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Recent development in role theory.

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Abstract

Role theory concerns one of the most important features of social life, characteristic behavior patterns or roles. It explains roles by presuming that persons are members of social positions and hold expectations for their own behaviors and those of other persons. Its vocabulary and concerns are popular among social scientists and practitioners, and role concepts have generated a lot of research. At least five perspectives may be discriminated in recent work within the field: functional, symbolic interactionist, structural, organizational, and cognitive role theory. Much of role research reflects practical concerns and derived concepts, and research on four such concepts is reviewed: consensus, conformity, role conflict, and role taking. Recent developments suggest both centrifugal and integrative forces within the role field. The former reflect differing perspectival commitments of scholars, confusions and disagreements over use of role concepts, and the fact that role theory is used to analyze various forms of social system. The latter reflect the shared, basic concerns of the field and efforts by role theorists to seek a broad version of the field that will accommodate a wide range of interests.

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... Whereas prior research has long examined the economic and institutional determinants that drive the effects of automation on middle managers' strategic involvement (see e.g., Bloom et al., 2014;Pinsonneault and Kraemer, 1993), factors at the individual middle management level remain relatively unexplored. This omission is important, since the effects of corporate modernization on role transitions largely depend on individuals' embeddedness in traditional roles (Ibarra and Barbulescu, 2010;Nicholson, 1984), as well as their accrued expertise in performing these roles (Biddle, 1986;Dane, 2010;Raes et al., 2011). Building on this premise, we consider the position tenure of middle managers as a key individual-level contingency. ...
... The expertise benefits occur from the depth of knowledge an individual acquires in performing a given role (Dane, 2010). At the same time, the ability and flexibility in adjusting to modernized role assumptions vary based on the time that individuals have been embedded in traditional role assumptions (Biddle, 1986;Sengupta et al., 2008). Acknowledging that position tenure associates with both expertise benefits and role embeddedness costs for long-tenured middle managers, we suggest that it will act as a key factor that differentially affects the impact of formal-rational versus substantive-rational task automation on middle managers' strategic involvement. ...
... The above arguments align with the base-line assumptions of role theory that roles are malleable (Biddle, 1986), and role transitions (Ashforth and Saks, 1995;Nicholson, 1984) explain how routine-based job descriptions and expectations are redefined by changes induced in the social system Raes et al., 2011). Indeed, scholars have recognized that when prior roles and the value of expertise in performing these roles become obsolete post-automation (Raisch and Krakowski, 2021), individuals embedded in prior role assumptions require an extra effort to transit to the new task context and benefit from associated opportunities (Becker, 2005;Biddle, 1986;Georgakakis et al., 2022;Karaevli and Hall, 2006). ...
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Article
With the proliferation of automation technology, controversy concerning the impact of digital automation on middle‐managers’ strategic importance is rising. Some scholars adopt an “automation‐as‐a‐threat” view to argue that digital automation replaces middle‐managers’ strategic value. On the contrary, others take an “automation‐as‐an‐opportunity” view to underscore the role accumulation advantages digital automation offers for individuals in organizations. We acknowledge this debate and develop a contingency‐based role‐theoretical framework, suggesting that the impact of automation on middle‐managers’ strategic involvement depends on: (a) the nature of the middle‐management tasks subject to automation, and (b) the level of the individual middle‐manager’s task‐related expertise and simultaneous role embeddedness – as defined by their position tenure. We test our framework using longitudinal survey data from German, Swiss and Austrian firms at four time points. Overall, our work takes an important step towards unravelling the complex and contingent impact of digital automation on middle‐managers’ strategic involvement in contemporary organizations.
... La variable sexo, en el caso de los estudios del balance trabajo-familia, suele ser significativa de acuerdo con la "Teoría de roles" (Biddle, 1986), pues las personas, tienen expectativas sociales sobre su propio comportamiento y el de los demás. Así, en el caso del balance familia-trabajo se explica que las personas busquen un balance para satisfacer los distintos roles; en el caso de las mujeres, como esposas y madres y, en el caso de los hombres, como esposos y padres, y su entendimiento de lo que la sociedad espera. ...
... Se observó adicionalmente que las características demográficas (antigüedad, sexo, edad, si tiene dependientes y número personas con las que vive) no presentan una correlación significativa con las variables dependientes, a diferencia de lo reportado por Biddle (1986) y Bengtson y Allen (2009), por lo que se profundizará el tema con un análisis de regresión, controlado por las variables demográficas, por ser relevante. ...
... Asimismo, mientras que para el presente estudio el sexo tampoco está correlacionado significativamente con las variables dependientes, en el estudio anterior (Grzywacz, Almeida y McDonald, 2002), las mujeres trabajadoras manifestaron una mayor transferencia de sentimientos negativos entre el trabajo y la familia en comparación con los hombres, lo cual es congruente con la "Teoría de roles" (Biddle, 1986). Sin embargo, la evidencia no permite concluir sobre las diferencias de sexo en las transferencias de sentimientos, pues en otro estudio (Grzywacz, 2000) fueron las mujeres quienes manifestaron una mayor transferencia de sentimientos positivos. ...
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Article
The society used to believe that family and work should be distanced from each other. However, the new circumstances modified this conception; the entrance of women in the labor force, the increase in family expenses and consequently the requirement to increase family income, and the development of new labor practices, such as home office or virtual work. Starting from spillover theory and the distribution of time of workers in their different weekly activities, research is done to project the transfer of feelings (positive or negative) between work and family. In order to contribute to the development of the Spillover theory, 483 workers from a private university in Mexico participated in a survey. Through a regression analysis under the Stepwise selection of terms methodology, which seeks the best combination of variables to project the transfers of feelings in an iterative way, it was found that, if the workers increase the hours spent with family and increase the hours spent exercising, the transfer of positive feelings between work and family increases, and vice versa. Hours spent in transportation between work and home function as a buffer of feelings, both positive and negative.
... Groening et al. (2018) provide a large-scale review of more than 20 consumer-level theories used in the field of green marketing. This study builds on role theory (Biddle, 1986) to explain the differences in consumers' environmental concern and ecologically conscious consumer behaviour. Biddle (1986) proposes that individuals hold social positions in society which reflect their roles and create expectations for their own behaviours and others' expectations of behaviour. ...
... This study builds on role theory (Biddle, 1986) to explain the differences in consumers' environmental concern and ecologically conscious consumer behaviour. Biddle (1986) proposes that individuals hold social positions in society which reflect their roles and create expectations for their own behaviours and others' expectations of behaviour. Role theory can be used both to explain and predict social behaviour of individuals based on situations and identities. ...
... The broad theoretical underpinning of this research is role theory (Biddle, 1986) that can be used both to explain and predict social behaviour of individuals based on situations and identities. In line with role theory this study proposes that there are differences in attitudes and behaviour of consumers based on the roles they play in the society (for example, based on gender, educational level, income level and similar). ...
... Les chapitre II et III sont notamment dédiés à la théorie des rôles. Selon Biddle (1986), la théorie des rôles a pour objet de s'attacher à comprendre le comportement social et plus particulièrement « le fait que les êtres humains se comportent de manière différente et prévisible en fonction de leurs identités sociales respectives et de la situation » 1 . Cinq perspectives ou postures épistémologiques ont été associées à cette théorie à savoir fonctionnaliste, interactionniste symbolique, structuraliste, organisationnelle et cognitiviste. ...
