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Traditionally, drought effects in Mexico have been attended through governmental reactive efforts directed to provide water and food, to assure health protection, and to restore economic impact once the phenomena occurred. The Mexican Government through National Water Commission (CONAGUA, for its acronym in Spanish), interested in changing the paradigm for preventive actions to cope with droughts in Mexico in the past, decided to launch in 2013 the National Program Against Drought (PRONACOSE, for its acronym in Spanish) and created the Intersecretarial Commission on Droughts and Floods (CIASI, for its acronym in Spanish) to take charge of coordinating, implementing and following-up of the PRONACOSE. This program has its main focus on reducing vulnerability through the implementation of planned preventive actions under a comprehensive and participative approach. As key part of the program, Programmes of Preventive and Mitigation Drought Measures (PMPMS, for its acronym in Spanish) for each one of the 26 river basin councils established in the country and for the principal cities of Mexico were developed. These programmes include the measures that can be implemented within the river basin councils and the cities to cope with drought in three ways: before the phenomenon occurs (strategic measures), when it is starting (tactical measures) or when it is already happening (emergency measures). Also, since 2014, the National Meteorological Service (SMN, for its acronym in Spanish) releases timely alerts and monitors the evolution of the drought including affected areas and level of severity of the phenomenon at a basin, state and municipality level. It is noteworthy that in all these activities the Mexican Institute of Water Technology (IMTA, for its acronym in Spanish) has played an important role, as this institute has provided the necessary technical support for the designing and implementation of the PRONACOSE. It is concluded that drought risk cannot be fully eliminated, nevertheless the actions that are implemented as part of this program are useful to mitigate its effects.
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Volume 3 (2016) issue 3, article 7
157 ©2016
The National Drought Policy in Mexico
墨西哥國家乾旱政策
Felipe I. Arreguín Cortés1*, Mario López Pérez1, David Korenfeld Federman2,
David Ortega-Gaucin1
1Mexican Institute of Water Technology, Paseo Cuauhnáhuac 8532, Col. Progreso, 62550, Jiutepec, Morelos, México
2Independent consultor
felipe_arreguin@tlaloc.imta.mx
Accepted for publication on 11th August 2016
Abstract -. Traditionally, drought effects in Mexico have been
attended through governmental reactive efforts directed to
provide water and food, to assure health protection, and to
restore economic impact once the phenomena occurred. The
Mexican Government through National Water Commission
(CONAGUA, for its acronym in Spanish), interested in changing
the paradigm for preventive actions to cope with droughts in
Mexico in the past, decided to launch in 2013 the National
Program Against Drought (PRONACOSE, for its acronym in
Spanish) and created the Intersecretarial Commission on
Droughts and Floods (CIASI, for its acronym in Spanish) to take
charge of coordinating, implementing and following-up of the
PRONACOSE. This program has its main focus on reducing
vulnerability through the implementation of planned preventive
actions under a comprehensive and participative approach. As
key part of the program, Programmes of Preventive and
Mitigation Drought Measures (PMPMS, for its acronym in
Spanish) for each one of the 26 river basin councils established in
the country and for the principal cities of Mexico were
developed. These programmes include the measures that can be
implemented within the river basin councils and the cities to cope
with drought in three ways: before the phenomenon occurs
(strategic measures), when it is starting (tactical measures) or
when it is already happening (emergency measures). Also, since
2014, the National Meteorological Service (SMN, for its acronym
in Spanish) releases timely alerts and monitors the evolution of
the drought including affected areas and level of severity of the
phenomenon at a basin, state and municipality level. It is
noteworthy that in all these activities the Mexican Institute of
Water Technology (IMTA, for its acronym in Spanish) has
played an important role, as this institute has provided the
necessary technical support for the designing and
implementation of the PRONACOSE. It is concluded that
drought risk cannot be fully eliminated, nevertheless the actions
that are implemented as part of this program are useful to
mitigate its effects.
Keywords river basin council, drought, planning, prevention,
vulnerability.
I. INTRODUCTION
Drought is one of the most complex natural phenomena
which affects a lot of people in the world [1]. Droughts in
recent years have affected various socioeconomic sectors in
Mexico, but especially the agricultural and livestock sectors as
well as rural populations, leading to severe imbalances in the
regional and national economies [2].
