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The Effects of Compression Socks on Arterial Blood Flow and Arterial Reserves in Amateur Sportsmen

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Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of compression stockings on vascular function and lactate threshold in 30 healthy nonprofessional runners. The task was to perform two runs with a time gap of one week on a standard treadmill ergometer using a 12% slope and a velocity between 1 and 9 km.h‐1. One half of the subjects wore the compression stockings with the first run, the other half with the second run. After the ergometry, measurements of lactate, arterial blood flow and arterial reserve using a Venous Plethysmography were performed. The results show no effect of the compression stockings on the lactate measurement. Arterial reserve of the left leg increased after running with socks compared with running without socks (with socks: M=13.07, SE= 1.12; without socks: M=10.18, SE=.921). The same holds true for the arterial blood flow (with socks: M=6.49, SE= .859; without socks: M=5.06, SE=.68). Conclusion: there were no significant differences in lactate threshold, but the study showed a significant increase both of arterial reserve and arterial blood flow. These findings suggest that running with compression socks has a positive effect on blood flow and blood volume, i.e. it leads to an increase of circulation.
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DevelopmentinSportsScience,Volume1www.seipub.org/dss
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TheEffectsofCompressionSocksonArterial
BloodFlowandArterialReservesinAmateur
Sportsmen
StefanMann*1, DominiqueUltsch2,MelanieDietl3&PetraJansen4
1ClinicforVascular‐SurgeryMedicine,CastraReginaCenter,Regensburg,Germany
24InstituteofSportSciene,UniversityofRegensburg,Germany
*1stefanmann@tonline.de,2dominique.ultsch@gmail.com,3melanie.dietl@ur.de,4petra.jansen@ur.de
Correspondingauthor:
Prof.Dr.PetraJansen
InstituteofSportScience,UniversityofRegensburg,Universitystreet31,93053Regensburg,Germany
Phone:++499419432518;Fax:++49941943
*StefanMannandPetraJansencontributeequallytothestudy.
Abstract
Thepurposeofthisstudywastoinvestigatetheeffectsofcompressionstockingsonvascularfunctionandlactatethresholdin
30healthynonprofessionalrunners.Thetaskwastoperformtworunswithatimegapofoneweekonastandardtreadmill
ergometerusinga12%slopeandavelocitybetween1and9km.h1.Onehalfofthesubjectsworethecompressionstockings
withthefirstrun,theotherhalfwiththesecondrun.Aftertheergometry,measurementsoflactate,arterialbloodflowand
arterialreserveusingaVenousPlethysmographywereperformed.Theresultsshownoeffectofthecompressionstockingson
thelactatemeasurement.Arterialreserveoftheleftlegincreasedafterrunningwithsockscomparedwithrunningwithout
socks(withsocks:M=13.07,SE=1.12;withoutsocks:M=10.18,SE=.921).Thesameholdstrueforthearterialbloodflow(with
socks:M=6.49,SE=.859;withoutsocks:M=5.06,SE=.68).Conclusion:therewerenosignificantdifferencesinlactatethreshold,
butthestudyshowedasignificantincreasebothofarterialreserveandarterialbloodflow.Thesefindingssuggestthatrunning
withcompressionsockshasapositiveeffectonbloodflowandbloodvolume,i.e.itleadstoanincreaseofcirculation.
Keywords
CompressionStockings,PerformanceEnhancement,HobbySports
Introduction
Specificequipmentplaysanimportantroleforathletesofdifferentdisciplinestoactivatepowerreserves,to
improveperformanceandtoachievebettercompetitionresults.Thisholdsnotonlytrueforcompetitivesports,
whereminimumdifferencesdecideovergainanddefeat,butalsoforpeoplewhoparticipateonlyoccasionallyin
sportsandwhoareinterestedinpossibilitiestoachieveaperformanceenhancement.Equipmentswhichareoften
usedinallrunningdisciplinesarecompressionsocks.Perhapsthatiswhycompressionsocksandtheireffects
havealreadybeentheobjectofnumerousstudiessincemanyyears[31].