... Cinq perspectives ou postures épistémologiques ont été associées à cette théorie à savoir fonctionnaliste, interactionniste symbolique, structuraliste, organisationnelle et cognitiviste. De ces cinq perspectives, trois points communs peuvent être mis en lumière tout d'abord, l'étude de ces acteurs se fait dans le cadre d'une organisation, ensuite que ces individus ont un comportement spécifique qu'est le rôle et enfin, ce rôle génère des attentes en termes de comportements tant vis-à-vis des autres que de soi-même (Biddle, 1986;Glick, 2011). Le rôle du latin rotula qui signifie petite roue est un « rouleau, une feuille enroulée portant un écrit » 2 qui est aussi la rota à savoir le texte que doit apprendre un acteur de théâtre. ...
... Intégration du rôle d'opposant dans une perspective interactionniste symbolique Notre étude apporte aussi sa pierre à l'édifice en proposant l'analyse du rôle de l'opposition dans une perspective de la théorie des rôles. La théorie des rôles peut s'analyser sous cinq perspectives (Biddle, 1986), voire six si l'on intègre l'approche basée sur les ressources (Callero, 1994;Nyström et al., 2014) Au-delà de la plasticité qui existe dans les différentes modalités de l'opposition, les résultats permettent de s'inscrire plus largement dans une perspective interactionniste symbolique de la théorie des rôles : nous avons pu noter le changement de position de l'acteur au sein de l'écosystème notamment lorsque d'opposant un acteur s'est mû en champion de l'innovation sociale. ...
Thesis
Avec ce travail de recherche exploratoire, nous avons tenté de dresser les contours du rôle d’opposant. Cet opposant, comme le champion, a vocation à prendre place dans l’écosystème des rôles et, par la même, à renouveler la lecture de la théorie des rôles.Le cadre de cette définition de l’opposant s’inscrit dans la mise en place d’innovation dans les organisations. Si la question de l’innovation a largement été étudiée par les économistes et les sociologues dans sa dimension technologique, les travaux traitant de l’innovation organisationnelle n’ont pas connu le même écho. De la même manière, peu de travaux étudient les acteurs de l’innovation alors que les dispositifs et les systèmes d’innovation ont connu une large audience.Le corpus scientifique de la théorie des rôles associés à l’innovation porte principalement son attention sur le rôle de champion et cela dès les années 1960. Ces travaux mettent en lumière le rôle déterminant, stratégique voire héroïque du champion. Ce travail permettra de nuancer cette position de quasi-monopole du champion dans la littérature en rappelant que peu à peu les rôles des « nonchampions » se sont incarnés. Si le champion demeure un rôle prédominant et complexe, nous apporterons une vision plus nuancée en en présentant les rôles connexes principaux que sont le gatekeeper, le sponsor et l’expert et nous présenterons les contours du rôle d’opposant. Ce dernier, à bien y regarder, est présent de longue date, en filigrane dans la littérature. Il serait dans l’ombre du champion voire, écriront certains, comme un contrepoint au champion si ce n’est un acteur qui se définit en miroir du champion.Proposer l’ajout d’un nouveau rôle passe par en préciser les contours. Cela revient à s’attacher à la compréhension l’émergence, aux caractéristiques personnelles de cet acteur. Autrement dit : qui est-il ? C’est aussi comprendre quel est son mode d’action pour tâcher de mener à bien son action. Enfin, une fois l’action menée, quelles sont les conséquences de l’opposition ? Cette question s’entend à deux niveaux. D’une part, quelles conséquences sur les projets innovants l’opposant a-t-il eu ? Et d’autre part, quel impact la tenue de ce rôle cela a-t-il eu sur sa carrière ?
... This study finds that the role of the mid-day supervisor within each school was either marginalised from or legitimised within the school community (Wenger, 1998) through organisational positioning, influences within the wider community and interactions with those undertaking different roles. The study draws on various theories of role (Linton, 1936;Newcomb, 1950;Dahrendorf, 1973;Biddle, 1986) to highlight the impact this had on the obligatory, optional and forbidden aspects of how the role was enacted and the functions that mid-day supervisors performed in each school. ...
... Biddle's concept of organisational, structural and interactionist role theory (Biddle, 1986) and Wenger's concept of role legitimisation and marginalisation (Wenger, 1998) are used to explore the positioning of the role within and beyond the school community. The concept that every role has normative expectations of obligatory, optional and forbidden behaviours (Newcomb, 1950;Dahrendorf, 1973) is used to explore how the role was enacted within each school context. ...
... Through the concept of organisational role theory, Biddle (1986) identifies that an employment position, such as that of a school mid-day supervisor, is associated with normative expectations of any individual undertaking the role. Alongside these expectations, organisational constraints are placed on the role, often through the use of a hierarchical system with clear role boundaries to ensure that anyone occupying a particular role undertakes this in accordance with the normative expectations of the organisation (Turner, 2011). ...
Article
This study focused on a group of staff who undertake an occupational role in almost every primary school in the United Kingdom: mid-day supervisors. Despite mid-day supervisors being present in most primary schools for a proportion of each day, little is known about the functions of their role or about those who undertake it. No previous research has focused solely on this role within primary schools, nor included mid-day supervisors themselves as sole participants. This thesis therefore makes a contribution to knowledge by exploring the functions of the mid-day supervisors’ role, the place of this role within primary school communities and the experience of undertaking the role from the perspective of mid-day supervisors themselves. The study took place within three primary schools in the East Midlands. At each school, I worked alongside the mid-day supervisors, taking on the role myself, for fifteen consecutive days. During this participatory stage, I made field notes to record my own experience, informal observations and, most often, conversations between myself and the mid-day supervisors I worked alongside. This provided an insight into not only the experience of undertaking the role myself, but of the mid-day supervisors’ experience of doing so at the school. This data was supplemented by interviews with some mid-day supervisors at each school, allowing further exploration of their past and current experience undertaking the role. This study finds that the role of the mid-day supervisor within each school was either marginalised from or legitimised within the school community (Wenger, 1998) through organisational positioning, influences within the wider community and interactions with those undertaking different roles. The study draws on various theories of role (Linton, 1936; Newcomb, 1950; Dahrendorf, 1973; Biddle, 1986) to highlight the impact this had on the obligatory, optional and forbidden aspects of how the role was enacted and the functions that mid-day supervisors performed in each school. The experience of occupying the role of a primary-school mid-day supervisor was heavily influenced by factors that either minimised or contributed to role strain, such as role conflict, role ambiguity and role overload. Where these factors were minimal, the experience of being a mid-day supervisor was generally a positive one. Where these factors were significant, this led to a negative experience of being a mid-day supervisor for those who occupied the role and resulted in frustration and job dissatisfaction.
... Role theory seeks to understand and explain human behavior by considering how a person's position in a complex social system is associated with the expectations for their behavior (Biddle, 1986). Role theory is derived from a theatrical metaphor, comparing the characteristic behavior patterns (roles) in which people engage, in social systems, to roles in a play. ...
