebih sulit. Pengajaran eksperimental kami mengadopsi strategi "3 + 2", di mana "3" berarti membangun eksperimen saja, desain kursus, dan desain kelulusan (Li et al., 2020;Singhapong & Winley, 2016;Wang & Wang, 2016) Pertama, latihan tentu saja konten eksperimental harus ditekankan untuk menumbuhkan kemampuan siswa dalam memecahkan masalah. ...
Computational thinking (CT) basically defines the abstract accurately and covers various kinds of skills in understanding problems and determining appropriate solutions according to the rules of computing in computer science. Understanding the terminology of accuracy is used in computer science fundamentally to understand problems and find solutions that are built from these problems in a logical, structured, and systematic manner. Junior high school 1 Kalimanah is a school with a good ranking in the district because almost every year it always ranks in the top ten on the achievement index of its graduates. The condition of the students of Junior high school 1 Kalimanah is very diverse in economic background, some come from families of employees, farmers, laborers, or others. With a variety of existing economic backgrounds, the issue of ownership of computer equipment is also very limited, not all have computers/or mobile devices/smartphones. The method of application in service activities is carried out by exploration by asking questions, then elaborating and confirming by asking questions. The activity plan is carried out by providing programming learning at the intermediate level to provide motivation to learn logically and systematically so that computational computer-based learning is expected to provide a learning experience for students, especially computer programming experience, bridging the school in selecting outstanding students in the programming field. computer. Keywords: computational thinking; functionality; Computer science; logical; systematic Abstrak: Kajian ilmu dalam ilmu komputer adalah mengindentifikasi dengan akurat definisi, prosedure dan fungsionalitas. Pemahaman terminologi keakuratan digunakan dalam ilmu komputer secara mendasar untuk memahami masalah dan menemukan solusi yang dibangun dari masalah tersebut secara logis, terstruktus dan sistematis. Computational thinking (CT) pada dasarnya mendefinisikan abstrak secara tepat dan mengkover berbagai macam ketrampilan-ketrampilan dalam memahami masalah dan menentukan solusi yang tepat sesuai dengan kaidah komputasi dalam ilmu komputer. SMPN 1 Kalimanah merupakan sekolah dengan peringkat baik di wilayah kabupaten karena hampir setiap tahun selalu menempati rangking sepuluh besar pada indeks prestasi lulusannya. Kondisi siswa SMP N 1 Kalimanah sangat beragam latar belakang ekonomi, ada yang berasal dari keluarga pegawai, petani, buruh atau yang lainnya. Dengan beragam latar ekonomi yang ada, maka dalam masalah kepemilikan perangkat komputer juga sangat terbatas tidak semua memiliki komputer/atau perangkat mobile/smartphone. Metode penerapan dalam kegiatan pengabdian dilakukan dengan eksplorasi dengan memberikan pertanyaaan kemudian elaborasi dan konfirmasi yakni memberi pertanyaan-pertanyaan. Kegiatan dilakukan dengan memberikan pembelajaran pemrograman pada level tingkat menengah untuk memberi motivasi belajar secara logis dan sistematis, sehingga dengan pembelajaran berbasis komputer secara komputasi diharapkan memberi pengalaman belajar bagi siswa khususnya pengalaman pemrograman komputer, menjembatani pihak sekolah dalam menyeleksi siswa-siswa berprestasi dalam bidang pemrograman komputer.Kata kunci: computational thinking; fungsionalitas; ilmu komputer; logis; sistematis
... Detail CT over problem identification and constructing solution using data [10] There had been several studies on applying the CT framework, in which the framework was analysed and investigated in relation to learning process, such as developing creativity within a group of collaborators [11], implementing CT competencies in learning [12], modelling CT implementation in a class [13], developing CT in higher education through creative programming [14], and understanding CT through creative programming [15]. These studies explored the practicality in which the CT skills could nurture creativity and ability in problem-solving. ...