However, despite the frequency and recurrent droughts in
Mexico, historically, attention to the effects of this
phenomenon has been based on a reactive approach, where the
primary importance has been the attention of crisis and not the
risk management; in other words, in the last few decades have
been implemented measures and response actions "emerging"
only after is known each of the ravages caused by drought,
without the time required to plan and properly assess the
options and resources available to deal with the phenomenon
[3].
In this context, the Mexican Government through the
National Water Commission (CONAGUA), worried for the
poor or rather the absence of preventive actions to face
droughts in Mexico in the past, developed a comprehensive
but practical structure of baseline measures, which included
the necessary actions that would really help to minimize
drought impacts, better than the costly traditional governments
responses.
Due to the severity of last 2011-2012 drought, CONAGUA
concluded by the end of 2012 this initiative in the form of
Guidelines which would give to the 26 river basin councils,
independent from CONAGUA, a direction on what, who,
when, where and how, related to measures against possible
next droughts. Such guidelines were officially issued on 22
November 2012.
Arreguín et al. (2016) The National Drought Policy in Mexico
158 Journal of Energy Challenges and Mechanics ©2016
The Mexican Federal authorities decided to give support to
this initiative with the development of the National Program
Against Drought (PRONACOSE), which ensures the
framework for a comprehensive and participative
implementation. The preparation of this Program was initiated
by December 2012 under CONAGUAs leadership. By the
time of the implementation kickoff of the Program,
CONAGUA was invited to attend to Geneva, Switzerland, on
March 13, 2013 for the High-level Meeting on National
Drought Policy (HMNDP) to present how Mexico plans to
face the drought phenomena. It is worth noticing that Mexico's
National Drought Program meets several of the
recommendations referred to during this important event.
Among its goals, the PRONACOSE aims to share the
concepts and principles behind it as well as the
implementation experiences to keep it on a permanent and
dynamic improvement.
II. BACKGROUND
Mexico has an area of 1,964,375 km² and 66% of its
territory is classified as desert or semi-desert. It has a
population of 120 million people and a large scattering of
populations under 2500 inhabitants, which increases their
vulnerability to drought.
The parallels 14°3227 and 32°4306 N limit southern
and northern extremes of Mexico which also contain the
greatest deserts of the world (Fig. 1). Mexico has a high
recurrence of droughts and its history reveals some periods of
water and food scarcity that have caused migrations like those
of the Mayan and Teotihuacan civilizations [4]. In recent
times, drought events have caused major impacts in hindering
economic activities and sometimes affect the commitments
established in the 1944 Water Treaty between Mexico and the
United States.
With respect to the attention of drought (and of other natural
phenomena) Mexico has “a wide gap between the total
disbursement in reconstruction against the investment in
prevention; and not investing in prevention lead to excessive
economic and social costs which also compromise the
sustainable development of the country” [5].
Traditionally, Mexico has acted with emergency assistance
programs once the drought occurs to assure water and food
supply, to keep proper health conditions, to restore affected
economy (through financing and subsidies), and to promote
projects or infrastructure for relief.
Recent experience with the 2011-2012 drought, the most
severe event of scarcity since 1941 in the North and Central
Mexico affected (at different stages and levels) around 70% of
the territory and has represented up to payments of almost US
$6.5 million out of nearly US $47.5 million authorized from
the Natural Disasters Fund (FONDEN) towards the alleviation
in ten states.
There is a strong urgency to generate a radical change of
strategy in the Mexican Government as well as in the society
towards a stronger participation, clear definition of public
frameworks for planning and investment, and real operational
local drought preventive plans.
III. DISCUSSION
3.1. TOWARDS A COMPREHENSIVE DROUGHT POLICY IN
MEXICO
In December 2013, CONAGUA began to design and
implement the National Program Against Drought,
PRONACOSE, to face the drought with a comprehensive and
participative approach. The goal is to identify all kind of
actions which will allow timely, coordinated and efficient
decisions for both drought mitigation and prevention,
considering regional features and agreeing such actions with
local authorities and water stakeholders.