... Just as an actor's part in a play comes with particular expectations (defined by the script) for their behavior, one's position in a social system comes with expectations for what they should do and how they should do it. These expectations can be held by both the individual fulfilling that role and by others interacting with them; moreover, different people may have different expectations for the same role (Biddle, 1986). For example, a special educator might take on a role in academic instruction (e.g., teaching foundational skills needed to engage with the general education curriculum) as a function of their part or social position (i.e., special educator), which entails particular scripts or expectations for their behavior (e.g., planning instruction, using particular instructional materials); and, they and their colleagues may have different expectations for that role-different scripts to which they expect the special educator to adhere (e.g., Antia, 1999;Damore & Murray, 2009). ...
... For example, a special educator might take on a role in academic instruction (e.g., teaching foundational skills needed to engage with the general education curriculum) as a function of their part or social position (i.e., special educator), which entails particular scripts or expectations for their behavior (e.g., planning instruction, using particular instructional materials); and, they and their colleagues may have different expectations for that role-different scripts to which they expect the special educator to adhere (e.g., Antia, 1999;Damore & Murray, 2009). Often, roles are defined by their function-the purpose they fulfill in the social system (Biddle, 1986). For example, the special educator in the preceding example could conceptualize the purpose of their role in instruction as teaching foundational skills, or they could conceptualize the purpose as providing accommodations to support learning general education curriculum, or they could have another purpose in mind (e.g., building self-esteem, supporting general educators' efforts). ...
Chapter
Shared conceptions of special and general educators’ roles are essential to effective inclusive elementary schools. Yet extant research indicates there is wide variability in how their roles are conceptualized and enacted across different contexts, as educators have varied conceptions of the purposes of their roles, as well as broad discretion in how they choose interpret and enact their roles. This chapter explores various stakeholders’ conceptions of teachers’ roles serving students with disabilities in inclusive elementary schools, examining conceptions of special and general educators’ roles in policy and scholarship, as well as the actual roles they take up in practice. The chapter concludes with recommendations for future research and practice, regarding how the field might collectively build greater consensus about what special and general educators’ roles in serving students with disabilities should be, and how they should be supported to enact those roles in practice.
... Using the theater metaphor, sociologists and social psychologists observed that social life could frequently be distilled into observable roles "played" by individuals that carry predictable, context-specific behaviors tied to that role (Biddle & Thomas, 1966;Merton, 1957). Understanding these roles is useful to explain why individuals are expected to behave in certain ways and how such expectations shape their own behavior or judgments of others' behavior (Biddle, 1986). Role theories emerged from these observations as powerful theoretical perspectives to explain and predict human behavior. ...
... The most fundamental concept of role theories is the role. Roles can be defined broadly as a set of behavioral expectations placed on individuals based on their position in a social structure (Biddle, 1986;Rizzo, House, & Lirtzman, 1970;Tubre & Collins, 2000). A role is typically a noun referring to a position (woman, manager) with behavioral expectations describing role characteristics. ...
... Role conflict and role ambiguity are two related concepts with a prominent place in the role theory literature. Role conflict occurs when individuals have multiple roles and the behavioral expectations of one role are incompatible or inconsistent with those of another (Anicich & Hirsch, 2017;Biddle, 1986;Ebbers & Wijnberg, 2017). The conceptualization of roles related to these terms lies in the structural-functional tradition; however, these concepts arose from Turner's (1962) criticism that previous conceptualizations had been too ridged and role work should recognize an individual's personal reaction to their given roles. ...
Article
Role theories examine how individual behavior is shaped by prevailing social roles and provide insights into how behavior is perceived by others in light of such roles. Current movements for police reform as well as the landmark decision by the U.S. Supreme Court concerning the employment rights of LGBTQIA individuals have brought conversations concerning roles and their potential impact to the forefront of public discourse. Academic perspectives in management research have aided in building knowledge concerning how roles impact individuals and organizations in a variety of research domains, including entrepreneurship, human resource management, organizational behavior, and strategic management. While the utilization of role theory has gained tremendous momentum over the past two decades, its central tenets are often blurred given that several related but unique perspectives surrounding roles exist in the literature. We trace the origins and development of specific role theories by defining central constructs to bring clarity to the conceptual ambiguities between various role theories and key concepts. Next, we provide an integrative review of empirical role research in management journals over the past 20 years. Here, we identify the five most prominent research themes in the management literature: roles and identity, work–nonwork interface, biases and stereotypes, career life cycles, and ethics and other-oriented behavior. Finally, we provide an agenda for future research that highlights missed opportunities in management research that draws from the key themes identified in our review.
... These concerns were the semi-formal beginnings of role theory, which is the umbrella for role conflict and role ambiguity. As role theory has been developed further by other influential researchers, such as Nye (1976) and Biddle (1986), researchers such as Uhrbrock (1934), Allport (1935), Hoppock (1935), and Locke (1968) paved the way for the field of job satisfaction. These two research topics, role theory and job satisfaction, were the literary foundation for this study. ...
... The overarching framework for this study was based on role theory, which covers a broad spectrum for studying social interactions (Biddle, 1986), coupled with job satisfaction, which stems from early research on work attitudes. Role theory is often described from five subtheories: functional, structural, organizational, cognitive, and interactionist (Biddle, 1986;Goffman, 1956;Nye, 1976). ...
... The overarching framework for this study was based on role theory, which covers a broad spectrum for studying social interactions (Biddle, 1986), coupled with job satisfaction, which stems from early research on work attitudes. Role theory is often described from five subtheories: functional, structural, organizational, cognitive, and interactionist (Biddle, 1986;Goffman, 1956;Nye, 1976). This study focused on organizational role theory. ...
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Thesis
Previous research has overlooked university employees' dual working student role as a potential antecedent to altered job perceptions. Therefore, a causal-comparative, quantitative study was conducted to examine how enrollment affects the job satisfaction, role conflict, and role ambiguity of non-instructional university staff. The researcher tested demographic variables, such as age, gender, racial identity, parental status, marital status, and years of service to determine if they moderated the relationship between enrollment and job perception. Among the 811 full-time university staff members who participated, 197 were enrolled as students and 614 were not enrolled. Participants completed the Measure of Job Satisfaction, the Revised Role Stressor Scales, and a demographic questionnaire administered through an online platform. Without considering demographic variables, no multivariate differences existed between students and non-students, but univariate tests indicated students were more satisfied with their jobs than non-students. Of the six demographic variables, only marital status had a moderating effect on the relationship between enrollment and the dependent variables. Specifically, married students were more satisfied with their jobs than married non-students, but single and dating students were less satisfied than single and dating non-students. After controlling for marital status, students showed higher levels of role ambiguity than non-students. No significant effects were found for role conflict. The study concluded that enrollment does affect role ambiguity and job satisfaction among certain employees. With this knowledge, considering the singular influence staff have on the operations of a university (Farrell, 2009), administrators should consider accommodations such as working lunches, a student-employee organization, and a specialized orientation for working students to better support staff who want to continue their education. Future researchers may consider testing different moderators or using a qualitative approach that may provide insight into lived experiences of the working student. The latter approach may explain differences found in the study.
... Role congruity theory is grounded in status characteristics theory and social role theory (Biddle, 1986;Carli & Eagly, 1999). According to role congruity theory, people believe that one must possess certain qualities to be effective in specific roles (Eagly, Wood, & Diekman, 2000). ...