... A study by Wang, Schneider, & Valacich [11] and Wang & Wang [12] emphasized their analysis of applying CT through the interaction within a collaboration group and between students and teachers. The results of their studies explained that creativity in Advances in Engineering Research,volume 198 problem-solving relied upon the level of difficulty of the problem and the communication ability amongst the members of the group. ...
... Within the framework of technological innovation, this is a basic skill that every individual should possess in order to meet the increasing demands of the fourth industrial revolution. These skills include a set of mental abilities that transform difficult and complex real-world problems into the type that can be solved even by a mindless machine without additional human assistance [18]. ...
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The presented study deals with the philosophical background of computational thinking, which is currently widespread in educational programs across all types of education. The current era is characterized by a turn to the digital environment, which is organized especially by algorithms and the collection of big data. New technologies have literally become the backdrops of our everyday life. The problem, however, is that society uses new technologies as black boxes, which also leads to the fact that it is difficult to adequately interpret and change this technological totality (technological or digital sublime). Computational thinking thus offers a cognitive tool for navigating this technological turn. It also seems that computational thinking can serve as a flexible thinking tool in the context of Society 4.0.
... However, there is no clear consensus on the answers to these questions when it comes to teaching CT to primary school students. CT is often an "equivocal" and poorly defined concept [15], and the way in which students are taught and evaluated in this field requires further study [16]. ...
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In the digital age, people are increasingly connected and frequently use technology in their daily lives. Elementary school students are no exception. They show a great interest in the digital world and especially in games. Scratch gives these students the opportunity to create their own games instead of being passive consumers of these programs. Also, it is a software that allows the development of computational thinking. Thus, to learn programming using Scratch allows students to be actors in their learning which increases their capacity to solve problems. The objective of this work is to propose a pedagogical scenario to teach Scratch to primary school students based on active pedagogical approaches that put the learner at the centre of the teaching-learning process. Once challenged by a problem, students propose solutions. Scratch gives the opportunity to verify the accuracy of the proposed solutions. Accordingly, students try to detect the source of the error and rectify the instructions of their programs. The class, grouped in trios, evaluates the proposed solutions by adopting the "trial and error" method until the desired result is obtained. Therefore, the scenario proposed in this work combines active pedagogical approaches while taking into consideration the nature of the subject taught. Indeed, it aims to make the students fully involved in their learning with the "trial and error" method and to develop their capacities of investigation and problem-solving in a motivating and collaborative environment.
... On 2011, The International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) [9] and The Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) defined computational thinking with a perspective close to [8] perspective. They defined it as a process of problemsolving [10] that includes: organizing and analyzing data logically; formulating problems in a way that can be solved by the help by tools such as computer; representing data through abstractions such as models and simulations; automating solutions through algorithmic thinking (a series of ordered steps); identifying, analyzing, and implementing possible solutions with the goal of achieving the most efficient and effective combination of steps and resources; generalizing and transferring this problem-solving process to a wide variety of problems. These skills are supported by a number of attitudes, these attitudes include: confidence in dealing with complexity; persistence in working with difficult problems; tolerance for uncertainty; the ability to deal with open ended problems; the ability to communicate and work with others to achieve a common goal or solution. ...
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The growing demand for combining digital technology with learning practices has surpassed the use of technology or learning how to use it into the process of enhancing learners’ intellectual levels and scaffolding their understanding by focusing on skills that include thought processes gathered in what is called computational thinking. On the other hand, educational challenges promote the search for new instructional tools and approaches. Consequently, learning shall be extended by superimposing science, technology, engineering, arts, and mathematics (STEAM) approach in the instructional practices. The aim of this paper is to show how STEAM approach can develop the computational thinking among high school learners in Jordan. The main skills of computational thinking included: algorithmic thinking, abstraction, decomposition, and generalization. The sample of this study involved 32 high school students in a private school in Amman. The experimental group studied geography skills in a STEAM approach that included the use of online resources such as LightBot maze and the Ordnance Survey maps (OS) website. The control group studied the same content but through conventional method. Findings showed a significant development in the computational thinking especially in algorithmic thinking and abstraction. Thus a STEAM approach learning environment is one of the effective methods of teaching that improved computational thinking.
