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The Precarious Generation: A Political Economy of Young People

Authors:

Abstract

This book draws on a wealth of evidence including young people’s own stories, to document how they are now faring in increasingly unequal societies like America, Britain, Australia, France and Spain. It points to systematic generational inequality as those born since 1980 become the first generation to have a lower standard of living than previous generations. While governments and experts typically explain this by referring to globalisation, new technologies, or young people’s deficits, the authors of this book offer a new political economy of generations which identifies the central role played by governments promoting neoliberal policies that exacerbate existing social inequalities based on age, ethnicity, gender and class. The book is a must read for social science students, human service workers and policy-makers and indeed for anyone interested in understanding the impact of government policy over the last 40 years on young people.
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Young Precariat and a New Work Order?
A Case for Historical Sociology
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%3'#%1##%'##1%
1'#%
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''##11&78H*2912#%2#2
&7'&8#9''&:,;4&%
&91'&&8&92#7#%''#8#
#%9%''#8'1####%9%
''#7#2&%*#2&#2&&%:,(
.;:,(.;
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2#'&#1'#%'1
11'&##%#&7'
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:.; 1%17
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&&'':.#.!2#+;
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4&#:;1:0;#@&#1
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'&%'#%#&'#17#%76#1#6
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'##61%66%&''2&&'%&#8J'##%
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'2#1##&#&#'7&31#@
'9:?7(+;&#$&#I###1$9
&&#7'##%2$91'&&#
#7#'#%:,(+6;
Aims of this article.
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12&##'#%&'#%##
&#'$&&#1172#&'
1'#%1#K&'#%0&2
#7#1
Standing and the precariat
$&#&1&&8#7#'9:;
"3##%7&/#O7:/O;
'"#1&27H7%<*12
&&&#&:II00;"7
<*''&&%(
!#7571'1#%7%'58#
'9'58#79:1;'5
#&F1&289
7#1#'#:$.(+;
"#&8'9&71&#&&526#
%1:$.(6?; &'*&#:8%177#%
&#7#@#2&2&&7####7#
H212%&9;##7%&8#9:##&
#'211##=%7###61
1'#%1''&#%;D&&11##1
##8'59:&&#%6#'#;4&
&&1&###&1&8'9:&
1'#%&####8##%##15#23&
%9;
>'##%1'&#1&&''&#
/&&&%'&'#
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12#''''27#%1%65
%#%9:$.(+;
4&#1&''&8#912&
&&3#1#$#35&#
(
#617#5*6&=7&7#&
217=@##21&=7#
&&1&#&2##1'#%&
1&%1#&9:$(;
#&&&#&&2%#%6&?E+.%
#5&1#28#9'7&%'=7
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.
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+;
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7#79:(,?;
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8''#9/#&1'&'
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:$(-;
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*'&%'2%&6##
1*7&1%''####&
'&'4&%&22&2#%&8&1'#9%
7#7&7#7#&#
&K#5:$+.;
/&&#1&*'1#@&
1%18'#66&619&2#&#
'7#1&&4&'7#1&&#&&C#%&7
&1%##8#9'&&&K
1&%
Problems with Standing’s account
$#&1%C#2#2&7&'
72&K&##27#%&1'#&
'#'G##&##%
'#17'&2&&1'
?
&&'':.;
4&'8'9#28#7H*7#%91
&#0&/OB2&&$:0,;7
:II00(?NI00;''1%
/O#71*#1'#%1216
1'#%1:B#00?(?6,;/#7 #
&:00.7N##00-;4&&##&2#%
&'7&111#%'5
'4&27#'#7
2%7&1&718#
1'#%198'61981'%1'#%198'1'#%19
4&'##%2& # !1'7##72(8#
1'#%1971&1=16'1 #
&00:00(;/&&' ##
#@''7&&#%24& #$
: $;8#1'#%191'#%1#&71'#%1
&75&&&P'1P1'#%1
##2#2 #&&1#6
#P1'%1'#%P&1&
181'%1'#%19
/ #&##!&$:00.;##6:00.;
!1'7##:00;7&'8#1'#%19
&&11'#%18&17&
9 <%#:?;'8#9=7 #%'##%
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00(+?;
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1&2#%7&@7%'31
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90-;7#'61'%&(
#2#1&0&
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4&  &%    2#  7%  $  &    *#2#%   &  '60.?
