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To be successful in a STEM career, not only STEM knowledge and skills but also creativity is required. Therefore, the arts have been integrated into STEM disciplines and subsequently designated as STEAM education (Sousa & Pilecki, 2013). One example of informal learning environments that STEAM education provided is a summer camp. In this study, middle and highs school students’ use of their creativity in the Project-based Learning (PBL) courses was examined to determine students’ belief about the use of the arts in STEM activities. The results showed that students believed that they used their creativity in eight of the nine classes.
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Ayse Tugba Oner
Texas A&M University
Sandra Bonorden Nite
Texas A&M University
Robert M. Capraro
Texas A&M University
Mary Margaret Capraro
Texas A&M University
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From STEM to STEAM: Students’ beliefs about the use of their creativity
Ayse Tugba Oner, Sandra Bonorden Nite, Robert M. Capraro, & Mary Margaret Capraro
Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) knowledge and skills are critical for
students to become part of the 21st century workforce. The desired skills for today’s workforce
include the use of an interdisciplinary approach to problem solving, technology, innovation, and
communication with multiple media tools (Young, House, Wang, Singleton & Klopfenstein,
2011). Because there is a high demand for workers who have these skills in addition to STEM
content knowledge, policymakers and other stakeholders focused on STEM education in an
effort to increase the number of students pursuing STEM degrees and careers (National
Academies of Science, 2007; Presidents’ Council of Advisors on Science and Technology,
2010). While these actions continue, researchers have pointed out the importance of artistic skills
in the STEM workforce (Madden, Baxter, Beauchamp, Bouchard, Habermas, Huff, Ladd,
Pearon, & Plague, 2013; Keefe & Laidlaw, 2013; Kim, Kim, Nam, & Lee, 2012). For instance,
one technology entrepreneur and former media/entertainment executive indicated the importance
of the integration of STEM and art from the viewpoint of creativity by stating:
As an executive and entrepreneur sitting on both sides of the creative/technology fence,
I need to hire technologists who know how to collaborate in teams, express themselves
coherently, engagingly and persuasively, understand how to take and apply constructive
criticism, and how to tell a good story. I don’t find these kids sitting alone at a lab table
or buried in an algorithm. I find them taking art classes to understand how color and
light really work(Tarnoff, 2010, para. 8)
Oner et al.: From STEM to STEAM: Students’ Beliefs About the Use of Their Creativity
Therefore, the involvement of the arts with STEM is essential to overcome 21st century problems
with a complete set of knowledge and skills that work in concert to provide the most effective
solutions possible.
The integration of the arts into STEM education resulted in a new acronym STEAM, derived
from STEM + Arts. The art aspect of STEAM was commonly referred as creativity in education
(e.g., Land, 2013; Kang, Jang, & Kim, 2013; Kim et al., 2012; Madden et al., 2013; Sousa &
Pilecki, 2013). Projects requiring creativity with the knowledge of STEM disciplines have gained
popularity in recent years. For example, 3D printer use in project-based learning (PBL) activities
showed the need for STEM knowledge and creativity to design more sophisticated products.
PBL instructional strategies require students to produce an item (e.g., a prototype of a bridge or
robot, a report or presentation for a professional community). When these types of projects are
considered, more STEM PBL activities supported by the arts gain value and importance in
formal and informal learning environments. The current study sheds light on the growing interest
in STEAM. The purpose of this study is to examine middle and high school students’ perceptions
about the use of their creativity in STEM projects that were generated in a STEM summer camp.
Science, Technology, Engineering, Art, and Mathematics (STEAM)
While STEAM education has been developing, it is essential to understand why STEM needs to
change to STEAM. STEM and the arts were long seen as opposite sides by the public (Sousa &
Pilecki, 2013). However, the combination of these seemingly opposite sides brings the variety
and diversity that are necessary for innovative product design. For instance, the characteristics of
STEM are objective, logical, analytical, reproducible, and useful whereas the characteristics of
the arts are subjective, intuitive, sensual, unique, and sometimes considered frivolous (Sousa &
The STEAM Journal, Vol. 2, Iss. 2 [2016], Art. 6
Pilecki, 2013). Science and the arts complement each other because “science provides a
methodological tool in the art and art provides creative model in the development of science”
(Kim et al., 2012, p.2). In the real world, people possess and employ the characteristics of both
sides; thus, the opportunity to utilize both characteristics should be included in education as well.