... The purpose of stratification is to teach students in accordance with their aptitude and implement teaching more effectively. Therefore, at the beginning of enrollment, students must be graded and tested, and teaching will be divided into classes according to the test results [4]. In terms of course content organization, the knowledge points are combined into "knowledge modules", and different combinations of "knowledge modules" are selected for teaching for students of different majors. ...
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With the development of computer technology, basic computer application has become a basic course in various professional courses. Of course, with the development of network information technology, computer teaching is facing new challenges and opportunities. This paper mainly focuses on the current situation and reform of computer teaching.
... As a new type of online teaching mode, the massive open online course has entered into people's field of vision, which has a great impact on the traditional higher education [1]. ...
Computational thinking (CT) education has drawn increasing attention from educators and researchers. This study conducted a meta-analysis of 27 empirical studies to examine the effectiveness of game-based learning (GBL) for fostering students’ CT. The effects of various factors on the learning process for acquiring CT were also examined. The results showed that (a) conducting GBL can foster students’ CT, and the overall effect was at the upper-middle level (Hedges’ g = .600, 95% CI [.465, .735], p < .001). (b) Furthermore, conducting GBL can improve students’ CT concepts (Hedges’ g = .916, 95% CI [.410, 1.423], p < .001), CT skills (Hedges’ g = .494, 95% CI [.389, .600], p < .001), and CT perspectives (Hedges’ g = .927, 95% CI [.039, 1.816], p < .05). (c) Additionally, game mode, teaching context, and participant characteristics have positive effects on CT. Based on the findings, it is suggested that using more unplugged games and video games, designing collaborative game activities, and tailoring approaches according to gender difference and programming experience can effectively promote CT. The results have significance for fostering students’ CT in GBL; it is further suggested that instruction processes be rationally designed.
The research results of this paper are as follows: put forward suggestions and Countermeasures to improve the construction of university computer basic teaching system and deepen the reform of computer basic teaching: combine the cultivation of “computational thinking ability” with the cultivation of “compound high-quality innovative talents”; promote the integration of computer basic teaching and professional teaching. At present, there are some problems in the teaching of computer basic course in our country, such as “special tool theory”, disconnection with high school information technology teaching, “learning” goal, etc. Starting from the same level, improve the specific program of teaching reform of basic computer course.
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Various aspects of computational thinking, which builds on the power and limits of computing processes, whether they are executed by a human or by a machine, are discussed. Computational methods and models are helping to solve problems, design systems, and understand human behavior, by drawing on concepts fundamental to computer science (CS). Computational thinking (CT) is using abstraction and decomposition when attacking a large complex task or designing a large complex systems. CT is the way of thinking in terms of prevention, protection, and recovery from worst-case scenarios through redundancy, damage containment, and error correction. CT is using heuristic reasoning to discover a solution and using massive amount of data to speed up computation. CT is a futuristic vision to guide computer science educators, researchers, and practitioners to change society's image of the computer science field.
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Computational thinking will influence everyone in every field of endeavour. This vision poses a new educational challenge for our society, especially for our children. In thinking about computing, we need to be attuned to the three drivers of our field: science, technology and society. Accelerating technological advances and monumental societal demands force us to revisit the most basic scientific questions of computing.
The Role of Computational Thinking in the 21st Century
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  • L Moore
Jackson J. and Moore L, The Role of Computational Thinking in the 21st Century[DB/OL]. _Innovation.pdf,2013-05-10.
Study and Practice on Bilingual Teaching of Data Structure Course
  • Y F Wang
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Y. F. Wang, Z. B. Liu, "Study and Practice on Bilingual Teaching of Data Structure Course", Computer Education, 2009, Vol.10, pp.122-124.
This work was supported by the Education and Teaching Reform Project of
This work was supported by the Education and Teaching Reform Project of Jining Medical University in 2014 (No.14056 and No.14017).