Besidesthesportdomain,thebeneficialvalueofmedicalcompressionstockingswasbestinvestigatedforthe
treatmentofphlebologicalandlymphologicaldiseases,wheretheyareanintegralpartofthetherapy[20][21][3].In
competitivesports,therearemanyenduranceathleteswhowearcompressionsocksbefore,duringorafter
competitions,whichsuggeststhattheuseofthesecompressiongarmentscomesalongwithanimprovementin
performanceorrecovery.Thebenefitshavebeendiscussedindifferentstudies.Insum,thereisevidenceforgains
bywearingcompressiongarmentsincompetitivesports,buttheyarenotuniversal[31].Moreover,different
dependentvariablesmayplayarole.Theyaredescribedinthefollowing:
BloodFlowandOxygenation
Bochmannetal.(2005)showedthatthereisatwofoldincreaseofarterialforearmperfusionwhilewearingexternal
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compressionsleevesoverapressurerangeof1323mmHg[7].SimilarresultswerefoundinthestudyofCozaetal.
(2012).Theyindicatedchangesinbloodflowandperfusionandtherebyanimprovementofoxygenationbythe
useofcompressiongarments[11].Also,Drilleretal.(2013)detectedasmalleffectonmeanpoweroutputandalso
alowerHRduringcyclingandassumedthatanenhancementinbloodflowcanleadtoabetteroxygensupply[14].
RunningPerformance
ThestudyofKemmleretal.illustratedthatcompressiongarmentsgoaheadwithasignificantenhancementof
runningperformanceattheanaerobicandaerobicthreshold,timeunderloadandtotalwork[22].
Incontrasttothat,Rideretal.(2014)foundnosignificantdifferencesinheartrate,bloodlactate,VO2max,
respiratoryexchangeratioandtimetofatiguebetweenwearingcompressionstockingsornot[29].Otherstudies
cometothesameconclusionaswellthatcompressionmaynotimproverunningperformance[2][8][13][26][30][34].
Buttherearealsoasmallnumberofstudies,whichhadsignificanteffectsonparametersofperformance
[8][31][7][9][1].
Recovering
DeGlanvilleetal.(2012)concludedintheirstudythatcompressiongarmentshavepositiveeffectsonrecovery
afterload[12].Also,Bieuzenetal.(2014)perceivedbenefitsonlegsorenessandmusclefunctionbywearing
compressionstockingsinrecoveryperiods[6].ThisisinaccordancewithKraemeretal.(2010)whodemonstrated
thattherecoveryachievedwiththeutilizationofcompressiongarmentcomprisedlessfatigue,muscularpainand
muscularswelling,andabetterperformanceinthebenchpresspowertest(throwing)bywearingcompression
garmentfor24hafterhighintensitysessions[23].Rideretal.(2014)foundlowerbloodlactatelevelsinrecovery
timewithcompressionsocksthanwithout[29].
Duffieldetal.(2007)studiedtheimpactofcompressiongarmentsoncricketplayersandfoundsignificantly(p<0.05)
highermeanskintemperaturesandlowerpostexercisemusclesorenessbycompressiongarments[16].Also,
Armstrongetal.(2014)provedanincreasedtimetoexhaustionatreadmilltestafterwearingcompressionsocks
duringrecoveringfromapreviousmarathon[4].InthereportofSperlichetal.(2011),thefasterregenerationwith
compressiongarmentswasexplainedthroughahigherbloodcirculationandthusfasterdegradationofmetabolic
products,whichwouldotherwiseproduceinflamingprocesses[31].Asignificanthigherbloodflowbywearing
compressionstockingsincontrasttopassiverecoveryfromhighintensityexercisewasshownbyMénétrieretal.
(2011),too[27].
Finally,compressiongarmentsseemtobeausefulaidtoimproverecoveryfrompreviousloadsandreducemuscle
soreness,probablybywayofsupportingtheclearingmetabolicwastewithhigherbloodcirculation[33][6][14][4]
[27][31][1][26][15].
