Supplement: Global Burden of Disease Cancer Collaboration. Global, regional, and national cancer incidence, mortality, years of life lost, years lived with disability, and disability-adjusted life years for 32 cancer groups, 1990 to 2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. JAMA Oncology. Published online December 1, 2016. doi:10.1001/jamaoncol.2016.5688
To identify and review the nature, scope and use of web-based interventions for patients with head and neck cancer (HNC).
A scoping review guided by the methodological framework described by the Joanna Briggs Institute was performed to review empirical studies and websites. Seven electronic databases (CINAHL, Medline, Scopus, Embase, Cochrane, PubMed and PsycInfo) were searched from 2010 to 2020, data extracted and synthesised using thematic analysis. The Google search engine was employed, identifying the first 100 websites, using the search term head and neck cancer. Websites meeting eligibility criteria were assessed using the QUEST analysis tool, and descriptively summarised.
Thirteen empirical studies and 32 websites were included. As identified by empirical studies, web-based interventions were developed to provide (1) patient information on HNC and related treatments, (2) advice and support during treatment and (3) management strategies promoting adjustment to life with and beyond HNC. The reviewed websites provided minimal information to aid shared decision-making and facilitate preparedness for treatment, with few utilising patient narratives. Web-based interventions for HNC patients were mainly text based and focused on survivorship.
There is a paucity of theory-based, co-designed web-based interventions using patient narratives.
Implications for Cancer Survivors
As patients increasingly look to the internet for advice and support, healthcare professionals are in a position to provide high-quality web-based interventions. There is an opportunity to rigorously develop a web-based intervention, containing narratives of peoples’ lives before and after HNC treatment, aiding decision-making, preparedness for treatment and self-management.
Cancer represents an important cause of disease-related death in children worldwide. Improved treatment and understanding of the ways in which cancer manifests has allowed for a greater prospect of survival in children of all ages. However, variation in childhood cancer experience exists based on factors at the individual, community and systems levels. Throughout the cancer care continuum these factors may influence the access and timeliness of care a child receives, leading to delays in diagnosis and treatment. The pejorative designation ‘delay in diagnosis and treatment’ is better characterised as lag time, representing an interval that is thought to influence survival and overall outcome. In recent decades, work has been done to expedite early childhood cancer diagnosis through the creation of screening and education-based programmes. Although systematic cancer screening in children poses risks and fails to achieve the goal of early diagnosis, a case has been made for risk-based surveillance that has been shown to improve outcome and reduce occurrence of advanced stage disease in targeted populations. The components of lag time are examined separately and individually. This review highlights the challenges of early diagnosis in childhood cancers and describes important contributors in the cancer care continuum.
PurposeHealthy lifestyle (HL) behaviors and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) have been individually shown to improve adverse effects of cancer treatment. Little is known about how such programs in tandem affect health-related outcomes. This review evaluates extant literature on tandem CBT/HL interventions on health-related outcomes in cancer survivors.MethodsA comprehensive search of PubMed, PsychINFO, CINAHL, and Embase databases revealed numerous studies involving CBT and HL tandem interventions in cancer survivors in the last 20 years. Studies meeting the inclusion criteria were examined and assessed by the authors.ResultsThe 36 studies included 5199 participants. Interventions involved the use of CBT in combination with a HL condition (stress reduction, increasing physical activity, etc.). These tandem conditions were compared against no intervention, usual care, and/or CBT alone or HL alone. Interventions were delivered by a variety of interventionists, and over different durations. The most common HL target outcomes were stress, and insomnia. Most studies (31 of 36) reported a reduction in adverse treatment and/or cancer-related effects.Conclusion
Findings were biased with the overrepresentation of breast cancer survivors, and underrepresentation of minority groups, and those with advanced cancer. Thus, this review highlights the need for further research to test tandem interventions against CBT alone and HL alone, and toward identifying the most efficacious interventions for dissemination and implementation across diverse groups of cancer survivors.Implications for cancer survivorsTandem CBT/HL interventions can improve health-related outcomes for cancer survivors when compared to usual care, but there is a paucity of knowledge to suggest differential outcomes when compared to CBT or HL alone.