PRONACOSE, was launched by the Mexican President in
January 10, 2013 and within the CONAGUA on February
2013. The highlight of this initiative is that the 32 States and
the Local Governments have a key role of the efforts, as well
as all the water users through the 26 river basin councils which
cover all the Mexican territory (Fig. 2).
PRONACOSE has a comprehensive and participative
approach for the period 20132018 in several ways:
(a)
It includes both: prevention and mitigation through
respectively the estimation of needed resources, the
definition of actions and the construction of a structure
for the organization of stakeholders; and the reduction
of impacts on people, goods, infrastructure, activities,
as well as on the environment.
(b)
It enhances: forecasting, early warning and data
dissemination, which includes both: (i) the periodic
collection and analysis of hydrometric and climatic data,
and information of reservoirs and that of drought location
or its levels or degrees of intensity; and (ii) the spreading
of drought information so to guide the implementation of
actions.
(c)
It promotes: coordination of governments from the
federal, state and municipal levels (for joint programs
and resources) and water users involvement. The later
includes training for the understanding the monitoring
information and the options for user cooperation in
water demand reduction actions and an efficient water
use.
(d)
It supports: a drought plan for each of the 26 river basin
councils and drought plans for major water users. The
first implies that authorities and users within their
respective river basin council design and later
implement their plan based on local features. The plans
for major water users look for specific actions for them
(major water utilities, irrigation districts or industrial
facilities).
Arreguín et al. (2016) The National Drought Policy in Mexico
159 Journal of Energy Challenges and Mechanics ©2016
(e)
The local implementation also implies that water users
and authorities in the river basin council will define
triggers to implement agreed actions based on official
drought evolution information. Also they should agree on
a range of voluntary. Measures which are expected to
bring major water economies as well as mandatory
measures.
A key principle is the development of such plans implies
increasing complexity and improvement with time (a dynamic
planning) but it is expected that an increasing involvement of
stakeholders will come with the time of implementation as
well as with evaluation and feedback (Fig. 3).
PRONACOSE will need the conjunction of existing federal
programs and eventually their alignment with the basin plans.
To reach this the Program considers an Interagency
Commission and an Expert Committee. Both will review,
inform, enrich and support the program, the implementation of
the plan and the needed drought research. The Interagency
Commission is composed by a total of thirteen Federal
Agencies: CONAGUA, Interior, Environment, Agriculture
and Rural Development, Economy, Energy, Health, National
Defense, Marine, Education, Social Development, Land Use
and Tourism. The Expert Committee considers researchers as
well as high profile professionals from different parts of the
country.
3.2. BASIS
CONAGUA started in 2009 the development of guidelines
to deal with drought based on the California State’s guidebook
for urban zones [6] and other drought plans including a
collection of experiences from many cities of the world.
CONAGUA issued by 2012 the final document [7] based on
Mexico’s National Water Law.
The guidelines to deal with drought indicate: (i) how
CONAGUA will announce the beginning and the ending of a
Drought (at the severe stage), and (ii) recommendations on
which are the desired characteristics for the actions that should
be developed and adopted by the 26 river basin councils and
by the major water users so that their territories could
effectively face a drought, as well as evaluate their
performance after the end of the event.
The document considers facing all stages or levels of a
drought through actions before, during and after the
occurrence. Before the drought level refers to the design of
actions, quantification of necessary resources, and planning.
During the phenomena level is related with the harmonic
implementation of early planned actions. And after the
occurrence level considers as necessary the evaluation,
recovery of resources and improvements derived from
learning.
Fig.1, Location of Mexico regarding the greatest deserts of the world.
Arreguín et al. (2016) The National Drought Policy in Mexico
160 Journal of Energy Challenges and Mechanics ©2016
Although CONAGUA is interested in determining and
announcing severe droughts to assure water supply to all
the population, continuous monitoring and timely
communication to society since first stages of droughts is
part of the strategy, so that river basin councils could
initiate their actions as agreed (Fig. 4). Information of stage
and evolution of drought indexes for each river basin
council is available at the official website of the National
Meteorological Service (SMN) (smn.conagua.gob.mx).