'4&11$9&&#12
2O9:;O1O9'&'##%&
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8115#7'94&&2'1&
1'#%1&1%1:R#(+.;4
& !1'7##  & 1 1'#%1   # 5*61  
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#%    &2    &  &    &  861%9   ##%  7#
81'#9&7:# '';'&
=7#S:2%!11,(-,;
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/&&#6&&&'1
&&8E#92O:(+.;1'
%&##%#%&6*21'
8%97#7&1*'#94&
&#'#1&#11'17%#
1&2#0.?&
$&'70.?6-?819/&&
17'$9#1&&'89
1#7##312&&#6
#
4&###2K7$9%#1&#7#'#%61
*'#&'1'#%14&'1'#%1&
K#7#@'##7#'#%1'
8#7H*7#%94&&8'611981'2
'9#@1#%#@&
#1''##6#74&8J1111''##
*7#%#7#'%1'H*7#
#7'9:+(-;84&'&7'#
#&&'9:+(-;/3&#7#111
#&2'%#&#%
%5%#71
4&'2&7&7K17&'78@9
8@9!@&&##&7%&&#
8@9&6=7&2#1&84&
'8#1%&'2@&##
&'@:$.(;
&#$=5&&#&&#'#%61&
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$9&#&2&'#%61*'#1
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'0.?&#2#&37%$'7#1
Policy making and labour market regulation: the Australian case
&#81#9% #72#7#'
1'#%11'#%1:?(;&#%
#1&1%75#'###6
1'#%1&###61%&#71&
'70.?6-?4&&8&#719%'&@
7%#:1#;1'#%1#2#%&&#2#37#&
1'117&:!2%(!2#
+;
#91'#%170.?0-.#HA
70.?60-?&+A&&0,6+&#'A0?6+
0,,6-:0+(0,;F1% #=7%
#*'1&0?&160-;/&70-.
%&1'#%1#+A*&&#1'#%1
2*A:0.(+6;>2&0-,A%
#5&&#?6,71##61#2
4&%##1#2&'#&17
&1#F%1%'##%17#&#
#1,?F1%%11&'&
1'1#7&#6&'61&&#
11&#%''#1'#%1&*'
'17#%&'#:!2%(-,(6+?;
##&21'#%&#:#;'#%
#2#:<%?;F10.0-? #21'76
'G%'#%1#/0+?G%#1611#
1&1'2##61'#%1'#1&
&'#%2##&7=2:&0,0(+?6+.?;
4&'17&'1'#%0+0'##%0.&
&!O72178#1%9:0-;
/0.?&O721&'
##61'#%1'1%'#%7=2:#(-.;
4&111##61'#%10.?2#'1*#
7%# #9&%2#'&&#%'8#981*
1%9&77F0B##%&
8 ##19:G##%00;&867#'#%9#*23
'5'7#21&'#'1
7&#%##11#%5#%1
&2#%###%1##5*
%1F10.?&##61'#%11###7
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%1##'#1'#%1H&2&
8##1'#%170.?6-?<%''#1%#
###1'#%1##/'&
C##%6''2#21'#%
11'#%#''11'#%
4&71%&'#''#1%#&
##5*611'#%1'611'#%#1'#%
'''$5#%&'2
3&##61'11'#%:&%#
#2#&#1; 5#1'#%#1#%
#75&&#5*%1!#
'5&75&1##1'
&7#221&&&#'11'#%
=%2&75#1'#%&#1
R%#%#1'#%75##61'1
1'#%N&%'217111#%
&1:700(60;
/&% #311'7#>'%1#'
#1'#%/&1###&
##%&61#:'&'&;#
1'#%1 ##2'&1'#%1&#
#&%&&1'#%#&4&##%##
P'1#PP#61P#&2&
#%1:00.(?-;/70?&16
0-&''1'#%27%
1A: $00;/&%&16717#%
'#%&
The Neo-liberal Consensus
4&'#%&7&#0-#%0&1#7#1
'#%61&&&1#6#
/#0,-&#!1&''#7%&
