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Leadership and Creativity: The Impact of Transformational Leadership on Individual Creativity


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The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between transformational leadership and individual creativity by focusing on four dimensions of transformational leadership in a sample of 275 respondents. Understanding the relationship between transformational leadership and creativity helps leaders to develop and cultivate employees’ capacity for creativity. Results indicated a direct and positive link between intellectual stimulation and individual creativity. The results also indicate a positive link among inspirational motivation, idealized influence and individual creativity. However this positive relationship was significantly reduced when intellectual stimulation is included to the model.
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Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 235 ( 2016 ) 243 – 249
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1877-0428 © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of ISMC 2016.
doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.11.020
12th International Strategic Management Conference, ISMC 2016, 28-30 October 2016, Antalya,
Leadership and Creativity: The Impact of Transformational
Leadership on Individual Creativity
Hülya Gündüz Çekmecelioğlua, Gönül Kaya Özbağb,
Kocaeli University, Kocaeli, 41500, Turkey
The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between transformational leadership and individual creativity by focusing on
four dimensions of transformational leadership in a sample of 275 respondents. Understanding the relationship between
transformational leadership and creativity helps leaders to develop and cultivate employees’ capacity for creativity. Results
indicated a direct and positive link between intellectual stimulation and individual creativity. The results also indicate a positive
link among inspirational motivation, idealized influence and individual creativity. However this positive relationship was
significantly reduced when intellectual stimulation is included to the model.
© 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of ISMC 2016.
Keywords: Idealized influence, Inspirational motivation, Intellectual stimulation, Individualized consideration
1. Introduction
Importantly, since innovation at the organizational level is the result of creative efforts and achievements in
manufacturing and commercial organizations, gaining an understanding of the effect of this form of leadership on
organizational innovation is as important as understanding its effect on employees' creativity (Gümüşlüoğlu, İlsev,
2009,462). Therefore, this study intends to research the effects of transformational leadership on creativity at the
individual level. In accordance with previous studies, in this study we expect to find significant relationships among
four dimensions of transformational leadership and individual creativity. First, we present the relevant literature
leading to our specific research hypotheses. This is followed by discussions of the method and results of our study. We
Corresponding author. Email
© 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of ISMC 2016.
244 Hülya Gündüz Çekmecelioğlu and Gönül Kaya Özbağ / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 235 ( 2016 ) 243 – 249
conclude the article with the the implications of the study with regard to existing literature and suggestions for future
2. Literature Review And Hypotheses
2.1. Transformational Leadership and Individual Creativity
Many studies have suggested that transformational leaders have better relationships with their followers and play
a key role in creation of a supportive climate that promote employee creativity (Cummings & Oldham, 1997; Scott &
Bruce, 1994; Tierney et al., 1999). Aspects such as task meaning and challenge, freedom and autonomy, team
cooperation and friendliness, leadership support and organizational encouragement have been brought forward as
important features to perceive the organizational climate as being supportive of creativity (Abbey & Dickson, 1983;
Scott & Bruce, 1994; Amabile et al. 1996; Anderson & West, 1998; Woodman, Sawyer, & Griffin, 1993; Shalley,
1995; Cummings & Oldham, 1997). Furthermore, Oldham and Cummings (1996) found that high job complexity,
supportive supervision, informational feedback, freedom and low oversight control facilitate creative and innovative
behaviour of the employees (Oldham and Cummings, 1996).
According to Dunegan et al. (1992) divisional affiliation, work group interactions, and the quality of exchange
between leader and subordinate significantly predict the perceptions of employees of climate factors believed to
encourage creative activities in the firm (Mohammad; Rickards, 1996; 110). Scott and Bruce (1994) also have
suggested that innovative behavior is related to supervisor-subordinate relationship. Some others have noted that trust
and openness, challenge and involvement, debate, risk-taking, and and a tolerance for diversity among organizational
members (Tidd and Bessant; 2009; Siegel and Kaemmerer, 1978; Kanter, 1983) are critical for support creativity.