The legal principles underlying the guidelines are
derived from the National Water Law [8]. According to this
Law, jurisdiction is given to the CONAGUA to regulate the
exploitation and use of national water, as well as to control
and to preserve water quantity and quality. Related to
extreme weather events (such as droughts) that threaten
people, productive areas or facilities, CONAGUA is
responsible for issuing general regulations and supporting
federal plans and programs directed to prevent and attend
them as well as to take the necessary measures, usually
transitory, to ensure domestic and public-urban supply.
Besides, CONAGUA may support the organization and
participation of water users, with the collaboration of state
and local governments to improve water management to
decide and to make commitments.
3.3. STEPS AND GOALS
During 2013 efforts were directed essentially for the
development of the 26 river basin councils plans for
droughts. Such plans define the basin drought features,
vulnerability, triggers, actions and how they would be
implemented and evaluated with the river basin council's
participation and CONAGUA guidance. Later in the
period 2014 2018 the implementation of major actions
supported by federal, state or local resources, or by
funding from private sector or from international
institutions will take place to improve the plans.
3.4. COMPONENTS
There are two basic elements (Fig. 5) that comprise the
National Program Against Drought: Prevention
(monitoring-awareness, and basin plans and by major
water user, evaluation and research), and Mitigation or
Reactive Attention (action during and after the drought
event).
The principles under the program have been planned
and executed, not necessarily in order of importance,
include:
(a) developing local capacity inside and outside
CONAGUA to ensure the permanence of PRONACOSE
past six years;
Fig. 2, Map of the 26 river basin councils covering the country in Mexico.
Arreguín et al. (2016) The National Drought Policy in Mexico
161 Journal of Energy Challenges and Mechanics ©2016
(b) initiate an aggressive training program on basic
concepts of drought and successful stories seeking to have
the largest number of national and international experts on
this issue both in the monitoring and evaluation;
(c) raising awareness on local water stakeholders
initially through information occurrence and vulnerability
to drought at the basin level (later at relevant water users
in terms of use of water) and allow a first program of ad
hoc preventive and mitigation measures at will and
implementation possibilities for later evaluation,
adjustment and improvement on the basis of the
experience;
(d) coordinate and direct the programs of federal
institutions supported by an interagency committee and
working groups founded in law whose mission will be to
guide and assess the PRONACOSE and fund the actions
proposed by local stake- holders at the basin level;
(e) include the participation of experts and researchers
to strengthen and link the solutions to the needs identified
during the development of the programs of measures as
well as to the general PRONACOSE implementation;
(f) ongoing communication and outreach program that
emphasizes the concepts of occurrence, vulnerability,
participation and prevention as well as understanding the
evolution of drought; and
(g) an assessment of PRONACOSE indicators based
on the implementation and impact of preventive measures
reducing vulnerability to drought.
The program considers three main lines of action: (a)
the formulation and implementation of preventive and
mitigation programs (including monitoring and alerting),
(b) acts of authority to ensure drinking water supply and
(c) institutional coordinated attention based on prevention
and mitigation. For the line of action (a), the
PRONACOSE has five components: (1) formulation,
implementation and evaluation of Programmes of
C o m p l e x i t y
(1) Information collection (hydrometeorological records, demand,
consumptions, current and alternative resources, etc.)
(2) Planning and consensus actions.
(3a) Articulation of resources
and programs for the(3b) Definition of:
coordination structure
semaphores actions (start-
end criteria) for
(4b) … facing an ongoing
drought (degree of actions,
based on:
severity of drought,
water level on sources
saving goals)
(4a) … implementation of
preventive actions in the short,
médium and long term (water
use efficiencies, land order,
provisions balanced with
supplies, vigilance, developing of
alternative or emergency
sources, water reserves, etc.)
(5) Improvements to the plan (based on evaluation, research, best
practices)
Fig. 3, Increasing complexity and involvement of stakeholders with time during the development of river basin council plans for drought.
drought
Fig. 4, Left: river basin councils stakeholders actions to face droughts; right: scheme of stakeholders actions according to drought
intensity through time, highlighting severe stage initiation and termination which CONAGUA will announce.