N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most prevalent RNA epigenetic regulator in cancer. However, the understanding of m6A modification on lipid metabolism regulation in colorectal cancer (CRC) is very limited. Here, we observed that human CRCs exhibited increased m6A mRNA methylation mediated by dysregulation of m6A erasers and readers. By performing methylated RNA-immunoprecipitation sequencing (MeRIP-seq) and transcriptomic sequencing (RNA-seq), we identified DEGS2 as a downstream target of m6A dysregulation. Overexpression or knockdown of DEGS2 confirmed the role of DEGS2 in proliferation, invasion and metastasis of CRC both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistic studies identified the specific m6A modification site within DEGS2 mRNA, and mutation of this target site was found to drastically enhance the proliferative and invasive ability of CRC cells in vitro and promote tumorigenicity in vivo. Lipidome analysis showed that lipid metabolism was dysregulated in CRC. Moreover, ceramide synthesis was suppressed due to DEGS2 upregulation mediated by m6A modification in CRC tissues. Our findings highlight that the function of DEGS2 m6A methylation in CRC and extend the understanding of the importance of RNA epigenetics in cancer biology.
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most frequent cancer in men. The prognosis of PCa is heterogeneous with many clinically indolent tumors and rare highly aggressive cases. Reliable tissue markers of prognosis are lacking. Active cholesteryl ester synthesis has been associated with prostate cancer aggressiveness. Sterol-O-Acyl transferases (SOAT) 1 and 2 catalyze cholesterol esterification in humans.
To investigate the value of SOAT1 and SOAT2 tissue expression as prognostic markers in high risk PCa.
Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 305 high risk PCa cases treated with radical prostatectomy were analyzed for SOAT1 and SOAT2 protein expression by semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry. The Kaplan–Meier method and Cox proportional hazards modeling were used to compare outcome.
Biochemical recurrence (BCR) free survival.
SOAT1 expression was high in 73 (25%) and low in 219 (75%; not evaluable: 13) tumors. SOAT2 was highly expressed in 40 (14%) and at low levels in 249 (86%) samples (not evaluable: 16). By Kaplan–Meier analysis, we found significantly shorter median BCR free survival of 93 months (95% confidence interval 23.6–123.1) in patients with high SOAT1 vs. 134 months (112.6–220.2, Log-rank p < 0.001) with low SOAT1. SOAT2 expression was not significantly associated with BCR. After adjustment for age, preoperative PSA, tumor stage, Gleason score, resection status, lymph node involvement and year of surgery, high SOAT1 but not SOAT2 expression was associated with shorter BCR free survival with a hazard ratio of 2.40 (95% CI 1.57–3.68, p < 0.001). Time to clinical recurrence and overall survival were not significantly associated with SOAT1 and SOAT2 expression
SOAT1 expression is strongly associated with BCR free survival alone and after multivariable adjustment in high risk PCa. SOAT1 may serve as a histologic marker of prognosis and holds promise as a future treatment target.
In recent years, oncolytic viruses (OVs) have drawn attention as a novel therapy to various types of cancers, both in clinical and preclinical cancer studies all around the world. Consequently, researchers have been actively working on enhancing cancer therapy since the early twentieth century. This study presents a systematic review of the literature on OVs, discusses underlying research clusters and, presents future directions of OVs research.
A total of 1626 published articles related to OVs as cancer therapy were obtained from the Web of Science (WoS) database published between January 2000 and March 2020. Various aspects of OVs research, including the countries/territories, institutions, journals, authors, citations, research areas, and content analysis to find trending and emerging topics, were analysed using the bibliometrix package in the R-software.