GoaloftheStudy
Besidesthemedicalbenefitsofcompressiongarments,thestudiesaboveinvestigatedtheadvantagesofwearing
compressiongarmentsbyhealthypersonswhileconductingsports.Therefore,differentparameterslikeheartrate,
bloodflow,bloodlactateandmanymorewereevaluated.Butthereisnodefinitestatement,ifcompression
garmentscanreallyimproveperformanceorrecovery.Moreover,thestudiesmentionedabovedidnot
differentiatebetweenprofessionalandamateurathletes.Thisisimportant,however,sincethelattergroup
representsthemajortargetgroupfortheuseofcompressiongarments.Therefore,thepresentstudyattemptsto
answerthequestionifitispossibletoincreasethebloodflowinthelowerlegsthroughmoderatecalfcompression
toimproveperformanceandachieveafasterrecoveryinnoncompetitivesportsmen.
Ourapproachwastoinvestigateifusingcompressionsockswhilerunningleadstosignificanthigherbloodinflow
inthelegandifthisisaccompaniedbyimprovementsinperformance.
Materials and Methods
Participants
Intotal30healthyindividualsbetween18and30yearsofage(40%women,meanage:23years;60%men,mean
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age:24years)tookpartinthestudy.Allparticipantswereinformedabouttheprocedureandhadgiventheir
consent.ThestudywasapprovedbytheEthicsCommissionoftheBavarianStateMedicalAssociationon28.01.10
bychairmanProf.Dr.JörgHasfordwiththeprotocolnumber09105andfollowstheadvicesdescribedinthe
journalofEthicalStandardsinSportandExerciseScienceResearch[19].Ourparticipantswererecruitedby
announcementinfitnessstudiosandthedepartmentofsportscienceoftheUniversity.
Inclusioncriteriawereengagementsinsportsmultipletimesaweekcombinedwithphysicalfitness.Exclusion
criteriawereillnessesofanykindaswellastheuseofnicotine,drugsoranykindofmedicationexceptbirth
control.Runnerswhohadalreadyusedcompressionsocksinthepastorwereusingcompressionsockstothetime
thestudytookplacewerealsoexcluded.
Usingalottery,participantswererandomlysubdividedintotwogroupsdefinedbytheorderinwhichthey
performedthetworuns(seebelow).Allparticipantstookpartvoluntarilyandreceivedaphysicalexamination
beforethestudystarted.Alldatawerecollectedandevaluatedanonymouslywithnopossibilityoftracingback
resultstoindividualparticipants.
Material
Thebloodcirculation,whichisreflectedinarterialreserve,arterialbloodflowandvenouscapacity,wasmeasured
usingVenousPlethysmography(GutmanElektronik,serialnumber:93310_R).VenousPlethysmographyisa
noninvasivemethodtodiagnoseperipheralarterialdisease(PAD)andperipheralvenousdisease(PVD).The
arterialbloodflow(alsoreferredtoasarterialbloodcirculation)atrestisusedtoindicatetheamountofarterial
bloodflowingintothelimbthatisthesubjectofexamination.Thestudyisusingthearterialbloodflowasa
measurementtoindicatebloodcirculationwithinthelowerlegsofthehealthysubjects.Thearterialreserve
describesthearterialbloodflowatreactivehyperemiaafterischemiabecauseofasuprasystoliccongestion.To
calculatethereactivehyperaemia,thearterialbloodflowinthelowerlegwasinterruptedbyaninduced
congestiontoproduceischemia.Aftersometimeofcongestion,thechronologicalsequenceofarterialinflowwas
measuredtovaluethearterialreserve.
Anincreaseofthearterialreserveofthelowerlegsmeansavasodilationinthelowerlegarteriesandtherefore
moreavailablebloodvolume.Thisreactivehypermeniaafterischemiacouldbeincreasedbyusingcompression
socksandcouldleadtoahigherobtainablebloodvolumethanwithoutsocks.Sothereisanincreasedavailability
ofoxygenandglucoseandalsoabetterevacuationonCO2.