1'#%9'%'%&9'2%&&879

1&1&&18*#H9#:7#%;##%
K#71
22#11#1#7#1#%'##'= 
"2%#7#1'#%"(
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%1&&##7%&12& 7!F
 #
4&2#2%11'#%1#'#%'#&
*'#'611'#%1 #%, #&&
&#''8'619&>!7&&&#
$@#&'611'#%1:V.+;1'++A&#
1'#%:V0.0+;:>!,67;: $,; &#1&
7'##%28##7978'611'#%19

/ #''#71'#%##61'618#
1'#%9 #%8#98'1'#%19#&8'6
11'#%19%
4&27&'#@1'#
1'#%11'%&&#&&&1'#
 &#'611%7'&=%1
%''#&@7%'61&&''
2##%8#=794&15&&&2
'61=7&71&'114&&&
'615&&*'7%/9
&1&21'61=7''
*'&&'=7&'&&##%
7'#&=#1#'#'61=7'8&'9
=7&&&%82K#59
<&#&&&#71'#"&
&##63#7#1#  $8#
1'#%191&&&"6GO721:0+6
00,;4&17#1'#%1,++':0;
.+': $00-;/'#1#1'#%1
++A,A##1'#%2&1%&#00&17#
1'#%&7%1#'#-&#%0:!1'7##00(
-G%?;$&H+A6'#&&&??A
+4&1'#*&##7127%47#7#(
Table 1: Casual Employees, 1992-2013
F/T Casual P/T Casual Male Female
Total
N %all F/T N %all P/T N %all male N %all female N %all
Employees
:V9;
00+0-0-.?,,..,.+?+.0.+
?
?.+??.,--.+,0+-0.+
?
,,.+++?0?--.,+-+
.?
2+-.,,?++?-?-,-++++0
$(G%?(
17 #9##71247&
1'61&##61#4&1%2&'
+'61#2%##61#&#&&2#%71
1#&1##&&1##1'#%1&&
1##1'#%1F1006+1##1'#%1
#2.A6&1#A4&
7*#7%53'&
##71&1&2#&'611'#%1
&17%1=31:
?;
##&%''#&271##1'#%1!#
1'#%7%&##61'11'#%+0+A##
#?%1'&,A&&'1&#
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%%16'&&''#
1'#%6.A&?E+.%'#:G%?(;
/%''#5''&'61&#
#7&:!2#+;
F##%1'#%1:&18'9;?6.
%#&2&&&1'#%1 ##A
1'#%1&'7%,.A-.A,: $,6
7; /,#%6&% #1'#%1'#%
&&&.%:&&$O-;
/&&#1'#&#
The Value of Historical Sociology
172$9&3#7#'#%1
1'#&'7&2#11'#1
'#%4&5&1712&&
''## #####%'2
'#&61'611'#%1#7&2
#7#1
4&21&#&#&&2
17#1%%&#77&#
&7&7%82%9<%
2$&&#&&'7#1#%#%9
#<2&%&1
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2#7#6#1114&'17
*'#&1#2#2#%6''''
&&&#''&#&''
2#%&7
/#%1&1#8#%&#9:";
&&#1#'#211##:
K00;4&2#&&##%&2#22
'1"##'##%#17
'14&1&#7#'1
&%&&&&#&&###&&
#11''7#:#0;4&#1&&#&&
'&1#8#9898&%9
4&#&1'1&&&
#2#%%'7#4&%1%#'##'#%
###11#'&&2#'(
1G%1&1'#%21%F##%&
&11&#2''##
&%2#2&1&:#0(6,;/&#11
9'7
Conclusion
F1&*'1#&1'%1%
1#6&8'96'##%'7#1&2
##%%&&1'#&
1'71*'#&&'1'#%16
'##%3%''##1$9&
'&&1&%:1+;4&1'
712#&1%%'##71&2
7&@7%31'#%1& #:
'&'&;&#1#2&#71&
'61#7&26#7#14&#1#
&&2#%77%$#7#'#%61/
&$2#&&%#'1'#%1&
&'60.?' & #2#&#
7%&##2%'*'#'
&#&&&'1&8E
#9%&##%#%&*8%9
7#7&1*'#:O:(+.;4&
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0.?