In terms of the number of publications, the USA based researchers were the most productive (n = 611) followed by Chinese (n = 197), and Canadian (n = 153) researchers. The Molecular Therapy journal ranked first both in terms of the number of publications (n = 133) and local citations (n = 1384). The most prominent institution was Mayo Clinic from the USA (n = 117) followed by the University of Ottawa from Canada (n = 72), and the University of Helsinki from Finland (n = 63). The most impactful author was Bell J.C with the highest number of articles (n = 67) and total local citations (n = 885). The most impactful article was published in the Cell journal. In addition, the latest OVs research mainly builds on four research clusters.
The domain of OVs research has increased at a rapid rate from 2000 to 2020. Based on the synthesis of reviewed studies, adenovirus, herpes simplex virus, reovirus, and Newcastle disease virus have shown potent anti-cancer activity. Developed countries such as the USA, Canada, the UK, and Finland were the most productive, hence, contributed most to this field. Further collaboration will help improve the clinical research translation of this therapy and bring benefits to cancer patients worldwide.
Cancer is an unsolved clinical problem and a challenge for the current medical science given the limitations of conventional therapies. Systemic therapy presents serious drawbacks and to overcome them, several strategies using delivery systems are being developed such as bionanocomposites. This system is stable in biological fluids and is a promising approach to provide controlled release of therapeutics for in situ therapy of tumors, decreasing side effects. Thus, to successfully develop bionanocomposites it is crucial to choose the right components of the system and to study interactions between polymers and drugs with multiscale computational methods. In this chapter, our main interest will be on bionanocomposites for in situ drug delivery, their efficacy and impact on cancer therapy, and how to select the right polymer and how to study polymeric-drug interactions, in silico.
To comprehensively explore the effect of several sociodemographic, patient and tumour related factors on the Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) of oral and oropharyngeal cancer patients.
Patients diagnosed with oral and oropharyngeal cancers were included in the present cross‐sectional study. Information pertaining to various sociodemographic, patient and tumour related factors were recorded. HRQoL was assessed using standard 12‐item Short Form Health Survey version 2 (SF12V2) and Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) was assessed by Oral Health Impact Profile‐14 (OHIP).
A total of 108 patients participated in the present study. Results revealed that nodal metastasis, histological differentiation and pain were significant predictors of OHRQoL; while site, size, stage, histological differentiation and pain were significant predictors of HRQoL. Pain was the single most significant negative determinant of HRQoL that was associated with worst total OHIP (B=2.01, β=0.45, p<0.0001), physical (B=‐0.88, β=‐0.21, p=0.017) and mental (B=‐1.00, β=‐0.22, p=0.016) component summary scores.
Number of sociodemographic, patient and tumour related factors emerged as significant predictors of HRQoL and OHRQoL. Study results might help in formulating targeted treatment plan, optimise patient care and follow up.
Breast and colon carcinomas are two types of common cancers which lead to cancer-related deaths. Due to their cytotoxic potential against cancer cells, recently many studies of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) have been conducted. In the current work, we aim to evaluate the cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing effects of CuNPs on the human breast (MCF-7) and colon (LoVo) cancer cells. CuNPs were prepared in starch-stabilizing aqueous solution by electroless deposition technique in alkaline tartrate bath using formaldehyde as the reducing agent of copper sulfate. The obtained CuNPs were characterized by SEM, TEM, and XRD to confirm the particle size, morphology, and chemical composition. Standard colorimetric MTT and LDH assays were used to estimate the cytotoxic effect of CuNPs on MCF-7 and LoVo cells. Furthermore, CuNP-treated cells undergoing apoptosis were assessed based on the expression of apoptosis-related genes using qRT-PCR. The results indicate that the mean particle size of the synthesized CuNPs was ~ 50–60 nm, and they were spherical in shape with mainly the chemical structure of the copper metallic phase. MTT assay revealed that CuNPs induced cytotoxicity in tested cells with IC50 rates of 16.4 (in MCF-7) and 21.6 μg/ml (in LoVo). Moreover, qRT-PCR analysis showed that CuNPs caused a significant increment of Bax, P53, and Caspases 9, 8, and 3 genes. Overall, the anticancer potential of prepared CuNPs were reported through apoptotic induction which highlight the potential use of CuNPs as an efficient anticancer agent.