... Because CFOs play an important role in financing transactions and communicating with external constituents, their exhibited linguistic attributes are expected to affect the perceived hazards in any transaction between a bank and a firm (Dzieliński, Wagner, & Zeckhauser, 2017;Zorn, 2004 (Jensen et al., 2012;Sarbin & Allen, 1968). In most cases, different groups generate different role expectations (Biddle, 1986). Thus, it is crucial to clearly identify the relevant dimensions that the observers in our context (i.e., bankers) seek in a CFO. ...
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Article
The prior literature on role congruity theory has revolved around demographic-based expectations, emphasizing role incongruity derived from a mismatch between prescriptive expectations of distinct roles. In this paper, we depart from this traditional focus on between-role incongruity and explore an alternative source of role incongruity by examining how language can trigger the within-role incongruity of function-based expectations. Through an analysis of conference call transcripts and contracts for 7,649 deals during 2003–2018, we show that the incongruity of function-based expectations manifested through the language of the CFO increases banks’ perceived hazards, leading them to employ more debt contract covenants. In addition, by investigating the moderating effects of corresponding CEO language and media sentiment, we show how the social context and sentiment toward the firm weaken this incongruity effect. We discuss the theoretical implications of our study for future research on the sources of role incongruity and the antecedents of contract design.
... Key terms. The concept of "role" is used in several different ways, both in academic and colloquial speech, and there is no single definition of the term (Biddle, 1986). Connell (1997, p. 8) stated: "Some locate the concept of 'role' in what people actually do, and some only in what they are expected to do...". ...
... Connell (1997, p. 8) stated: "Some locate the concept of 'role' in what people actually do, and some only in what they are expected to do...". Our usage here is consistent with that in functional role theory (Biddle, 1986), where roles are viewed as differentiated parts of stable social systems, aimed at the accomplishment of specific functions. More specifically, we consider a role as a "design parameter" (DP; as illustrated in Table 1). ...
... User models are estimated from the web without real users' data. To accomplish such a goal, I build on role theory from the social science literature (Biddle, 1986;Linton, 1936). In this theory, people are members of different social positions. ...
... People with a particular social position perform specific behavioural patterns (Linton, 1936). Biddle (1986) explained role theory through its resemblance to a theatrical show where actors in a play follow a script detailing their contribution to the overall performance. Examples of social positions include student, mother, computer scientist, traveller, or Chelsea fan. ...
Thesis
A user model is a fundamental component in user-centred information retrieval systems. It enables personalization of a user's search experience. The development of such a model involves three phases: collecting information about each user, representing such information, and integrating the model into a retrieval application. Progress in this area is typically met with privacy and scalability challenges that hinder the ability to synthesize collective knowledge from each user's search behaviour. In this thesis, I propose a framework that addresses each of these three phases. The proposed framework is based on social role theory from the social science literature and at the centre of this theory is the concept of a social position. A social position is a label for a group of users with similar behavioural patterns. Examples of such positions are traveller, patient, movie fan, and computer scientist. In this thesis, a social position acts as a label for users who are expected to have similar interests. The proposed framework does not require real users' data; rather it uses the web as a resource to model users. The proposed framework offers a data-driven and modular design for each of the three phases of building a user model. First, I present an approach to identify social positions from natural language sentences. I formulate this task as a binary classification task and develop a method to enumerate candidate social positions. The proposed classifier achieves an accuracy score of 85.8%, which indicates that social positions can be identified with good accuracy. Through an inter-annotator agreement study, I further show a reasonable level of agreement between users when identifying social positions. Second, I introduce a novel topic modelling-based approach to represent each social position as a multinomial distribution over words. This approach estimates a topic from a document collection for each position. To construct such a collection for a particular position, I propose a seeding algorithm that extracts a set of terms relevant to the social position. Coherence-based evaluation shows that the proposed approach learns significantly more coherent representations when compared with a relevance modelling baseline. Third, I present a diversification approach based on the proposed framework. Diversification algorithms aim to return a result list for a search query that would potentially satisfy users with diverse information needs. I propose to identify social positions that are relevant to a search query. These positions act as an implicit representation of the many possible interpretations of the search query. Then, relevant positions are provided to a diversification technique that proportionally diversifies results based on each social position's importance. I evaluate my approach using four test collections provided by the diversity task of the Text REtrieval Conference (TREC) web tracks for 2009, 2010, 2011, and 2012. Results demonstrate that my proposed diversification approach is effective and provides statistically significant improvements over various implicit diversification approaches. Fourth, I introduce a session-based search system under the framework of learning to rank. Such a system aims to improve the retrieval performance for a search query using previous user interactions during the search session. I present a method to match a search session to its most relevant social positions based on the session's interaction data. I then suggest identifying related sessions from query logs that are likely to be issued by users with similar information needs. Novel learning features are then estimated from the session's social positions, related sessions, and interaction data. I evaluate the proposed system using four test collections from the TREC session track. This approach achieves state-of-the-art results compared with effective session-based search systems. I demonstrate that such a strong performance is mainly attributed to features that are derived from social positions' data.
... En torno a ello, especial papel cumple el conocimiento como una forma de "poder y control", en tanto posibilitaría poner "efectivamente una distancia entre los que "saben" y los que no" (Crawford, 2012, p. 124). En el marco de los aspectos personales, se ubican también diversas actitudes y formas de ver el mundo (Biddle, 1986;Gould y Lee, 2018). Por ejemplo, aspectos concretos como la confianza, el respeto y el valor percibido respecto de otras personas son reconocidos como características personales, más allá del rol profesional (Bronstein, 2003, en Ball, 2018. ...
... Esta teoría define rol como el conjunto o patrón de conductas que realiza una persona o que se espera que esta realice en función de la posición social que ocupa (Hindin, 2007). A su vez, propone que a lo largo de su vida las personas ocupan distintos roles según los diversos ámbitos del desarrollo (p.e., familiar, educacional, laboral, comunitario) y que dichos roles vienen con prescripciones respecto del comportamiento esperado que deben mostrar aquellos que los ocupan (Biddle, 1986). En consideración con los planteamientos anteriores, usaremos el término rol profesional para referirnos tanto al comportamiento actuado o explícito de los ECE en sus correspondientes lugares de trabajo como al comportamiento esperado de estos mismos definidos en la política educativa vigente. ...