.
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#2#2#71#&0-&#
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#7210+#%&&#%1#&#%
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REFERENCES
$00!,+?<%
&'())72)77) +,)70+..7?-,?.7?,,
.00?)+-0-7.?.7?,W'1
#1  # ? !# 1'#%1  #
&'())'&2) 7X#1)#1%X'1)#1
%XO7%)'7)')'.?)QXB)!#>1'#%
$0/  #<%0?!,+?!7( $
$00- #$#4.!7( $
$,,6O7F #17,
&'())72) D$$4 4$)7Y)#),A,
'1
$,7 )*#+,"  #!
,+!7( $
##1%O7%4&##7'(1
#&2I&'?E<%!7( #
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O00.,$0"0.1- 20 
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... The dualization of the labour market created by the gig economy was also a consequence of what has been defined by our interviewees as a 'race to the bottom' in terms of pay and that there was always a fresh supply of younger workers who could be introduced to this 'new' world of work with the low pay and insecurity that accompanied it (Bessant et al, 2017). Revealingly, one interviewee from a social economy labour organisation explained that many who sought support from his organisation as self-employed freelancers quickly moved on to standard forms of employment whenever it became available because that was their primary goal. ...
Chapter
The transformations of work evident in the global economy by the fusion of technological developments and global capital, have generated new patterns of work which disrupt long established conceptual, legal, and common understandings of labour. The new forms of employment that are labelled the ‘gig economy’ are among them: building, on the one hand, upon a spirit of capitalism which transforms features of everyday life (e.g. free time, ability to cycle, knowledge of a given city and neighborhood, and the possession of a cell-phone) into resources for income generation; while, on the other hand, blurring the line between dependent and autonomous work, as gig workers retain some aspects of self-employment (they can decide when and for how long to ‘ride’ on a day, responsibility or ownership of their bikes/vehicles etc..) while seeking orders for deliveries to generate income often carrying the brand of a large private company embedded in the growing ecology of platform capitalism. Attempts to clarify the nature of gig work are made by a range of actors, including local and national public authorities or trade unions which seek to regulate, and increase public awareness about, work in the sector. Yet, the confusion about what gig work implies for people’s lives (in terms of income and well-being) and the consequences it generates for the future of all work, are still there: many workers, trade unions and public actors are yet to solve the challenges raised by the new phenomenon. Who are those who see it as simply a new modality to increase people’s economic potential via self-employment or self-entrepreneurship? Which actors instead consider the gig economy to simply be a new form of labour exploitation promoted by ‘surveillance capitalism’? What would further regulation produce in this domain? Are current academic and policy categories of work adequate to understand such a phenomenon or do we need new conceptual and policy lenses? In this chapter we discuss such issues by contrasting the opinions and experiences of gig workers, unions, and policymakers in the UK, a country which has been pioneering matching of global capital with disruptive technology in an already advanced deregulated labour context.