For instance, when an architect designs a building, she needs to use creativity to make the
building appear interesting and pleasant to those who work there or do business there as well as
ensuring structural soundness. Musical instrument makers need to be precise with the
mathematics and science required for pitch accuracy, but they also use their aural abilities to
create tone qualities that are pleasing to the ears of the audience. STEAM education provides
many opportunities for students to improve themselves in several areas, due to the advantages of
the arts. These advantages are: a) development of cognitive growth, b) improvement of long-
term memory, c) enhancement of social growth, d) reduction of stress, e) increasing the appeal of
subject areas, and f) promotion of creativity (Sousa & Pilecki, 2013). When these advantages are
taken into consideration and embedded in STEM education, it prepares students for todays’
challenges. Research findings demonstrated that if the arts were included in science fields,
students could be more interested in STEM fields (Kang et al., 2013), activities with experts
could affect their career decisions (Keefe & Laidlaw, 2013) and STEM fields could be more
appealing to students (Land, 2013).
The “A” in the STEAM mostly referred to creativity in the education field (e.g., Kang et al.,
2013; Kim et al., 2012; Madden et al., 2013; Sousa & Pilecki, 2013). Creativity includes
divergent thinking (Madden et al., 2013; Sousa & Pilecki, 2013), and divergent thinking leads to
more than one solution to a problem, which is a very important skill. Creativity also results in a
Oner et al.: From STEM to STEAM: Students’ Beliefs About the Use of Their Creativity
product, and it is not only thinking but also “producing something novel” (Sousa & Pilecki,
2013, p. 50). Therefore, in the educational environment, students should improve their creative
thinking skills because this is an essential skill for their future careers. Fostering creativity with
activities in the learning environment is crucial. Research results demonstrated that activities
requiring creative thinking resulted in positive outcomes. They enhanced students’ self-reflection
(Autry & Walker, 2011), increased advanced thinking skills (Hargrove, 2011), and strengthened
collaboration with others (Crow, 2008). Thus, it is vital to provide activities such as PBL for
students to improve their creativity in formal and/or informal learning environments.
Informal Learning Environments
Informal learning environments provide opportunities for supportive teaching and learning in
addition to learning that takes place in formal school settings. There are different types of
informal learning environments, and one of them is summer camp (Fenichel & Schweingruber,
2010). A myriad of summer camps have been provided in the United States (U.S.) in different
fields such as leadership, sports, or academics. One type of camp is related to STEM learning.
By attending STEM camps, students had an opportunity to understand and learn STEM fields in
a more attractive and interesting way (Dave, Blasko, Holliday-Darr, Kremer, Edwards, Ford,
Lenhardt, & Hido, 2010; Davis & Hardin, 2013). With a need for a greater number of STEM
graduates, increasing the numbers of STEM camps in the U.S. was a logical approach. Offering
STEM camps is a very effective way to increase the number of students who would like to
pursue a STEM career. In this way, students could attend courses and participate in projects
about STEM fields, and their interest in STEM could be enhanced.
In STEM camps, students are asked to participate in projects. These projects heavily focus on
STEM subjects (Authors, 2013). However, projects in STEM camps require not only prior or
The STEAM Journal, Vol. 2, Iss. 2 [2016], Art. 6
existing knowledge but also creativity that requires an artistic perspective (Authors, 2014).