Patients with metastatic gastric cancer have poor survival outcomes and may experience high symptom burden. We evaluated symptom trajectory and risk factors for increased symptom severity among metastatic gastric cancer patients during the last 6 months of life.Methods
We conducted a retrospective cohort study among patients ≥ 18 years diagnosed with metastatic gastric cancer from January 2007 to December 2014 in the province of Ontario, Canada. We included patients who died during the study period and who reported at least one Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS) score during the last 6 months of life. We described the proportion of patients who reported moderate-to-severe symptom scores (≥ 4) by month. Multivariable logistic regression models were created to identify risk factors for moderate-to-severe symptom scores.ResultsSeven hundred eighty-eight eligible patients with 3286 unique symptom scores completed during their last 6 months of life were identified. The highest prevalence of moderate-to-severe scores was observed for tiredness and lack of appetite, while nausea and depression had the lowest prevalence of elevated scores. The prevalence of moderate-to-severe was consistently high for all symptoms, particularly approaching end-of-life. Timing of ESAS scores, receipt of cancer-directed therapy, urban residence, and female sex were associated with increased odds of reporting moderate-to-severe symptom scores.Conclusion
Patients with metastatic gastric cancer experience significant symptom burden at the end-of-life. Routine screening with patient-reported outcome tools may assist in shared decision-making and effective palliative care by ensuring patients’ health status and supportive care needs are identified promptly at the time of clinical encounters.
After publication of the updated World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues in 2008, the Pathology Working Group of the International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium (InterLymph) now presents an update of the hierarchical classification of lymphoid neoplasms for epidemiologic research based on the 2001 WHO classification, which we published in 2007. The updated hierarchical classification incorporates all of the major and provisional entities in the 2008 WHO classification, including newly defined entities based on age, site, certain infections, and molecular characteristics, as well as borderline categories, early and "in situ" lesions, disorders with limited capacity for clinical progression, lesions without current International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, 3rd Edition codes, and immunodeficiency-associated lymphoproliferative disorders. WHO subtypes are defined in hierarchical groupings, with newly defined groups for small B-cell lymphomas with plasmacytic differentiation and for primary cutaneous T-cell lymphomas. We suggest approaches for applying the hierarchical classification in various epidemiologic settings, including strategies for dealing with multiple coexisting lymphoma subtypes in one patient, and cases with incomplete pathologic information. The pathology materials useful for state-of-the-art epidemiology studies are also discussed. We encourage epidemiologists to adopt the updated InterLymph hierarchical classification, which incorporates the most recent WHO entities while demonstrating their relationship to older classifications.
The NORDCAN database and program ( www.ancr.nu ) include detailed information and results on cancer incidence, mortality and prevalence in each of the Nordic countries over five decades and has lately been supplemented with predictions of cancer incidence and mortality; future extensions include the incorporation of cancer survival estimates.
The data originates from the national cancer registries and causes of death registries in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, and Faroe Islands and is regularly updated. Presently 41 cancer entities are included in the common dataset, and conversions of the original national data according to international rules ensure comparability.
With 25 million inhabitants in the Nordic countries, 130 000 incident cancers are reported yearly, alongside nearly 60 000 cancer deaths, with almost a million persons living with a cancer diagnosis. This web-based application is available in English and in each of the five Nordic national languages. It includes comprehensive and easy-to-use descriptive epidemiology tools that provide tabulations and graphs, with further user-specified options available.
The NORDCAN database aims to provide comparable and timely data to serve the varying needs of policy makers, cancer societies, the public, and journalists, as well as the clinical and research community.