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RESUMEN Este estudio tiene como objetivo describir el perfil y rol profesional de los encargados de convivencia escolar (ECE) en escuelas de las ciudades de Iquique y Alto Hospicio en el norte de Chile. Se realizó un estudio transversal con diseño de encuesta con 38 ECE de establecimientos públicos, subvencionados y privados. Los principales hallazgos dan cuenta de que el cargo es ocupado principalmente por profesores/as y psicólogos/as con una predominante presencia de mujeres, la mayoría cuenta con formación específica en convivencia escolar, conocen los instrumentos normativos asociados a su rol, coordinan un equipo de convivencia y forman parte de los equipos directivos. Hay coincidencia en las tareas que desarrollan: ejecutar el plan de gestión de convivencia, entregar antecedentes a la Superintendencia de Educación, entrevistar apoderados y atender casos individuales. No obstante, se enfrentan a una serie de obstáculos laborales, donde destacan: baja participación de las familias, dificultad en la gestión de recursos y falta de tiempo. Adicionalmente, los participantes aportan sugerencias para mejorar el desempeño del cargo: formar parte del equipo directivo, contar con un equipo de convivencia y tener carga horaria completa para el cargo. Entre los aportes de esta investigación se destaca situarse como estudio inédito con ECE en el extremo norte de Chile, inclusivo desde la diversidad de participantes y contextos educativos, y que sus hallazgos pueden ser útiles para el diseño del perfil de cargo de los ECE en la próxima política pública en la materia y en la formación de profesores y psicólogos ligados a cargos de gestión escolar. Palabras Clave: Convivencia Escolar, Encargado de Convivencia Escolar, gestión escolar, liderazgo escolar. ABSTRACT The goal of the present study is to describe the profile and role of professionals in charge of school coexistence in schools of Iquique and Alto Hospicio in the north of Chile. A cross-sectional study with a survey design was used, with the participation of 38 professionals from public, subsidized, and private schools. The main findings show that this activity is carried out mainly by teachers and psychologists, with a predominance of women; most of them have a school coexistence formation and are aware
... Most individuals hold multiple roles in life, which can imply incompatible role demands (Kahn et al., 1964;Settles et al., 2002). Each role is linked to different normative expectations (Biddle, 1986;Rizzo et al., 1970). The formal role of being an employee is linked to instrumental role demands (e.g., completing a project in a given timeframe), whereby the informal role of being a friend with members of another age-group is linked to socioemotional role demands (e.g., paying attention to one's friend's personal issues; Pillemer & Rothbard, 2018). ...
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This research investigates age-diverse friendship and its complex relation to job satisfaction and turnover intentions. Based on self-expansion theory, we argue that age-diverse friendship can lead younger and older employees to perceive oneness (i.e., a sense of merged identity) with a colleague from the respective other age-group and that this perceived oneness has consequences. On the positive side, we hypothesize perceived oneness to facilitate motivation to cooperate, which should increase job satisfaction and decrease turnover intentions. On the negative side, we hypothesize perceived oneness to provoke interrole conflict, which should decrease job satisfaction and increase turnover intentions. We found support for our hypotheses in a two-wave dyadic study consisting of 93 German age-diverse employee dyads (N = 186 individuals). Results showed that perceived oneness resulting from age-diverse friendship was related to motivation to cooperate (positive path) and interrole conflict (negative path). In turn, interrole conflict was linked to lower job satisfaction and higher turnover intentions. Motivation to cooperate was however not significantly linked to job satisfaction and turnover intentions. By considering age-diverse friendships, this research provides an age-specific lens on the beneficial and detrimental effects of workplace friendship and contributes to the literatures on age diversity, cross-group friendship, and workplace friendship.
... However, SoB feeling can't be equally the same because of external factors such as differences in education level, age, and individual characteristics so internal auditors must be able to work together and help each other to increase SoB both for themselves and auditees. This is supported by Biddle (1986) regarding role theory in which internal auditors in doing its function must be able to adapt to its role in organization, in this case university. ...
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This study aims to describe the role of Sense of Belonging (SoB) and professional skepticism in supporting the performance of internal auditors at Satya Wacana Christian University (SWCU). This study uses both primary data by conducting in-depth interview with financial, academic and non-academic internal auditors, auditee and internal control body at SWCU and the secondary data were obtained from documents such as code of ethics, audit instruments and internal auditors charter. This study is a qualitative descriptive research and uses two types of triangulation which is data triangulation and source triangulation. The results of this study shows that the role of SoB and professional skepticism has been implemented in SWCU and both roles encourage the internal auditor’s function in university.
... En torno a ello, especial papel cumple el conocimiento como una forma de "poder y control", en tanto posibilitaría poner "efectivamente una distancia entre los que "saben" y los que no" (Crawford, 2012, p. 124). En el marco de los aspectos personales, se ubican también diversas actitudes y formas de ver el mundo (Biddle, 1986;Gould y Lee, 2018). Por ejemplo, aspectos concretos como la confianza, el respeto y el valor percibido respecto de otras personas son reconocidos como características personales, más allá del rol profesional (Bronstein, 2003, en Ball, 2018. ...
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Research
Edición Revista Cuaderno de Trabajo Social N°16 2021
... The aim of the Preceptorship model is to create and promote professional clinical competency in midwifery , and to assist and support students integrate theory into their clinical practice (Altman, 2006;Carlson, Wann-Hansson, & Pilhammar, 2009;Phillips, 2016), as a professional role model (Perry, 2009;Power & Ewing, 2016). Role theory, in sociology, concerns one of the most important features of social life, characteristic behavior patterns or roles (Biddle, 1979(Biddle, , 1986. Robert K. Merton (1959), who coined the term "role model", hypothesized that individuals compare themselves to relevant reference groups of people who occupy the social role to which they aspire (see also Holton, 2004). ...
Article
The research objective is to adapt and validate the VARK questionnaire on learning styles (Fleming, 2001, 2008) to the discipline of midwifery education in nursing – ME-VARK. The four major learning styles are: Visual, Auditory Read/write and Kinesthetic. From a sociological point of view, the working relationship between preceptor (midwife) and preceptee (student) contributes to the student's professional learning (self-efficacy in midwifery) and to the social formation of the students' identity as a midwifery practitioner. Therefore, matched learning styles between them are important for successful training, particularly in clinical practice. In order to construct the ME-VARK, following an in-depth literature review, and a documental analysis, a focus group and a Delphi procedure with in-depth literature review interviews were used to expose the subjective meanings of preceptorship relations as a social construct. Three expert-midwives that also were experienced preceptors participated in the focus group, and ten expert judges participated in six Delphi rounds (a total of 15 judgements). They were requested to propose items/responses relevant to midwifery education and then to validate the new ME-VARK. The results indicate that the chosen items are suitable to measure knowledge, competencies and learning styles in midwifery education. The adapted ME-VARK is relevant to midwifery education and encompasses the main labor stages, the central types of learning via preceptorship, and the essential topics in midwifery profession (exclusiveness). All items are relevant only to midwifery education (inclusiveness). The adapted ME-VARK was found to have all psychometric attributes: Content and construct validity, as well as face validity.
... According to Linton, status is simply the sum of rights and duties (1936). These statuses determine the behavior patterns of individuals who occupy these statuses (Biddle, 1986); in other words, their roles (Johnson, 2000). Individuals play their roles through specific behavior patterns to perform their rights and duties (Linton, 1936). ...
... An employee's role within an organisational context encompasses a set of expectations on how the employee should behave (Parker, 2007;Van Sell et al., 1981). The role expectations exert a standard pressure on employees' attitudes and behaviours (Biddle, 1986;Callero, 1994). Employees' beliefs about their tasks, responsibilities and concerns can vary with the roles they play in different career stages (Neale and Griffin, 2006). ...
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The moderating effect of career stage on the relationship between job embeddedness and innovation-related behaviour (IRB): Evidence from China Muhmmad Rafiq, Article information: To cite this document: Muhmmad Rafiq, (2019) "The moderating effect of career stage on the relationship between job embeddedness and innovation-related behaviour (IRB): Evidence from China", World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, https://doi.
... In this study, the term role is defined as a set of social behaviors that are characteristic of individuals within a given environment and emerge through our interactions with others [25], [26]. As the term suggests, individuals are provided with a "script" for the parts they play (i.e., theater metaphor). ...