Lactateaccruesduringtheproductionofenergyusingmusclework.LactatevalueswereevaluatedusingLactat
Scout(SensLabGmbH)withtheaimofdeterminingtheanaerobicthresholdofthesubjects,whichatthesametime
canbeinterpretedasanexpressionofincreasedperformance.Higheranaerobicthresholdarefoundinmore
physicallytrainedtestsubject.
Inaddition,heartrateandbloodpressureweredeterminedtomonitorourparticipantsusingapulseoximeter.
ThetreadmillergometerwasaconventionaltreadmillmanufacturedbyWoodwayPPS55medandadjustedtoa
12%slope.
Thecompressionsockmodel„CEPRunningSportsocks“(company“Medi)wasused,whichisfrequently
employedbothbyamateurandcompetitivesportsmen.Thecorrespondingsizeofthesockswaschosendepending
onthecalfgirthofeveryindividualsubject.Thegirthwasmeasuredusingameasuringtapeatthethickestpartof
thecalf.Thecorrespondingsocksizewasthendeterminedusingaconversiontable.
TestProcedure
Eachparticipantperformedtworunswithatimegapofoneweekinbetweenonastandardmedicaltreadmill
ergometerwearingcompressionsocks(seeMaterial).ParticipantsofgroupAcompletedtheirfirstrunusing
compressionsocksandtheirsecondone(oneweeklater)without.Consequently,participantsofgroupB
completedtheirfirstrunwithoutsocksandthesecondonewearingthesocks.Inthisway,apossiblesequence
effectisavoided.Furthermore,toexcludetemperatureeffects,allrunnersworkedoutataconsistentroom
temperatureofca.68degreesFahrenheit.
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Bloodcirculationwasmeasuredtwice,oncebeforethetreadmilltestandonce2minutesthereafter.Furthermore,
thebloodpressure,pulseandlactatelevelweremeasuredbeforeandafterperformanceandbeyondthatforthe
velocitiesof3km.h1,5km.h1,7km.h1and9km.h1,too.
ForVenousPlethysmographyatrest,theparticipantslaiddownwithoutsockspriortotherunwithbothlegs
elevatedonasoftbolsterlyingonacot.Thesubjectsweretoldtokeepcalm,nottospeakandnottomove.
Subsequently,twobloodpressurecuffswereattachedtothelowerlegsandtwosensorsincorrespondingsize
wereplacedatthebroadestpointofthecalf.Theactualmeasurementwasconductedbyobtainingbloodpressure
valueseveryminuteoveratotaltimespanoffiveminutes.
Afterfinishingthemeasurementatrest,theparticipantsputonthecompressionsocks.Thefollowingtreadmill
ergometrywasperformedinastandardizedmannerusinga12%upwardslopeandvelocitiesbetween1and9
km.h1.Duringthetest,eachparticipantwasbeingmonitoredusingapulseoximeter.Theexperimentstartedwith
avelocityof1km.h1towhichthesubjectwasexposedtoforthreeminutes.Thenthetreadmillwasstoppedand,
withinashortbreak,lactate,pulse,oxygenandbloodpressureweremeasured.Thesameprocedurefollowedfor
thevelocitiesof3km.h1,5km.h1,7km.h1and9km.h1.
Eachparticipantwasabletobreakoffthetestincaseheorshefeltunabletocopewiththeadjustedspeed.
Moreover,forsecurityreasons,thetestwouldhavebeenbrokenoffimmediatelyincasetheheartrateexceededa
savemaximum(determinedusingthesimpleformula220ageofsubject).
Afterthetreadmillergometrywassuccessfullyfinished,bloodflowwasmeasuredagain.Additionally,pulseand
bloodpressureweremeasuredeveryminuteoveratotaltimespanoffiveminutes.