These aforementioned factors have been identified in the creativity researches as instrumental to enhance
individual creativity and correspond to the behaviours of transformational leaders essentially. New learning
opportunities are created along with a supportive climate in which change, divergent thinking and professional growth
is emphasized. Relatedly, Siegel and Kaemmerer (1978) suggested that leaders who support for their members in
functioning independently in the pursuit of new ideas facilitate their followers’ effort to be innovative and creative.
Following the reasoning described above one can conclude that leaders have great power and influence on employee
creativity by providing support for creativity. Accordingly, the leadership literature indicates that transformational
leaders have even more significant role of creating and shaping circumstances that facilitate individual creativity. In
other words, the four dimensions of TL including idealized influence (or charisma), inspirational motivation,
intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration promotes individual creativity by creating a supportive
organizational climate.
First of all, leaders expected to have transformational effects by intellectually stimulating their followers (Avolio
et al., 1999; Bass et al., 2003). When transformational leaders intellectually stimulate, they promote their followers’
effort to be creative by questioning assumptions, reframing problems, and approaching old situations in new ways
(Bass & Riggio 2006: 7). They enhance generative thinking by encouraging followers to think ‘‘out of the box’’ and to
apply exploratory thinking processes (Sosik, Kahai & Avolio, 1998: 112). New ideas and creative solutions to
problems come from followers who challenge their own traditions, beliefs (Jung, Chow, Wu, 2003: 529) and express
themselves openly without fear of negative interpersonal consequences (Kahn, 1990). Accordingly, it is hypothesized;
H1: Transformational leadership’s intellectual stimulation will be positively associated with individual creativity.
Secondly TL is also expected to be positively linked with creativity because of idealized influence. Idealized
influence (or charisma) influence followers to perform beyond expectations (Bass, 1985, p. 32), make extra effort to
accomplish tasks even when conditions are difficult and generate creative solutions for work related problems (Qu et
al., 2015: 288). Followers admire, respect and trust leaders demonstrating idealized influence and view them as
extraordinary and exceptional (Kark, Shamir, & Chen, 2003; Yukl, 1998). By appreciating and integrating different
needs and viewpoints of group members and also by communicating confidence in their followers’ ability to meet
Hülya Gündüz Çekmecelioğlu and Gönül Kaya Özbağ / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 235 ( 2016 ) 243 – 249
higher performance expectations TL may be conducive to individual creativity process. Accordingly, it is
H2: Transformational leadership’s idealized influence will be positively associated with individual creativity.
The third dimension individualized consideration focuses on how leaders pay attention to each individual’s need
for achievement and growth by acting as a coach or mentor. Such leaders, who have a high awareness of each
follower's uniqueness open up communication channels to facilitate new learning opportunities and likely to prompt
the individual to go beyond traditional acting and to try out new ideas that might flow from their divergent thinking.
Since they show tolerance, empathy and support (Shin & Zhou, 2003) somewhat risky and exploratory task activities
incurred in creative behavior are likely to be viewed as opportunities beneficial to subordinates improvement and
learning (To, Ashkanasy, Fisher, & Rowe, 2010; To et al., 2012). Accordingly, it is hypothesized;
H3: Transformational leadership’s individualized consideration will be positively associated with individual
Finally, inspirational motivation refers to the extent to which leaders are able to motivate their followers by
articulating an inspirational and ambitious vision, cultivating a climate of psychological safety where followers are
encouraged to take interpersonal risks and energizing followers to perform beyond expectations. In addition by
communicating confidence in their followers’ ability they help employees to reframe challenges, see them as
opportunities and try new approaches which can lead creative solutions for problems emerging in their tasks (Shamir,
House, & Arthur, 1993). Accordingly, it is hypothesized;
H4: Transformational leadership’s inspirational motivation will be positively associated with individual
3. Methodology
3.1. Selection of Sample and Respondents Demographics
In order to empirically investigate the hypotheses, tools such as e-mail, letter and face to face interviews are used
for gathering data from the managers-top, middle or first line. Using the documents of Kocaeli Chamber of
Commerce, 45 firms among 650 are identified as the target group of the research because of their availableness. Of
the 275 respondents 141 (51%) were men, and 134 (49%) were women. The majority of the participants 187 (68%) are
married and ranged in age from 31 to 40 years 154 (56%). Of the participants, %53 had university educations and %26
had master education, %45 were first line managers, %44 were middle managers and %11 were top managers. Data
from 275 employees have been evaulated by using of the SPSS 13.0 program
3.2. Measures
To test the above hypotheses, multi-item scales adopted from prior studies for the measurement of constructs were
used. Individual creativity was measured by 13 items adopted from the creativity measure of Tierney et al. (1999). To
measure transformational leadership the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire Form 5X was used (Bass & Avolio,
1995). All items were measured on a five point Likert-type scale where (1) strongly disagree to (5) strongly agree.