... Advanced industrial countries around the world, including Australia, New Zealand, the UK, the US, Canada, many European nations, Japan, and South Korea, are experiencing similar structural changes associated with ageing populations and economic slowdown. It increasingly appears that today's young adults are not only doing less well than older people, but that they are also worse-off in relative terms than older cohorts were as young adults and are likely to be worse-off as seniors than the current over-65s [3][4][5][6]. In Europe, young people were one of the groups most affected by austerity policies following the Global Financial Crisis (GFC) of 2007-8 [7]. ...
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Evidence suggests that, on average, younger citizens in advanced industrial democracies tend to have different policy preferences to those aged 65 and over. Population ageing and relatively lower levels of electoral participation among young people amplify the political voice of older citizens and contribute to policymakers being more responsive to their preferences. This paper presents qualitative evidence on whether young adults and older Australians recognise a need to increase young people’s influence on policymaking in the context of intergenerational inequality. The paper considers possible responses to this need, such as voting age reform. Results indicate that there is reasonable support, including from the older participants, to enhance young people’s political voice and influence over policymaking. Growing awareness of intergenerational inequality in ageing democracies may make public opinion more favourable towards voting age reform and other measures to increase the political voice of young people.
... In broader terms, youth studies understand precarity as a political process that increases economic and social inequalities, erodes societal safety nets and governs through insecurity (e.g. Bessant et al., 2017). ...
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Although broad labour market transformations have altered employment prospects for young people in the Global North, young people remain optimistic about their future employment opportunities. However, there is relatively little research on variations in young people’s perceptions. Using data from the Finnish Youth Barometer Survey, we address this gap by analysing young people’s perceived employment insecurity—that is, feelings of insecurity about future employment chances. We analyse first the determinants of employment insecurity and second the relationship between non-standard work contracts and employment insecurity in the employed group. The finding showed that economic downturns, immigrant background and unemployment status are associated with insecurity. Having a non-standard contract was associated with more insecurity. Young women feel more insecure than men. This is partly explained by the concentration of non-standard contracts among women. Our results show that there are differences in employment insecurity among young people and that young people react to economic downturns.
... While many young people aspire to acquire an education and move into formal sector blue-collar and white-collar jobs, these aspirations are not matched by labor market realities. Young people may find difficulty in obtaining formal sector jobs without the relevant diplomas, but in today's overcrowded labor markets, having these diplomas does not in any way guarantee access to such jobs (Bessant et al., 2017). Thus, it is important not to interpret young people's difficulties in finding employment as being due to individual inabilities or endowment deficits with regard to education, as opposed to political economic shifts or neglect (Naafs and Skelton, 2018). ...
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Young people are on the front lines of transforming agriculture and food systems, coping with the social and economic impacts of COVID-19 as well as environmental and climate change effects which are likely to accelerate and intensify during their lifetimes. At the same time, young people across global contexts are increasingly emerging as visible agents of change in food systems, especially through networks that create, transform, and distribute food systems knowledge. This policy and practice review examines the role of youth as actors through food systems knowledge networks. Increasing youth participation in creating sustainable food systems for the future requires policies and practices that support food systems-related knowledge in two ways: (1) democratizing formal education systems; and (2) strengthening horizontal networks of grassroots research and innovation, including through traditional, ecological, local and community knowledge (TELCK). Food systems policies should be developed through dialogue with diverse knowledge systems, experiences, place-based needs, and aspirations of young people to maximize their participation in food systems policy development and evaluation.
... Precarious representation and narrative of the future, as already largely discussed by the literature (Bessant et al., 2017;Bessant, 2018;Cook, 2016Cook, , 2018 affects everyday life decisions and plans, especially during the transition into adulthood, and depending on young people's and their families' capitals and resources (Savage et al., 2005;Heinz, 2009;Roberts, 2016;Wierenga, 2008;Woodman, 2011Woodman, , 2012Woodman and Wyn, 2015). ...
