Weight, speed, axle space, and following distance of the vehicles are important factors that determine the live load for simply supported beam bridges. In this study, the effect of live load on simply supported bridges was investigated by considering these parameters. The parameters namely weight, speed, longitudinal following space, and vehicle occupancy ratio on different driving lanes are considered using different numerical models. Then, the random traffic flow is simulated using Monte Carlo method based on Nan-xi Yangzi River Bridge’s weigh-in-motion system data. Finite element models are established for six types of simply supported beam bridges with the span ranging from 6 to 40 m and transient analysis is simulated under the traffic loading. Subsequently, the maximum value distribution of live load for lifetime is obtained for the collected data by the method of extrapolation. This study shows that the mean value of the live load for the simply supported beam bridges under a random traffic flow is lower than the permissible design load as per American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials; however, it is higher than the permissible design load as per BS5400, and it is 0.82 times the Highway-I standard load.