3.3. Data Analysis And Results
To test the reliability of the scales used in the study, Cronbach Alpha scores were calculated for each scale. The
Cronbach Alpha scores for each scale were good with overall Alpha reported of 0.70-0.87. Furthermore, in order to
identify the underlying structure of various measures exploratory factor analysis using principle components of factor
extraction and varimax rotation techniques was performed. It is found that one item in idealized effect dimensions of
transformational leadership constitutes a different factor alone and also have a low correlation with all items. After
throwing out this item factor analysis is employed again (Hatcher, 1994). As a cut-off loading was used 0.40. Most
factor loadings were above 0.50 which can be assumed a high level of significance. The results from our factor
analysis of the measurement items for each of the subscales (Table 1) imply that measures used in this study have
246 Hülya Gündüz Çekmecelioğlu and Gönül Kaya Özbağ / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 235 ( 2016 ) 243 – 249
construct validity (Nunnally, 1978). The Alpha reliabilities of the factor were 0.84 (intellectual stimulation), 0.87
(idealized influence), 0.70 (inspirational motivation), 0.75 (individualized consideration), 0.80 (individual creativity)
respectively (Table 2). The factor loading are seen Table 1.
Table 1. Factor Loading of Scale Items
3.5. Correlation Analysis
We calculated means and standart deviations for each variable and correlation matrix of all variables. Means,
standard deviations, reliabilities and correlations among all scales used in the analyses are shown in Table 2.
A correlation analysis was performed to examine interaction relationships among the variables. The results of
correlation analysis shows us that there is two level relationships among variables with a significance level of p <0.01 .
The dimensions of transformational leadership such as intellectual stimulation, idealized influence, individualized
consideration and inspirational motivation have significant positive correlations with individual creativity (p <0.01,
Table 4).
Table 2. Descriptive Statistic, correlations and alpha reliabilities of the mesuares
Std D.
a. (0.84)
Idealized influence
a (0.87)
** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
Hülya Gündüz Çekmecelioğlu and Gönül Kaya Özbağ / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 235 ( 2016 ) 243 – 249
3.6. Model Testing Results
A regression analysis was performed to examine the effects of dimensions of transformational leadership on
individual creativity (Table 3). Model 1 shows us that idealized influence positively affects individual creativity with
p< 0.05 significance level. Model 2 indicates that inspirational motivation has positive effect on individual creativity p
<0.05 significance level. Also, Model 3 shows us that intellectual stimulation positively affects individual creativity
with p< 0.01 significance level. This shows us that hypothesis 1 is also confirmed correct. R² results show us in what
degree the variables of our model are related to individual creativity.
Table 3.The effects of the Dimensions of Transformational Leadership on Individual Creativity
Model 1
β t
Model 2
β t
Model 3
β t
Intellectual stimulation
.316 3.12**
Inspirational motivation
.163 1.56**
.096 .98
Individualized consideration
.69 .67
.008 .076
-0.18 .94
Idealized influence
.176 1.72**
.097 .84
-.90 .80
Model F
Model R²
*Significant at 0,05 (one tailed)
**Significant at 0,01 (one tailed)
Conclusion and Implications
The organisational behaviour literature demonstrates the leader as an influence factor towards the followers’
attitudes and behaviours. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between
transformational leadership and individual creativity. The results are in line with the previous research suggesting
followers’ individual perceptions of transformational leadership are related to their individual creativity (Shin and
Zhou; 2003; Gümüşlüoglu and Ilsev; 2009, Sosik et al; 1998).
