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Beyond pleasure and pain

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... One of such job demand management behaviours could be in the form of regulatoryfocused job crafting that may help employees to fulfil these emerging job requirements by triggering a set of goal-directed actions (Lichtenthaler and Fischbach, 2016a). These actions could either be aimed to maximize "gains" (through promotion-focused job crafting) or minimize "losses" (through prevention-focused job crafting) associated with their preferred goals (or resources) (Higgins, 1997;Lichtenthaler and Fischbach, 2016a). ...
... Promotionfocused job crafters make efforts towards increasing social and structural job resources and taking up challenging job demands, while prevention-focused job crafters primarily aim to decrease their hindering job demands (Lichtenthaler and Fischbach, 2016a). Promotion-focused job crafters also look forward to opportunities for gains (Higgins, 1997). These gains could be in the form of achievement of better career and personal goals. ...
... Therefore, employers may perceive such individuals as more competent and view them as a highly valuable organizational resource. Promotion-focused job crafters aim to maximize their "gains" at the workplace and therefore they are more likely to make the required efforts for achieving their goals (Higgins, 1997). These actions may also help them to achieve organizationally relevant goals such as better work engagement and job performance, in addition to their personal goals such as better health and reduced burnout (Lichtenthaler and Fischbach, 2018). ...
Article
Purpose This paper examines the relationships between regulatory-focused job crafting, i.e. promotion- and prevention-focused job crafting, person-job fit and internal employability and explores the direct and underlying mediation process using conservation of resources and job demands-resources theories. Design/methodology/approach Survey data collected from 425 executives of India based public sector enterprises were used to test hypotheses. Findings Promotion- and prevention-focused job crafting respectively had a contrasting relationship with needs-supplies fit. The relationship with demands-abilities fit was statistically significant only in the case of prevention-focused job crafting. These two job crafting forms respectively had a positive and a negative effect on internal employability, both directly as well as indirectly through person-job fit. Practical implications Employees can pursue promotion-focused job crafting and avoid prevention-focused job crafting to improve their person-job fit as well as internal employability which subsequently may have multiple favourable outcomes at an organizational and individual level. Originality/value The study, for the first time, empirically investigates the differential role of individuals' efforts in the form of promotion- and prevention-focused job crafting, in influencing internal employability and explains its underlying mechanism through person-job fit. These interrelationships may have important implications for employees' job demand management process and job choices.
... Príčinou môže byť to, že za výkonovými cieľmi môžu stáť rôzne dôvody a tie následne viesť k odlišným výsledkom (Sommet, Elliot, 2017). Higgins (1997) prišiel s teóriou regulačného fokusu, pričom sa predpokladá, že regulačný fokus moderuje dosahovanie týchto cieľov. ...
... Teória regulačného fokusu odlišuje dva motivačné konštruky, ktoré definujú to, akým spôsobom sa osoby usilujú o dosahovanie cieľa (Higgins, 1997). Osoby, ktoré sú orientované na presadzovanie sa, sú zamerané na žiadúce dôsledky svojho konania (či už na ich prítomnosť alebo absenciu) a usilujú sa o dosiahnutie pozitívnych dôsledkov (Crowe, Higgins, 1997). ...
... Osoby, ktoré sú orientované na presadzovanie sa, sú zamerané na žiadúce dôsledky svojho konania (či už na ich prítomnosť alebo absenciu) a usilujú sa o dosiahnutie pozitívnych dôsledkov (Crowe, Higgins, 1997). Jednotlivci orientovaní na prevenciu sa zas sústreďujú na prítomnosť, či absenciu nežiadúcich dôsledkov a tiež sú motivovaní snahou o vyhýbanie sa negatívnym dôsledkom správania (Higgins, 1997). Odlišnosť pozadia motivácie je spôsobená tým, o čo sa človek snaží, a teda tým, či je jeho snaha zameraná na to byť, čo najlepší alebo sa snaží dosiahnuť len určitú požadovanú minimálnu úroveň. ...
Conference Paper
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The expanding technological possibilities have opened up space for the detection of psychophysiological changes and behavioral manifestations by non-contact methods that do not interfere with normal interaction. This paper aims to present the experimental design and data of the first pilot case study applying functional infrared thermal imaging and emotional expression analysis for deception detection. In the pilot psychophysiological experiment, we focused on monitoring changes in facial temperature, heart rate variability, and overall facial emotional expression during prepared and spontaneous lie scenarios spoken towards different interviewers.
... From this point of view, the concept of regulatory focus could be applied. Under this concept, people regulate themselves to achieve ideal goals or avoid negative outcomes in a variety of strategic ways (Higgins, 1997), depending on what kind of regulatory focus they have, they either accomplish the desired aspiration based on promotion focus or achieve the required target while staying away from undesired results based on prevention focus. ...
... Promotion regulatory focus is responsible for meeting nurturance needs through the link to ideas and aspirations. In contrast, the related preventive regulatory direction is responsible for the security needs (Higgins, 1997). The distinguished two regulatory orientations are not opposing poles of one continuum, but two independent dimensions, two separate systems of self-regulation. ...
... The conducted research demonstrates that motivational states, i.e., promotional and preventive attitudes, have different in uences on the relationship between life orientation and career adaptability. For people with a preventive attitude (Higgins, 1997), safety is key; as such, they tend to monitor the environment in terms of possible threats that might prevent them from achieving their goals. However, previous studies in Poland found that neither the transitive nor moratorium orientation was related to the need for security (Turska & Stasiła-Sieradzka, 2018). ...
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The purpose of the presented study was to investigate the relationship between career adaptability and developmental tasks by young adults regarding life orientation, and to check whether self-regulation is a mediator in the relationship between life orientation and career adaptability. In total, 435 young adults aged 18 to 34 years were included. The study used the Social Participation Questionnaire, the Self-Regulation Scale, and the Polish version of the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale-5. Mediation analysis found promotion regulatory focus to be a mediator in the relationship between life orientation and all ve categories of career adaptability in the transitive orientation dependence model.
... Regulatory focus is a value motivation, emphasizing desired outcomes such as having pleasure and not having pain (Higgins, 2019;Higgins et al., 2020). It captures the end states of goal-pursuit processeseither aiming to "approach gains and avoid non-gains" (promotion-oriented goals) or "approach non-losses and avoid losses" (prevention-oriented goals; Higgins, 1997Higgins, , p. 1281. ...
... Hence, the promotion and prevention distinction is primarily within the domain of value; that is, the "what" of goal pursuit (Higgins, 1997(Higgins, , 1998. Regulatory mode, on the other hand, is about the manner in which people engage in an activity (Kruglanski et al., 2000). ...
... Promotion's concern with exceeding the status quo (i.e., striving from the state of 0 to +1; Higgins, 1997) and preference for eager goal pursuit sustains locomotion's concern of managing progress and movement from state to state (Kruglanski et al., 2000). As promotion is concerned with generating new ideas (Scholer et al., 2019) and selecting new options (Liberman et al., 1999), it supports locomotion's commitment to change (Scholer & Higgins, 2012). ...
Article
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Variety-seeking research has examined antecedents in terms of contextual factors and individual differences. However, it does not consider the interaction of individual difference factors such as regulatory focus (promotion vs. prevention) and regulatory mode (locomotion vs. assessment) to predict variety-seeking. Drawing on regulatory fit theory, this study introduces a new kind of regulatory fit based on the interaction between regulatory focus and mode (i.e., regulatory focus-mode fit), thereby extending previous work examining fit based on either regulatory focus or regulatory mode in isolation. Results from five studies, including field data from 10,547 music app consumers (text analysis), two preregistered studies, and two online experiments, show that regulatory focus-mode fit (vs. nonfit) decreases variety-seeking. Engagement and attitude certainty serially mediate regulatory focus-mode fit effects. Findings provide implications for consumer segmentation and message framing.
... As a new approach to human motivation, regulatory focus theory examines how individuals avoid undesired end-states and approach the desired end-states. The so-called "regulatory focus" refers to the specific ways individuals use self-regulation to achieve goals (Higgins, 1997). According to regulatory focus theory, there are two basic self-regulation systems: preventionfocused self-regulation and promotion-focused self-regulation. ...
... According to regulatory focus theory, there are two basic self-regulation systems: preventionfocused self-regulation and promotion-focused self-regulation. Both of these are necessary for human survival and neither is good or bad (Higgins, 1997). Prevention-focused individuals focus on obligations and responsibilities. ...