Arreguín et al. (2016) The National Drought Policy in Mexico
162 Journal of Energy Challenges and Mechanics ©2016
Preventive and Mitigation Drought Measures; (2) drought
alert and monitoring; (3) development and strengthening
of the institutional framework for dealing with drought:
establishment of the Inter-ministerial Commission for the
attention of droughts and floods and committees or
working groups to inform, support, guide and evaluate the
program; (4) research; and (5) training, communication
and dissemination.
For the line of action (b), there are two components: (1)
the establishment of administrative legal protocol and (2)
the publication and implementation of the overall
arrangements to guarantee the supply of water for human
consumption as long as the drought reaches the severe
degree or higher status and remains in it.
The final line of action (c) has two components: (1) the
coordination with the National Natural Disasters Fund and
the other federal government agencies programmes, (2)
ongoing review of these programs and their operation
rules for an effective and efficient way to mitigate the
effects of drought.
CONAGUA is also conducting the visit from different
world drought experts so that they can review and offer
recommendations on plans design, drought analysis, and
on the use of information. Efforts are also being carried
out to develop a formal coordinated platform in charge of
the investigation on defined lines for drought applied
studies.
Decentralized attention of drought will nest the
development of local capacities. In this sense, local
universities are to be the coordinators within each river
basin council for the elaboration of drought plans
containing prioritized actions based on the guidelines
published by CONAGUA some weeks before (22
November 2012) the initiation of the PRONACOSE.
3.5. THE PROGRAMMES OF PREVENTIVE AND MITIGATION
DROUGHT MEASURES (PMPMS)
The PMPMS has the general objective of minimizing
social, economic and environmental impacts of possible
drought situations and have been conceived as planning
instruments that will serve as the basis for the right decision
making within the river basin councils about the drought in
the different sectors of the water users. The process for the
elaboration of each one of the 26 PMPMS was formed of
eight steps (Fig. 6): 1) the program objectives and the
guiding principles were established within the river basin
councils; 2) the characterization of the historical droughts
and their impacts is carried out; 3) the evaluation of the
current vulnerability to droughts was executed; 4) the
Components of the
National Program
Against Drought
1. Drought Prevention
design, planning
(based on the Guidelines)
2. Drought Mitigation
Drought monitoring
(early warning)
Programs
(planning, and timely
prevention & acting)
Basins
Water users
Fig. 5, The elements and components of PRONACOSE.
Step 1
Definition of objectives and program principles
Step 2
Analysis of historical droughts and their impacts
Step 3
Vulnerability
assessment to drought
Step 4
Mitigation and
response strategies
Step 5
Drought stages, indicators and response objectives
Step 6
Response program to the drought stages
Step 7
Following-up and evaluation system
Implementation
Step 8
Review and update plan
Fig. 6, PMPMS elaboration process development chart.
Arreguín et al. (2016) The National Drought Policy in Mexico
163 Journal of Energy Challenges and Mechanics ©2016
strategies of mitigation and response to a drought were
specified; 5) the identification of the different stages of the
drought and the corresponding signs and response
objectives was performed; 6) a detailed program on the
responses for each stage of the drought was fulfilled; 7) an
indicators system for the following-up and evaluation of the
program was prepared; 8) a reviewing and updating plan of
the document was determined.
In summary, each one of the PMPMS includes the
following: the physical and socioeconomical
characterization of the basin at issue; the analysis of the
historical droughts and their impacts; the evaluation of the
current vulnerability to droughts; the stages and signs of the
drought and the measures that can be implemented within
the river basin councils to face the drought in three ways:
before the phenomenon occurs (strategic measures), when
it is starting (tactical measures) or when it is already
happening (emergency measures), such as it is described
below [9]:
a)
Strategic measures. These types of measures mean
actions taken in a long term (having a duration of more
than two years) and they normally have an institutional
and infrastructural nature that are part of the
hydrological planning. For example: the building of
infrastructure to keep water or the agreement and
regulations development for its distribution amongst
the various catchment users.
b)
Tactical measures. They are short-term actions (with a
duration going from some months up to two years) that
are planned and validated early within the drought
program. They shall be activated at yellow and red
alerts. For example: when there is an increase in water
prices or the reutilization of grey waters for garden
irrigation or any other non-priority uses.
c)
Emergency measures. They are actions taken in a very
short-term (with a duration of weeks or months) and
their objective is that of facing the water deficit caused
by a drought when it is already there or when it is
already at an advanced stage and they will vary
according to its seriousness and the level of effects in
the catchment. For example: water distribution through
tankers amongst the population or its rationing and
reduction for certain purposes.