... Role multiplexity has its roots in role theory. Role theory is concerned with the study of patterned behavior (Biddle 1979(Biddle , 1986. It seeks to understand situated behaviors of a focal actor who is embedded within a social system (Biddle 1979;Turner 1974). ...
Article
It is well acknowledged that close collaboration with the customer serves as the lynchpin to ensuring that agile information systems development (ISD) teams produce the right software within mutually agreed targets. In several agile ISD methods, this emphasis on close collaboration is enacted through the role of a designated customer representative (CR). The agile ISD literature has recognized the behaviors in this role to be inherently complementary and contradicting in nature, presenting a challenge to whoever occupies the role and hampering their ability to add value to the project. How do CRs manage these challenges and why do they do so in a particular manner? Unfortunately, there has been little theory to answer these questions. In this research, we explore and theorize about this phenomenon by leveraging role multiplexity as a theoretical lens in making sense of the behavior of CRs in agile ISD. Results suggest that the CR role is multiplex, exhibiting multiple manifestations with different orientations. We develop a theoretical model that articulates the instan-tiation of these role manifestations and the mechanisms that enable the CR role to remain intact while managing these challenges. The theoretical model highlights the CR role in agile ISD as being dynamic and multi-oriented.
... To Merton (1957), role is a complement of relationship in which persons are involved by virtue of occupying a particular social status. Biddle (1986) conceptualizes role as a set of expectations that society places on an individual while Mead (1934) posited that role is not fixed or prescribed but something that is constantly negotiated between individuals in a tentative, creative way. ...
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Article
The aftermath of 2014 constitutional conference reawakened expectations of Nigerians on restructuring of Nigerian federalism. The conference dictates capture the salient problems that attract agitations and upheavals in Nigerian polity. It also recommended panacea for it but the uncompromising attitude of Nigerian elite has made restructuring a failure because of vested economic and political interest. The broad objective of this paper is to examine the problem of non-implementation of 2014 constitutional conference recommendation on restructuring of Nigerian federalism. We adopted the aid of elite theory to observe among others that, there is a nexus between elite compromise and non-implementation of 2014 constitutional conference recommendation. Secondary sources of data collection were utilized. We recommend among others, a pro-active restructuring legislation and policy devoid of elite intervention.
... A teoria de papéis, em conformidade com Biddle (1986), diz respeito a um dos atributos mais relevantes do comportamento social: "[...] o fato de que os seres humanos se comportam de maneiras diferentes e previsíveis, dependendo de suas respectivas identidades sociais e da situação" (Biddle, 1986, p. 68). Essa teoria pode ser considerada elemento fundamental para a compreensão da sociedade e do comportamento social nos níveis micro, intermediário e macro de interação (Turner, 2001). ...
Article
Para os indivíduos trabalhadores, conciliar as responsabilidades e conflitos oriundos do trabalho e da família é um grande desafio. Para as mulheres, o desafio é ainda maior devido ao ainda presente viés de gênero. O objetivo desse trabalho é analisar os principais impactos do trabalho na família e vice-versa constatados por mulheres trabalhadoras do setor da indústria brasileira. A base teórica inclui a teoria de papéis, especialmente o conflito de papéis. Quanto à metodologia, trata-se de um estudo de caso qualitativo e descritivo. A análise de conteúdo das entrevistas realizadas com 15 mulheres trabalhadoras indicou que os impactos do trabalho na família envolvem: preocupações excessivas com as atividades do trabalho; falta de tempo para a família; e mau humor, nervosismo, estresse e cansaço. Os impactos da família no trabalho abrangeram: mudança de comportamento no ambiente organizacional devido a desentendimentos em casa e problemas de saúde de familiares. Considerando não somente os impactos de um domínio sobre o outro, mas também os relatos das mulheres que comentaram sobre a capacidade – ou pelo menos a tentativa – de distanciar o trabalho e a família de modo a evitar conflitos, acredita-se que há a possibilidade de conciliar essas duas esferas. No entanto, atitudes de empregados e empregadores concorrem para essa conciliação. Ao final do artigo são apresentadas as contribuições da pesquisa bem como sugestões para estudos posteriores.
... Role expectations can also impact assessments of another's trustworthiness. That is, these expectations are concerned with how the person in specific roles should behave (Biddle, 1986), and the intention and ability to carry out those role expectations dictates the level of trustworthiness (Kwantes & McMurphy, 2021). Within an organizational context, employees and leaders are ascribed with specific expectations to their roles, and subsequently, these role expectations manifest and are evaluated in the form of various work outcomes. ...
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Article
In the context of the workplace, and especially in today’s often fast-paced, cross-cultural and virtual work environment, a basic type of trust—“swift trust”—forms quickly based on cognitive processes and beliefs, or stereotypes, of another. Interpersonal trust is in large part based on these contextualized assessments of the extent to which another person is trustworthy. While trust across cultural boundaries has been examined, there is a lack of research investigating how trustworthiness is determined cross-culturally, especially with respect to what heuristics are used in the development of trust. The current project explored how trustworthiness is conceptualized and described for both colleagues and supervisors across 10 nations using the Stereotype Content Model. Qualitative descriptors of trustworthy supervisors and colleagues were coded based on the importance ascribed to warmth and competence, and these codes were used as the basis for cluster analyses to examine similarities and differences in descriptors of role-based trustworthiness. Both differences and similarities in the expectations of trustworthiness were found across the national samples. Some cultures emphasized both warmth and competence as equally important components to developing trustworthiness, some emphasized only warmth, while others emphasized only competence. Variations of trustworthiness stereotypes were found in all but two national samples based on role expectations for supervisors and colleagues. Data from the GLOBE project related to societal cultural practices and cultural leadership prototypes were drawn on to discuss findings.
... The findings of this study provide additional evidence by showing the existence of a personal value factor, namely a proactive personality, which is quite effective in mitigating the stressor impact of ICT developments, namely role ambiguity. Moreover, this research approach assumes that technostress exposed to cognitive capabilities can have an impact on behavior and actions taken (Biddle, 1986), thus placing all participants in a technostress condition. There are several limitations to this study that require further review. ...
Article
The increasingly massive development of ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) makes the risk of technostress that triggers role ambiguity cannot be ignored. This study investigates the moderating effect of proactive personality on the relationship between role ambiguity and satisfaction. This study uses an experimental method involving 147 participants and placing participants in a state of technostress. Role ambiguity was categorized into 2 levels (high vs. low), proactive personality was categorized into 2 levels (confront vs. transform). The research findings show that the proactive personality (transform) has greater power in inducing user satisfaction than the proactive personality (confront). Proactive personality weakens the influence of role ambiguity on user satisfaction. Proactive personality as an individual innate factor can be elaborated as an attempt to filter the negative influence of role ambiguity on user satisfaction in ICT.
... Role theory (Biddle, 1986(Biddle, , 1988 suggests that, to understand why teachers might prioritize engaging in relationship-building behaviors with students at any given moment, we must consider how teachers construct their roles (Biddle, 1988(Biddle, , 1997. The logic of appropriateness, a sociological perspective, similarly dictates that people maintain a repertoire of roles and seek to fulfill the responsibilities encapsulated by a role in situations where they are relevant (March & Olsen, 2006). ...