... They are more proactive, desire to achieve positive goals, and like to engage in adventurous activities. According to the regulation focus theory (Higgins, 1997(Higgins, , 1998, any goal can be achieved through different strategic means (Gamache et al., 2015). Individual focus orientation, for example, different attitude toward knowledge transfer activity has a distinct. ...
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Based on a literature review and questionnaire survey, the study proposes two tendencies of employees’ status pursuit motivation. It applies exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and other statistical methods to develop a scale of motivation for status which contains nine items and two dimensions. The development stage of this scale consists of the generation of the initial scale, exploratory research and verification research. In the generation stage of the initial scale, we obtained 12 initial questions of the status scale by combing status literature and adopting open questionnaire among employees of knowledge-based enterprises, and determined 10 of them as the questions of the initial scale by text analysis method. In the exploratory research stage, we conducted pre-survey and formal questionnaire collection on some enterprises in Guangdong and Jiangsu provinces of China. In the pre-survey stage, we distributed 100 questionnaires (81 were recovered), and the pre-survey results were satisfactory. Accordingly, 400 questionnaires were distributed (370 were recovered). In the exploratory research stage, we verified the organization member status pursuit motivation scale consisting of two dimensions and nine items. In the stage of validation research, 450 questionnaires were distributed to knowledge-intensive enterprises in Guangdong province, Jiangsu Province, Jiangxi Province and so on (425 were returned). The validation research on organizational membership motivation scale included violation estimation test, confirmatory factor analysis, model fit evaluation, reliability and validity test. Finally, a scale of status pursuit motivation of organization members consisting of two dimensions and nine items is obtained. This study expands the measurement methods of status research from a new perspective and lays a foundation for subsequent empirical research on organizational member status pursuit motivation.
... In essence, the theory proposes that the interpretation of events is personal and subjective, and that the same objective attributes of a situation are appraised and perceived similarly or differently depending on attributes that observers and targets share or do not share. A variable that nicely lends itself to study these propositions, because it is known to influence interpersonal similarities and differences in terms of how events are interpreted an appraised, is regulatory focus [22], which we address now. ...
... According to regulatory focus theory, two systems of self-regulation operate within individuals [8,22]. Nurturance-driven self-regulation, called promotion focus, is concerned with ensuring advancement, accomplishment, and growth [ideals], largely using eager means to these ends. ...
... Rather, based on their presumably similar appraisal of the situation [e.g., based on their gain/loss appraisal], observers can be expected to assume they would experience the same or a very similar emotion if they were faced with the given situation, and thus to deem the emotion expressed by the target as more 'fitting' [right, adequate etc. ; 21]. Indeed, differences in one's regulatory focus are expected to influence one's appraisal of situations [22]. In order to ensure that the effects of interpersonal regulatory fit go beyond possible effects of mere similarity, the current work will take into account such potential resemblance ["How much does the person in the text resemble you?" ; 29]. ...
Article
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Similarity with others in need regarding various attributes [e.g., social group membership] has been shown to increase individuals’ empathic responses, willingness to help and prosocial behaviour. We tested whether a subtle similarity, namely of observers’ and targets’ self-regulatory orientation in terms of a promotion or prevention regulatory focus [i.e., interpersonal regulatory fit], would entail similar effects. Interpersonal regulatory [mis]fit was conveyed through focus-congruent or -incongruent emotional reactions which targets, facing distressing situations, expressed. We predicted that when observer participants’ regulatory focus fits with targets’ negative emotional reaction [i.e., promotion focus—dejection or prevention focus—agitation], they would be more likely to express empathy, willingness to help, and to engage in prosocial behaviour towards this target compared to conditions of misfit. Five studies relied on observers’ chronic regulatory focus [Study 1, 3, & 4] and situationally induced regulatory focus [Study 2 & 5] and presented different distressing scenarios with targets conveying focus [in]congruent negative emotions. Inconsistent results emerged across the studies, which indicated misfit, fit and no effects. Study characteristics did not suggest a moderator explaining these inconsistent findings. An internal meta-analysis across all studies indicated that overall there was no evidence of either a fit or a misfit effect. This work sheds light on the technical challenges of exploring relations between subtle interpersonal regulatory [mis]fit and prosocial reactions. Implications for future research are discussed, including the importance of creating stronger interpersonal [mis]fit experiences by means of incorporating descriptions of distressed targets’ hindered goal pursuits as well as negative reactions.
... Regulatory focus is a personal trait. It suggests that human behavior revolves around two approaches: promotion focus concerns gains, aspirations, and achievements, and prevention focus concerns losses, responsibilities, and safety (Higgins, 1997). Two people who have different forms of regulatory focus will experience different things when facing multiple forms of identification. ...
... Although recent studies have demonstrated that a consumer's identification with brands or SBP users can act as an important driver of brand loyalty (Hua et al., 2017;Kyu et al., 2018;Warner-Soderholm et al., 2018), these studies mostly focus on only a single aspect of consumers' identification, rather than multiple aspects. Social identity theory implies that people have multiple social identities and are therefore likely to categorize themselves into different social groups (Higgins, 1997). Hence, one may simultaneously identify with multiple targets of identification. ...
... Achieving Regulatory Fit With Two Identification Targets Higgins (1997) proposed regulatory focus theory to posit that the goal-oriented behavioral patterns of individuals are impacted by two different motivational systems consisting of a promotionfocus orientation and a prevention-focus orientation. Promotion focus occurs as a result of needs related to nurturance, such as growth and attainment. ...
Article
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This study explorers whether the relative impacts of brand identification and identification with other users of brand pages on brand loyalty vary according to consumers’ regulatory focus. By integrating social identification theory with regulatory focus theory, this study adopts a dual identification framework to compare the differential impacts of promotion regulatory fit and prevention regulatory fit on brand loyalty. Besides, the moderating effects of product type on the relationship between promotion/prevention regulatory fit and brand loyalty are further investigated. Finally, this study uses different combinations of information technology (IT) affordances in order to examine their influences on each identification target. The current study adopts a qualitative methodology and involved conducting semi-structured interviews with 27 brand page users in regard to IT affordances and their subdimensions. The research model was empirically tested using a cross-country comparison of data collected from surveys conducted in China and the United States. The results support our hypotheses and confirm the differential effects of promotion and prevention regulatory fit on brand loyalty. Theoretically, our study enhances our understanding of the relative effect of dual identification on brand loyalty on social media. Practically, our study delivers insights for companies into how social media brand pages can be used as a strategic tool to achieve brand values.
... Consequently, Hofstede's cultural dimensions should only be applied to analyses at a country level without assuming that what is true of a higher level, is always true of lower levels (so called ecological fallacy; McSweeney, 2016). On the contrary, the regulatory focus theory (Higgins, 1997(Higgins, , 1998 Gray (1988). However, cultural dimensions may not be appropriate when accounting conservatism is measured at a firm-level. ...
... Two opposite ways of pursuing goals are approaching pleasure and avoiding pain (Higgins, 1997). These different ways of regulating pleasure and pain, called 'regulatory focus', have a major impact on people's feelings, thoughts, and actions (Higgins, 1998). ...
... The regulatory focus theory (Higgins, 1997;1998) is used in management literature to investigate how the management's motivation impacts on different business phenomenon and activities like firms' acquisitions (Gamache et al., 2015), engagement with key stakeholders (Gamache et al., 2020), managerial risk-taking (Mount and Baer, 2021) and investment in R&D decisions (Ahmadi et al., 2017;Scoresby et al., 2021). Although there are a few measures of regulatory foci based on questionnaires (see: Ouschan et al., 2007 for the review), it is argued that implicit or indirect measures are most efficient (Johnson and Steinman, 2009). ...