It is important to mention that the distinction between the
strategic measures, the tactical measures and the
emergency measures depends on the synchronization and
the manner that each river basin council implements them.
For instance, the wells renovation (that is, the restoration of
the water production in the wells to its most efficient
manner through various treatments and methods), it can be
considered as a strategic measure if it is done on an
everyday basis to assure that the wells are in good working
conditions when there is a drought or it can be also a tactical
measure in case it is done after a drought declaration.
Ultimately, it can also be an emergency measure if it is
carried out when the drought is in an advanced stage and it
is required to extract water from the subsoil urgently.
In addition to the above, in each one of the PMPMS are
specified a basis for the implementation of actions,
distinguishing between the supply side (offer of water),
related to construction and distribution systems; and on the
demand side that impact the use and consumption by users.
This is known as the management or operation of supply
and demand for water in drought conditions. As well, in the
following tables are presented some examples of preventive
and mitigation drought measures proposed for each of the
major sectors of water users: municipal water systems
(Table 1); the hydro-agricultural sector (Table 2); and the
residential, industrial and commercial uses (Table 3).
TABLE 1, EXAMPLES OF PREVENTIVE AN MITIGATION DROUGHT
MEASURES FOR MUNICIPAL WATER SYSTEMS
Objective
Measure
Type*
S
T
E
Improve the
water
distribution
service in
municipal
systems
Increase of water rates
depending on the
consumption
x
x
Repair of leaks
x
x
Install or replace
measurement systems
x
Implement distribution
water systems
x
x
Replace obsolete
pipelines
x
Build wastewater
treatement plants
x
Distribute water in tank
cars
x
Make agreements with
bottlers
x
x
Make a resource inventory
x
x
Create new
water supplies,
preserve or
extend existing
ones
Find new water sources
x
Drill deep wells
x
x
x
Enable deep wells
x
x
x
Build rainwater harvest
systems
x
Recharge aquifers by
storm sewers
x
*Types: S = Strategic measure; T = Tactic measure; E =
Emergency measure.
Arreguín et al. (2016) The National Drought Policy in Mexico
164 Journal of Energy Challenges and Mechanics ©2016
TABLE 2, EXAMPLES OF PREVENTIVE AN MITIGATION DROUGHT
MEASURES FOR HYDRO-AGRICULTURAL SECTOR
Objective
Measure
Type*
S
T
E
Improve the
water use
efficiency in
irrigation
Coating of main channels
x
Coating of secondary
channels
x
Dam operation policies
x
x
Curves of guarantee from
users
x
x
Water volume
measurement
x
Create new
water supplies,
preserve or
extend existing
ones
Drilling deep wells
x
x
x
Deep wells rehabilitation
x
x
x
Storage dams
x
Water treatment
x
Recharge aquifers through
drainage
x
Runoff management
systems
x
x
Cleaning sewer lines,
canals and dams
x
x
*Types: S = Strategic measure; T = Tactic measure; E =
Emergency measure.
In addition to preventive and mitigation measures that are
listed in Tables 1, 2 and 3, in the PMPMS are proposed others
of general nature, with long-term trend (strategic measures),
which can be implemented at national level, for example:
In terms of governance, promote monitoring of strict
observance of the National Water Law (NWL) and the
application of sanctions for non-observance.
Respect and enforce the agreements of the Technical
Committee of Hydraulic Works Operation, in regard to
the annual volumes assigned to draw from the dams for
different water uses.
Implement a payment program for hydrological
services of CONAGUA (soil conservation to maintain
its infiltration capacity) similar to the payment for
environmental services of the National Forestry
Commission (CONAFOR).