Therefore, STEM projects actually include art in them. Art helps students to develop a subjective
perspective while science created an objective one, and students need both to make informed
decisions (Sousa & Pilecki, 2013). There are many advantages to integrating the arts into STEM
subjects and creating STEAM (science, technology, engineering, art, and mathematics), such as
developing cognitive growth, increasing long-term memory, and encouraging creativity (Sousa
& Pilecki, 2013). Studies showed that if the arts were included in science fields, students could
be more interested in STEM fields (Kang et al., 2013), activities with experts could affect their
career decisions (Keefe & Laidlaw, 2013) and STEM fields could be more appealing to students
(Land, 2013).
Purpose of the study
Even though inclusion of Arts disciplines into STEM disciplines has remained on the agenda for
seven years, the studies focused on STEAM are sparse. The present study was conducted to shed
light on STEAM education in an informal learning environment. In the current study, students’
perceptions about how they used their creativity in their STEM projects were examined. They
participated in several STEM PBL projects in the two-week long STEM summer camp. They
had opportunities to use their creativity in their products in many courses. Their belief about the
opportunity of the use of creativity in a STEM summer camp was surveyed before the courses
were given. At the end of the camp their opinions about whether they had used their creativity on
their projects were solicited.
Oner et al.: From STEM to STEAM: Students’ Beliefs About the Use of Their Creativity
Participants (N=104) were 7th through 12th grade students who attended a two-week summer
camp that included a variety of mini-courses, most of which resulted in products that students
designed and created. There were 61 male and 43 female students. The number of students
according to their ethnicity was: African American (N=12), Asian (N=10), Hispanic (N=29),
Indian (N=3), and White (N=5.0)
Participants participated in a two-week long STEM-focused summer camp. During the camp,
university faculty from different departments (e.g., civil engineering, physics, and education)
taught the content with engaging PBL activities. The PBL activities provided in the camp for
students to involve were: building bridges with popsicle sticks and glue, making lip gloss with
organic materials, preparing a video that explained their (i.e., students) products they created
during the PBL activities, planning a brochure about their other PBL outcomes, and designing an
object with 3D modeling software (i.e., computer aided design), creating an application design
for cell-phone, and using Legos to build robots. Students were able to print their 3D designs with
a 3D printer. The projects were all subject to criteria for a well-defined outcome and constraints
on the ill-defined task (Authors, 2013). Students were able to test their bridges and after testing,
they calculated the efficiency rate, which was the weight that the bridge could carry divided by
the bridge’s mass. The efficiency rate of the bridge, creative design, and realistic bridge design
were judged, and awards were presented to the winners.
The STEAM Journal, Vol. 2, Iss. 2 [2016], Art. 6
Data Analysis
To understand students’ perceptions about the creativity usage in activities, questions on a Likert
scale and an open-ended question were asked. The frequency of the answers was reported and
students’ answers were classified according to the courses they identified that required creativity
and the ways they used creativity in designing their products.
Students’ perceptions about usage of their creativity in STEM projects were explored in the
survey. Sixty-four students replied to the open-ended question, “If you had an opportunity to use
your creativity, explain how you used creativity in your project(s)”. Students’ answers were
classified under the eight mini-courses identified as providing opportunities for using creativity.
These classes were: 1) 3D design, 2) bridge building, 3) designing a brochure, 4) making a video,
5) creating a robot, 6) designing a phone application, 7) formulating lip gloss, and 8) creating a
cipher message.
Forty-three students asserted that they used creativity in the computer aided design course. In
this project, instructors taught students how to use 3D modeling software, and students designed
and printed their own products (see Figure 1). There were some limitations in the course in terms
of 3D printer capability such as the product that students designed had to meet the criteria of
fitting on the build plate of the 3D printer. Students enjoyed making their own designs and were
interested in building an object that included their creativity. Examples of students’ answers
about computer aided design and use of their creativity is represented in Table 1.
Oner et al.: From STEM to STEAM: Students’ Beliefs About the Use of Their Creativity
Figure 1. Representative images of
students’ object design in a 3D modeling
The second most frequent answer was
about the construction engineering course.
Students built bridges according to
constraints given in the PBL handout.