Conference Paper
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Research question: This study investigates the opportunity of adding the regulatory focus theory (individual characteristic) to the uncertainty avoidance (societal characteristic) when financial information governed by conservatism (at firm-level) is communicated to external users. Motivation: The Hofstede's cultural dimensions (1980) refer to the culture of society as a whole, not to individuals within that culture. Consequently, Hofstede's cultural dimensions should only be applied to analyses at a country level without assuming that what is true of a higher level, is always true of lower levels (so called ecological fallacy; McSweeney, 2016). On the contrary, the regulatory focus theory (Higgins, 1997, 1998) addresses the motivations that individuals have in goal pursuit. Idea: Many accounting papers investigate the link between cultural dimension 'uncertainty avoidance' on accounting conservatism as posited by Gray (1988). However, cultural dimensions may not be appropriate when accounting conservatism is measured at a firm-level. Instead, we propose the usage of regulatory focus, which may improve analysis. Data: This study critically examines the letters to shareholders and financial statements published in 2021 (covering the period April 2020-March 2021) by two companies operating in the airlines industry characterised by highest and lowest score in respect to uncertainty avoidance. Tools: The content analysis of letters to shareholders and annual reports complemented by the analysis based on the binary dictionary of regulatory focus theory are applied in investigating the link between uncertainty avoidance and of communication business information (regulatory focus), respectively the communication business information (regulatory focus) and conservatism included in the letters to shareholders and financial statements. Findings: The findings underline the association between the use of prevention words and the avoidance of uncertainty and a lack of correlation between the use of promotion words and the avoidance of uncertainty existing in the two countries. This aspect could be correlated with the manager's focus on promotion, his educational background and other individual aspects. We suggest that regulatory focus theory may be the missing building block to distinguish between culture (macro level) and personality of manager (micro level) in communication with stakeholders. Contribution: Our results suggest the link between uncertainty avoidance and prevention focus, which may be used to distinguish between the impact of culture and individual characteristics in decision-making. This should facilitate more conclusive inferences about the impact of culture on communicating business information subject to accounting conservatism.
... He advocates that with mental techniques, an individual can direct his/her feelings, thoughts, and behavior for the achievement of goals. The regulatory focus theory by Higgins (1997Higgins ( , 1998 is based on the concept of self-regulation. According to the theory, people pursuing individual goals can be categorized in two ways based on their motivation towards achievement of goals; the motivation may be promotion or prevention focus (Lockwood et al., 2002). ...
... They derive pleasure on the attainment of these hopes and desires; similarly, they experience pain if the hopes and desires are not fulfilled. Whereas people with a prevention focus try to minimize negative results, they consider obligations and responsibilities more important (Higgins, 1997). Hence, employees with a prevention focus like to invest their time in safe and reliable activities in the present scenario. ...
Article
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Drawing on regulatory focus theory, the purpose of the study is (a) to present a conceptual model integrating Employee Value Proposition (EVP), Psychological Contract and Employee Voice Behavior (b) to present propositions justifying the relationship between the variables, and (c) put forward a research agenda. A systematic integrative literature review of 57 studies was conducted. Based on the review, research gaps were identified in the theoretical perspectives, methodological aspects, and it was found that there is a paucity of research integrating EVP and other variables in a regulatory focus perspective. A bibliometric analysis using VOSviewer also supported the findings from the literature review. The link between Psychological Contract, Regulatory Focus, and Employee Voice Behaviour can be seen in earlier studies. The present study made an attempt to link Employee Value Proposition with these variables. The study also concluded with a future scope suggesting the need of strengthening the current theoretical foundation with empirical testing.
... In this paper, we propose regulatory focus theory (RFT; Higgins, 1997) as an integrative theory that can be deliberately used in guiding future family and work studies. We begin by introducing the fundamental components of RFT and highlighting how its underlying principles, concepts, and propositions align with contemporary family and work research concepts. ...
... A basic overview of RFT (Higgins, 1997) offers insights into its potential value for understanding adults' family and work lives. RFT is a theory of motivation designed to understand goal-pursuit orientations and strategies. ...
Article
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Regulatory focus theory (RFT; Higgins, 1997) can be useful in studying working adults’ goal-pursuing strategies for family and work success (e.g., marital adjustment and job satisfaction). We tested core hypotheses from RFT in a sample (N = 227) of married immigrants living and working in the United States. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the measurement model, and structural equation modeling was used to test study hypotheses. Results supported nearly all the RFT-derived hypotheses. Specifically, a promotion-focus orientation was more strongly associated with adults’ life success than a prevention-focus orientation. A promotion-focused orientation was solely associated with family-to-work enrichment, whereas a prevention-focused orientation was solely associated with family-to-work conflict. Finally, as expected, family-to-work enrichment mediated the association of promotion-focused orientation with job satisfaction. The overall pattern of results suggests RFT has strong potential for understanding adults’ success in their work and family lives, thereby providing a long-needed integrative theory for the multidisciplinary literature.
... With respect to AC (and to a lesser extent NC), when these feelings are dominant, the mindset should be associated with promotion-oriented rather than prevention-oriented selfregulatory motives (cf. Higgins, 1997). According to Meyer et al. (2004), the AC mindset is associated with the motive to self-regulate toward organizational goals as one acts in accord with one's personal values and ideals (Allen, 2016;Meyer & Allen, 1997). ...
... This economic thinking has thought to be closely associated with the prevention-oriented self-regulatory motive (cf. Higgins, 1997). Higher rather than lower levels of CC should be characterized by the motive to selfregulate toward security and safety goals, with desire to meet one's obligations and responsibilities (Meyer et al., 2004). ...
Article
In this study, we set out to challenge the widely held belief that mistreatment will always lower feelings of organizational commitment. We test this widespread belief by examining the relationship between social undermining (SU) and three forms of organizational commitment, affective, normative, and continuance commitment. Using time-lagged data provided by an online panel of 626 working adults, we found that exposure to SU lowered reported levels of affective (emotion-based) and normative (obligation-based) commitment but increased the level of continuance (economic-based) commitment. Subsequent moderated regression analyses revealed that the negative relations between SU and both affective and normative commitment were nuanced – they were both stronger for individuals whose anxious attachment was low rather than high. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
... People committed with the organization show lower levels of intention to quit, either because they want to stay (affective commitment), because a sense of obligation (normative commitment) or because they need to stay (continuance commitment) (Allen and Meyer, 1990). These arguments contribute to think that the decision of leaving the company of employees with high level of continuance commitment is related with an external locus of control (Higgins, 1997), and their decision is driven by job opportunities in the labor market. Nevertheless, our model focuses on the affective dimension of commitment, because we understand that this dimension is related with internal locus of control. ...
... Bloemer and Odekerken-Schroder (2006), suggest that employees that tend to get involved with their employer are usually more loyal employees, both in terms of attitudes (high organizational commitment) and in terms of behavior (low intention to quit and voluntary turnover). Employees with high level of affective organizational commitment, are characterized by a strong internal motivation and a willingness to promote inside the company (Higgins, 1997;Meyer, Becker and van Dick, 2006), and show high levels of performance and low levels of absenteeism (Meyer et al., 2002;Sallan et al., 2010). According to the arguments above mentioned, we propose the following hypothesis: ...
Article
Este estudio analiza el impacto de la empleabilidad interna percibida como un medio para retener empleados poseedores de capital humano valioso para la empresa. Se utilizan las percepciones de los empleados puesto que son estas las que determinan las actitudes y por lo tanto las predisposiciones para actuar, así como los comportamientos individuales adoptados. La satisfacción laboral y el compromiso organizativo se proponen como variables mediadoras de dicha relación, pues se han manifestado como determinantes en la literatura a la hora de explicar el comportamiento de los empleados. Como variable dependiente se utiliza la intención de renunciar al trabajo dado que es muy complejo analizar la rotación efectiva de los empleados, la cual depende en gran medida de las oportunidades que ofrece el mercado laboral. El análisis se lleva a cabo a través de ecuaciones estructurales en una muestra de 218 empleados. Los resultados muestran que la empleabilidad interna sí tiene un efecto positivo en una dimensión afectiva combinada del trabajo, así como esta última dimensión impacta negativamente en la intención de los empleados de renunciar a su trabajo.
... Which influence the perceived usefulness, popularity, and trust degree of responses will differ, and the final purchase behaviour will also be different (Hu & Kim, 2018;Kim & Kim, 2022). Higgins (1997) The questionnaire for the current study was designed in English, divided into two sections. The first section included questions on the 'respondents' demographic characteristics, such as age, gender, education level, and occupation. ...
... The dimension scales of the questionnaire for all items in the second section (see appendix 1) was established on the 5-point Likert scale ranging from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (5). Section two included a total of 12 items for independent variables such as speed of hotel responses to negative reviews (3 items), number of hotel responses to negative reviews (3 items), Length of hotel responses to negative reviews (3 items), the relevance of hotel responses to negative reviews (3 items) to evaluate one moderating variable including Consumer personality trait (8 items) were taken form Higgins (1997) and one dependent variable customer purchase intention (3 items) were taken from Higgins et al., (2001). For the current research, the author utilised SPSS version 25 to perform the data analysis. ...
