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First record of the genus Dorypteryx Aaron, 1883 (Psocoptera: Psyllipsocidae) in South America: Dorypteryx domestica (Smithers, 1958) in Arequipa, Peru

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Dorypteryx domestica (Smithers, 1958) previously known from Africa, Europe, North America, and Australia is recorded from an urban area in southern Peru. This is the first record of the genus Dorypteryx Aaron, 1883 in continental South America. The species was found in a private building, recently constructed.
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Check List | www.biotaxa.org/cl Volume 12 | Number 6 | Article 2012 1
Check List the journal of
biodiversity data
First record of the genus Dorypteryx Aaron,  (Psocoptera:
Psyllipsocidae) in South America: Dorypteryx domestica
(Smithers, ) in Arequipa, Peru
José Cerdeña
Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad Nacional de San Agustín, Av. Alcides Carrión s/n, Arequipa, Perú.
E-mail: cerdenajoseal@yahoo.es
Abstract: Dorypteryx domestica (Smithers, )
previously known from Africa, Europe, North America,
and Australia is recorded from an urban area in southern
Peru. is is the rst record of the genus Dorypteryx
Aaron,  in continental South America. e species
was found in a private building, recently constructed.
Key words: psocids; introduced species; domestic
pests
e psocid genus Dorypteryx Aaron,  is a small
group in the family Psyllipsocidae, comprising only four
species (Li and Liu ). is genus is characterized by
brachypterous adults with forewings reduced to slen-
der straps with simple venation; vein R unbranched or
subdivided into R and a simple Rs; vein M unbranched;
forewing with margin and veins hairy; hindwing reduced
to a tiny ap; fourth segment of maxillary palp elongate;
epiproct simple, paraproctal spine present and unmodi-
ed in both sexes; external valve of female gonapophy-
ses distally with three heavy setae, dorsal and ventral
valves smooth and weakly developed; hypandrium with
apically curved margin, more or less sclerotized; and
phallosome with two simple parameres, more or less
curved (Mockford ). e genus is known from Eu-
rope, North America, Central America, Africa, Australia,
and recently, reported from China (Li and Liu ).
Dolopteryx domestica was described by Smithers ()
from dwellings in Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe),
as the only species of the new genus. However, this
genus was later synonymized with Dorypteryx by
Lienhard (). e species was collected for the rst
time in Europe in  (Lienhard ), and since then,
it has been reported from several European countries
(Lienhard and Smithers ; Lienhard , ,
, , , ). It was recorded from North
America by Mockford (), based on two specimens
from domestic habitats, and recently, it was recorded
in Australia (Barrow Island), in a domestic situation,
by Gunawardene et al. () (Figure ). is species
is characterized by the presence of ve longitudinal
veins in the forewing, the subtrapezoidal epiproct, and
the broad nearly quadrate external valve of the female
gonapophyses (Li and Liu ).
On  March  a series of psocids, from a private
building, located in an urban area of Arequipa city (°
S, ° W), southern Peru (Figure ), was brought to be
identied to the Museo de Historia Natural Universidad
Check List 12(6): 2012, 9 December 2016 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15560/12.6.2012
ISSN 1809-127X © 2016 Check List and Authors
6
12
2012
9 December 2016
Figure 1. Distribution map of Dorypteryx domestica (Smithers). Red circle:
record areas in Africa, Europe, North America and Australia. Black circle:
new record, Arequipa city, Departamento Arequipa, southern Peru.
Notes oN GeoGraphic DistributioN
Check List | www.biotaxa.org/cl Volume 12 | Number 6 | Article 2012 2
Cerdeña | First record of Dorypteryx domestica in South America
are known from South America (Psyllipsocus Selys-
Longchamps,  and Psocathropos Ribaga, ). is
discovery of Dorypteryx represents the rst record of
this genus in Peru, and also in South America.