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Few question the value of teacher-student relationships (TSRs) for educational outcomes. TSRs are positively associated with students’ achievement and engagement, as well as teachers’ well-being. Building and maintaining these crucial classroom relationships, however, is not easy. Drawing on prominent motivation theories in educational psychology, I present the Motivating Teacher-Student Relationships framework for understanding what motivates teachers to build positive TSRs. In particular, I focus on how teachers’ motivational beliefs about TSRs energize, direct, and sustain their efforts to engage in relationship-building behaviors and, thus, lead to positive relationships with their students. To build positive TSRs, teachers must believe it is their role to build TSRs, value TSRs, and believe they can successfully build TSRs (i.e., have relational self-efficacy). These beliefs are shaped by teachers’ sociocultural contexts and can facilitate or undermine the development of these learning relationships. With a greater understanding of how motivational beliefs influence social relationships, the field of education can more effectively develop theoretically grounded interventions to improve TSRs and mitigate inequality.
... In seeking to understand the social interactions involved in group work, this research drew on ideas from intersectionality theory (Crenshaw, 1991;Levya, 2017), role theory (Biddle, 1986;Tatsis & Koleza, 2006), and a taxonomy for analyzing actions in small group problem solving by Chiu (2000). ...
... 11 In a straightforward definition, role conflict can be defined as 'the concurrent appearance of two or more incompatible expectations for the behaviour of a person'. 12 One of the fundamental factors that may cause role conflict is ambiguity, in which there is a lack of necessary information regarding expectations and methods for fulfilling the role. 13 Thus in applying role theory in IR scholarship, it is assumed that states may have multiple roles to play in the international system. ...
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Article
In recent years, scholars have devoted increased attention to the notion of roles in foreign policy analysis and international relations. However, role theory literature has so far less frequently explored re-conceptualising role conflict. To further understand the concept of role conflict, this article aims to unpacks the notion of international audiences. To do so, this article advances the application of role conflict by arguing the importance of notion of vertical role conflict that considers the different levels of international audiences, specifically regionally and globally. Building upon the symbolic interactionist conceptualisation of social interaction as a stage, regional and global levels can be seen as arenas for role-playing but with different expectations to fulfil. The article proposes two types of vertical role conflict, stemming from the difference between the regional and global levels. These theoretical claims will be elucidated through the study of Indonesia’s regional and global engagement in two areas: human rights and trade.
... Baseline theories thus, provide support for an investigation, by describing why and how constructs in an examen could interact. This study is premised on the role theory (Biddle, 1979), which espouses that individuals are cultured to enact roles in a manner that maintains order and social stability; and examines behaviours peculiar to individuals in given contexts and the processes that elicit, provide explanations or predict those behaviours (Biddle, 1986). The cardinal propositions of the role theory according to Mile (2012) are: (1) some patterned behaviours form a role, that are usually performed by persons within given contexts; (2) roles often involve social positions (teacher, doctor, nurse, waiter, salesman, etc.); (3) roles have expectations, hence, people know when someone is playing a role, and so have expectations about what behaviours that person will perform when playing the role; (4) roles are embedded in social systems, hence, persist over time; and (5) people must be taught roles, or be socialized into them. ...
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This study examined the relationship between ECSE and perceived service quality. The study employed self-awareness, self-regulation, social awareness and social skills as proxies of ECSE; while perceived service quality was treated unidimensionally. The population of the study comprised customers of twenty-two (22) deposit money banks operating in Rivers and Bayelsa States of Nigeria. An explanatory research design was adopted while primary data were collected via a cross-sectional survey using a structured questionnaire. The instrument was checked for face, content and constructs validity; and was found satisfactory. Three hundred and eighty-five (385) customers of deposit money banks who were reached through accidental sampling provided primary data for the study. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics; while the P(r) served as the test statistic; relying on the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 24.0. The study found that ECSE relates to perceived service quality, as all the dimensions of ECSE reported a positive and statistically significant relationship with perceived service quality; with social skills posting the strongest correlation. The study concluded that ECSE relates to perceived service quality or that customers" evaluation of service quality is determined by ECSE. The study thus recommends that deposit money banks in Rivers and Bayelsa States that desire positive service quality evaluation from customers should engage individuals that possess high social skills, social awareness, self-regulation and self-awareness as service employees or train their service employees to develop these competencies.
... Missing, from this body of research is a nuanced qualitative (narrative-based) understanding of leadership turnover and its relationship to leading within the context of turnaround reform. To address this empirical gap, through the lens of role theory (Biddle, 1986) this study aims to investigate leadership fatigue and burnout in under-resourced and turnaround-priority schools. Specifically, this study seeks to investigate leaders' conceptualizations of stress and fatigue in order to better support current and future practitioners, the central office administrators responsible for school-level leadership, and the leadership preparation programs certifying then next generation of school leaders. ...
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Conference Paper
The study aim was to investigate the impact of corporate social responsibility disclosure (CSRD) on the financial performance (FP) of Palestinian and Jordanian banks. All banks listed on the Palestine Exchange (PEX) and Amman Stock Exchange (ASE) during the period 2010–2019 were considered. The study employed regression model on a sample of 60 Palestinian bank-observations and 150 Jordanian bank-observations. While CSRD was measured using a disclosure index includes 30 items, return on assets (ROA), return on equity (ROE) and Tobin's Q were used to measure FP. Results of the study reported a significant positive relationship between CSRD and Tobin's Q (Q ratio). However, no relationships were identified between CSRD and the other two FP indicators. The study recommended to improve the quality of CSRD through extending the minimum regulatory requirements related to CSRD in Palestine and Jordan. Furthermore, all related parties must be educated about the importance of CSRD and its practices.
Book
Kalajoki Clash. The Last People’s Rebellion in 1953 Nothing exceptional happened in front of the youth association building in Kalajoki on 9 September 1953. There was a minor confrontation between regional police forces and local youth, but hundreds of similar events happened in small municipalities across Finland. The event took about ten minutes, nobody was seriously hurt, and collective feelings quickly calmed down. However, after extensive investigations, the regional prosecutor thought otherwise and prosecuted half a dozen local men for rebellion against the state in January 1954. The district court agreed. The municipality was shocked, and the Finnish society was taken by surprise. The case ended up in Supreme Court. This book analyses why and how the last rebellion in the history of Finland occurred in a tiny municipality on the west coast of Finland. The analysis is based on historical microsociology that integrates the insights of microhistory and microsociology into event structure analysis and collective memory studies.
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Article
Movement between sequentially-held roles—role transition—has long attracted scholars’ attention for its ubiquity and importance in people’s work- and non-work lives. In our integrative review of 313 cross-discipline empirical articles, we find that the transitions attributes defined by Ebaugh (1988) and Ashforth (2001), the field’s seminal works, have been largely left unintegrated and unmeasured. Rather, while scholars may refer to attributes, they in fact study people’s lived transition experiences. To bring coherence and relevance to a fragmented field, we leverage the literature to propose a field-level shift to an experience-based framework. We organize our review around three vistas that undergird the transition experience we see studied in the research. These include four transition-related movements (psychological, physical, behavioral, and relational); the whole person in transition (interrelated non-work and work life spheres); and the person-in-network transitioning (transitions impacting and impacted by one’s social entourage). We mark a pathway toward this experience-based view, issuing three challenges for management researchers: broadening the study of movements beyond the psychological (first challenge), examining work and non-work transitions’ effects on organization-relevant outcomes (second challenge), and charting how individuals’ transitions impact their entourage and vice versa (third challenge).