They were allowed to use only a limited
number of popsicle sticks and glue (see Figure 2). The bridge had to meet requirements that
included specific distances from abutments of the bridge and the width of the bridge. Students
used their creativity in this activity, and they were keen to create a bridge that was different from
other groups; therefore, they used their
creativity both in designing a bridge that
they believed would bear the most
weight and was unique. Some examples
of students’ answers are represented in
Table 1.
Figure 2. Students work on building
bridge with given materials
The STEAM Journal, Vol. 2, Iss. 2 [2016], Art. 6
Students were assigned to one of two marketing classes. One class was multimedia marketing,
and the other was print marketing. In these classes, students were expected to market their
products that were created in other PBL courses. In the multimedia marketing class, they filmed
and edited a movie by using iMovie software. In the print marketing class, students learned how
to design a tri fold brochure. In both classes, they used their creativity to propose the best and
most eye-catching presentation to sell their PBL products. Table 1 includes examples of
students’ opinions about using their creativity in these classes.
Robotics, lip-gloss production, application design, and cryptography were other courses through
which students affirmed that they used their creativity. Examples of students’ perceptions about
creativity in these courses are presented in Table 1.
Oner et al.: From STEM to STEAM: Students’ Beliefs About the Use of Their Creativity
Table 1
Students’ Answers about Use of Their Creativity in Classes
Examples from students’ answers to the open-ended question
3D design (43)
I made a tank in sketch up that was unique because the way I made it.
I was in the Computer Aid Design class, so I was able to make whatever
I wanted on Sketch up. I was able to use my creativity then.
When I created a 3-D object in my Computer Aided Design class, I used
my artistic ability.
bridge building
I used my creativity in bridge building and computer aided design. In
bridge, I wanted the creativity award so I was being creative. In
computer aided design I was being creative because I was designing an
abstract sculpture.
Bridge designs allowed for a creative project that would be tested to see
how your idea performs. 3D printing allowed you to bring your dreams
to life and express yourself through artistic means
I used it when I built the bridge by using shapes and also coloring it.
brochure (10)
Created a brochure for biology
Mostly in my bridge or my 3-D project or even my brochure. I created a
solar cannon in my brochure from the future and even created a
futuristic car with 3-D software.
I used my creativity in activities such as making my own business in
print marketing.
making video
I used my creativity to make a 3d object and to make a video in iMovie.
I used in both the multimedia project class and the 3D software and
printing class
Drawing pictures, choosing my own music, making things colorful (in
multimedia marketing class)
creating a robot
We had to make robots from scratch that utilized our use of creativity.
I built a robot with 2 NXTs instead of one like everyone else.
making lip gloss
We used it (creativity) in multimedia with the videos, cosmetic science
with creating lip gloss
designing phone
application (1)
I used my creativity when I made an (phone) application about lip gloss
and shaving cream. I also made a brochure and planted seeds such as
chia & sprouts.
creating cipher
message (1)
Used to create hard codes for the coding scavenger hunt. I had to
improvise on the bridge project and my team was constantly in search of
a creative, more efficient solution.
The STEAM Journal, Vol. 2, Iss. 2 [2016], Art. 6
Conclusion and Discussion
Although STEM is important for progress in today’s society and global competition, the
omission of the arts from the educational system would clearly be a colossal mistake. Well over
half the students in the study indicated in the survey that they would be more interested in STEM
careers if they were able to use creativity in the job itself. Most of the students indicated a belief
that STEM careers required creativity, but the number of those who believed problem solving
required artistic solutions increased after the STEM camp experience. The individual comments
showed that the students were well aware of their use of creative and artistic solutions in a
variety of ways. One might expect students who chose to attend a STEM camp to have a more
realistic idea of STEM careers than the general population. However, often parents elected to
send students to the camp; students did not necessarily choose a STEM camp. The experiences at
the STEM camp gave students opportunities to design products and solve problems using STEM
content knowledge and creativity combined, experiences not often gained in formal school
settings. The implications for education are twofold: 1) the arts should preserve or regain their
prominence in the educational system, and 2) opportunities should be provided in formal school
settings for students to use both creativity and logical thought processes in solving problems.