Dorypteryx domestica is a synanthropic insect usually
found in buildings and glasshouses and this dispersal
process has been through vectors (vehicles, plants,
etc.) (Schneider ; Mockford ). According to
the building owner, the elevator that was installed few
months ago is from Spain, a country where D. domestica
is recorded (Lienhard and Smithers ). erefore,
it is presumed that the unintentional introduction of
this species was via the shipment of the elevator from
Europe. is dispersal phenomenon is discussed by
Lindroth ().
Psocids have traditionally been viewed as scavengers
and mould feeders and of little importance as domestic
pests (Mockford , ). However, several infes-
tations of D. domestica in European urban areas were
brought to the attention of the authorities when many
cases of allergic reactions were recorded (Limonta and
Locatelli ). A similar situation could also pose
problems for public health management in Arequipa,
and eventually increase allergic problems, given that
climatic conditions of Arequipa (temperature and
humidity stable throughout the year) are optimal for
the development and rapid outbreak of populations of
this species. So far, human allergic reactions due to this
species were not reported in Arequipa. Recognizing a
potential serious infestation, the owners employed a
company to eradicate these insects.
Invasive insects are being unintentionally moved
around the world at unprecedented rates (Roques
) as contaminants in cargo of international trade.
Invasive species impact ecosystems, agriculture, forestry
and human health and result in billions of dollars in
economic losses annually (Drake et al. ; Pimentel
et al. ). According to Bacon et al. (), there is no
method to evaluate the performance of existing border
controls for alien insect invasions, mainly because
pathway management, invasions of insects, and optimal
detection strategies have been understudied thus far,
and border controls have only been analyzed on a stand-
alone basis using interception data.
As this is the rst record of D. domestica in Peru and
South America, it is important to conduct surveys
in neighboring regions of Arequipa. In addition, the
public health system of Peruvian government should be
alerted about this species and include D. domestica as a
domestic pest and potential threat, already present in
the country, but with restricted distribution.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I am very grateful to Aaron Quiroz who provided the
specimens to Museo de Historia Natural Universidad
Nacional de San Agustín, Arequipa.
Nacional de San Agustín, Arequipa. e specimens, all
adults, were examined using standard stereo and light
microscopy techniques, and were identied as belonging
to Dorypteryx domestica (Figure ).
A visit to the building was conducted in order to
collect other specimens and conrm the location. e
building, with ve oors all recently built and furnished,
is located in a residential area. e second oor was
newly inhabited. e walls and the oors of the whole
building were examined and several adults and nymphs
were collected. e insects were noticed in corners on
walls and, in a great number, behind the wooden skirting
boards in the rooms on all ve oors. All specimens
collected, are preserved in alcohol and deposited in the
Museo de Historia Natural Universidad Nacional San
Agustín (MUSA), Arequipa, Peru, under registration
numbers JCG- JCG.
e identication key presented by Li and Liu ()
and important references for genus and species identi-
cation (Smithers , ; Mockford , ; New
) were used to determine the species presented here.
A total of  specimens were collected,  adults and
 nymphs, all adults presented diagnostic characters
for the species Dorypteryx domestica: brachypterous,
forewing with margin and veins hairy, forewing spear-
shaped longer than wide, usually  veins reaching wing
margin, although in some specimens the vein R not
reaching wing margin (Figure D), tarsi -segmented
(Figure B), each pretarsal claw with a small subapical
tooth (Figure C), fourth segment of maxillary
palp elongate (Figure A), external valve of female
gonapophyses broad, nearly quadrate (Figure E).
Based on the contribution by Lienhard and Ferreira
(), two genera and  species of Psyllipsocidae
Figure 2. Dorypteryx domestica (Smithers) collected in March 2016,
Arequipa city, Peru. A: head; B: 3-segmented fore tarsus; C: distal tarsal
segments and pretarsal claws; D: forewing with aberrant venation: R1 not
reaching wing margin; E: dorsal view of female gonapophyses. m: man-
dible; p: maxillary palp; c: cell closed; s: spinous setae.