Our findings suggest that transformational leadership behaviours are an important mechanism in the development
of individual creativity by activating the employee with intellectual stimulation. By intellectual stimulation, leaders are
developing a vision and inspiring followers to generate creativity. Results of the study suggest that transformational
leadership style may be appropriate for certain exploitative activities that involve challenging assumptions, taking
risks, and approaching problems in new ways. The findings also indicate that regarding Bass’ (1985) four dimensions
of transformational leadership, intellectual stimulation is the most powerful dimension that facilitate individual
creativity. Moreover, the overall relationship between intellectual stimulation and creativity still remained positive
when other dimensions are included to the model.
The results showed a positive link among inspirational motivation, idealized influence and individual creativity.
However this positive relationship was significantly reduced by intellectual stimulation. This finding clearly makes an
emphasis on intellectual stimulation in leadership style if the concern is creativity. Thus, in the current work
environment, which stresses adaptation to change, leaders should allocate more time to think how they can motivate
staff to think and act creatively. Consequently, our results indicate that organizations can facilitate their employees’
creativity by enhancing managers’ transformational leadership style.
The present study has some limitation like all studies. First, the generalization of our findings may be limited due
to low sample size. Second, there may many other variables that lead to creativity not only transformational leadership
such as organizational culture, psychological empowerment, support for creativity and innovation, and so on might be
248 Hülya Gündüz Çekmecelioğlu and Gönül Kaya Özbağ / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 235 ( 2016 ) 243 – 249
profitable. Future studies should be based preferably on these variables. The final limitation from a methodological
perspective concerns the self-report surveys. In this study, a self-report was used to measure the results which could be
limited by a socially desirable response. However, the use of self-reporting measures is neither new nor unacceptable.
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... Measured indicators of transformational leadership are: (1) influencing subordinates, (2) motivating inspiration, (3) influence of idealism, 4) individual attention, (5) intellectual. This is following the results of previous research conducted by Hulya Gunduz Cekmecelioglu and Gonul Kaya Ozbag [12] entitled "Leadership and Creativity: The Impact of Transformational Leadership on Individual Creativity". The results showed that there was a positive and very significant relationship between transformational leadership and creativity (r = 0.64 p <0.05). ...
... Considering that a leader's intellectual stimulation can motivate individual creative behaviours (Cekmecelioglu & Ozbag, 2016), this means that HIHRPs is an antecedent to intellectual stimulation behaviour. Therefore, ownermanagers can implement HIM strategy not only to promote high-involvement culture but also to sharpen intellectual stimulation behaviour within their employees. ...
Full-text available
Orientation: The proliferation of fast-food restaurants in South Africa calls for transformational leadership (TL) to keep the businesses afloat, through the application of competitive strategic human resource (HR) practices. However, there is shortage of evidence on how TL behaviours of owner-managers in this sector are related to their choice of HR strategies. Research purpose: The purpose of the study was, therefore, to determine the relationship between owner-managers’ TL behaviours and HR strategies relevant to small fast-food restaurants in a district in the Free State Province, South Africa. Motivation of the study: Known studies emphasise that HR strategies can be linked to specific TL behaviours for business growth and survival. Nonetheless, no known study has been conducted within the South African context to establish the link between TL and HR strategies, particularly amongst the small fast food restaurants. Design and method: A positivist research paradigm approach to test the relationships between the study variables. Quantitative data were collected through was used a self-administered questionnaire from (n = 102) small fast-food restaurants’ owner-managers following a cross-sectional study design. Descriptive and logistics regression data analyses techniques were used to make meaning out of data. Main findings: The majority dimensions of TL behaviours and HR strategies are related and few not related. Practical/managerial implications: The study offers insights into small fast-food restaurants’ owner-managers’ need to adapt leadership qualities depending on the HR strategy applied. Contribution/value-add: The study adds to the body of knowledge on how TL precepts are applied in different strategic HR management contexts.