Engagement in the arts has been shown to have benefits emotionally, giving the arts an
importance on their own, outside STEM. However, opportunities to participate in the arts also
supply students with creative outlets that will support and enhance their problem solving skills.
By giving students the tools they need to solve 21st century problems from a variety of
perspectives and using a variety of approaches by integrating skills from the arts and STEM,
future scientists and engineers will fully understand the benefits and importance of STEAM for
our world.
Oner et al.: From STEM to STEAM: Students’ Beliefs About the Use of Their Creativity
Authors would like to thank Aggie STEM Center for conducting and providing data.
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... Art introduces a new level of creativity, new ways to innovate and create, communicate complex information, sparking students' imagination, demonstrate new and exciting ways of thinking and problem-solving. STEAM advocates argue that STEAM exploring where art naturally fits into the STEM subjects in STEAM education (Jolly, 2014;Kelly & Knowlws, 2016;Moore et al., 2014;Oner et al., 2016). Adding some STEAM into STEM by applying design and computer graphics to projects or using the performing art to communicate a STEM project provides the tools to various learning styles. ...
... Adding some STEAM into STEM by applying design and computer graphics to projects or using the performing art to communicate a STEM project provides the tools to various learning styles. (Jolly, 2014;Kelly & Knowlws, 2016;Moore et al., 2014;Oner et al., 2016). Hence, adding art to STEM does not take anything away from education. ...
This study examined the effectiveness of STEAM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Art, Mathematics) integrated approach via Scratch on five subconstructs of computational thinking (CT) among 29 male and 30 female students. A quasi-experimental design was employed in the research. The participants demonstrated the application of CT in designing games via Scratch during the intervention. The Computational Thinking Survey (CTS) was administered pre-CT and post-CT tests in measuring the five subconstructs of CT. Repeated multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) results showed that the intervention positively affected male and female students’ comprehension concerning the five subconstructs of CT. The results were strengthened by the repeated measure of analysis of variance (ANOVA) with posthoc comparisons, indicating all five subconstructs of CT increased significantly (p <.05). Indirectly, this research introduced a new teaching methodology for students’ CT level in the current electronic and technology-advanced era and increased concept manipulation capacity among male and female students. © 2021. by the authors; licensee Modestum. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution License (
... Adding in ecological and cultural sustainability, including rotating displays in the common areas of the schools and having community meetings and program information nights. Educators report parent engagement and donations are increasing [21]- [26], [28]. ...
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If science can define meanings and measure results, art can express them and give a step forward to refreshment and innovation. The artist-scientist archetype started from Archimedes going to Nikolai Tesla, in about the inventor, the seeker, the dreamer, and the thinker, both as new scientist and artist. A growing number of schools are incorporating teaching methods that are more aligned to STEAM education (Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts and Mathematics) since it has become, almost very clear and concrete, that art’s education makes learning more fun and keeps everyone involved even more engaged. As exploring new possibilities, to lead innovation in the classroom and promote leadership at all levels, encourage teachers and principals, make the school and the whole system a dynamic one. The core value is that the need for STEAM education is critical, especially because there will be related jobs ready to be filled as soon as possible. This job is about to show, when and how can a STEAM educational concept can be delivered in a system that seems to have been destroyed from its old mistakes and can give a real boost to a new oriented public school, in the best possible integrated educational system for preparing students for the university and beyond. Primary inquiry, dialogue, and critical thinking seem to lead the way for a better life in the school environment and real-life society.
... Not only do ISEAs supplement all these benefits of classroom science, they do so without the constraints of curriculum, text books, tests, metrics, or oversight by school boards or other organizations [1,4,5]. This freedom has led, in some cases, to extremely creative and meaningful learning experiences [17,18]. When twoway interaction methods are employed, the resulting dia-logues can bring science "alive", spark interest, and stimulate curiosity in a way that is hard to replicate in classroom curricula designed to cover material on standardized tests and end-of-year exams [1,5]. ...
