83 Iraqi J. Aquacult. Vol.(9) No.(1)– 2012 : 83- 94
Some reproductive characters of the fantail
goldfish Carassius auratus auratus females from
rearing ponds in Basrah, Southern Iraq.
Salah M. Najim*, Raja A.A. Al-Mudhaffar, Furat K. Jassim
Department of Fisheries and Marine Resources, College of
Agriculture, Basrah, University, Basrah, Iraq.
This study was carried out to determine some
reproductive characteristics of the fantail goldfish Carassius
auratus auratus females (standard length 69-224 mm. and
total weight 21.1- 255.35 g.) from rearing ponds in Basrah
province, Southern Iraq. Standard length, total weight,
gonad weight, absolute fecundity, relative fecundity,
gonadosomatic index (GSI) and egg diameter were
determined from October 2010 to April 2011 in 77 fantail
Results showed that the studied reproductive parameters
increased gradually from October, to attain peak in March
and decreased again thereafter. Absolute fecundity ranged
between 2877- 357246 eggs, GSI 7.28-19.11 and egg diameter
298-1006 micron. Regression relationships between the
various studied morphometric and reproductive parameters
were calculated and the importance of these results to the
culturists of this commercially important ornamental fish
species was discussed.
Key words:Fantail goldfish, fecundity, Gonadosomatic index, egg
*Corresponding author: salahm63@Yahoo.com
The number of eggs found in fish ovary is named fecundity,
which represent the egg laying capacity of a fish or the number of
ripe eggs produced by a fish in one spawning season (Alam and
Pathak, 2010). It is an important aspect to estimate commercial
potential of fish stock, life history, fish farming and actual
Salah M. Najim et al. 84
management of the fishery (Chapman, 2000; Alam and Pathak,
Fecundity is species specific and varies from one species to
another (Manikandavelu et al., 2009). Considerable variation in the
fecundity of fish species depends upon the length, weight, age and
ecological conditions of the habitat including climatic factors of the
locality. In a single population, the fecundity may also fluctuate
considerably in relation to the availability of food in the natural and
captive environment (Nikolsky, 1963). Egg size is one of the
important parameters of egg and larval quality as it is positively
correlated with both survival of eggs and fries and growth rate of
larvae (Lo et al., 2009; Serezly et al., 2010).
Rearing of ornamental fish became a necessity not a luxury.
Ornamental fishes are assuming importance in recent days as stress
removers. Goldfish is standard ornamental fish enjoying constant
support among ornamental fish lovers (Fossa, 2004;
Manikandavelu et al., 2009). It is an exotic fish species belongs to
Family Cyprinidae, which first reared in china in 1000, introduced
into Europe in 1611 and America in 1876 AD. Of the cyprinids
cultured by man, goldfish remained most prominent and commonly
used as ornamental and kept as expendable pet. Over the centuries
goldfish has evolved into several varieties such as Ornada, Lion
head, comet, Veiltail, Black moor and fantail, to mention a few
(Smart, 2001; Balon, 2004; Ortega-Salas and Bustamente, 2006;
Lawson and Alake, 2011).
In addition to its aesthetical characteristics goldfish acquired
relatively recent interest as a biocontrol agent for mosquitoes in
shallow ponds and pools because of its strong larvivorous nature of
feeding (Chandra et al., 2008; Gupta and Banerjee, 2009).
Very little work has been done on the biology of this species
including reproduction, in southern Iraq mostly on the feral strain
(C. auratus gobelio) in natural waters (Saoud, 2006; Ali, 2008; Al-
Shami, 2008; Al-Noor, 2010). Therefore, this study is aiming at
assessing the fecundity, gonadosomatic index and egg size of the
ornamental goldfish Carassius auratus auratus females from
culture ponds in Basrah, southern Iraq.
