ArticlePDF Available

Abstract

A Sleeping Beauty (SB) is a publication that goes unnoticed for a long time, and then, almost suddenly, is awakened by a ‘prince’ (PR), attracting from there on a lot of attention in terms of citations. Although there are some studies on the SB and the PR phenomena in the sciences, barely any research on this topic has been conducted in the social sciences, let alone in innovation studies. Based on 52,373 articles extracted from the Web of Science and using a new method that, comparatively with extant methods, selects SBs with the highest scientific impact, we found that, similarly to the sciences, SBs are rare in the field of innovation (<0.02%). In contrast with the sciences, the depth of sleep is relatively small, ranging from 7 to 17 years. All the 8 SBs found, and the (37) corresponding princes, were published in highly renowned journals (e.g., Harvard Business Review, Journal of Management Studies, Organization Studies, Rand Journal of Economics, Research Policy). The explanations for the delayed recognition are associated with innovative methods, scientific resistance, and theoretical-relatedness. The role of highly influential authors and self-awakening mechanisms were critical triggers for bringing SBs into scientific notoriety.
A preview of the PDF is not available
... SB, a quantitative measure of delayed recognition, was proposed by Raan (Van Raan 2004), and many fields and structural features have been reported. In the innovation studies area, a variety of reasons are available to explain delayed recognition, such as the implementation of methods or tools and by increasing acceptance (Teixeira et al. 2017). Meanwhile, ophthalmological SBs are descriptions of new clinical diseases and innovation of medical and surgical treatments, which take time to confirm and extend the experience of new diseases (Ohba and Nakao 2012). ...
... In other words, the number of SB-PR pairs that can be obtained in a given data set is half the length of the entire data set. Teixeira et al. 2017). These gold standards might be a little small for validating the accuracy of result. ...
Article
Full-text available
Delayed recognition in which innovative discoveries are re-evaluated after a long period has significant implications for scientific progress. The quantitative method to detect delayed recognition is described as the pair of Sleeping Beauty (SB) and its Prince (PR), where SB refers to citation bursts and its PR triggers SB’s awakeness calculated based on their citation history. This research provides the methods to extract valid and large SB–PR pairs from a comprehensive Scopus dataset and analyses how PR discovers SB. We prove that the proposed method can extract long-sleep and large-scale SB and its PR best covers the previous multi-disciplinary pairs, which enables to observe delayed recognition. Besides, we show that the high-impact SB–PR pairs extracted by the proposed method are more likely to be located in the same field. This indicates that a hidden SB that your research can awaken may exist closer than you think. On the other hand, although SB–PR pairs are fat-tailed in Beauty Coefficient and more likely to integrate separate fields compared to ordinary citations, it is not possible to predict which citation leads to awake SB using the rarity of citation. There is no easy way to limit the areas where SB–PR pairs occur or detect it early, suggesting that researchers and administrators need to focus on a variety of areas. This research provides comprehensive knowledge about the development of scientific findings that will be evaluated over time.
... Historians sometimes label such technologies as 'general purpose', signalling their ability to spur a wide range of new uses, while also inspiring a chain of many further innovations (Bresnahan & Trajtenberg, 1995). Meanwhile, other strands of research favour different terms, such as 'radical' (Perez, 2010;Schumpeter, 1943), 'sleeping beauties' (Teixeira et al., 2017), 'unconventional' (Berkes & Gaetani, 2021), 'atypical' (Mewes, 2019), 'complex' (Balland & Rigby, 2017), 'breakthrough' (Esposito, 2021;Phene et al., 2006) and 'promiscuous' (Foster & Evans, 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
Although technological change is widely credited as driving the last 200 years of economic growth, its role in shaping patterns of inequality remains under-explored. Drawing parallels across two industrial revolutions in the United States, this paper provides new evidence of a relationship between highly disruptive forms of innovation and spatial inequality. Using the universe of patents granted between 1920 and 2010 by the US Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), we identify disruptive innovations through their rapid growth, complementarity with other innovations and widespread use. We then assign more and less disruptive innovations to subnational regions in the geography of the United States. We document three findings that are new to the literature. First, disruptive innovations exhibit distinctive spatial clustering in phases understood to be those in which industrial revolutions reshape the economy; they are increasingly dispersed in other periods. Second, we discover that the ranks of locations that capture the most disruptive innovation are relatively unstable across industrial revolutions. Third, regression estimates suggest a role for disruptive innovation in regulating overall patterns of spatial output and income inequality.
... 11. K-value (Teixeira et al., 2017): This method weights yearly citations by the square of the year, thereby emphasizing the latter citation histories. The score K is defined as ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Academic hibernators, also known as Sleeping Beauties, have long been discussed, and there have been many updates to reveal why outstanding discoveries remain unnoticed. However, there are contradictory arguments on their nature, such as what combinations of knowledge, over-specialization, or trans-disciplinarity have led to hibernation and how they contribute to science. Subsequently, this paper examines the inconsistency of 11 hibernator measures and identifies the uniform and inconsistent bibliometric features.