... The results of the researchers' calculations agree with those of the previous study showing that there is a positive relationship between inspirational motivation, idealized influence, and individual creativity [49]. The same idea is also supported by another study, which states that the idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, individual considerations have an impact on the creativity of members, but intellectual stimulation has the highest impact of all dimensions [14]. ...
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Background of this research was regarding the problem of the development of management in educational institutions in the aspect of learning management. Teacher creativity was an essential problem that often faced by many educational institutions. The problem of teacher creativity brought influence to the learning process, which could not be done effectively and efficiently because of lacking of competencies and skills, so that the teachers did not become creative and innovative. Many factors could increase teacher creativity, one of factors could increase was to implement the transformational leadership of the leaders in the school. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact on transformational leadership of school leaders perceived by school teachers to their creativity so that they can develop their creative behaviors to tasks, new ideas, innovations, and creations that could be potential to achieve the goals and values of the school organization well. This research used a causal survey method by using the path analysis technique. This study used the sample from 219 school teachers in 50 vocational high schools, which were selected using the Slovin formula. The result of the study reveals that there is a positive effect between the transformational leadership of the leaders and the creativity of the teachers in schools. The results of this research indicated there is a direct and positive influence of transformational leadership on creativity. Based on the conclusions, the results of this study can be used as recommendations to the leaders of educational institutions to serve as an effort to increase the creativity of teachers in their institutions.
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The purpose of this study is to investigate the transformational leadership represented by its dimensions (Idealized Influence, Inspirational Motivation, Intellectual Stimulation, and Individualized Consideration) and its impact on the Islamic banks' creative behavior in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Since the study of Debondt & Thaler, (1985) that introduced evidence on the effect of the cognitive biases on the stocks mispricing due to over/under reactions by the investors after receiving market related information, the behavioral finance has been involved in other financial research areas. Hence, the research applied the descriptive-analytical method to answer the research questions and test its hypotheses. The research society included all employees of the Islamic banks in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Overall, 317 employees from the Islamic Banks in Bahrain responded. The analysis was conducted using multiple and simple leaner regression to test the hypotheses. The results indicated a statistically significant effect of transformational leadership on creative behavior. The research has led to some recommendations, including increasing and developing managers' practices for ideal impact as one of the dimensions of transformational leadership through developing future vision capabilities, overcoming self-interest, and acting in a typical way that motivates employees to emulate them. It is also necessary for Islamic Banks to adopt and implement transformational leadership and all its dimensions, supporting their employees' creative behavior and developing their creative abilities.
This book is a compilation of works of different areas that seek to apply the intelligent and complex systems in various applied problems. The problems that are worked in the book are the evaluation of the competence of the states, fuzzy classification, relationship between incentives and innovation, design of new products, analysis of profiles in social networks, innovation capabilities, software development, business growth, leadership and use of big data.
The objective of this article is to describe and elaborate a contextualization of how nowadays electronic leadership must become a strategic tool for organizations and since the beginning of the twenty-first century has evolved in a process of social influence mediated by Information and Communication Technologies, of such that it has come to produce changes in attitudes, feelings behaviors even in the performance of individuals within organizations. Modern leadership has had to adapt and learn to communicate with your work teams no longer traditionally face to face but through a communication mediated by different electronic elements from laptops, cell phones, tablets, and other items from anywhere in the world. The documentary methodology allowed us through the consultation of multiple documents and a broad contrast of the information to make a proposal that structures the leadership electronically and fundamentally the actions of leaders in virtualized environments such as those of today.
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This study aims to investigate the impact of leadership styles (transformational leadership style, transac-tional leadership style, and Laisser-Faire leadership style) on employees' innovative work at Al-Ahliyya Amman University Employees. It follows the descriptive analytical approach by distributing a questionnaire to a sample of 461 employees following the convenience sampling technique. The findings show a positive statistically significant impact of transformational leadership style on employees' innovative work behavior, while there was a negative statistically significant impact of transactional and Laisser-faire leadership styles on the employees' innovative work behavior at Al-Ahliyya Amman University Employees.