Establish agreements of water distribution inside of
each basin, and agreements for water transfers between
neighboring basins, when drought conditions so
require.
Promote that CONAGUA assume operational and
financial control of the operator agencies of drinking
water and sanitation.
TABLE 3, EXAMPLES OF PREVENTIVE AN MITIGATION DROUGHT
MEASURES FOR RESIDENTIAL, INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL USES
Objective
Measure
Type*
S
T
E
Reduce water
consumption in
household
Installation of water saver
devices
x
Replacement of
traditional systems for
efficient technologies
x
Reuse of gray water for
garden irrigation
x
x
Leak repair in hydraulic
installations
x
x
Reduction in use of
air-conditioning systems
x
x
Restriction of garden
irrigation with drinking
water
x
Restriction of car washing
with drinking water
x
Restriction of sidewalk
washing with drinking
water
x
Restriction of swimming
pools filling
x
Restriction of new
gardens planting
x
*Types: S = Strategic measure; T = Tactic measure; E =
Emergency measure.
Promote the modification of the Mexican Official
Standard NOM-011-CNA-2000 in order to improve the
estimation of water availability from aquifers be
calculated with real data of extracted volumes, and not
based on concession volumes.
Implement mechanisms in the existing legislation to
enable that CONAGUA could count with water
volumes reserved for use in times of drought.
Finally, it is noteworthy that in all activities mentioned
before, the Mexican Institute of Water Technology (IMTA)
has played an important role, as this institute has provided the
necessary technical support for the designing and
implementation of the PRONACOSE.
3.5. CHALLENGES
Among the main challenges for the National Drought
Program development and implementation is the adoption
of a new water culture and strategy by water users and
government agencies which comprises the prevention,
planning and evaluation of the drought plans as the main
asset to face a recurrent natural phenomena. Also the
alignment of the federal, state and local fund programs to
the directives of the drought plans is critical due to a very
long history of a reactive approach. It is well known that
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165 Journal of Energy Challenges and Mechanics ©2016
droughts occur in Mexico but it is not well assimilated that
it should be considered as the present and future natural
occurring condition in a climate change scenario and that
should be the baseline for the National Development Plan
and the framework for a new National Civil Protection
System. The funds to reduce the present vulnerability are
high and the possibilities to get the financing are opposite.
Thus another challenge is the funding of Mexico's
vulnerability reduction to drought. An option is to access
the world Climate Change Adaptation Funds. Finally, a
drought communication strategy from the beginning is also
critical for the acceptance of the drought measures and for
the real evaluation of the success or failure of the Program.
3.6. MAIN INTERESTS IN MEXICO
There are three main interests in Mexico with regard to
its National Program Against Drought:
To guarantee the permanency of the drought
planning and implementation for the future;
To manage real social involvement in the
development and implementation of the drought
measures on a permanent basis; and
To ensure that the reduction of drought vulnerability
is one cornerstone of the Mexican strategy for
climate change adaptation in compliance with the
Climate Change General Law and the National
Water Law.
IV. WAY FORWARD
The first planning phase of the Program was completed
in 2013 but the implementation evaluation during the
following four years will lead to another planning exercise
and the issuing of new developed and improved basin and
major water users plans for 2018 and onwards. The first
phase effectively concluded with 26 completed plans for
river basin councils which were analyzed by four
international experts from USA, Spain and Brazil; they
enriched the elaboration of the plans and shared
comments for possible collaboration for drought
monitoring and analysis.
Points to be properly addressed during the first four
years are: the carrying out of the planned prioritized action
with convergent resources, the development and testing of
protocols for coordinated actions prior to the occurrence
of a real drought, and the communication of plans out of
the river basin councils looking for public appropriation.
Since the very beginning of the conception of
CONAGUAs guidelines in 2009, decentralization of
drought attention was considered as a key issue to
maintain efforts beyond administrative changes. The
complement of this key issue is the effective
appropriation of plans by citizens.
Directions for basin councils through local
universities were given to ensure, as far as possible,
attention to social, financial and environmental aspects
(especially water issues). Future versions of plans will
improve such considerations.