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This research investigates the hotel response strategies of businesses being responsive online to stimulate customers purchase intention in eWOM communications. Specifically, this study explores the online managerial responses in terms of length, speed, and relevance of management response to customer negative reviews and how customer personality moderates the purchase intention of the hotel. A non-probability convenience sampling technique was applied to collect 441 responses from Chinese residents who have made online hotel reservations and selected the hotel only after checking the online reviews and the hotel responses. The findings confirm that hotel response to negative reviews has an essential impact on 'consumers' purchase intention and consumer personality traits. Further, the research includes the practical implications for hotels to set up the reply format and carry out effective service recovery through different expression ways of negative reviews response.
... Considering the relevance of physical activity, it is not surprising that there is a great interest in understanding the psychological processes that can influence an individual's decision about being physically active or not. According to the pleasure principle, individuals are drawn to behaviors associated with pleasure and avoid behaviors associated with displeasure (Higgins, 1997). Behaviors are associated with a certain level of affect and these associations influence the decision whether or not to carry out a behavior (Slovic et al., 2007). ...
... So far, the valence of affect has been a central predictor of future exercise behavior in research (Rhodes et al., 2009;Rhodes and Kates, 2015). Accordingly, it is reasonable to conclude that negative emotions lead to avoidance of the behavior (Higgins, 1997). However, given the complexity of physical activity this perspective might oversimplify the role of emotions in this particular behavior (Baumeister et al., 2007) and the influence of different emotions remains unconsidered. ...
Article
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Future-oriented emotions could influence our decisions in everyday life and help understand why some individuals are physically active whilst others are not. Current literature distinguishes between two future-oriented emotion constructs: anticipatory and anticipated emotions. While anticipatory emotions are currently experienced emotions about a future event, anticipated emotions refer to the emotions that a person is expected to experience when confronted with a future event. The main aims of the present study were (1) to identify and describe (a) categories of anticipatory emotions experienced before exercise, and (b) categories of anticipated emotions expected to be experienced during and after exercise, and (2) to develop a theoretical model of anticipated emotion categories. Sixteen participants (Mage = 26.03, SD = 6.66) were recruited for semi-structured interviews, and their statements were analyzed using principles of the Grounded Theory. In total, 13 different anticipatory and anticipated emotion categories were identified, such as enjoyment, anxiety, pride, self-anger, and relief. Anticipatory emotions seem to reflect the current affective valence of exercising and may be influenced by daily factors. With regards to anticipated emotions, the results show that regular exercisers anticipated also negative emotions such as anxiety, disappointment, and self-anger, and non-regular exercisers also anticipated positive emotions such as enjoyment, pride, and satisfaction. Therefore, future research should not only focus on the valence of future-oriented emotions, but should investigate the possible impact of specific anticipated emotions on exercise behavior. In addition, a theoretical model of anticipated emotion categories in exercise behavior derived from the interviews. The model outlines different categories of anticipated emotions based on appraisal processes. In conclusion, we assume that this developmental process of anticipated emotions may be embedded in a broader, cyclical process within the context of exercising.
... Concealing describes a response-focused suppressive regulative strategy to conceal and avoid negative emotions (Hofmann & Kashdan, 2010;Totzeck et al., 2018). In line with regulatory focus theory (Higgins, 1997), concealing aligns with prevention-focused self-regulation as opposed to promotion-focused self-regulation. Recall that the former is defined as a self-regulation avoidant strategy that is sensitive to negative outcomes and associated with anxious agitation, whereas the latter is defined as a self-regulation strategy that is reactive to the absence of positive outcomes and therefore associated with dejection-related emotions, such as depression or dissatisfaction. ...
Article
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Background Self-discrepancy theory posits that greater discrepancy between the actual and ideal self is related to dysphoria and greater discrepancy between the actual and ought self to anxiety. Despite both being transdiagnostically associated with psychopathology, differential effects of actual:ideal and actual:ought discrepancies have not been confirmed. There is further lack of knowledge about cognitive and affective factors implicated in the relationship between self-discrepancies and depression and anxiety. We therefore examined the relationship of actual:ideal/actual:ought discrepancies with depression, anxiety, and psychological well-being, and whether affective styles (concealing, adjusting, and tolerating) and self-efficacy emerge as mediators or moderators. Methods Self-discrepancies were measured as discrepancies in the Big Five taxonomy of personality. Participants ( N = 596) responded to the 10-item Big Five Inventory and ideal/ought versions of these traits, and measures of affective styles, self-efficacy, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and well-being. Results Both self-discrepancies were positively associated with depression, anxiety, and negatively with well-being, self-efficacy, tolerating and adjusting. No differential effects of the two types of discrepancy emerged. The adjusting affective style and self-efficacy partly accounted for the relationships between self-discrepancies and the outcomes. Conclusion Knowledge about affective adjustment and self-efficacy in counteracting putative negative emotional effects of self-discrepancies may inform intervention efforts.
... Schwartz suggests a relationship between these aspects of fear and the self-regulatory systems proposed by Higgins (1997), whose goals are oriented toward avoiding loss on the one hand and maximizing gain on the other (Schwartz, 2006, p. 948). ...
Conference Paper
This study examines value structures of Russian children (N=227) aged 7-12. It extends Döring's (2018) cross-cultural adaptation of the Picture-Based Value Survey for Children (PBVS-C). Based on Schwartz's (1992) value theory, the following assumptions are tested: The 20 items of the PBVS-C are valid indicators of the 10 Basic (BV) and four Higher-Order Values (HOVs) postulated by Schwartz. The BVs show the expected circular structure, the HOVs the hypothesized opposite positions. These assumptions hold when tested across (based on BVs' intercorrelations) and within (based on the data matrix) Russian children. Exploratory, confirmatory, and spherical MDS and two-dimensional Unfolding confirmed our assumptions. Results were validated using permutation tests and bootstrapping. A discriminant analysis revealed differences in value preferences between girls and boys. The fit of each PBVS-item into the theoretical structure of values is compared to the respective data from 10 other countries (Bilsky, Döring, & Groenen, 2016).
... • Promote positive outcomes rather than prevent negative ones (Higgins, 1997), ...
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This review was commissioned by the Behavioural Insights Research Centre for English and Maths (BIRCEM) in order to provide an overview of the research that has been conducted in the areas of adult literacy and numeracy (ALN) and behavioural sciences that can provide answers to the following research questions: 1. How can adults lacking in basic skills be encouraged on to literacy and numeracy courses? 2. How can adults on literacy and numeracy courses be encourage to persist and complete these courses? The aims of this review were to identify, describe and appraise literature relevant to these two research questions in order to both give an overview of the research findings to date and provide ideas for future research. This review was conducted rapidly over the period of two months (June and July 2014) and focusses on breadth rather than depth with the intention of providing an introduction to many different relevant areas that could be used as a basis for the development of ideas for future research.
... In particular, related empirical research has found that future time perspective decreases with age, and that this decrease is associated with declines in promotion focus, growth motivation strength in the workplace, and motivation to continue working (Kooij et al., 2014). By noting the changes in promotion focus across the lifespan, this research suggests that these changes may not be domain-specific to the workplace and may be associated with general declines in motivations to achieve one's hopes and aspirations, which are associated with a strong promotion focus (Higgins, 1997). ...
... Higgins, 2000) maintains that people strive to achieve positive goals and avoid negative outcomes. Employees who pursue a gain-maximizing strategy based on growth, aspiration, and achievement are promotion-focused (Higgins, 1997). Promotion-focused employees 'play to win' and therefore take risks, are receptive to change, and are less amenable to the status quo. ...