Design
Forthedependentvariablelactate,theeffectsofthewithinsubjectfactors“velocity”(1km.h1,3km.h1,5km.h1,
7km.h1and9km.h1)andthebetweensubjectsfactor“group”(withcompressionsocks,withoutcompression
socks)werestudied.
Changesinarterialbloodflowandarterialreserveweremeasureddependentonthewithinsubjectfactors“timeof
testing”(beforeandafterrunning)and“kindofrunning”(withsocksandwithoutsocks).Thefactor“order”
(orderofrunningtype)servedasabetweensubjectsfactor.
BecauseofatechnicalerrorintherightcableoftheVenousPlethysmograph,whichbecameevidentonlyatthe
veryendofthestudy,weonlyusedthevaluesoftheleftleg.However,inhealthypeopleitistobeassumedthat
thevaluesinbothlegsarenearlythesame.
Results
ArterialBloodFlow
Therewasasignificantmaineffectofthefactor“timeoftesting”onarterialbloodflowoftheleftleg[F(1,15)=
24.38;p<.001;ŋ²=.619].Thearterialbloodflowwaslowerbeforerunning(M=2.36,SE=.33)thanafterrunning
(M=5.77,SE=.69).Furthermore,therewasasignificantinteractionbetween“timeoftesting”and“kindofrunning”
[F(1,15)=8.72;p<.01;ŋ²=.368].Figure1showsnodifferencebetweentheconditions“withsocks”and“without
socks”beforerunning;however,afterrunningthereisadifferencebetweenbothconditions(withsocks:M=6.49,
SE=.859;withoutsocks:M=5.06,SE=.68).Allothermainandinteractioneffectsdidnotreachsignificance.
ArterialReserve
Thefactor“kindofrunning”hadasignificantmaineffectonarterialreserve[F(1,21)=31.91;p<.001;ŋ²=.603].
Thearterialreservewaslowerwhilerunningwithsocks(M=6.75,SE=.31)thanwithoutsocks(M=11.62,SE=.86).
Furthermore,asignificantinteractionbetween“timeoftesting”and“kindofrunning”[F(1,21)=5.75;p<.05;
ŋ²=.215]wasmeasured.InFigure2,thedifferencesbetweenthetwoconditionsafterrunning(comparedwith
before)areillustrated(withsocks:M=13.07,SE=1.12;withoutsocks:M=10.18,SE=.921).Allothermainand
interactionseffectsdidnotreachsignificance.
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FIG. 1 ARTERIALBLOODFLOW(MEAN,SE)OFTHELEFTLEGDEPENDENTONTIME(BEFOREANDAFTERRUNNING)ANDGROUP
(WITHANDWITHOUTSOCKS)
FIG. 2 ARTERIALRESERVE(MEAN,SE)OFTHELEFTLEGDEPENDENTONTIME(BEFOREANDAFTERRUNNING)ANDGROUP
(WITHANDWITHOUTSOCKS)
Lactate
Theunivariateanalysisofvarianceshowedasignificantmaineffectof“velocity”[F(4,76)=119.30;p<.01;ŋ²=.863]:
Thefasterthevelocityis,thehigherthelactatelevelsmeasured[p<.001].Onlythe3km.h1leveldidnotdiffer
fromtheonemeasuredat1km.h1,allotherdifferencesbetweensubsequentvelocitiesweresignificant.
Furthermore,therewerenosignificanteffectsof“group”[F(1,19)=.580;p=.269;ŋ²=.016]oroftheinteraction
between“group”and“velocity”[F(4,76)=.706;p=.59;ŋ²=.036].Table1representsthelactatevaluesofthe
differentvelocitiesandgroups.