85 Some reproductive characters of the fantail goldfish
Materials and methods
Seventy six fantail goldfish C. auratus auratus females were
collected from October 2010 to April 2011 from a private
ornamental fish farm located near Al-Saraji creek , about 4 km
southern Basrah city center ( 30◦28'18" N 47◦51'32" E). Fish farm
consisted of 7 small earthen ponds (6 x 4 x 1.5 m) lined with
polyethylene sheets and covered with protecting netting to avoid
the predatory birds. Ponds supplied with water through a branch of
Al-Sarraji creek that connected to Shatt Al- Arab River. Four of the
7 ponds were devoted to goldfish breeding and culture and the
others were used mainly for live bearing poecilid fishes (guppy,
molly and swordtail). Goldfish were administered two meals a day
(4-5 % of total weight of fish) of commercial feed (~ 30% crude
protein) with occasional complementary meals of live brine shrimp
Artemia salina and whole shrimp meal especially during periods of
availability, in addition to the natural food that penetrate with
Specimens brought to the laboratory at the department of
Fisheries and Marine Resources, College of Agriculture, University
of Basrah. Total weight (TW, g.) and the standard length (SL, mm.)
of fishes measured, fishes dissected and their ovaries removed and
The spawning period were estimated from the development of
gonads (using Gonado-Somatic Index; GSI) and variation in egg
diameters of samples (Lagler, 1966).
GSI calculated as follows:
GSI % = (GW / TW) x 100;
Where GW and TW are gonad weight and total weight of fish in
grams, respectively (Lagler, 1966; Bagenal, 1978).
Absolute fecundity, AF, studied by the gravimetric method
(Bagenal, 1978) as follows; subsamples of fresh eggs of 1 or 2 g
according to the size of the eggs were taken from the front, middle
and back parts of the ovaries. Eggs from each subsample were
separated and counted. The number of the sub-samples multiplied
up to the weight of the ovary. Relative fecundity (RF) obtained from
RF = AF / TW
The diameters of various eggs size from 3 different parts of each
ovary were measured with object micrometer. Because eggs are not
perfectly circular in their shape, several diameters were measured
Salah M. Najim et al. 86
for each single egg and average calculated. Sexual maturity was
checked macroscopically according to the presence of “yoked eggs”
in the gonads which characterized by increasing of yolk vesicles
which fill the entire cytoplasm except beneath the chorion. The
nuclear envelope begins to degenerate and the nucleus migrates
peripherally at the final maturation stage (Nikolsky, 1963).
In addition, statistical relationships between standard length
(SL), body weight (TW), gonad weight (GW), absolute fecundity
(AF), relative fecundity (RF) and egg diameter (Ed) calculated using
the formula (Nikolsky, 1969):
Y= a X b
Correlation coefficients calculated for the above relationships
also. Statistical analyses performed using Microsoft Excel 2003.
The results of the present study indicate a gradual and steady
increase in GSI values from October (7.28) onward until it reach its
peak (19.11) during March and declined in April (Figure 1).
Figure 1. Monthly variations in gonadosomatic index, GSI (± S.D.)
of fantail goldfish Carassius auratus auratus females during the
OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR
87 Some reproductive characters of the fantail goldfish
This demonstrates clearly that March represents the beginning of
the spawning season of this species in ponds in Basrah.
Lowest and highest fecundity values recorded in fish of average
standard length 69 ± 3.3 and 224 ± 6.1 mm. and average weight of
21.1 ± 1.8 and 255.38 ± 10.9 g., respectively (Table 1). A significant
positive relationship was noticed between gonad weight and
fecundity(r =0.996, table 2). Relative fecundity followed the same
trend as the absolute fecundity and increased steadily with gonad
Table 1. Some morphometric and reproductive parameters of fantail
goldfish Carassius auratus auratus females.
SL: Fish standard length, mm; TW: Fish total weight, gm: GW:
Gonad weight, gm.; GSI: Gonadosomatic index, %; AF: Absolute
fecundity; RF; Relative fecundity, Ed: Egg diameter, micron.
Salah M. Najim et al. 88
weight and absolute fecundity. This seems reasonable because of
the strong correlation between the relative fecundity and the last
two variables (r = 0.958 and 0.962, respectively; table 2).
Egg sizes in females of C. auratus auratus that tested in the current
work were averaged in diameter between 298-1006 μ (Table 3).