Article
The customer incivility literature has primarily focused on emotional exhaustion and burnout as emotion-focused mediators that channel the effect of customer incivility. Drawing on conservation of resources (COR) theory, the current research proposes a new problem-solving-focused mediator, namely, conflict-solving behavior. The authors test the mediating role of conflict-solving behavior between customer incivility and customer service performance while controlling for emotional exhaustion and employee incivility as parallel mediation mechanisms. The results from three studies provide strong support for a negative relationship between customer incivility and conflict-solving behavior and for conflict-solving behavior as a full mediator between customer incivility and customer service performance. Furthermore, the negative effect of customer incivility on conflict-solving behavior is mitigated when customer service employees are promotion-focused and as investment in customer relationship building increases. The findings extend the scope and generalizability of customer incivility research from the business-to-customer to the business-to-business context. Managerial implications for employee training and hiring as well as the importance of cultivating customer relationships as a buffer to dampen the effect of customer incivility are discussed. 摘要 客户不文明行为的相关文献主要将情绪相关变量作为解释客户不文明行为的影响的中间变量,例如情绪衰竭和过度疲劳。本文借鉴资源保存理论(COR),提出了一种新的以问题为中心的中间变量,即冲突解决行为。作者测试了冲突解决作为影响在客户不文明和客户服务绩效之间的中间变量作用,同时控制了情绪衰竭和员工不文明作为平行中间变量。三项研究结果均有力地支持了客户不文明行为与冲突解决行为之间的负向关系,同时表明了冲突解决行为是客户不文明行为与客户服务绩效之间的完全中间变量。另外,当客户服务员工是专注促销的时候,以及对建立客户关系的投资增加的时候,客户不文明行为对于冲突解决的负面影响将会得到减少。研究结果将客户不文明行为研究的范围和普适性从企业对消费者(B2C)扩展到企业对企业(B2B)的商业环境。本研究在对管理者的启示部分也讨论了员工培训和招聘以及培养客户关系的重要性作为抑制客户不文明影响的缓冲作用。
... A fim de alcançar uma meta definida de alterar ou sobrepor seus impulsos e anseios, o indivíduo apresenta uma aptidão que corresponde à autorregulação (HIGGINS, 1997). Com isso, a fim de regular seu controle de ações, pensamentos, emoções e desempenho em determinadas tarefas, o indivíduo direciona seus esforços, processos consciente e não consciente, por meio do comportamento regulatório (SILVA, 2015). ...
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As consequências dos hábitos de consumo turístico estão mais presentes nos indivíduos com base em critérios como preocupação ambiental, preservação dos destinos visitados e ciência das consequências ambientais causadas por atitudes e posturas inadequadas. No intuito de compreender diferentes características do turista-consumidor abordamos os constructos Foco Regulatório, Preocupação Ambiental, Experiência do Consumidor e Destinações Turísticas Sustentáveis para embasar as análises junto ao material coletado. Essa pesquisa tem cunho qualitativo de natureza exploratória, com amostragem não probabilística, realizada através de entrevistas com turistas. Conclui-se que o foco em prevenção tem maior influência quando se trata na decisão de compra de um destino turístico e, apesar do consumidor ter maior consciência das consequências do consumo e buscar mais por produtos sustentáveis, ainda assim, não se torna motivação na escolha de um destino turístico sustentável.
... Lydon & Zanna, 1990;McGregor, Gailliot, Vasquez, & Nash, 2007;McGregor et al., 2010, b, Study 3;Sheldon, 2014;Thrash & Elliot, 2004;Yeager et al., 2014). Various theories of goal regulation characterize ideal values as general action-identifications (Vallacher & Wegner, 1987), system concepts (Carver & Scheier, 1998;Powers, 1973), personal project meanings (Little, 1993), ideal self-guides (Higgins, 1997), transsituational goals (Schwartz, 1992), or spiritual strivings (Emmons, 1999;) that orient people toward meaningful priorities they yearn to abide by (McGregor & Little, 1998). If so, focusing on them should activate the same buoyant BAS states that more concrete desires activate. ...
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Fidelity with self-transcendent values is hailed as a hallmark of mature and magnanimous character by classic psychological and philosophical theories. Dozens of contemporary experiments inspired by self-affirmation theory have also found that when people are under threat, focus on self-transcendent values can confer magnanimity by improving psychological buoyancy (less anxious and more courageous, determined, and effective) and decreasing belligerence (less defensive, extreme, and hostile). The present research was guided by the postulate that both aspects of magnanimity—its buoyancy and its freedom from belligerence—arise from the approach motivated states that self-transcendent foci can inspire. Experimental manipulations of self-transcendent foci (values, spirituality, compassion) heightened state approach motivation as assessed by electroencephalography (Study 1, n = 187) and self-report (Study 2, n = 490). Further, even though the heightened approach motivation was transient, it mediated a longer-lasting freedom from moral (Study 1) and religious (Study 2) belligerence. Importantly, self-transcendent-focus effects on approach motivation and belligerence occurred only among participants with high trait meaning search scores. Results support an interpretation of meaningful values and spiritual ideals as self-transcendent priorities that operate according to basic motivational mechanics of abstract-goal pursuit. The transient, approach-motivated state aroused by transcendence-focus causes longer lasting relief from preoccupation with threat, leaving people feeling buoyant and generous. Relevance of results for self-affirmation theory and the psychology of spirituality are discussed.
... Work contexts usually contain different situational cues, which influence employee psychological motivations. Situational cues that emphasize growth needs and potential gains tend to evoke promotion focus (Higgins, 1997(Higgins, , 1998Neubert et al., 2008). Individuals with promotion focus pay attention to pursuing opportunities to gain and away from maintaining the status quo (Neubert et al., 2008). ...
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This study advances voice research by offering a formal system view of the drivers of voice. The organizational behavior discipline focuses mainly on job conditions, individual traits, and organizational characteristics but seldom considers the role of formal factors. One overlooked yet important formal factor that may motivate voice behavior is the due process voice appraisal system. Drawing on the proactive motivation model, we propose that the implementation of the due process voice appraisal system will promote employee voice efficacy, organizational identification, and promotion focus, motivating employee voice behavior. We further consider the moderating role of authoritarian leadership in the proposed relationships through social information processing theory. Based on a sample of 265 participants in China, we conducted a field quasi-experiment and found that due process voice appraisal system was positively related to voice behavior via voice efficacy, organizational identification, and promotion focus. Further, the positive indirect effects of due process voice appraisal system on voice behavior via voice efficacy and organizational identification were attenuated by authoritarian leadership. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
... Promotion focus refers to the utilization of approaching strategies to attain goals, while prevention focus refers to the use of vigilant and avoidant strategies to attain goals [17,18]. Based on this, Higgins et al. developed the Regulatory Focus Questionnaire (RFQ) to measure individuals' subjective history of promotion success and prevention success, respectively, and regulatory focus also influences the critical process of selecting means to attain task goals [18,19]. According to the potential positive or negative outcomes, self-control will enhance different motivational orientations to adopt corresponding behavioral strategies [9,20]. ...
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Negative risk-taking behaviors refer to voluntary behaviors that lead to more harm than good. Low self-control is a crucial predictor of adolescents' negative risk-taking behavior, but its internal mechanisms require further exploration. To reveal the working process underlying the association between self-control and adolescents' negative risk-taking behaviors, we investigated the mediation of regulatory focus and the moderation of sense of power. A total of 2018 students (37.6% males) from two universities in Guangzhou, China, participated in a survey that investigated their self-control, negative risk-taking behavior, regulatory focus and sense of power. The results revealed that after controlling for the adolescents' sex and their parents' educational level, prevention focus partially mediated the association between self-control and negative risk-taking behavior. Moreover, sense of power moderated the association between self-control and prevention focus. Furthermore, the association between self-control and negative risk-taking behavior through prevention focus was stronger among adolescents with a high sense of power than among those with a low sense of power. Therefore, our findings suggest that regulatory focus and sense of power might be the mechanisms that explain how self-control is related to negative risk-taking behavior. These results thus provide a foundation for the prevention of and intervention in adolescents' negative risk-taking behavior.
... General Interest Theory suggests that personal relevance to interesting activities is factor linked to individual need of satisfaction for contribution in crowdsourcing online communities (Cameron et al., 2001). Theory of Regulatory focus maintains that individual orientation are formed within personality and shaped by culture (Higgins, 1997, Higgins, 2000. We ground our assumption on intrinsic and extrinsic motivating factors impact to participate in online activities of crowdsourcing from prior research (Afuah et al. 2012;Archak 2010;Bayus 2013;Bloodgood 2013;Boudreau et al. 2013;DiPalantino et al. 2009;Dodge et al. 2013;Hossain 2012;Huberman et al. 2009;Kaikati et al. 2013;Kosonen et al. 2013;Majchrzak et al. 2013;Olson et al. 2012;Stewart et al. 2010). ...