A natural path to maintain the drought plans in place
and keep them ongoing is to support them in a new
National Civil Protection System and with the Climate
Change and Water Laws mechanisms and instruments.
This will give them financial support as well.
V. CONCLUSION
Mexico is enveloped in a transition process that is
going from a reactive approach centered in the
management of the crisis caused by droughts to a
preventive approach focused on the risk management.
The aim of the National Program Against Drought is that
of anticipating droughts by foreseeing solutions to
satisfy the demand by avoiding situations of water
shortage and conflicts between users for its use. The
comprehensive vision of this program includes
preventive and mitigation measures; improvements in
knowledge generation and sharing of usable information
for coordinated actions among stakeholders; and local
conception and implementation of measures in each of
the 26 river basin councils that integrate the Mexican
territory. Drought risk can’t be completely eliminated
but this program is useful to mitigate its effects.
REFERENCES
[1] World Meteorological Organization (WMO). Vigilancia
y alerta temprana de la sequía: conceptos, progresos y
desafíos futuros. Ginebra: WMO, 2006.
[2] D. Ortega-Gaucin and I. Velasco. Aspectos
socioeconómicos y ambientales de las sequías en
México”, Aqua-LAC, 5, pp. 78-90, 2013.
[3] D. Ortega-Gaucin. Sequía en Nuevo León:
vulnerabilidad, impactos y estrategias de mitigación.
Apodaca: Instituto del Agua del Estado de Nuevo León,
2012.
[4] E. Florescano. Breve historia de la sequía en México.
2nd edition. Mexico: CONACULTA, 2000.
[5] National Center for Disaster Prevention (CENAPRED).
Financing Risk Prevention Activities in Mexico: The
Fund for Disaster Prevention (FOPREDEN). The
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate
Change's Regional Meeting on Loss and Damage in
Latin America as a Result of Climate Change, Mexico
City, July 23-25, 2012.
[6] Department of Water Resources of the State of
California. Urban Drought Guidebook 2008, Updated
Edition. Available at:
http://digitalscholarship.unlv.edu/water_pubs/3
[7] Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resources
(SEMARNAT). Guidelines establishing the criteria and
Arreguín et al. (2016) The National Drought Policy in Mexico
166 Journal of Energy Challenges and Mechanics ©2016
mechanisms for issuing general agreements in
emergencies by the occurrence of drought, as well as
preventive and mitigation measures, which may be
implemented by the national water users to achieve an
efficient use of water during drought”, Official
Government Gazette, México, D.F., November 22, 2012.
[8] Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resources
(SEMARNAT). National Water Law”. Official
Government Gazette, Mexico, D.F., April 29, 2004 to the
latest amendments or additions on 8 June 2012.
[9] National Water Comission (CONAGUA). Programa de
Medidas Preventivas y de Mitigación de la Sequía del
Consejo de Cuenca del Río Balsas, México:
SEMARNAT, 2013.
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La presente investigación tiene como propósito conocer y comprender los elementos teóricos, conceptuales y metodológicos que están involucrados en el análisis de la sequía y de sus impactos en la sociedad, con énfasis en las condiciones particulares del estado de Nuevo León. El interés por realizar este trabajo surgió a raíz de los efectos negativos causados por el último evento de sequía acaecido en esta entidad federativa (2011-2012), el cual ya ha sido considerado como el más severo de los últimos 50 años. El resultado de la investigación, es decir, el informe que se presenta, constituye un documento valioso que genera y provee información sistematizada y actualizada que es de utilidad como un elemento de consulta y referencia para todos aquéllos interesados en el tema, y que puede servir como un instrumento de planeación y de decisión, útil para los funcionarios públicos y demás actores de los sectores económicos y sociales involucrados.
Guidelines establishing the criteria and mechanisms for issuing general agreements in emergencies by the occurrence of drought, as well as preventive and mitigation measures, which may be implemented by the national water users to achieve an efficient use of water during drought
Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resources (SEMARNAT). "Guidelines establishing the criteria and mechanisms for issuing general agreements in emergencies by the occurrence of drought, as well as preventive and mitigation measures, which may be implemented by the national water users to achieve an efficient use of water during drought", Official Government Gazette, México, D.F., November 22, 2012.