Article
This study aims to reveal the role of the community centres in promoting sports activities the in Saudi society, and to identify the motives that enhance practicing sports in the Saudi society, and to identify the obstacles that limit practicing sports in the Saudi society, and in order to reach these goals the study relied on the descriptive approach and on the questionnaire tool for collecting data, and the sample members were beneficiaries of sporting activities in community centres in Jeddah. The study concluded that community centres have increased practicing sports among Saudi society, and that individuals who benefit from sports activities in community centres are mostly the age group between 19-30 years old, the study has also found that practicing sports activities decreases when the age variable increases. Entertainment motivations for practicing sports have obtained the highest rating among beneficiaries of sports activities in community centres, where it has scored more than health, psychological, and social motives, the study has also found that social motivations enhance sports practice in Saudi society, especially the tendency of those who actually practice sports in the community centres to play sports with other people. And finally; the study points to the bearing that a percentage of the sample members find "societal obstacles" limiting the physical exercise of Saudi society to some degree.
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Book
I – A COMUNICAÇÃO INTERGERACIONAL NO CONTEXTO DA PÓSMODERNIDADE por Fernando Pereira e Ana Maria Galvão II – AFIRMAR OS PROJETOS EDUCATIVOS PARA SENIORES NUMA NOVA ORDEM GLOBAL por Sónia Galinha e Susana Duarte III – AVALIAÇÃO DA QUALIDADE DE VIDA NA POPULAÇÃO IDOSA por Carlos Pires Magalhães e João Ricardo Miranda da Cruz IV – DIGIT@LMENTE.FELIZ: LITERACIA DIGITAL E INOVAÇÃO NA PRESTAÇÃO DE CUIDADOS por Margarete Canas, Margarida Bastos, Sofia Estima e João Lima V – ENVELHECIMENTO COGNITIVO: IMPORTÂNCIA DA ESTIMULAÇÃO! Por Carlos Pires Magalhães e João Ricardo Miranda da Cruz VI - FORMAS PREFERENCIAIS DE APREENSÃO DA APRENDIZAGEM ENTRE PROFESSORES E FORMADORES por Luis Jacob VII - IDOSOS ON-LINE: NOVOS FORMATOS PARA ATENDER A DEMANDA FRENTE À PANDEMIA DA COVID-19 por Lilian ourem Batista Vieira Cliquet, Samila Sathler Tavares Batistoni, Gabrielly Soares de Souza, Mateus Barbosa de Araujo Lopes, Beatriz Alonso, Ana Luísa Brandão, Christa Becaro, Meire Cachioni VIII - NUNCA É TARDE PARA SER UM YOUTUBER: O IMPACTO DO USO DO YOUTUBE EM CIDADÃOS SENIORES E NA SOCIEDADE por Hugo Carvalho e João Carlos Dias dos Santos IX - OPEN INNOVATION IN SENIOR EDUCATION por Iveta Circule e Luis Jacob X - TRANSTORNO DO ESPECTRO DO AUTISMO (TEA) EM IDOSOS: BREVE HISTÓRIA PARA UMA LONGA DISCUSSÃO por Murilo Henrique de Souza Fernandes, Maria Eduarda Peixoto de Carvalho, Ana Lucia Costa e Silva, Aline Gomes de Oliveira, Kerolyn Ramos Garcia e Margô Gomes de Oliveira Karnikowski
Article
The goal of the present study is to describe the profile and role of professionals in charge of school coexistence in schools of Iquique and Alto Hospicio in the north of Chile. A cross-sectional study with a survey design was used, with the participation of 38 professionals from public, subsidized, and private schools. The main findings show that this activity is carried out mainly by teachers and psychologists, with a predominance of women; most of them have a school coexistence formation and are aware of the normative instruments associated to this role; they coordinate a school coexistence team and are part of the school management staff. There is a coincidence in their main responsibilities: they execute the management plan of school coexistence, send information to the Superintendence of Education, interview parents and supervise individual cases. However, they face different obstacles at work, such as: low family participation, resource management difficulties and lack of time. Furthermore, the participants provide suggestions to improve the job performance: be a member of the school management staff and have a work team with a full-time dedication to this task. The main contribution of this investigation is to provide a unique study about school coexistence professionals in the north of Chile, inclusive due to the diversity of professionals and school contexts, and that these results can help outline the profile of school coexistence professionals in future public policies in the formation of teachers and psychologists with school management roles.
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Thesis
SUMMARY The aim of this study was to explore the role conflict experiences of South African shop stewards and in the process develop a theoretical framework on the role conflict of shop stewards. The theoretical framework was based on the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model, which has never been used on shop stewards in South Africa. The study took a case study approach to explore an unknown ‘human experience’ phenomenon using an existing JD-R model. The study used both inductive and deductive approaches during the thematic qualitative data analysis of data collected from 20 NEHAWU and NUM shop stewards through interviews and observations. The study deductively derived five themes from a thorough literature review and validated them using a pilot study. However, from the five themes, namely reasons and motivations, challenges, effects, coping strategies and biographical differences, sub-themes emerged, and other sub-themes also inductively emerged, which was new information that was unknown to the researcher and not reported in existing literature. The reasons and motivations theme had three sub-themes, namely represent employees, hold employer to account and political background. These themes served as personal resources that buffer the effects of role conflict within the role played by shop stewards. The theme challenges had nine sub-themes, namely work–family conflict, role overload, interpersonal conflict, intrapersonal conflict, inter-union rivalry, career suicide, political differences, shop steward face-offs, and accidents and deaths. According to the JD-R model, these are the role demands that negatively influence shop stewards’ performance within the role. The theme effects yielded three sub-themes, namely physiological effects, emotional effects and psychological effects. These sub-themes covered all consequences of unmanaged challenges (job demands) that shop stewards experience. The theme coping strategies had six sub-themes, namely education, training and development; personal beliefs/ideology and union commitment; political connections, support (family, trade union, employer, shop stewards); social and relaxation activities; and soft skills. Education, training and development, political connections and social and relaxation activities sub-themes forms part of the problem-focused coping strategy whereby shop stewards eliminate the stress/challenges or role demands to minimize the effects, whereas personal beliefs/ideology and union commitment and support are emotion-focused coping strategies aimed at regulating the stress or not acknowledging the existence of the stress/challenge or role demand. Soft skills take the form of both emotion-focused and problem focused coping strategies. By acquiring soft skills, they eliminate the problem (stress) to cope better but the skills eliminate or minimize their anxiety levels and prepares them emotionally for the role. These were the mechanisms or job resources that shop stewards used or hoped will help them positively cope within the role. The theme biographical differences had predetermined sub-themes such as age, gender, sector (education vs. mining), type of shop steward by employment (full-time vs. part-time) and type of shop steward by representation (white-collar vs. blue-collar). The biographical differences revealed that older and male shop stewards coped better compared to younger and female shop stewards. Furthermore, the comparisons revealed similarities as well as differences between education and mining sector shop stewards, between full-time and part-time shop stewards and between white-collar and blue-collar shop stewards. Most of the findings (themes and sub-themes) were supported by existing international research studies, except the new information that emerged in the study. Based on the findings, a shop stewards role conflict experiences framework was developed as a contribution of the study and recommendations and conclusions were made.
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