Egg diameters increased steadily from October to March then
In the current study, the power formula was the best
representative of these relationships because it offers better fit of
data (Table 2). Correlation coefficient values were also very high
and significant for all these relationships, which could be evidence
Table 2. The statistical relationships between various morphometric
and reproductive parameters of fantail goldfish Carassius
auratus auratus females.
of 'r' at 5%
and 1% levels
SL: Fish standard length, mm; TW: Fish total weight, gm; GW: Gonad
weight, gm; AF: Absolute fecundity; RF; Relative fecundity, Ed: Egg
89 Some reproductive characters of the fantail goldfish
Table 3. Average egg diameters (micron) in fantail goldfish
Carassius auratus auratus females during the study
on the suitability of this kind of formulae. The strongest calculated
correlation coefficient (r = 0.996) was between absolute fecundity
(AF) and gonad weight (GW) and the weakest one (r = 0.884) was
between absolute fecundity (AF) and standard length (SL), although
they all were highly significant in the statistical analysis (P<0.01).
Spawning of goldfish could be accomplished throughout the year
by stocking the breeders under controlled temperature and
photoperiod conditions (Gillet et al., 1978; Kestemont et al., 1991).
Gonadosomatic index, GSI, used to represent the development of
fish gonads relative to the total body and changes in GSI values are
ascribe generally to the variations in gonad weight during the
course of its seasonal development (Bagenal, 1978). The GSI is
widely used by the biologists to indicate the maturity and
periodicity of spawning and predicting the breeding season of the
fish (Alam and Pathak, 2010). The results demonstrated in figure
(1) about variation of GSI values during study months are
compatible with those reported by other authors (Ortega-Salas and
Bustamente, 2006; Sasi, 2008; Alam and Pathak, 2010; Al-Noor,
Variation in the fecundity among fishes of the same and different
species is very common (Nikolsky, 1963). This could be governed by
various factors such as size, age and condition of the fish (Ortega-
Salas and Bustamente, 2006). It also depends upon the availability
of space and food for fish in addition to many other physical and
Salah M. Najim et al. 90
chemical characteristics of the aquatic environment (Nikolsky,
1969). This agrees with results of the present study about absolute
and relative fecundity (Table 1) and their relationship with gonad
weight (Table 2). Al-Shami (2008) and Al-Noor (2010) obtained
relatively higher values of fecundity for the crucian carp C. auratus
from Garmat Ali River and Al-Hammar marsh, northern Basrah,
respectively. Also, Ortega-Salas and Bustamente (2006) recorded
lower fecundities during the course of their study on the initial
sexual maturity and fecundity of the goldfish Carassius auratus
under semicontrolled conditions This could reflect the different
reproductive strategies between fishes of the same as well as
different species under natural and culture environments.
Investigations have shown that fecundity increased as fish length,
weight, age and gonad weight increased (Ortega-Salas and
Bustamente, 2006; Al- Shami, 2008; Sasi, 2008; Alam and Pathak,
2010; Al-Noor, 2010). Fecundity is affected by age, size, species,
feeding of fish, season and environmental conditions. It is also
different between stocks of the same species and does not remain
constant from year to year (Nikolsky, 1969; Bone and Moore,
One of the most important parameters used to determinate the
reproductive potential of fish is the variation of egg diameter in fish
ovaries. Egg diameter may be related to the amount of food that
females can metabolize (Nikolsky, 1963). Fish egg size may be
governed by multiple genetic, physiological and nutritional factors.
The larger egg size could result in better survival of larvae and fries,
which are the most critical stages in fish life history, and this
eventually, may be reflects on the success of the complete
reproductive process (Blaxter, 1988; Smart, 2001; Bone and Moore,
2008; Lo et al., 2009). The figures presented in table (3) about egg
diameters that obtained in the current study agree and compare
positively with those recorded in other cyprinids and fish species
(Al-Shami, 2008; Sasi, 2008; Al-Noor, 2010). The larger egg sizes
that encountered in the current study may be related to the superior
care and nutrition of fish in culture ponds in comparison with fish
that live in natural environments. This could reflect favorably on
many reproductive parameters including egg size (Kestemont et al.,
1991; Halver and hardy, 2002; Kinsey et al., 2007; Serezli et al.,
91 Some reproductive characters of the fantail goldfish
Statistical relationships of fish reproductive parameters are so
important for understanding the general and seasonal trends of
these parameters. It also could explain many phenomena that
would be otherwise hardly understood which may be crucial for
assessment and management of fish populations in nature and
captivity (Cochrane, 2009). Fish length and weight are normally
related to the various reproductive parameters like fecundity, GSI
and egg size. Workers suggest many formulae to describe these
relationships, namely logarithmic, exponential, and linear among
others (Nikolsky, 1969, Bagenal, 1978, Sasi, 2008). The results of
the present study, as shown in table 2, about the statistical
relationships between the different measured parameters coincides
well with several previous works on goldfish and other cyprinid
species under culture and natural conditions (Ortega-Salas and
Bustamente, 2006; Al- Shami, 2008; Sasi, 2008; Alam and Pathak,
2010; Al-Noor, 2010).
In conclusion, results indicate clearly that larger fish (~ 200 mm.
SL) are better spawners in term of fecundity and fish size. Culturists
have to give ultimate care to their fish broodstocks especially the
nutritional aspects to insure the better conditions for growth and
development. They also have to decrease physiological and
environmental stress as well as avoiding health problems to provide
safe and supportive medium for reproduction. Larger spawners give
better results in productivity of fish population due to their heavier
gonads that produce more eggs per fish (Ortega-Salas and
Bustamente, 2006). The higher rate of larval survival could
participate substantially in the success of reproduction process (Lo
et al., 2009). Therefore, it is recommended to use larger females of
this variety (i.e. fantail) in breeding activities rather than smaller
ones with the continuous monitoring of fish maturity especially
during peak months of February and March.
Alam, M. and Pathak, J.K. (2010). Assessment of fecundity and
gonadosomatic index of commercially important fish Labeo
rohita from Ramganga river. Int. J. Pharma. Biosci. 1(3):1-6.
Ali, A.H. (2008). Determination of some morphological criteria of
crussian carp Carassius auratus gobelio communities and
Salah M. Najim et al. 92
goldfish Carassius auratus auratus in three water bodies in
Basrah province. Basrah J. Agric. Sci. 21 (1):107-122.
Al-Noor, S.S. (2010). Population status of gold fish Carassius
auratus in restored east Hammar Marsh, southern Iraq.
JKAU Mar. Sci. 21(1): 65-83.
Al-Shami, I.J. (2008) Fecundity of Carassius auratus (Linnaeus,
1758) and histological description for its ripe ovaries in
Garmat Ali River. Basrah J. Agric. Sci. 21(2): 156-166.
Bagenal, T. (1978). Methods for Assessment of Fish Production in
Freshwaters. Blackwell Scientific Publications, IBP.
Handbook No: 3, London: 75-102.
Balon E.K. (2004). About the oldest domestics among fishes. J. Fish
Biol. 65 (Supplement A): 1–27.
Blaxter, J.H.S. (1988). Pattern and Variety in Development. In:
W.S. Hoar and D.J. Randall (Eds.) Fish Physiology. Vol. XI.
The Physiology of Developing Fish. Part A. Eggs and Larvae.
Academic Press Inc. London, U.K. Pp. 1-58.
Bone, Q. and Moore, R.H. (2008). Biology of Fishes (3rd Ed.) Taylor
& Francis Group Pub., Milton Park, Abingdon, U.K. 478 p.
Chandra, G.; Bhattacharjee, I.; Chatterjee, S.N. and Ghosh,
A.(2008). Mosquito control by larvivorous fish. Indian J.
Med. Res.127: 13-27.
Chapman, F.A. (2000). Ornamental fish culture freshwater. In:
Stickney, R.R. (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Aquaculture. John
Wiley and Sons Inc., New York, p. 1063.
Cochrane, K.L. (2009). Current Paradigms and Forms of Advice. In:
Tore Jakobsen, Michael J. Fogarty, Bernard A. Megrey and
Erlend Moksness (Eds.) Fish Reproductive Biology
:Implications for assessment and management. Blackwell
Publishing Ltd. Oxford, U.K. Pp. 335-354.
Fossa, S.A. (2004). Man made fish: Domesticated fishes and their
place in aquatic trade and hobby. Ornamental Fish Internat.
J. 44: 1-16.
Gillet, C., Breton, B. and Billard, R. (1978). Seasonal effects of
exposure to temperature and photoperiod regimes on gonad
growth and plasmagonadotropin in goldfish (Carussius
aurutus). Ann. Biol. Anim. Bioch. Biophys., 18: 1045-1049.
Gupta, S. and Banerjee, S. (2009). Food preference of Goldfish
(Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758)) and its potential in
mosquito control. Electronic J. Ichthyol. 2: 47 – 58.
93 Some reproductive characters of the fantail goldfish
Halver, J.E. and Hardy, R.W. (2002). Fish nutrition. Academic
Press Inc. London, U.K. 824 p.