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The ubiquity of crowdsourcing has become a new tool for creativity activities of online communities by participating on social platforms in marketing spheres. Mobile crowdsourcing is emerging as new approach to attract mobile crowd in online creativity tasks. The aim of this research is to contribute to the current body of knowledge on intrinsic and extrinsic motivation to crowdsourcing via social networks by analyzing various motivational factors influencing users to perform tasks in online activities. This paper provides exploration of several motivational factors in online communities and we develop a research model to explain various motives in crowdsourcing activities. We then proceed to identify the driving factors to attract online users to participate in contribution through social platforms. Using a survey based research design, involving mobile users in China, we analyzed the impacts of intrinsic motivation and incentive factors to use Chinese social networks linked with online creativities. We find that intrinsic motivations are linked to higher level of online users' to contribute in crowdsourcing rather than extrinsic motivations in Chinese context. The findings of the study have significant practical implications for online creativities in crowdsourcing for crowds in China.
... Bu araştırmalarda beşli kişilik kavramı ile iş becerikliliği ve boyutları arasında pozitif yönde bir ilişkinin olduğu görülmektedir (Rudolp, 2017 İş becerikliliği ile ilişkisi incelenen diğer bir görüş ise "düzenleyici odak" kuramıdır. Düzenleyici odak teorisi insanların belirli hedeflere ulaşmak için ele aldıkları stratejiler ve bunun içeriğinde olan dürtüsel oluşumu inceler (Higgins, 1997). İnsanların dürtüsel eğilimleri yönelimci ve kaçınmacı olmak üzere iki sistemle ifade edilir. ...
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In this study, considering all these conditions, interviews were realized with 13 academicians working at different state universities in Turkey, who have 15-30 years of experience in their profession. Interviews were conducted with them that were not structured on their daily work routines, the time they devoted to administrative and academic affairs, and their teaching methods. As a result, I completed the study by presenting various suggestions and ideas about the research. I hope that the research will contribute to both the academic world and professional business life.
... However, lifestyle changes are sometimes difficult to implement, and individuals need to find their own motivation. The connection between motivators and goal pursuit was illustrated by Higgins' regulatory approach theory (10). Consequently, weight perception and weight satisfaction are more likely to trigger weight control actions than target weight status (6). ...
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Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS) worsens quality of life and increases mortality. Dissatisfaction with weight in patients with MetS may modify the effect of lifestyle interventions to achieve changes in health-related behaviors. Objective To assess 1-year changes in cardiovascular risk scores, self-perceived general health and health-related behaviors according to observed changes in desired weight loss during the first year of intervention in a large cardiovascular prevention trial. Design Prospective analysis of the PREDIMED-PLUS trial, including 5,499 adults (55–75 years old) with overweight or obesity at baseline. Methods The desired weight loss was the difference between ideal and measured weight. Tertiles of change in desired weight loss (1 year vs. baseline) were defined by the following cut-off points: ≥0.0 kg (T1, n = 1,638); 0.0 to −4.0 kg (T2, n = 1,903); ≤−4.0 kg (T3, n = 1,958). A food frequency questionnaire assessed diet and the Minnesota-REGICOR questionnaire assessed physical activity. The Framingham equation assessed cardiovascular risks. The changes in the severity of MetS were also assessed. The Beck Depression Inventory assessed depressive symptoms and the SF-36 assessed health-related quality of life. Data were analyzed using general linear models. Results BMI decreased at T2 and T3 (T1: 0.3, T2: −0.7, T3: −1.9). The most significant improvement in diet quality was observed at T3. Cardiovascular risk decreased at T2 and T3. Mean reductions in MetS severity score were: −0.02 at T1, −0.39 at T2 and −0.78 at T3. The perception of physical health increases in successive tertiles. Conclusions In older adults with MetS, more ambitious desired weight loss goals were associated with improvements in diet, cardiovascular health and perceived physical health during the first year of a healthy lifestyle intervention programme. Weight dissatisfaction needs to be considered by health professionals. Clinical trial registration http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN89898870 , identifier 89898870.
... Similarly, many neurological studies have observed that the sensation of pain leads to release of endorphins in the central nervous system and the purpose of the endorphin surge is to block the pain receptors in the process of reducing pain. However, it also can induce a feeling of pleasure or sense of euphoria, therefore for many researchers, pain and pleasure have a blurry boundary (Higgins, 1997;Hewstone, 2016). The sheer anticipation could also increase the sensation of pleasure (Cervero, 2013). ...
Research
This dissertation explores the combined effect of two continuums of cognitive behavioural therapy in the management of children with developmental trauma disorder (DTD).
... We also conducted Harman's single-factor to further analyze the common method bias of our study. The result showed that only 29.99% of the common variance was accounted for by a single factor, which is less than the suggested criterion of 50% (Hair et al., 1998). Taken together, we deduced that common method bias did not pose a severe threat to our results. ...
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The present study sought to establish and verify a mediating model to investigate the different effects of supervisor negative feedback on subordinate in-role and extra-role performance, and the mediating role of prevention focus in these relationships. A three-wave survey research design was applied to collect data from 356 Chinese employees and their immediate supervisors working at two manufacturing companies. Structural equation model was used to test the research hypotheses. The results indicated that supervisor negative feedback was positively correlated with subordinate prevention focus and in-role performance, but negatively correlated with extra-role performance. Additionally, prevention focus partially mediated the relationship between supervisor negative feedback and subordinate in-role performance, but did not mediate the relationship between supervisor negative feedback and subordinate extra-role performance. These results demonstrate the importance of supervisor feedback in affecting their subordinate regulatory focus, in-role performance and extra-role performance.
... Yet it is possible that other elements that are part and parcel of the process of choice itself and are independent of the subjective quality of the outcomes it confers, also contribute to people's preference for choice. According to theory (Higgins, 1997;Redgrave et al., 2008;White, 1959) and behavioral evidence (Eitam et al., 2013;Karsh et al., 2016Karsh et al., , 2020Karsh & Eitam, 2015), merely affecting the environment is reinforcing in and of itself, at least for some mental processes. Here we ask whether choice, as an instance of exercising control over our environment (Leotti et al., 2010), may be self-reinforcing. ...
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To what degree do people prefer to choose for themselves and what drives this preference? Is it memory-based and results from a lifelong association between choices and better outcomes, or is the process of choice itself reinforcing? In a new paradigm, across 6 experiments, participants experienced both 'Own Choice' and 'Computer Picks' conditions with identical outcomes before selecting which condition to re-experience in the final part of the experiment. Consistent with previous work, an overwhelming majority (83%) preferred own-choice. Several variations of the paradigm reveal that (1) Preference For Choice (PFC) is reduced when thinking about the task without actually choosing in it, (2) PFC is substantially reduced by choice-unrelated cognitive load, and (3) Preference For Choice is further diminished when selection is based on criteria other than one's preferences. Across experiments, participants' self-rated enjoyment predicted a significant portion of their PFC, while their perceived gains had little to no predictive value. If PFC stems solely from past reinforcement learning (i.e., memory) then neither performing another few scores of choices nor adding cognitive load to that sequence of choices would be expected to dramatically affect it. Hence, our findings suggest that a significant part of this preference stems from the process of choice itself, and that the experience it confers can itself be reinforcing. We discuss the implications of the proposed mechanism for PFC, which leads us to the prediction that PFC may be muted or even reversed under specific conditions and what this means for when the 'opposite' effect-sticking with the default-will occur. We thank Eman Zidan for her help in data collection.
... The results are evidence of the moderating effect of regulatory focus for the premise that guilt is a better predictor for emotional arousal level for prevention-focused than for promotion-focused individuals. The study's findings are consistent with the regulatory focus theory (Higgins, 1997(Higgins, , 1998Nguyen et al., 2020), which highlights significant differences in regulatory focus in cognition and influence across different individuals (Aaker & Lee, 2001). Among previous limited studies examining regulatory focus as an individual difference variable (e.g., viewers' regulatory focus), it has been found that there is a clear difference between promotion-focused and prevention-focused individuals in the persuasiveness of messages (Lockwood et al., 2002;Zhao & Pechmann, 2007). ...