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... These STEAM components include an integrated approach to learning that requires an intentional connection between standards, assessments and lesson design. The core standard of STEAM promotes inquiry, collaboration and emphasizes on project-based learning approach, which assimilates the authenticity of art curriculum (Oner et al., 2016). ...
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The main purpose of the living technology curriculum is to cultivate students' interest in learning science and technology, and further to utilize their experience of learning instructions and develop their ability to integrate interdisciplinary knowledge and skills. In recent years, as countries have begun to emphasize the concept of interdisciplinary integration in the school education, STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics, STEM) focuses on cultivating interdisciplinary talents. With this, STEAM highlights the role of ART because other dimensions of STEM are expected to be effectively integrated through the cultivation of aesthetics; the purpose of this study is to design a STEAM curriculum for elementary school children and to explore the impact of STEAM education on the creativity. The content of this course is based on the PBL (Project-Based Learning) with the teaching activities combining with “Chinese Paper-cutting” and “BBC micro: bit”. The teaching process is used the strategy of creative thinking instruction. The research method adopts a one-group pretest–posttest design based on a purposive sampling of 21 students from one class in an elementary school. The research tools included the records of learning feedback and the creativity assessment. The empirical findings show that the project-based learning incorporating STEAM activity has a positive significant influence on students’ development of creative recognition. Since the empirical results are constricted by the short-term STEAM course, the STEAM course with the art-oriented still benefits the STEAM education and Learning effectiveness of elementary school students. The implication of interdisciplinary interactive Lamp of Paper Carving with Micro:Bit is expected to contribute to further development of STEAM course. Since the curriculum is only last for few weeks, it is too short to affect the emotional facet of creativity. Future researches are suggested to extend the teaching period and evaluate the long-term influence of PBL STEAM on students' learning attitude.
... Table 2 reviews some of the papers published related to STEAM education model. [30] presumption is that those who undergo higher education have acquired competency. But based on many studies, it is evident that a major portion of engineering graduates have lack of competency to be employed. ...
Innovation in course curriculum is a continuous process in the higher education system (HES). As the amount of published information growing with time at geometric progression, it is necessary to increase the depth and breadth of the HES curriculum of every course with time. Engineering education is one of the prominent areas in science & technology education, finding many opportunities and facing many challenges in the 21st century due to the accelerated advancement of technologies in many areas. Keeping students in pace with such developments and adopting such newly emerging areas of technology in the current curriculum is an essential requirement of the education industry’s progress. In this paper, we have proposed improvement in engineering education in India at the undergraduate level by means of six innovations to improve the depth, breadth, and vigorousness of the B.Tech. programme by suggesting a Student integrated development Framework in engineering based on STEAM-Employability Model with a focus on experimental learning. The six innovations proposed in this model upgrades the B.Tech. (Pass) programme into B.Tech. (Honours). The advantages, benefits, constraints, and disadvantages from students, institutions, and job offering industries point of view are analysed to check this model of B.Tech. (Honours) for its effectiveness in its objective of enhancing competency and employability of graduates to secure better employment.
... STEAM is not much different from PBL, however it has different on the disciplinary content so that it can be integrated. The learning steps of STEAM integrated with the PBL model are implemented, including (1) project planning that is given by the teacher to be completed, (2) developing project plans, (3) working together by preparing schedules and teachers to monitor the students and project progress, (4) testing and assessment of results, and (5) the evaluation of experiences in the project completion process (Oner et al., 2016). The learning process that provides the students' freedom to submit statements and answer, be creative in expressing creative ideas can hone students' visual-spatial intelligence. ...
... STEAM is not much different from PBL, however it has different on the disciplinary content so that it can be integrated. The learning steps of STEAM integrated with the PBL model are implemented, including (1) project planning that is given by the teacher to be completed, (2) developing project plans, (3) working together by preparing schedules and teachers to monitor the students and project progress, (4) testing and assessment of results, and (5) the evaluation of experiences in the project completion process (Oner et al., 2016). The learning process that provides the students' freedom to submit statements and answer, be creative in expressing creative ideas can hone students' visual-spatial intelligence. ...