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Purpose The retail sector is not largely studied in Italy. The study offers a comparison between youth retail shift work in Milan and London. The aim of this paper is to contribute to the debate on the one hand on youth work and on the other hand to the debate on agency and structural factors in life planning, representation of the future and the transition to adulthood, observed in the United Kingdom's and Italian labour market. Even if the second one is a Southern European Country, these contexts are both characterised by a service-oriented economy and the widespread of precarious and flexible jobs. Design/methodology/approach Qualitative methods were used: one year of ethnographic observation, 50 interviews and two focus groups were carried out between 2015 and 2018 with retail workers and trade unionists. The contexts are Corso Buenos Aires in Milan, Italy, and Oxford Street in London, United Kingdom. Analysing young workers' discourses, the author identifies narratives that allow to grasp their present agency and imagined future. Findings Observing the crisis of the narrative (Sennett, 2020) allows to highlight the social consequences of working times on young workers' everyday life and future. The author argues that young workers struggle with the narrative of their present everyday life and the representation of the future. This relates to the condition of time alienation due to the flexible schedules and the fast pace of work in retail, both affecting the work-life balance. Originality/value The social consequences of flexible schedules in retail and fast fashion sector, which are new issues not yet sufficiently explored, are here investigated from the perspective of young workers. The study is focussed on the representations of young people working with customers in social and economic contexts characterised by flexible schedules and the deregulation of shop openings, the so-called 24/7 service society, not largely investigated in the sociological scientific literature, above all in the Italian context.
... In considering self-crafting, it is important to keep in mind that our current generation of young people arguably are forming their lives in an era of heightened neoliberalism, 'crafting their identities and making sense of their educational and employment experiences and choices within the context of neoliberal imperatives' (Keddie et al., 2020, p. 99; see also Bessant et al., 2017). ...
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Previous research has shown that the working-class experience in education is informed by various aspects of class disadvantage. While not disputing this work, this chapter maps a dimension of subjectivity for those participants who successfully transitioned to higher education—that of fulfilment. The discourse of fulfilment and improvement was integral to their pathway. Echoing work on the importance of autonomy and resilience in the formation of masculinities, the boys in this study found fulfilment in a new-found independence associated with the transition to higher education. As they came to feel more adult and take on more responsibility, they also revealed the fragility of their subjectivity. The boys constructed themselves in relation to a pre-set ideal university learner, a neoliberal fiction, and never quite felt like they were measuring up.
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Much research has examined the association between precarious employment and wellbeing in adults, but little is known about this relationship in working students. Using a sample of 224 (MAge 21 years; 68% female), we assessed self-perceptions of job precariousness across four domains (i.e., job insecurity, remuneration, conditions, flexibility) and tested the relationships between the four domains and student burnout, and whether these relationships could be explained sequentially by higher levels of job and financial strain and sleep disruption. Job insecurity alone related both directly and indirectly to burnout (via job and financial strain and poor sleep quality). Precariousness related to financial strain (insecurity, remuneration), job strain (insecurity, flexibility), and sleep quality (insecurity); financial and job strain related to sleep quality; and sleep quality related to burnout. By decomposing the job precariousness construct, the findings provide an improved understanding of how working in low quality, precarious jobs is related to student wellbeing.
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Democracy was forged in the furnaces of oppression, whether combatting tyranny or affirming the rights of the individual. As democracy is under threat in many parts of the world, there has never been a more urgent need to understand political thoughts and behaviours. This lucid and accessible book brings together a global group of scholars from psychology, political science, communication, sociology, education and psychiatry. The book's structure, based on Abraham Lincoln's well-known phrase 'Of, by and for' the people, scrutinises the psychological factors experienced by politicians as representatives 'of' the electorate, the political institutions and systems devised 'by' those we elect, and the societies that influence the context 'for' us as citizens. From trust to risk, from political values to moral and religious priorities, from the personality and language of leaders to fake news and anti-democratic forces, this book provides vital new insights for researchers, politicians and citizens alike.