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The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of emotional arousals of guilt versus shame on health message compliance. The study also investigates the moderation impact of two individual factors that have not been studied much in health communications, including regulatory focus and self-construal. This study employs a 2 (guilt versus shame appeals/arousals) between-subjects experiment and a survey to test the conceptual model. The context of the study is binge drinking, and the survey respondents (n = 330) are male university students in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The results confirm the positive effects of guilt and shame arousals on health message compliance. In addition, the results show moderating effects of the two individual characteristics of regulatory focus and self-construal on the relationships between guilt/shame arousals and health message compliance. The findings of this study have not only theoretical implications but also practical implications in the field of health communications. The insights could help health marketers, policymakers, and health promotion agencies to effectively develop health communications campaigns with more appealing message content (guilt versus shame) and relevant media selection (regulatory focus and self-construal).
... Organisms survive, develop, and prosper by properly approaching rewards and avoiding potential harm/punishments (Higgins, 1997). To achieve these goals, a sufficient level of mo-tivation for goal-directed actions is necessary (Elliot, 2006). ...
Article
Motivational dysfunction constitutes one of the fundamental dimensions of psychopathology cutting across traditional diagnostic boundaries. However, it is unclear whether there is a common neural circuit responsible for motivational dysfunction across neuropsychiatric conditions. To address this issue, the current study combined a meta-analysis on psychiatric neuroimaging studies of reward/loss anticipation and consumption (4308 foci, 438 contrasts, 129 publications) with a lesion network mapping approach (105 lesion cases). Our meta-analysis identified transdiagnostic hypoactivation in the ventral striatum (VS) for clinical/at-risk conditions compared to controls during the anticipation of both reward and loss. Moreover, the VS subserves a key node in a distributed brain network which encompasses heterogeneous lesion locations causing motivation-related symptoms. These findings do not only provide the first meta-analytic evidence of shared neural alternations linked to anticipatory motivation-related deficits, but also shed novel light on the role of VS dysfunction in motivational impairments in terms of both network integration and psychological functions. Particularly, the current findings suggest that motivational dysfunction across neuropsychiatric conditions is rooted in disruptions of a common brain network anchored in the VS, which contributes to motivational salience processing rather than encoding positive incentive values.
... In educational settings, students who fear failure are those who generally make global negative appraisals (e.g., incompetence) and experience shame after performing poorly on academic tasks, especially relative to others (Atkinson & Feather, 1966;McGregor & Elliot, 2005). Because of their strong aversion to failure, these students are likely to be hypervigilant for cues in the learning environment that signal the possibility of failure (e.g., perceiving that others are more capable than oneself; Birney et al., 1969;Higgins, 1997). Thus, students high in fear of failure may perceive a great deal of competitiveness in their classes, even when competition is subtle, ambiguous, or even nonexistent. ...
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Perceiving learning environments as competitive shapes how students think, feel, and behave. We conducted two preregistered studies designed to examine three central constructs in the achievement motivation literature as predictors of perceived academic competitiveness: Trait competitiveness, fear of failure, and general self-efficacy. In Study 1, we (a) replicated and (b) extended prior work using a sample of nearly 700 undergraduates (41.9 % Male; Mage = 19.57 ± 1.43). In Study 2, we (c) examined how these findings generalized using a sample of approximately half a million secondary school students from 73 countries (49.0 % Male; Mage = 15.79 ± 0.29). Students higher in trait competitiveness, fear of failure, and general self-efficacy perceived more competitiveness; this was observed across cultural contexts. Cross-cultural generalizability and the joint influence of dispositional and situational predictors on perceived academic competitiveness are discussed.
... Pleasure promotion and pain prevention are similar to the cognitive needs for information exploration and information exploitation, respectively (81). However, we categorized these needs into different metatheories because they are theorized to advance different purposes: psychological well-being versus survival (81,119,126). Moreover, while Cognitive Needs theories target more unconscious needs, Psychological Needs theories center on experienced psychological states. ...
Article
Understanding why people do what they do is central to advancing equitable and sustainable futures. Yet, theories about human action are fragmented across many social science disciplines, each with its own jargon and implicit assumptions. This fragmentation has hindered theory integration and accessibility of theories relevant to a given challenge. We synthesized human action theories from across the humanities and social sciences. We developed eight underlying assumptions—metatheories—that reveal a fundamental organization of human action theories. We describe each metatheory and the challenges that it best elucidates (illustrated with climate change examples). No single metatheory addresses the full range of factors and problems; only one treats interactions between factors. Our synthesis will help researchers, policymakers, and practitioners gain a multifaceted understanding of human action. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Environment and Resources, Volume 47 is October 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
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This study investigates the relationship between impression management and organizational citizenship behavior. In the course of this study, there is a lot of discussion on the dimensions of the independent variable which are self promotion, exemplification and Ingratiation and the measures of the dependent variable are Altruism, civic virtue and conscientiousness. Accordingly, the study came to the conclusion that a well-planned impression management strategy involving self-promotion and exemplification in the workplace will help improve the employee's display of altruism, civic virtue, and conscientiousness, which will subsequently improve the efficient running of the business. As a result of the study's findings, it was suggested that employees use the self-promotion approach of impression management to boost the altruistic behavior within the organization.
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Self-directed learning and design thinking were found to be promising pedagogies for supporting education and thus supporting sustainable development goals. While some researchers have posited that self-directed learning may support design thinking, empirical research examining the relationship between these two essential skills is lacking because their shared conceptual structure has not been articulated in detail, and because they have remained siloed in design practice. This study examines pre-service teachers’ self-regulation in relation to design thinking skills to advance a theoretical understanding of design science and to overcome challenges teachers face in adopting and implementing design thinking. For this study, 158 pre-service teachers were recruited. On the first level, the empirical data collected were subjected to structural equation modelling to find and confirm significant metacognitive perspectives in design thinking, while on the second level, an in-depth analysis was conducted to find moderating effects of pre-service teachers’ metacognitive experiences and teacher education in design thinking. We argue that awareness and interpersonal skills are crucial in creative design activity, and that embracing risk, tolerance to uncertainty, and underdeveloped supervising skills might be critical elements for advancing design thinking behaviour. The findings of this study have implications for effective science and technology teaching and the learning of design thinking in teacher education, and for educators and commercial course designers to adjust the implementation of design thinking.
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The online learning environment has become an inevitable means for language learners during the pandemic. According to Krashen’s affective filter hypothesis, emotions act as a vital element in language acquisition (1981). Due to characteristics of online techniques, emotions can be experienced quite differently from the traditional face-to-face teaching mode. Although many studies have researched on the relations between emotions and online learning, between emotions and language learning, there are few touching on the emotions concerned with language learning in a computer-supported collaborative learning environment. This study, by surveying the products of related researchers, attempts to figure out strategies for language learners to regulate emotions in the computer-supported collaborative learning environment. Strategies are organised based on social presence, cognitive presence, and teaching presence. This study gives a comprehensive picture of language learners’ emotional regulation.
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The present study contributes to cultural aspects of responsible social media marketing, representing digital innovation and health communication. We intended to explore how the congruence between health message framing and national culture-driven regulatory focus influences social media engagement. Our study finds that conformity of framing and an individual’s nationality leads health-related messages (vaping in this article) to have a more persuasive effect on social media in terms of user engagement. Our findings further suggest how users’ belief in conspiracy theories related to health issues diminishes the positive influence of congruent health messages in terms of persuasiveness and consequently social media engagement in terms of health messages. We base our findings on a sample of 239 participants in the UK and employ a moderated mediation analysis to test the study hypotheses.
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Smartwatch applications are growing in popularity, but little is known about why people are motivated to use different smartwatch health apps. Drawing on regulatory focus theory, we propose that the fit between individuals’ regulatory focus (i.e., primarily prevention or primarily promotion) and the regulatory properties of smartwatch health apps (i.e., primarily promotion apps or primarily prevention apps) helps to explain individuals’ motivations related to intentions to use smartwatch health apps. Further, we show that individuals’ internal health locus of control strengthens the effect of regulatory fit. This study contributes by demonstrating how regulatory focus and locus of control influence intentions to use smartwatch health apps.
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This aim of the study is to examine the varying functions of basic needs satisfaction in predicting happiness, self-esteem, and creative personality among university students using a choice theory-based perspective. A sample of 1100 university students completed self-report scales of happiness, self- esteem, creative personality, and University Students’ Basic Needs Scale. Multiple regression analysis revealed that satisfying the need for survival, freedom, fun or entertainment, love and belonging, contribute to self-esteem and happiness among university students. Furthermore, satisfying the need for freedom, power, entertainment, love and belonging, contribute to creative personality. The findings provided supportive evidence for the major hypothesis of the choice theory, demonstrating that happiness increases as the satisfaction of basic needs increases. Furthermore, the basic needs satisfaction contributes to self-esteem and creative personality.