Conference Paper
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The purpose of this study was to discover the existence of cognitive and affective learning outcomes of students using PBL-based STEAM with scientific learning with inquiry learning models. The type of research was a quasi-experimental design. Data were collected by means of test analysis, observation, interviews, and documentation from all fifth-grade students of primary school. Data analysis used t-test technique. To discover the effect of STEAM strategy on cognitive learning outcomes obtained from the pretest-post-test results, while affective learning outcomes were obtained through observation using the measurement data scale in the rubric. The results showed that there were significant differences between the experimental class and the control class on cognitive learning outcomes, however, there were differences in affective learning outcomes.
... Arranging this schedule requires good communication and collaboration between group members. This is reinforced by the research of Oner et al. (2016), which states that project-based learning can invite students to collaborate, communicate among students, solve problems, and carry out independent learning. ...
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This study aims to develop students' conceptual understanding by integrating the Science, Technology, Engineering, Art, and Mathematics (STEAM) project in thermochemistry. The qualitative research was employed with interviews, reflective journals, observations, students’ worksheets, and conceptual understanding tests on 40 students in senior high school. The STEAM project was implemented through a project-based learning model to develop students' understanding of exothermic and endothermic, combustion reactions, and enthalpy concepts. The STEAM project being developed is a steamship using three fuels: methanol, ethanol, and palm oil. The results showed that the student's understanding of enthalpy calculation had developed. Otherwise, the concept of exothermic, endothermic, and combustion reaction, especially related to applying the concept in daily life, is still undeveloped. Thus, some of the students experienced misconceptions. Therefore, the integration of contextual learning such as STEAM needs to be continuously applied to provide students with opportunities to develop their conceptual understanding and application in daily life.
... The concept of Art proposed by [18], is a very broad concept that encompasses, in addition to the so-called fine arts, other fields such as language and social sciences. The combination of scientific and artistic disciplines, apparently opposed, provides "the variety and diversity necessary for innovative product design" [24] and they complement each other because "science provides a methodological tool in art and art provides a creative model in the development of science " [25]. The European Parliament [26] considers the inclusion of art essential as it leads to the acquisition of key competences. ...
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The main objective of this article has been to evaluate the effect that the implementation of the EXPLORIA project has had on the Engineering Degree in Industrial Design and Product Development. The EXPLORIA project aims to develop an integrated competence map of the learning process, where the subjects are no longer considered as isolated contents, by elaborating an integrated learning process where the competences and learning outcomes of the subjects are considered as a whole, global and comprehensive learning. The EXPLORIA project connects the competencies of the different STEAM subjects that make up the degree, designing a learning process as a logical, sequential and incremental itinerary. Through concepts on which the foundations of design are based—shape, volume, colour, space and structure—the competencies of the different subjects are defined in incremental learning levels: understanding, applying, experimenting and developing, all taken from Bloom’s taxonomy. Mathematics is linked to the rest of learning through active learning methodologies that make learning useful. This new methodology changes the student’s affective domain towards mathematics in which positive emotions are transformed into positive attitudes that will improve the learning result and therefore, the students’ academic results. To validate it, at the end of the paper, the academic results compared with previous years are shown, as well as an ad hoc survey of the students’ assessment of the new teaching methodology.
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There is growing interest amongst forward looking public officials, educators, and professionals in enhancing the education platform to better prepare students for both analytical and creative thinking. Traditional STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics) degrees focus on convergent skills whereas art degrees focus on divergent skills. Having the ability to execute both at scale can better position our nation for global competitiveness. A study by the Partnership for a New American Economy, called “Not Coming to America,” demonstrates the lacking interest of STEM in undergraduates throughout American born citizens. With a STEM job market increasing three times faster than the rest of the economy, and only 4.4% of American undergraduates enrolled in STEM programs, there is a huge shortage of qualified high-tech workers. Education must foster not only problem solving skills but also problem seeking skills all while maintaining the interest of the students. The author, an art educator with STEM interest, will summarize the major initiative in STEM, rationalize the value of arts integration, discuss objective driven assessment, evaluate literacy opportunities, provide examples of taking theory to practice, and challenge the audience to go full “STEAM” ahead.