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Crisis makes bold policy actions possible. In responding to socioeconomic and technological ruptures, policymakers create new imaginaries or revitalise existing ones. With the Australian Government’s Job-Ready Graduates (JRG) reform during the COVID-19 pandemic as an empirical case, this paper shows how crisis instrumentalism and policy imaginaries intersect to effect swift policy changes. Drawing on a thematic analysis of key documents that constitute the JRG reform, we highlight three findings. First, the reformers used a new crisis context to repackage pre-existing policy agendas. Second, in justifying the timeliness of the reform, rather than constructing new imaginaries, the Government reactivated old neoliberal visions of society and the economy. Finally, the reform agendas are characterised by reductionist accounts of the value of university education, a nativist view of the future workforce, and the omissions of key issues: research training, social justice, and the urgency of decarbonising the economy. We close the paper by arguing that crisis makes swift reform possible to the extent that key actors can mobilise new or pre-existing policy imaginaries .
Chapter
The university experience for many first-in-family males is shaped by prolonged bouts of isolation as they struggle to belong to what, for many, is a foreign environment. Central to coming to belong is the crafting of new identities as they engage in new forms of selfhood and studenthood. Specifically, as they transition to higher education, the data suggests they invest in a form of selfhood aligned with the entrepreneurial self, while simultaneously renegotiating aspects of their working-class identity, highlighting the difficult tensions inherent in social mobility. Therefore, the chapter contends that self-crafting is a process of calibrating and regulating new forms of selfhood, where those who do not possess durable cultural capital may struggle with feelings of inauthenticity.
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The way in which societies around the globe are governed is changing towards more flexible and networked forms where the government is not the sole and main responsible actor in the organisation, funding, delivery and evaluation of public services. Analysing the new roles of philanthropic organisations, think tanks and business organisations is a key task in order to understand the expansion of neoliberal ideas and solutions in the field of education policy. Taking as a starting point the set of ideological pillars and discursive practices of the Spanish neoliberal think tank Foundation for Social Studies and Analysis (Fundación para el Análisis y los Estudios Sociales, FAES) and its networks of academics and experts, this article aims to offer a deeper understanding of the processes through which new models of public management and market-based solutions are being promoted and enacted in the Spanish educational arena. To do this, we will experiment with tools derived from what is known as ‘network ethnography’, a new methodological approach that combines aspects of Social Network Analysis with more traditional ethnographic methods.
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The local neighbourhood has an enduring significance for British urban, working-class youth in relation to their transitions, cultures and leisure practices. This paper examines these interrelated issues by drawing upon ethnographic research undertaken in ‘Manor’, a deprived, multi-ethnic East London neighbourhood. It explores the transitions taken by black, white and mixed-parentage young males (and some of their female peers), transitions that were formed by the interaction of paid work opportunities with youth cultures and leisure practices (‘road’ and ‘grafter’ cultures), ethnicity, gender and social networks. Even within a single deprived and stigmatized neighbourhood such as Manor, a number of transitions could be identified. These include ‘grafting’ at manual, masculine ‘dirty work’ in the construction industry; going to college allied to ‘clean’, service-sector work; and an ‘alternative’ route of ‘working on road’ by undertaking a variety of low-level, illegal money-making activities.
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Generational Accounting measures the burden that current fiscal policies are likely to impose on future generations. It also identifies the set of policy reforms needed to achieve generational balance a situation in which future generations face the same lifetime net tax rates as current generations. This paper presents the first set of generational accounts for the United Kingdom and compares the UK generational imbalance with that in the U.S., Japan, Germany, France, Italy, and twelve other countries in Europe, Asia, and South America. The preparation of this study was greatly aided by various departments of the government, particularly H.M. Treasury. In providing this assistance, the government has initiated an extremely important process of doing long-term fiscal planning for the nation on a systematic and comprehensive basis. That said, the particular findings and assessments presented in this paper are those of its authors and not those of Her Majesty's Government. Compared wit...