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Introduction: Cultural orientation and interdependent self-construal can moderate the relationship between perceived pro-generation investment and future orientation of young adults. To test how interdependent self-construal moderate the relationship between pro-generation investment and future orientation of young adults from two different cultural ecologies was the aim of the current study. Methods: A cross-cultural comparison was conducted among study participants from China, Germany, and the United States. Interdependent self-construal, perceived pro-generation investment by parents (parental investment), and future orientation were measured. Cross-cultural data were collected from 205 college students in China, a collectivist culture, and 169 college students in Germany (n = 50) and the United States (n = 119), which are individualist cultures. We examined a three-way interaction with cultural orientation and interdependent self-construal as moderators in the relationship between perceived parental investment and future orientation. Results: In the collectivist cultural context, there appeared no moderating effect of interdependent self-construal on the relationship between perceived parental investment and future orientation, although interdependent self-construal and perceived parental investment predicted future orientation. In the individualistic cultural context, there was a moderating effect. For individuals high in interdependent self-construal, future orientation remained stable as perceived parental investment increased. For individuals low in interdependent self-construal, future orientation decreased as perceived parental investment increased. Conclusions: The findings have practical implications in that parents should follow the cultural orientation of their background and provide their children with individualized investment and education to shape the future orientation of their offspring.
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The field of moral identity research comprises two different views as to when moral identity emerges in the course of development. While some describe moral identity as a developmental achievement of middle childhood, others maintain that it does not emerge before adolescence or early adulthood. The present paper bridges these views by introducing a new theoretical framework for conceptualizing moral identity development. Within this framework, moral identity is conceptualized as a goal, namely the goal to be a moral person. Children, adolescents and adults are all assumed to have this moral identity goal. Yet, its goal characteristics are expected to systematically change with development: from concrete to abstract, from externally to internally motivated, and from prevention- to promotion-oriented. From the age of responsibility to adult maturity, important changes are proposed in how the moral identity goal is represented and how it motivates moral action. By outlining these changes, the paper links early- and late-onset views of moral identity development and identifies avenues for future empirical research.
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Zusammenfassung Der vorliegende Beitrag gibt Einblicke, inwiefern der Kontext von Coaching in der bisherigen Coachingforschung berücksichtigt wurde und welche Erkenntnisse daraus abgeleitet werden können. Zunächst wird genauer auf die organisationale Einbettung von Coaching eingegangen: Welche Spannungsfelder entstehen aus dem Zusammenspiel der verschiedenen Stakeholder (u. a. Coach, Coachee, Auftraggeber:in)? Welche Funktionen soll Coaching aus Sicht der Organisation erfüllen? Und wie wird Coaching von der Organisation „gerahmt“? Anschließend wird auf verschiedene Zielgruppen und deren jeweils spezifische Arbeitsanforderungen genauer eingegangen, exemplarisch anhand des Coachings von Führungskräften auf unterschiedlichen Hierarchieebenen und von Gründer:innen. Der Beitrag schließt mit Perspektiven für die weitere Forschung zum Kontext von Coaching.
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The counterfactual thinking cannot be only developed in early childhood, but it also could be a requirement for the causal reasoning. In this research a replica of German (1999) was made using counterfactual stories with Latin American kids between three and four years, demonstrating the possible main role counterfactual reasoning, by using computer animations. This was a different approach to the most recent made by Nyhout and Ganea (2020). Nonetheless, the participants of the study evidenced counterfactual reasoning to the relevant choice and the negative consequence conditions shown on the stories that represented the choices made by a starting role ( McNemar, N = 40, k = 11.53, p = .001). Although some of the results were not totally conclusive under the analyzed conditions. Lastly, some possible not controlled effects are discussed from stories shown to the children, that could have motivated the counterfactual thinking.
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Individual variation in responses to commonly used tests of anxiety and spatial memory is often reported. While this variation is frequently considered to be ‘noise’, evidence suggests that it is, at least partially, related to consistent individual differences in behavioral responses (i.e., personality). The same tests used to assess anxiety are often used to profile personality traits, but personality differences are rarely considered when testing treatment differences in anxiety. Focusing on the rat literature, we describe fundamental principles involved in anxiety and spatial memory tests and we discuss how personality differences and housing conditions can influence behavioral responses in these tests. We propose that an opportunity exists to increase stress resiliency in environmentally sensitive individuals by providing environmental enrichment. We conclude by discussing different approaches to incorporating personality measures into the design and analysis of future studies; given the potential that variation masks research outcomes, we suggest that a strategy which considers the individual and its housing can contribute to improving research reproducibility.
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Munkánk célja a Lauermann és Karabenick (2013) által kidolgozott Tanári Felelősség Kérdőív (Teacher Responsibility Scale) és Tanári Hatékonyság Kérdőív (Teacher Efficacy Scale) magyar adaptációja, működésének vizsgálata pedagógusok és pedagógusjelöltek körében. A két mérőeszköz ugyanazokra a területekre fókuszáló négy-négy skálája a következő témaköröket fedi le: tanulói motiváció, tanulói teljesítmény, tanár-diák kapcsolat, tanítás hatékonysága. Adatgyűjtésünk során a pedagógusok online (n=166), a pedagógusjelöltek (n=121) papíralapon töltötték ki a kérdőíveket. A mérőeszközök validitását feltáró és megerősítő faktoranalízissel ellenőriztük, az eredeti mérőeszközök struktúrája mindkét részmintán kirajzolódott. A kérdőívek reliabilitása a pedagógusok (Cronbach-α = 0,67–0,94) és a pedagógusjelöltek (Cronbach-α = 0,69–0,88) körében is megfelelő volt. Mindkét részmintán mindkét kérdőív esetében a diákok motivációjára és teljesítményére vonatkozó skálák átlagai a legalacsonyabbak, ami egybevág a nemzetközi tapasztalatokkal. A kétmintás t-próba alapján szignifikáns a különbség a pedagógusok és a pedagógusjelöltek válaszai között a TFK-n az oktatás skála, az THK-n a tanulók teljesítménye és az oktatás skálák vonatkozásában. Minden esetben a pedagógusjelöltek átlagai magasabbak. Eredményeink alapján a pedagógusok és a pedagógusjelöltek személyes felelősségérzete és énhatékonysága vizsgálható az adaptált kérdőívekkel, így a mérőeszközök alkalmazhatók a témával összefüggő jövőbeli kutatásokhoz, valamint a pedagógusok képzésében, továbbképzésben.
Thesis
The COVID-19 pandemic impacted on the mental state of young adults, adolescents and children and was highly researched through the scientific community. Restrictive measures enhanced the psychological consequences of COVID-19 in their lives, altering their emotional state. Thus, the purpose of this systematic review is to describe the impact of COVID-19 in children, adolescents and young adults, giving special focus in Mood Disorders, depressive symptoms and suicide or suicide attempts, during the pandemic. A research in following databases was conducted up to December 28, 2020: Pubmed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, SCOPUS, ERIC, ProQuest and PsycInfo. During the COVID-19 pandemic, children presented mild to moderate depressive symptoms, while adolescents moderate to severe depressive symptoms. Concerning young adults, they also presented mild to moderate depressive symptoms, while in some studies severe to extremely severe depressive symptoms were reported. Suicidal ideation was described in all groups, with different extent in each one. Only one suicide by a teenage girl was reported, during that time. Identifying risk factors for developing depressive symptoms and subsequently leading to Depressive Disorders could be beneficial not only for individuals, but also for their families, peers and health professionals. Preventive programs, in accordance with assessment and treatment, could provide more safety and confidence in youths, promoting their well-being.
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Individuals frequently experience restrictions in their mobility owing to circumstances outside of their control. This paper examines the effect of mobility restrictions on individuals’ perceptions of personal freedom, and subsequent preferences for tourism advertisements. In a secondary data analysis and three experiments, we show that physical confinement triggered by restricted mobility causes individuals to psychologically feel that their personal freedoms are threatened. In turn, these experiences result in a compensatory response, where people more strongly prefer advertisements that signal scarcity-reduction over advertisements that signal control-restoration. This effect is mitigated when people are prevention-oriented and is reversed when the restrictions are enacted absolutely (without ambiguity and possible mutability). We discuss the implications of our findings for advertising practice and strategies for tourism product placement.
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