The third volume of 'Cancer Incidence in Five Continents' contains information from 78 populations in 28 countries, and covers the period 1968-1972. Volumes I and II covered the years 1960-1966 and are now out of print. As in Volume II, there are chapters on the techniques of registration, and the classification used. The chapter on reliability of registration includes tables giving the percentage of cases confirmed histologically by sex and by site and by 5 yr age groups by sex for all sites. Similar tables are presented for cases registered from death certificates only and for the mortality from cancer in the registration area in the period in question expressed as a percentage of incidence. New topics include equivalence tables for the 7th and 8th revision of the International Classification of Diseases, Injuries and Causes of Death (ICD), a commentary on the processing of data and a new measure of age standardized incidence, the cumulative rate; these rates are given for a selection of common sites for the age intervals 0 to 64 and 0 to 74 yr. In addition to the age specific and age standardized rates presented in previous volumes, age standardized rates are given for 46 four digit ICD rubrics: these include subdivisions of the colon and skin and the leukemias. Registries reporting their data according to the 7th revision of the ICD are clearly distinguished from the others. A feature, which it is hoped will be of considerable use, is a cumulated index for the first 3 volumes. The bibliography includes a listing of selected WHO publications concerning cancer. Although the book is now some 584 pages, it is still easy to consult.
Estimation of the number and rate of deaths by age and sex is a key first stage for calculation of the burden of disease in order to constrain estimates of cause-specific mortality and to measure premature mortality in populations. We aimed to estimate life tables and annual numbers of deaths for 187 countries from 1970 to 2010.
We estimated trends in under-5 mortality rate (children aged 0-4 years) and probability of adult death (15-59 years) for each country with all available data. Death registration data were available for more than 100 countries and we corrected for undercount with improved death distribution methods. We applied refined methods to survey data on sibling survival that correct for survivor, zero-sibling, and recall bias. We separately estimated mortality from natural disasters and wars. We generated final estimates of under-5 mortality and adult mortality from the data with Gaussian process regression. We used these results as input parameters in a relational model life table system. We developed a model to extrapolate mortality to 110 years of age. All death rates and numbers have been estimated with 95% uncertainty intervals (95% UIs).
From 1970 to 2010, global male life expectancy at birth increased from 56·4 years (95% UI 55·5-57·2) to 67·5 years (66·9-68·1) and global female life expectancy at birth increased from 61·2 years (60·2-62·0) to 73·3 years (72·8-73·8). Life expectancy at birth rose by 3-4 years every decade from 1970, apart from during the 1990s (increase in male life expectancy of 1·4 years and in female life expectancy of 1·6 years). Substantial reductions in mortality occurred in eastern and southern sub-Saharan Africa since 2004, coinciding with increased coverage of antiretroviral therapy and preventive measures against malaria. Sex-specific changes in life expectancy from 1970 to 2010 ranged from gains of 23-29 years in the Maldives and Bhutan to declines of 1-7 years in Belarus, Lesotho, Ukraine, and Zimbabwe. Globally, 52·8 million (95% UI 51·6-54·1 million) deaths occurred in 2010, which is about 13·5% more than occurred in 1990 (46·5 million [45·7-47·4 million]), and 21·9% more than occurred in 1970 (43·3 million [42·2-44·6 million]). Proportionally more deaths in 2010 occurred at age 70 years and older (42·8% in 2010 vs 33·1% in 1990), and 22·9% occurred at 80 years or older. Deaths in children younger than 5 years declined by almost 60% since 1970 (16·4 million [16·1-16·7 million] in 1970 vs 6·8 million [6·6-7·1 million] in 2010), especially at ages 1-59 months (10·8 million [10·4-11·1 million] in 1970 vs 4·0 million [3·8-4·2 million] in 2010). In all regions, including those most affected by HIV/AIDS, we noted increases in mean ages at death.
Despite global and regional health crises, global life expectancy has increased continuously and substantially in the past 40 years. Yet substantial heterogeneity exists across age groups, among countries, and over different decades. 179 of 187 countries have had increases in life expectancy after the slowdown in progress in the 1990s. Efforts should be directed to reduce mortality in low-income and middle-income countries. Potential underestimation of achievement of the Millennium Development Goal 4 might result from limitations of demographic data on child mortality for the most recent time period. Improvement of civil registration system worldwide is crucial for better tracking of global mortality.
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.