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TABLE1LACTATEVALUES
Km.h
1Compr.LactateValues
MeanSDMaxMinN
1with0,780,211,30,530
without0,830,261,60,530
3with0,870,321,90,530
without0,890,211,40,530
5with2,101,114,1 0,630
without1,981,084,90,830
7with5,462,9411,51,530
without5,332,7510,21,630
9with8,012,7413,53,620
without7,982,3313,23,521
Discussion
Themainresultofthepresentstudywasthatwefoundanincreaseofarterialbloodflowandarterialreserveafter
therunwithcompressionsockscomparedwiththerunwithoutsocks.However,wearingcompressiongarments
didnothaveaneffectonlactatethreshold.
ArterialBloodFlowandtheArterialReserve
Theresultsofthecurrentstudyshowanincreaseofbotharterialbloodflowandarterialreserveaftertheexercise
withcompressionsockscomparedwithexercisewithout.Anincreaseofthearterialreserveofthelowerlegs
meansavasodilationinthearteriesandthereforeincreasedavailablebloodvolume.Thus,thecompressionleads
toanincreasedbloodcirculationandasaresulttoanunburdenedvenousreturn.Obviously,thearteriesare
responsivetocompressionandtheoutcomeofthisisavasodilatation.Sunetal.(2004)foundthatdilatationin
coronaryarteriolesinresponsetolongerperiodsofconstantextravascularpressure(20–60s)wasNOdependent
[32;seealso24].ItisreasonabletoassumethatNOalsoplaysanimportantroleinthevasodilationfoundinthe
presentstudyanimalstudies.Otherstudiescametothesameconclusion[24][25].
Anincreasedarterialbloodflowinsubjectswearingcompressionsocksmightbeexplainablebyenhancedblood
volume/bloodsupply.Throughincreasedbloodflow,inturn,oxygenandglucosesupplytothemusculaturerises,
whichmightresultinaperformanceimprovement.Inthissense,ourresultsconfirmtheresultsofthestudyof
Drilleretal.(2013)whichshowedthatcompressiongarmentscanresultinahigherperformanceandpossiblyina
bettermuscleoxygenation[14].
Incontrasttothat,theliteraturereviewofSperlichetal.(2011)showednogeneralspecificindicationsregarding
thebenefitofcompressiongarmentsincompetitivesports.Areasoncouldbethedifferentstudydesignsand
variousclothingstylesaswellasdifferentpressuregradientsandsurroundings[31].Vercruyssenetal.(2014)
neitherfoundacorrelationbetweencompressionsocksandahigherbloodflow[34].Maybethelownumberof
subjectsisthereasonforthesefindings.
Bochmannetal.(2005)foundanincreaseofforearmbloodflowinrestbyusingcompressionsleeves.Inourstudy,
therewerenosignificantdifferencesatrest.ButBochmannetal.(2005)showedalsothatanenhancementof
externalpressureresultsinanincreaseofbloodflow[7].Maybetheexternalpressureofthecompressionsocks
whichareusedinourinvestigationswasnothighenoughtoproducesignificantdifferences.Beyondthatother
studies,ourtreadmilltestendedbyaperformanceof9km/h1andnotbytimeofexhausting[22].Ahigher
increaseofbloodflowcouldbeexpectedinhigherzonesofheartrateandbloodpressure,soaccordingtothisin
byperformanceinhigherintensities.
LactateMeasurements
Ourresultsshowednoperformanceincreaseinassociationwithwearingcompressionsocks.Socompression
garmentsappearnottohaveanydirectinfluenceonthelactatemetabolism.Theseresultsaresupportedbythose
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ofthestudiesofBerryetal.(1990),Chatardetal.(2004),andSperlichetal.(2011)[5][9][31].Theyinvestigatedthe
effectofcompressiongarmentsonthelactatethresholdbothonshortdistanceandlongdistance.Otherstudies
cametothesameconclusion[16][30].Duringrecovery,Rideretal.(2014)foundlowerbloodlactatelevelswith
compressionsocksthanwithout[29].Similartoourstudy,however,therewasnosignificantdifference(p>0.05)
betweenthecompressionsockconditionsduringthemaximaltreadmilltests.Nodifferencesinbloodlactate
betweencompressionandcontrolgroupweredemonstratedintheresearchesofDrilleretal.(2013),too[14].