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Effective leadership roles of police professionals in America today are critically difficult (Fine, Padilla, & Tapp, 2019; Meares, 2017). The purpose of this research was to determine if and to what degree perceived effective leadership attributes are affected by predictor variables of police professionals when adapting to critical situational environments. Leadership attitude test data of 182 officers (134 men and 48 women) was conducted. An approximate normal distribution was evident for the M, Cronbach's α and Test-retest Stability µ composite score data to confirm suitability for parametric statistical analyses. Factors were extracted using principal component analysis (PCA) to generate description of results. A 5-way independent MANOVA with the Bonferroni post hoc test was used to calculate differences between groups. Results suggested that differences exist in main and interaction effects between and among predictor variables of police officers on effective leadership characteristics, expanding Kouzes and Posner's (2002) model as a theoretical framework. Linear discriminant analysis revealed factors that shaped predictor variables. Factor loadings after Oblimin with Kaiser Normalization rotation showed the eigenvalue of the CAL Scale reduced to 18 items and three components explained 63% of the variance. Box's Test of Equality of Covariance Matrices revealed statistically significance for Purpose-driven subscale, p = .040, and Reason over Emotion subscale, p = .004 (p< .001). The subscale group effects demonstrated that Purpose-driven and Reason over Emotion leadership attribute subscales influenced police professionals. The study supported previous research results and submitted recommendations for future research and practice on leadership characteristics for police professionals.
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Using 456 supervisor-employee dyads from four organizations, this study examined how employees use one proactive behavior, feedback seeking, as a strategy to enhance their creative performance. As hypothesized, employees' cognitive style and perceived organizational support for creativity affected two patterns of feedback seeking: the propensity to inquire for feedback and the propensity to monitor the environment for indirect feedback. Feedback inquiry related to supervisor ratings of employee creative performance. These results highlight the importance of employees' self-regulatory behaviors in the creative process and show that feedback seeking is not only a strategy that facilitates individual adaptation, but also a resource for achieving creative outcomes.
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Building on an interactionist approach, the present study investigated the moderating role of two task design characteristics, namely task autonomy and feedback from job, in the relationship between dispositional resistance to change and innovative work behaviour. Consistent with a trait activation perspective, it was specifically hypothesized that dispositional resistance to change would have a stronger, positive association with innovative performance when autonomy and feedback were high than when they were low. In a sample of 270 employees from the public sector, task autonomy was found to significantly interact with both composite resistance to change and with three of the four dimensions (routine seeking, short-term thinking, and emotional reaction). Simple slope analyses specifically revealed that individuals high in short-term thinking and emotional reaction exhibited positive relationships with innovative behaviour only in the case of high task autonomy, whereas in the case of low autonomy the relationship was nonsignificant. Furthermore, feedback from job was found to moderate the relationship between overarching dispositional resistance to change, short-term thinking, and emotional reaction, on one hand, and innovative performance, on the other, such that a positive and significant association emerged only in the case of high feedback.
A model of the turnover process is developed by synthesizing three turnover models: those of Price (1977) and Mobley (1977), and the model which has developed around the organizational commitment variable. This model is tested via path analysis and is generally supported. An attempt to cross validate the new model provided moderate support for it.
The Hackman and Oldham job characteristics model of job performance (1980) was tested on four times of measurement with nursing assistants from four nursing homes. The job characteristics summary score (MPS) had re main effects while the moderators of Growth Need Strength, job knowledge, and context satisfaction did.
The concept of commitment as a dimension of marketers' job performance has received little attention in the marketing literature. This article develops a commitment model, conducts a partial test of the model, and empirically examines the organizational commitment of over 900 marketing professionals.
In an effort to clarify the literature on work exhaustion (or job burnout), I integrate causal attribution research and the burnout and exhaustion literature to develop an attributional model of work exhaustion consequences. With this model I suggest that individuals experiencing work exhaustion will not exhibit all of the job attitudes and behaviors found to correlate with exhaustion. Rather, individuals are likely to experience a subset of these, depending on their perceptions regarding the cause of exhaustion. I also discuss implications and directions for future research.