Practitioners in informal science settings--museums, after-school programs, science and technology centers, media enterprises, libraries, aquariums, zoos, and botanical gardens--are interested in finding out what learning looks like, how to measure it, and what they can do to ensure that people of all ages, from different backgrounds and cultures, have a positive learning experience. Surrounded by Science: Learning Science in Informal Environments, is designed to make that task easier. Based on the National Research Council study, Learning Science in Informal Environments: People, Places, and Pursuits, this book is a tool that provides case studies, illustrative examples, and probing questions for practitioners. In short, this book makes valuable research accessible to those working in informal science: educators, museum professionals, university faculty, youth leaders, media specialists, publishers, broadcast journalists, and many others. © 2010 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Conference Paper
We present a discussion of tools, methods, and lessons learned from nearly ten years of work using virtual reality data visualization as a driving problem area for collaborative practice-based STEAM education. This work has spanned multiple universities and design colleges. It has resulted in courses taught to both students majoring in computer science and students majoring in art or design. Within the classroom, an important aspect of our approach is including art and design students directly in real scientific research, often extended beyond the computer science aspects of data visualization to also include the research of collaborators in biology, medicine, and engineering who provide cutting-edge data visualization challenges. The interdisciplinary team-based education efforts have also extended beyond the classroom as art and design students have participated in our labs as research assistants and made major contributions to published scientific research. In some cases, these experiences have impacted career paths for students.
Design is a discipline of innovation: its essence is the creation of something new and unique. An assumption has been that the inclination and ability of a person to respond in novel and useful ways is largely inherited. Present research refutes this view, and it is now believed by many that, however creativity is defined, it is a form of behaviour that can be taught. Acknowledging this point leads to the questioning of how creativity is situated in the design curriculum. If, as present research suggests, most creativity training programmes are successful in that they encourage the development of metacognitive abilities, then the study of creativity as a self-regulatory metacognitive process is timely and important to design education.
This study interrogates the views of students training to be music teachers in relation to creativity in the music curriculum. Developing approaches to musical creativity has always been problematic in the classroom setting. However, the increasing movement to promote creativity across the school curriculum – with its broader universalised conception of creativity – has further blurred the concept for music educators. The study was longitudinal and took place over the participants’ training year. An initial questionnaire at the beginning of the year, before they embarked upon teaching experience, was followed up by in-depth interviews at the end of the year, after they had taught in classrooms for 120 days. The responses were coded and analysed using qualitative analysis software. The findings are important because they suggest that a problematic dichotomy exists in relation to the purpose of musical creativity in the classroom. For example, some respondents saw it as promoting generic life skills while others saw it as a conduit to musical understanding. Other findings suggest that teachers and pupils, for a number of reasons, may feel ill equipped or vulnerable when it comes to teaching and learning in creative classroom contexts. The study concludes by proposing a fuller debate on the context and articulation of musical creativity in the curriculum and the implications this might have for future teacher training and the development of emerging pedagogies.
The authors conducted a qualitative study on the use of artistic representation to promote students' creativity and enhance their ability to self-reflect. The researchers used self-reflection articles about artistic representation and responses to a questionnaire at the end of the semester. Three overarching themes, as seen through the lens of the researchers, were: a) influences on self-reflection, b) emotions elicited during the creative process and classroom presentation, and c) responses following completion of the assignment. Subthemes were identified under emotions elicited during the creative process and classroom presentation and under responses following completion of the assignment. The authors address implications for using a similar activity with clients and considerations for future studies.
Prepare and Inspire: K-12 Education in Science
President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology. (2010). Prepare and Inspire: K-12 Education in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) for America's Future: