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Supplement: Global Burden of Disease Cancer Collaboration. Global, regional, and national cancer incidence, mortality, years of life lost, years lived with disability, and disability-adjusted life years for 32 cancer groups, 1990 to 2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. JAMA Oncology. Published online December 1, 2016. doi:10.1001/jamaoncol.2016.5688

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Purpose To identify and review the nature, scope and use of web-based interventions for patients with head and neck cancer (HNC). Method A scoping review guided by the methodological framework described by the Joanna Briggs Institute was performed to review empirical studies and websites. Seven electronic databases (CINAHL, Medline, Scopus, Embase, Cochrane, PubMed and PsycInfo) were searched from 2010 to 2020, data extracted and synthesised using thematic analysis. The Google search engine was employed, identifying the first 100 websites, using the search term head and neck cancer. Websites meeting eligibility criteria were assessed using the QUEST analysis tool, and descriptively summarised. Results Thirteen empirical studies and 32 websites were included. As identified by empirical studies, web-based interventions were developed to provide (1) patient information on HNC and related treatments, (2) advice and support during treatment and (3) management strategies promoting adjustment to life with and beyond HNC. The reviewed websites provided minimal information to aid shared decision-making and facilitate preparedness for treatment, with few utilising patient narratives. Web-based interventions for HNC patients were mainly text based and focused on survivorship. Conclusions There is a paucity of theory-based, co-designed web-based interventions using patient narratives. Implications for Cancer Survivors As patients increasingly look to the internet for advice and support, healthcare professionals are in a position to provide high-quality web-based interventions. There is an opportunity to rigorously develop a web-based intervention, containing narratives of peoples’ lives before and after HNC treatment, aiding decision-making, preparedness for treatment and self-management.
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PurposeHealthy lifestyle (HL) behaviors and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) have been individually shown to improve adverse effects of cancer treatment. Little is known about how such programs in tandem affect health-related outcomes. This review evaluates extant literature on tandem CBT/HL interventions on health-related outcomes in cancer survivors.MethodsA comprehensive search of PubMed, PsychINFO, CINAHL, and Embase databases revealed numerous studies involving CBT and HL tandem interventions in cancer survivors in the last 20 years. Studies meeting the inclusion criteria were examined and assessed by the authors.ResultsThe 36 studies included 5199 participants. Interventions involved the use of CBT in combination with a HL condition (stress reduction, increasing physical activity, etc.). These tandem conditions were compared against no intervention, usual care, and/or CBT alone or HL alone. Interventions were delivered by a variety of interventionists, and over different durations. The most common HL target outcomes were stress, and insomnia. Most studies (31 of 36) reported a reduction in adverse treatment and/or cancer-related effects.Conclusion Findings were biased with the overrepresentation of breast cancer survivors, and underrepresentation of minority groups, and those with advanced cancer. Thus, this review highlights the need for further research to test tandem interventions against CBT alone and HL alone, and toward identifying the most efficacious interventions for dissemination and implementation across diverse groups of cancer survivors.Implications for cancer survivorsTandem CBT/HL interventions can improve health-related outcomes for cancer survivors when compared to usual care, but there is a paucity of knowledge to suggest differential outcomes when compared to CBT or HL alone.
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Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most frequent cancer in men. The prognosis of PCa is heterogeneous with many clinically indolent tumors and rare highly aggressive cases. Reliable tissue markers of prognosis are lacking. Active cholesteryl ester synthesis has been associated with prostate cancer aggressiveness. Sterol-O-Acyl transferases (SOAT) 1 and 2 catalyze cholesterol esterification in humans. To investigate the value of SOAT1 and SOAT2 tissue expression as prognostic markers in high risk PCa. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 305 high risk PCa cases treated with radical prostatectomy were analyzed for SOAT1 and SOAT2 protein expression by semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry. The Kaplan–Meier method and Cox proportional hazards modeling were used to compare outcome. Biochemical recurrence (BCR) free survival. SOAT1 expression was high in 73 (25%) and low in 219 (75%; not evaluable: 13) tumors. SOAT2 was highly expressed in 40 (14%) and at low levels in 249 (86%) samples (not evaluable: 16). By Kaplan–Meier analysis, we found significantly shorter median BCR free survival of 93 months (95% confidence interval 23.6–123.1) in patients with high SOAT1 vs. 134 months (112.6–220.2, Log-rank p < 0.001) with low SOAT1. SOAT2 expression was not significantly associated with BCR. After adjustment for age, preoperative PSA, tumor stage, Gleason score, resection status, lymph node involvement and year of surgery, high SOAT1 but not SOAT2 expression was associated with shorter BCR free survival with a hazard ratio of 2.40 (95% CI 1.57–3.68, p < 0.001). Time to clinical recurrence and overall survival were not significantly associated with SOAT1 and SOAT2 expression SOAT1 expression is strongly associated with BCR free survival alone and after multivariable adjustment in high risk PCa. SOAT1 may serve as a histologic marker of prognosis and holds promise as a future treatment target.
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Background In recent years, oncolytic viruses (OVs) have drawn attention as a novel therapy to various types of cancers, both in clinical and preclinical cancer studies all around the world. Consequently, researchers have been actively working on enhancing cancer therapy since the early twentieth century. This study presents a systematic review of the literature on OVs, discusses underlying research clusters and, presents future directions of OVs research. Methods A total of 1626 published articles related to OVs as cancer therapy were obtained from the Web of Science (WoS) database published between January 2000 and March 2020. Various aspects of OVs research, including the countries/territories, institutions, journals, authors, citations, research areas, and content analysis to find trending and emerging topics, were analysed using the bibliometrix package in the R-software. Results In terms of the number of publications, the USA based researchers were the most productive (n = 611) followed by Chinese (n = 197), and Canadian (n = 153) researchers. The Molecular Therapy journal ranked first both in terms of the number of publications (n = 133) and local citations (n = 1384). The most prominent institution was Mayo Clinic from the USA (n = 117) followed by the University of Ottawa from Canada (n = 72), and the University of Helsinki from Finland (n = 63). The most impactful author was Bell J.C with the highest number of articles (n = 67) and total local citations (n = 885). The most impactful article was published in the Cell journal. In addition, the latest OVs research mainly builds on four research clusters. Conclusion The domain of OVs research has increased at a rapid rate from 2000 to 2020. Based on the synthesis of reviewed studies, adenovirus, herpes simplex virus, reovirus, and Newcastle disease virus have shown potent anti-cancer activity. Developed countries such as the USA, Canada, the UK, and Finland were the most productive, hence, contributed most to this field. Further collaboration will help improve the clinical research translation of this therapy and bring benefits to cancer patients worldwide.
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Cancer is an unsolved clinical problem and a challenge for the current medical science given the limitations of conventional therapies. Systemic therapy presents serious drawbacks and to overcome them, several strategies using delivery systems are being developed such as bionanocomposites. This system is stable in biological fluids and is a promising approach to provide controlled release of therapeutics for in situ therapy of tumors, decreasing side effects. Thus, to successfully develop bionanocomposites it is crucial to choose the right components of the system and to study interactions between polymers and drugs with multiscale computational methods. In this chapter, our main interest will be on bionanocomposites for in situ drug delivery, their efficacy and impact on cancer therapy, and how to select the right polymer and how to study polymeric-drug interactions, in silico.
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Estimation of the number and rate of deaths by age and sex is a key first stage for calculation of the burden of disease in order to constrain estimates of cause-specific mortality and to measure premature mortality in populations. We aimed to estimate life tables and annual numbers of deaths for 187 countries from 1970 to 2010. We estimated trends in under-5 mortality rate (children aged 0-4 years) and probability of adult death (15-59 years) for each country with all available data. Death registration data were available for more than 100 countries and we corrected for undercount with improved death distribution methods. We applied refined methods to survey data on sibling survival that correct for survivor, zero-sibling, and recall bias. We separately estimated mortality from natural disasters and wars. We generated final estimates of under-5 mortality and adult mortality from the data with Gaussian process regression. We used these results as input parameters in a relational model life table system. We developed a model to extrapolate mortality to 110 years of age. All death rates and numbers have been estimated with 95% uncertainty intervals (95% UIs). From 1970 to 2010, global male life expectancy at birth increased from 56·4 years (95% UI 55·5-57·2) to 67·5 years (66·9-68·1) and global female life expectancy at birth increased from 61·2 years (60·2-62·0) to 73·3 years (72·8-73·8). Life expectancy at birth rose by 3-4 years every decade from 1970, apart from during the 1990s (increase in male life expectancy of 1·4 years and in female life expectancy of 1·6 years). Substantial reductions in mortality occurred in eastern and southern sub-Saharan Africa since 2004, coinciding with increased coverage of antiretroviral therapy and preventive measures against malaria. Sex-specific changes in life expectancy from 1970 to 2010 ranged from gains of 23-29 years in the Maldives and Bhutan to declines of 1-7 years in Belarus, Lesotho, Ukraine, and Zimbabwe. Globally, 52·8 million (95% UI 51·6-54·1 million) deaths occurred in 2010, which is about 13·5% more than occurred in 1990 (46·5 million [45·7-47·4 million]), and 21·9% more than occurred in 1970 (43·3 million [42·2-44·6 million]). Proportionally more deaths in 2010 occurred at age 70 years and older (42·8% in 2010 vs 33·1% in 1990), and 22·9% occurred at 80 years or older. Deaths in children younger than 5 years declined by almost 60% since 1970 (16·4 million [16·1-16·7 million] in 1970 vs 6·8 million [6·6-7·1 million] in 2010), especially at ages 1-59 months (10·8 million [10·4-11·1 million] in 1970 vs 4·0 million [3·8-4·2 million] in 2010). In all regions, including those most affected by HIV/AIDS, we noted increases in mean ages at death. Despite global and regional health crises, global life expectancy has increased continuously and substantially in the past 40 years. Yet substantial heterogeneity exists across age groups, among countries, and over different decades. 179 of 187 countries have had increases in life expectancy after the slowdown in progress in the 1990s. Efforts should be directed to reduce mortality in low-income and middle-income countries. Potential underestimation of achievement of the Millennium Development Goal 4 might result from limitations of demographic data on child mortality for the most recent time period. Improvement of civil registration system worldwide is crucial for better tracking of global mortality. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.