Kestemont, P., Melard, C., Poncin, P., De Backer, L., Micha, J.C.
and Philippart, J.C. (1991). Controlled breeding and
intensive larval rearing of freshwater cyprinids at a pilot
scale of production. In: N. De Pauw and J. Joyce (Edr.),
Aquaculture and the Environment. European Aquaculture
Society, Special Publication 14, Bredene, Belgium, 214 pp.
Lagler, K.F. (1966). Freshwater Fishery Biology. W.M.C. Brown
Company, Iowa, 421 pp.
Lawson, E.O. and Alake, S.A. (2011). Salinity adaptability and
tolerance of hatchery reared comet goldfish Carassius
auratus (Linnaeus 1758). Int. J. Zool. Res. 7(1): 68-76.
Lo, N.C.H.; Smith, P.E. and Takahashi, M. (2009). Egg, Larval and
Juvenile Surveys. In: Tore Jakobsen, Michael J. Fogarty,
Bernard A. Megrey and Erlend Moksness (Eds.) Fish
Reproductive Biology: Implications for assessment and
management. Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Oxford, U.K. Pp.
Lyman-Gingerich, J. and Pelegri, F. (2007). Maternal factors in fish
oogenesis and embryonic Development. In: Patrick J. Babin,
Joan Cerdà and Esther Lubzens (Eds.) The Fish Oocyte From
Basic Studies to Biotechnological Applications. Springer
Pub., Dordrecht, The Netherlands. Pp. 141-174.
Manikandavelu, D.; Raveneswaran, K. and T. Sivakumar (2009).
Breeding of Koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) and gold fish
(Carassius auratus) using Synchromate B.(GnRh regulator).
Tamilnadu J. Veter. Animal Sci. 5 (6) 225-227.
Nikolsky, G.V. (1963). The ecology of fishes. Academic Press,
London, England. 352 pp.
Nikolsky, G.V. (1969). Theory of Fish Population Dynamics. Otto
Science Publishers, Koenigstein, 317 pp.
Ortega-Salas, A.A. and Bustamente, H.R. (2006). Initial sexual
maturity and fecundity of the goldfish Carassius auratus
(Perciformes: Cyprynidae) under semicontrolled conditions.
Int. J. Trop. Biol., 54 (4): 1113-1116.
Saoud, H.A. (2006). Study of feeding habits of the crucian carp
Carassius auratus L. in marshes of southern Iraq. Basrah J.
Agric. Sci. 19 (1): 141-155.
Sasi, H. (2008). The Length and Weight Relations of Some
Reproduction Characteristics of Prussian carp, Carassius
94 دﻠﺟﻣﻟا ﻲﺋﺎﻣﻟا عارزﺗﺳﻸﻟ ﺔﯾﻗارﻌﻟا ﺔﻠﺟﻣﻟا)9 ( ددﻌﻟا)1(–2012:83
gibelio (Bloch, 1782) in the South Aegean Region (Aydın-
Turkey). Turkish J. Fish. Aquatic Sci. 8: 87-92.
Serezli, R. ; Guzel, S. and Kocabas, M. (2010). Fecundity and egg
size of three salmonis species ( Onchorhynchus mykiss ,
Salmo Labrax , Salvelinus fontinalis) cultured at the same
farm condition in North-Eastern Turkey. J. animal Veterin.
Adv. 9(3): 576-580.
Smartt, J. (2001). Goldfish varieties and genetics. Fishing News
Books. A division of Blackwell Science Ltd. Oxford. U.K.