... It became manifested in two ground-breaking publications, an HBR article (Normann & Ramírez, 1993a, 1993b) and a book (Normann & Ramírez, 1994). The article was lauded by Teixeira et al. (2017) as one of the top 11 "sleeping beauty" publications in innovation research, underlining how ahead of their time these ideas were. ...
... Although scientometricians for short say that they "measure" scholarly impact, what they actually do is "predicting" impact. The reason is that to serve its purpose, any research assessment aimed at informing policy and management decisions cannot wait for the publications life-cycle to be completed (i.e. the publications stop being cited), which may take decades ( van Raan, 2004;Teixeira, Vieira, & Abreu, 2017;Song, Situ, Zhu, & Lei, 2018). ...
Preprint
In this work we ask whether and to what extent applying a predictor of publications' impact better than early citations, has an effect on the assessment of research performance of individual scientists. Specifically, we measure the total impact of Italian professors in the sciences and economics in a period of time, valuing their publications first by early citations and then by a weighted combination of early citations and impact factor of the hosting journal. As expected, scores and ranks by the two indicators show a very strong correlation, but there occur also significant shifts in many fields, mainly in Economics and statistics, and Mathematics and computer science. The higher the share of uncited professors in a field and the shorter the citation time window, the more recommendable the recourse to the above combination.
... The recognition of such novel ideas can be examined by co-citation analysis (Marshakova-Shaikevich, 1973;Uzzi et al., 2013;Boyack and Klavans, 2014;Wang et al., 2017;Bradley et al., 2020). Co-citation analysis has also been used to identify the socalled "princes" that awaken Sleeping Beauties by (Teixeira et al., 2017;Zong et al., 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
A Sleeping Beauty is a publication that is apparently unrecognized by citation for some period of time before experiencing a burst of recognition. Various reasons, including resistance to new ideas, have been attributed to such delayed recognition. We study this phenomenon in the special case of co-citations, which represent new ideas generated through the combination of existing ones. Using relatively stringent selection criteria derived from the work of others, we analyze a very large dataset of over 940 million unique co-cited article pairs, and identify 1,196 cases of delayed co-citations. We further classify these 1,196 cases with respect to amplitude, rate of citation, and disciplinary origin.
... Interestingly, -in particular, within our concern, van Raan [29] indicated that SBs might be a pool from which innovations can arise. This was confirmed by Teixeira et al. [30] and El Aichouchi and Gorry [31]. ...
Article
Full-text available
A "Sleeping Beauty" (SB) in science is a metaphor for a scholarly publication that remains relatively unnoticed by the related communities for a long time;-the publication is "sleeping". However, suddenly due to the appearance of some phenomenon, such a "forgotten" publication may become a center of scientific attention;-the SB is "awakened". Currently, there are specific scientific areas for which sleeping beauties (SBs) are awakened. For example, as the world is experiencing the COVID-19 global pandemic (triggered by SARS-CoV-2), publications on coronaviruses appear to be awakened. Thus, one can raise questions of scientific interest: are these publications coronavirus related SBs? Moreover, while much literature exists on other coronaviruses, there seems to be no comprehensive investigation on COVID-19,-in particular in the context of SBs. Nowadays, such SB papers can be even used for sustaining literature reviews and/or scientific claims about COVID-19. In our study, in order to pinpoint pertinent SBs, we use the "beauty score" (B-score) measure. The Activity Index (AI) and the Relative Specialization Index (RSI) are also calculated to compare countries where such SBs appear. Results show that most of these SBs were published previously to the present epidemic time (triggered by SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV-1), and are awakened in 2020. Besides outlining the most important SBs, we show from what countries and institutions they originate, and the most prolific author(s) of such SBs. The citation trend of SBs that have the highest B-score is also discussed.
Article
Full-text available
This study provides a systematic review of the literature on innovation research (IR) over the past two decades. We used data-driven approaches integrating network and natural language processing techniques on 41 innovation core and ancillary journals to characterize the IR landscape. Contrary to previous efforts, we explored knowledge in the whole IR field from general and specific patterns of growth and interaction using cluster-and term-based data and macro-and micro-level perspectives, respectively. Our results helped us uncover the changing features of the IR landscape in recent years: (i) a strong move into social-and sustainability-driven innovation; (ii) the merging of products and services into business model innovation; (iii) the more influential role of stakeholders such as the government and the general public; (iv) the use of global analytical perspectives while considering local contexts; (v) the importance of greater visions “pulling” innovation; (vi) the greater role of “soft” issues such as behaviors; and (vi) a shift into sectoral, geographical, and methodological diversification. Building on these aspects, we developed an emerging model for future innovation research and a series of IR propositions. Our findings help generate opportunities to build future innovation capabilities in research, practice, and education.