Check List | www.biotaxa.org/cl Volume 12 | Number 6 | Article 2012 3
Cerdeña | First record of Dorypteryx domestica in South America
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Book
Full-text available
SYNTHESIS OF PARTS 11-20 OF THE ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS TO LIENHARD & SMITHERS, 2002: "PSOCOPTERA (INSECTA) – WORLD CATALOGUE AND BIBLIOGRAPHY". Since the volume Psocoptera (Insecta) – World Catalogue and Bibliography was published by the Geneva Natural History Museum in 2002, twenty supplementary papers of additions and corrections have appeared in Psocid News. All available literature on Psocoptera was treated in the same style as the Catalogue (listed taxonomically, faunistically and thematically). For ease of use a synthesis of the first ten supplements was published as Special Issue 3 of Psocid News. The present compilation offers a synthesis of the supplements 11 to 20 (published annually between 2012 and 2021 in Psocid News No. 14-23) and it contains a complement to the Subject Bibliography published in Psocid News Special Issue 2, i. e. a synthesis of the annual subject bibliographies published in Psocid News No. 19-23. See: http://hdl.handle.net/2115/35519
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Outside of pest control reports, little attention has been paid to interior ecosystems in high-latitude regions. Opportunistic sampling of live arthropods captured inside the University of Alaska Museum Fairbanks, Alaska, United States of America allowed us to describe and analyse one such interior ecosystem. We document a minimum of 77 arthropod species over 18 years. Beetles, spiders, and booklice represented 80% of the total abundance. Of those captured, synanthropes consisted primarily of fungivores and detritivores, seasonals consisted primarily of predators and omnivores, and transients consisted primarily of predators and had greater diet and species diversity than the synanthropes and transients. January was the most common month for capturing synanthropes, September for capturing seasonals, and July for capturing transients. Four synanthropic species not previously known from Alaska, which appear to have breeding populations inside the museum, were found: Dorypteryx domestica (Smithers, 1958) (Psocodea: Psyllipsocidae), Cartodere constricta (Gyllenhal, 1827), Dienerella filum (Aubé, 1850), and Corticaria serrata (Paykull 1800) (Coleoptera: Latridiidae). Three transient and one synanthrope species previously unreported from Alaska, with no evidence of breeding populations, were also found: the click beetle Danosoma obtectum (Say, 1839) (Coleoptera: Elateridae), a spider in the genus Phantyna , probably the species P. bicornis (Emerton, 1915) (Araneae: Dictynidae), two Colobopsis sp. ant specimens (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), and the synanthropic spider Oecobius cellariorum (Dugès, 1836) (Araneae: Oecobiidae).
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The psocid genus Dorypteryx Aaron is a small group in the family Psyllipsocidae, comprising only three species until now. The first Dorypteryx species, D. pallida, was described from North America by Aaron (1883), and subsequently recorded in Europe by Dessart (1976). Smithers (1958) described Dolopteryx domestica from Zimbabwe as the only species in a new genus. However, this genus was later synonymized with Dorypteryx by Lienhard (1977), who re-defined Dorypteryx and redescribed the two known species. After that revision, a third species, D. longipennis, was described by Smithers (1991) from Australia on imported specimens. Despite the low species diversity of Dorypteryx, the geographical range of this genus is rather wide, from the West Palaearctic, Afrotropical, Australian, Nearctic, and Neotropical realms. However, until now Dorypteryx had not been found in the Oriental realm. In the present paper, the genus Dorypteryx is recorded from a domestic habitat in Yunnan Province, China. Based on the contribution by Li (2002), there are three genera and 14 species of Psyllipsocidae in China (Pseudopsyllipsocus Li, Psyllipsocus Selys-Longchamps, and Psocathropos Ribaga). This discovery of Dorypteryx represents the first record of this genus in China, and also in Asia and the Oriental realm.The types of the new species described below, all females, are preserved in alcohol and deposited in the Entomological Museum of China Agricultural University (CAU), Beijing. The terminology of the adult generally follows Smithers (1972).
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