Likementionedbefore,ourparticipantshadonlyperformedatreadmilltestto9km.h1andnottoexhaustinglike
othersdid.Thereforeitispossiblethatapartoftheparticipantsdidn´treachedtheiranaerobicthresholds.Lactate
isaproductofananaerobicmetabolismandarisesfromthelackofoxygen.Iftheofferofoxygenishighenough,it
makesnodifferenceifthereisabetterabilitybywearingcomprssionsocksthanwithout.Thatimpliesthatgreater
decreaseswillbemeasurableacrosstheanaerobicthreshold.Itislikewisepossiblethatahigherabilityofoxygen
maynotnecessarilyleadtoadeclineoflactatevalues,butratherprovidethemusclesanopportunitytoreacha
higherrateofaerobicmetabolism.
OurresultsareincontrasttoKemmleretal.(2009)whoshowedthatrunningperformanceattheaerobicand
anaerobicthresholdcouldbeimprovedbywearingcompressionsocks[22].Theremaybeseveralreasonsforthe
contradictingfindings:differentdistances,trainingconditions,andstudydesigns.Incomparisontotherunning
distanceofKemmleretal.(2009),whichwasabout8kmwithoutslope,theparticipantsofourstudyhadtorun
1.25kmwithaslopeof12%.Forachangeofthelactatethresholdbetweentheconditionswithandwithout
socks,thisdistancemayhavebeentooshort.Furtherstudiesmustbeconductedwithalongerrunningdistance
toseeiftheeffectsaredependentonthecovereddistance.Normally,theaerobic/anaerobicthresholdisabout
2mmol‐4mmol.Withsufficienttrainingandlongerrunningdistances,anathletecanachieveaneffectof
trainingwhichleadstoanincreaseoftheanaerobicthresholdandthustoperformanceimprovementsthrough
laterexhaustionofthemusculature.Itmightalsobepossiblethatourathleteswerenottrainedaswellasthose
inthestudyofKemmleretal.(2009)[22]andthereforetheresultsinlactatethresholddisagree.Next,study
designdiffered.The12%slope,whichisthestandardslopefortestingbloodflowinphlebological
investigations,leadstoahigherintensityandtherebyofcoursetohigherheartrates.Duetothefactthathigher
heartratesnormallycomealongwithhigherlactatelevels,finerdifferencesbetweentheconditionswithan
withoutsocksmayhavebeenmaskedinourstudy.Insum,studieswhichinvestigatetheeffectsofcompression
stockingsonperformancesupplyinconsistentresultsaswell[31][2][8][13][26][30][34][7][9][1].
Theresultsofthestudiesmentionedabovesuggestthatrecoverymayalsobeinfluencedbywearingcompression
socks[33][12][23][6][31][4][27],butbecausethiswasnotthefocusofthisstudy,itisnotdiscussedfurther.
Conclusion
Inconclusion,thisistoourknowledgethefirststudyshowingthatthecompressionofthelowerlegduring
maximaltreadmillexerciseleadstoanincreaseofbloodflowinamateursportsmen.Thisshouldlikelyresultinan
increaseofoxygenandglucoseinthemuscle.Howthemuscleisabletotransfertheincreasedsupplyofsubstrates
intohigherperformanceisaquestionoftrainingandfurtherspecificinvestigations.
Theresultsofourstudyfocusonshorttermeffects;furtherinvestigationsshouldanalysethelongtermeffectsof
thehigherbloodflowinthemuscles.Furthermore,itwouldbeveryinterestingtoinvestigatethesubjective
wellbeingaswellastheperformanceinarealrunningtaskunderlaboratoryandrealconditions.
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... Higher cardiac output is linearly related to VO 2max . This finding is supported by a study conducted by Mann et al. (2016) on the effects of compression socks on arterial blood flow and arterial reserves in amateur sportsmen. ...
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