Article
Knowledge diffusion is a significant driving force behind discipline development and technological innovation. Keyword is a unique knowledge diffusion trajectory, in which the sleeping beauty phenomenon sometimes appears. In this paper, we first put forward the concept of Keyword Sleeping Beauties (KSBs) on the basis of the scientific literature phenomenon of sleeping beauties. Then, we construct a parameter-free identification method to distinguish KSBs based on beauty coefficient criteria. Furthermore, we analyze the intrinsic and extrinsic influencing factors to explore the awakening mechanism of KSBs. The experiment results show that sleeping beauty phenomena also exist in the keyword diffusion trajectory and 284 KSBs are identified. The depth of sleep has a positive correlation with awakening intensity, while the length of sleep has a negative correlation with awakening intensity. In the two years of pre-awakening, KSBs tend to appear in the journals with a higher impact factor. In addition, the adoption frequency and the number of KSBs both increase obviously in the one year of pre-awakening. The findings of this paper enrich the patterns of knowledge diffusion and extend academic thinking on the sleeping beauty in science.
Preprint
Full-text available
A “sleeping beauty” (SB) is a paper that goes unnoticed for a long time, and then, almost suddenly, is awakened by a “prince” (PR), attracting from there on a lot of attention in terms of citations. Although there are some studies on the SB and PR phenomena in science, little research on the awakening mechanisms between them has been conducted. Based on a comprehensive dataset with more than 10000 papers published in solid waste research from 1956 to 2010, we compared three typical methods of identifying SBs, and the parameter-free criterion worked better than the average-based and quartile-based criterion in some aspects. Besides, through a case study of the top 10 in SBs, we applied three criteria to discover the candidate PRs with high citation, high co-citation, and publication time close to the awakening time. Moreover, we discussed the mechanisms involved in the SBs and PRs, which were divided into three types: the synergistic effect, leading effect, and hysteresis effect. This work develops and validates a bibliometric framework for identifying the SBs and PRs in solid waste research, to figure out the awakening mechanisms, and promote potentially valuable research in other fields.
Article
Full-text available
Diachronous studies of obsolescence categorized articles into three general types: “flashes in the pan”, “sleeping beauties” and “normal articles”. These studies used either quartiles or averages to define thresholds on sleeping and awakening periods. However, such average- and quartile-based criteria, sometimes, are less effective in distinguishing “flashes in the pan” and “sleeping beauties” from normal articles due to the arbitrariness of the manner in which thresholds are determined. In this investigation, we propose a vector for measuring obsolescence of scientific articles as an alternative to these criteria. The obsolescence vector is designed as O = (G s, A −), with G s as a parameter affecting the shape of citation curves and A − as a parameter detecting drastic fluctuation of citation curves. We collected 50,789 articles authored by Nobel laureates during 1900–2012. Applying our criteria to this dataset, we compared the obsolescence vector with average- and quartile-based criteria. Our findings show that the proposed obsolescence vector is different from and serves as an alternative to the average- and quartile-based criteria.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose This paper develops and validates a bibliometric framework for identifying the “princes” (PR) who wake up the “sleeping beauty” (SB) in challenge-type scientific discoveries, so as to figure out the awakening mechanisms, and promote potentially valuable but not readily accepted innovative research. (A PR is a research study.) Design/methodology/approach We propose that PR candidates must meet the following four criteria: (1) be published near the time when the SB began to attract a lot of citations; (2) be highly cited papers themselves; (3) receive a substantial number of co-citations with the SB; and (4) within the challenge-type discoveries which contradict established theories, the “pulling effect” of the PR on the SB must be strong. We test the usefulness of the bibliometric framework through a case study of a key publication by the 2014 chemistry Nobel laureate Stefan W. Hell, who negated Ernst Abbe’s diffraction limit theory, one of the most prominent paradigms in the natural sciences. Findings The first-ranked candidate PR article identified by the bibliometric framework is in line with historical facts. An SB may need one or more PRs and even “retinues” to be “awakened.” Documents with potential awakening functionality tend to be published in prestigious multidisciplinary journals with higher impact and wider scope than the journals publishing SBs. Research limitations The above framework is only applicable to transformative innovations, and the conclusions are drawn from the analysis of one typical SB and her awakening process. Therefore the generality of our work might be limited. Practical implications Publications belonging to so-called transformative research, even when less frequently cited, should be given special attention as early as possible, because they may suddenly attract many citations after a period of sleep, as reflected in our case study. Originality/value The definition of PR(s) as the first paper(s) that cited the SB article (selfciting excluded) has its limitations. Instead, the SB-PR co-citations should be given priority in current environment of scholarly communication. Since the “premature” or “transformative” breakthroughs in the challenge-type SB documents are either beyond the current knowledge domain, or violate established paradigms, people’s psychological distance from the SB is larger than that from the PR, which explains why the annual citations of the PR are usually higher than those of the SB, especially prior to or during the SB’s citation boom period.