ﻞﯾﺬﻟا ﻲﺣوﺮﻣ ﻲﺒھﺬﻟا ﻚﻤﺴﻟا ثﺎﻧﻹ ﺔﯾﺮﺛﺎﻜﺘﻟا ﺺﺋﺎﺼﺨﻟا ﺾﻌﺑ
Carassius auratus auratusةﺮﺼﺒﻟا ﻲﻓ رﺎﺜﻛﻹا كﺮﺑ ﻦﻣ
ﻢﺳﺎﺟ ﻢﺳﺎﻗ تاﺮﻓ و ﺮﻔﻈﻤﻟا ﻲﻠﻋ ﺪﺒﻋ ءﺎﺟر و ﻢﺠﻧ يﺪﮭﻣ حﻼﺻ
قاﺮﻌﻟا ،ةﺮﺼﺒﻟا ،ةﺮﺼﺒﻟا ﺔﻌﻣﺎﺟ ،ﺔﻋارﺰﻟا ﺔﯿﻠﻛ ،ﺔﯾﺮﺤﺒﻟا ةوﺮﺜﻟاو كﺎﻤﺳﻷا ﻢﺴﻗ
ﻲــﺣورﻣ ﻲﺑﻫذــﻟا كﻣﺳــﻟا ثﺎــﻧﻹ ﺔــﯾرﺛﺎﻛﺗﻟا صﺋﺎﺻــﺧﻟا ضــﻌﺑ دــﯾدﺣﺗﻟ ﺔــﺳاردﻟا تــﯾرﺟأ
لﯾذـﻟاCarassius auratus auratus ) ﻲـﺳﺎﯾﻗ لوـطﺑ69
224 نزوو مـﻠﻣ
255.35 (ةرﺻــﺑﻟا ﻲــﻓ رﺎــﺛﻛﻹا كرــﺑ ضــﻌﺑ نــﻣ . ﻲــﺳﺎﯾﻘﻟا لوــطﻟا ددــﺣ
)مــﻠﻣ ( كﺎﻣــﺳﻸﻟ ﻲــﻠﻛﻟا نزوــﻟاو)مــﻏ ( لــﺳﺎﻧﻣﻟا نزوو)مــﻏ (ﺑوﺻــﺧﻟاو ﺔــﻘﻠطﻣﻟا ﺔ)ﺔﺿــﯾﺑ (
ﺔﯾﺑﺳــﻧﻟاو)ﺔﺿــﯾﺑ/مــﻏ (ﺔﯾﻠﺳــﻧﻣﻟا ﺔــﻟادﻟاوGSIضﯾــﺑﻟا رﺎــطﻗأو )نورــﻛﯾﻣ ( ةرــﺗﻔﻟا لﻼــﺧ
لوﻷا نﯾرﺷﺗ نﯾﺑ)رﺑوﺗﻛأ (2010 نﺎﺳﯾﻧ و)لﯾرﺑأ (2011 ﻲﻓ77ﻰﺛﻧأ.
نﯾرﺷــﺗ نــﻣ ﺎﯾﺟﯾردــﺗ تــﻌﻔﺗرا دــﻗ ﺔــﺳوردﻣﻟا ﺔــﯾرﺛﺎﻛﺗﻟا صﺋﺎﺻــﺧﻟا نإ ﺞﺋﺎــﺗﻧﻟا ترــﻬظأ
ﻲﻧﺎــﺛﻟا)رﺑوــﺗﻛأ (مﯾــﻗ تــﻐﻠﺑو راذآ لﻼــﺧ ةورذــﻟا)سرﺎــﻣ (كــﻟذ دــﻌﺑ تﺿــﻔﺧﻧا مــﺛ . دــﻗو
نﯾــــﺑ ﺔــــﻘﻠطﻣﻟا ﺔﺑوﺻــــﺧﻟا تــــﺣوارﺗ2877
357246 نﯾــــﺑ ﺔﯾﻠﺳــــﻧﻣﻟا ﺔــــﻟادﻟاو ﺔﺿــــﯾﺑ
19.11 نﯾـــﺑ ﺔﺿـــﯾﺑﻟا رـــطﻗو298
1006نورـــﻛﯾﻣ . تﺎـــﻗﻼﻋ تﺑﺳـــﺣ ﺎـــﻣﻛ
ﺔـــﺳوردﻣﻟا ﺔـــﯾرﺛﺎﻛﺗﻟاو ﺔـــﯾرﻬظﻣﻟا تﺎﻔﺻـــﻟا فـــﻠﺗﺧﻣ نﯾـــﺑ ﺔﯾﺋﺎﺻـــﺣﻹا ﻲـــطﺧﻟا رادـــﺣﻧﻻا
ا ﻩذــــﻫ نوــــﻛﺗﻟ دودرــــﻣﻟا يذ ﺔــــﻧﯾزﻟا كﺎﻣــــﺳأ نــــﻣ عوــــﻧﻟا اذــــﻫ ﻲــــﺑرﻣ لوﺎــــﻧﺗﻣ ﻲــــﻓ ﺞﺋﺎــــﺗﻧﻟ