Article
Full-text available
Research on service innovation appears in several research disciplines, with important contributions in marketing, management, and operations research. Although the concept is widely used, few research papers have explicitly defined service innovation. This dearth of research is the motivation for the present study. Through a systematic review of 1301 articles on service innovation appearing in academic journals between 1979 and 2014, this article examines research defining service innovation. The study identifies the key characteristics within 84 definitions of service innovation in different perspectives (assimilation, demarcation and synthesis) and shows how the meaning of the concept is changing. The review suggests that the large variety in definitions limits and hinders knowledge development of service innovation.
Article
This paper surveys the history of an alternative view of value creation to that associated with industrial production. It argues that technical breakthroughs and social innovations in actual value creation render the alternative—a value co‐production framework—ever more pertinent. The paper examines some of the implications of adopting this framework to describe and understand business opportunity, management, and organizational practices. In the process, it reviews the research opportunities a value co‐production framework opens up. Copyright © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
The Italian National Scientific Qualification (ASN) was introduced as a prerequisite for applying for tenured associate or full professor positions at state-recognized universities. The ASN is meant to attest that an individual has reached a suitable level of scientific maturity to apply for professorship positions. A five member panel, appointed for each scientific discipline, is in charge of evaluating applicants by means of quantitative indicators of impact and productivity, and through an assessment of their research profile. Many concerns were raised on the appropriateness of the evaluation criteria, and in particular on the use of bibliometrics for the evaluation of individual researchers. Additional concerns were related to the perceived poor quality of the final evaluation reports. In this paper we assess the ASN in terms of appropriateness of the applied methodology, and the quality of the feedback provided to the applicants. We argue that the ASN is not fully compliant with the best practices for the use of bibliometric indicators for the evaluation of individual researchers; moreover, the quality of final reports varies considerably across the panels, suggesting that measures should be put in place to prevent sloppy practices in future ASN rounds.
Article
Executives know that a company's measurement systems strongly affect employee behaviors. But the traditional financial performance measures that worked for the industrial era are out of sync with the skills organizations are trying to master. Frustrated by these inadequacies, some managers have abandoned financial measures like return on equity and earnings per share. "Make operational improvements, and the numbers will follow,"the argument goes. But managers want a balanced presentation of measures that will allow them to view the company from several perspectives at once. In this classic article from 1992, authors Robert Kaplan and David Norton propose an innovative solution. During a yearlong research project with 12 companies at the leading edge of performance management, the authors developed a "balanced scorecard;" a new performance measurement system that gives top managers a fast but comprehensive view of their business. The balanced scorecard includes financial measures that tell the results of actions already taken. And it complements those financial measures with three sets of operational measures related to customer satisfaction, internal processes, and the organization's ability to learn and improve-the activities that drive future financial performance. The balanced scorecard helps managers look at their businesses from four essential perspectives and answer Some important questions. First, How do customers see us? Second, What must we excel at? Third, Can we continue to improve and create value? And fourth, How do we appear to shareholders? By looking at all of these parameters, managers can determine whether improvements in one area have come at the expense of another. Armed with that knowledge, the authors say, executives can glean a complete picture of where the company stands-and where it's headed.
Article
As federal programs are held more accountable for their research investments, The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) has developed a new method to quantify the impact of our funded research on the scientific and broader communities. In this article we review traditional bibliometric analyses, address challenges associated with them, and describe a new bibliometric analysis method, the Automated Research Impact Assessment (ARIA). ARIA taps into a resource that has only rarely been used for bibliometric analyses: references cited in “important” research artifacts, such as policies, regulations, clinical guidelines, and expert panel reports. The approach includes new statistics that science managers can use to benchmark contributions to research by funding source. This new method provides the ability to conduct automated impact analyses of federal research that can be incorporated in program evaluations. We apply this method to several case studies to examine the impact of NIEHS funded research.
Article
Sleeping Beauty is a typical phenomenon of delayed recognition in scientific discovery. She was unnoticed for a long time, and suddenly found by researchers and cited a lot. This is known as waking-up Sleeping Beauty. The one who arouse the Sleeping Beauty is called prince. In order to discover the waking-up mechanism of Sleeping Beauty, we collect seven classic Sleeping Beauty's citing and cited data, and use co-citation cluster analysis method to analyze core citation circle in citation network by CITESPACE. At the same time, we take direct and indirect citations of the Sleeping Beauty into account to identify who was the true prince (he terminated the slumber of the Sleeping Beauty and made a significant contribution to the scientific development). It is a new approach to study the phenomenon of Sleeping Beauty even delayed recognition and identify waking-up mechanism.