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This paper summarizes results of joint efforts of professional botanists and orchid enthusiasts on studies of Vietnamese native orchids during years 2013–2016. It provides new original data about the discovery of 1 genus (Grammatophyllum Blume) and 29 orchid species new for the flora of Vietnam. Valid name, main synonyms, data on type, ecology, phenology, estimated IUCN Red List status, distribution, studied specimens, as well as brief taxonomic and biological notes are provided for each species and varieties. Eight species (Bidupia khangii, Bulbophyllum striatulum, B. tipula, Cleisostoma dorsisacculatum, Cymbidium repens, Dendrobium congianum, Flickingeria xanthocheila, Podochilus rotundipetala) and two varieties (Phreatia densiflora var. vietnamensis, P. formosana var. continentalis) are described as new for science. One combination (Bulbophyllum bicolor var. funingense) is proposed. An illustrated annotated list of all studied species and varieties is arranged in alphabetical order. Including present data, the known orchid flora of Vietnam comprises currently at least 1210 documented species from 172 genera.
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Taiwania 61(4): 319354, 2016
DOI: 10.6165/tai.2016.61.319
319
New Species of Orchids (Orchidaceae) in the Flora of Vietnam
Leonid V. AVERYANOV1*, Van Duy NONG2, Khang Sinh NGUYEN3, Tatiana V. MAISAK1,
Van Canh NGUYEN4, Quang Thinh PHAN5, Phi Tam NGUYEN6, Thien Tich NGUYEN, Ba Vuong TRUONG7
1. Komarov Botanical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Prof. Popov Street 2, 197376, St. Petersburg, Russia.
2. Tay Nguyen Institute for Scientific Research, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 116 Xo Viet Nghe Tinh St., Da Lat
City, Lam Dong, Vietnam.
3. Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Cau Giay,
Ha Noi, Vietnam.
4. 3/12/3 Vo Van Kiet str., Buon Ma Thuot City, Dak Lak province, Vietnam.
5. 77/9 Mau Luong, Kien Hung, Ha Dong, Ha Noi, Vietnam.
6. Viet Nam Post and Telecommunications Group - VNPT Lam Dong, 8 Tran Phu Street, Da Lat City, Lam Dong Province, Vietnam.
7. Institute of Tropical Biology, Dept. of Biological resources, Vietnam academy of Science and technology, 85 Tran Quoc Toan
St., Distr. 3, Hochiminh City, Vietnam.
* Corresponding author Email: av_leonid@mail.ru; av_leonid@yahoo.com
(Manuscript received 12 May 2016; accepted 7 October 2016; online published 14 November 2016)
ABSTRACT: This paper summarizes results of joint efforts of professional botanists and orchid enthusiasts on studies of Vietnamese
native orchids during years 20132016. It provides new original data about the discovery of 1 genus (Grammatophyllum Blume) and
29 orchid species new for the flora of Vietnam. Valid name, main synonyms, data on type, ecology, phenology, estimated IUCN
Red List status, distribution, studied specimens, as well as brief taxonomic and biological notes are provided for each species and
varieties. Eight species (Bidupia khangii, Bulbophyllum striatulum, B. tipula, Cleisostoma dorsisacculatum, Cymbidium repens,
Dendrobium congianum, Flickingeria xanthocheila, Podochilus rotundipetala) and two varieties (Phreatia densiflora var.
vietnamensis, P. formosana var. continentalis) are described as new for science. One combination (Bulbophyllum bicolor var.
funingense) is proposed. An illustrated annotated list of all studied species and varieties is arranged in alphabetical order.
Including present data, the known orchid flora of Vietnam comprises currently at least 1210 documented species from 172 genera.
KEY WORDS: Flora of Vietnam, Indochina, Nature protection, New species, Orchidaceae, Plant geography, Taxonomy.
INTRODUCTION
The paper includes new original data on orchid
diversity in Vietnam obtained in the field studies mostly
during years 20142016. Published landmark inventories
show the steadily increasing number of known orchid
species in Vietnam from 411 species recorded in the year
1934 (Gagnepain and Guillaumin 1934) to 718 species in
19921994 (Seidenfaden, 1992; Averyanov, 1994), 897
species in 20032005 (Averyanov and Averyanova,
2003; Nguyen et al., 2005), 1005 species in 2009
(Averyanov et al., 2009) and 1090 species figured in the
last survey undertaken in 2011 (Averyanov, 2011). Since
this last inventory, 100 species and 11 genera have been
newly discovered and documented for the flora of
Vietnam (Averyanov, 2012a, b, 2013; Averyanov et al.,
2012a, b, 2013, 2015a, b, 2016ac; Schuiteman et al.,
2013; Choudhary et al., 2013, Kumar et al., 2014;
Averyanov and Vuong, 2015; Duy and Averyanov, 2015;
Nuraliev et al., 2014, 2015). When the new data
presented in this paper are included, the known orchid
flora of Vietnam comprises at least 1210 documented
species from 172 genera. Despite the proceeding studies,
explorations and inventory works, the orchid flora of
Vietnam remains far from complete, and each new
botanical investigation, particularly in remote
mountainous areas, reveals new discoveries. This paper
summarizes the results of joint efforts of professional
botanists and orchid enthusiasts on studies of Vietnamese
native orchids during the last three years. It provides new
original data about the discovery of 1 genus
(Grammatophyllum Blume) and 29 orchid species new
for the flora of Vietnam. Valid name, synonyms, type,
citations of most important taxonomic regional
publications, data on ecology, phenology, distribution,
estimated IUCN Red List status, studied specimens, as
well as brief taxonomic and biological notes are provided
for each species. Eight species (Bidupia khangii,
Bulbophyllum striatulum, B. tipula, Cleisostoma
dorsisacculatum, Cymbidium repens, Dendrobium
congianum, Flickingeria xanthocheila, Podochilus
rotundipetala) and two varieties (Phreatia densiflora var.
vietnamensis, P. formosana var. continentalis) are
described as new for science. One new combination
(Bulbophyllum bicolor var. funingense) is proposed. An
illustrated annotated list of all studied species and
varieties arranged in alphabetical order is presented
below.
MATERIALS and METHODS
Materials used in present studies were collected
Taiwania Vol. 61, No. 4
320
mainly during years 20132016. Some previously
collected herbarium specimens and living samples also
provided significant additional information of the
current investigation. Fresh plants, as well as flowers
and inflorescences from living plants were fixed and
stored in 65-70% ethanol. Measurements of the floral
parts for descriptions were taken on both herbarium and
liquid-fixed materials. Fresh flowers and their fleshy
parts often shrank up to 10–15% in size during the
drying process when making herbarium specimens. In
describing of quantitative characters, infrequent
extreme values (i.e. rarely occurring minimal and
maximal values) of a variation range are parenthesized
before and after the normal variation range. Taxa
distribution in Vietnam is indicated in the text by
mentioning concerned provinces according to the
official administrative country division (Viet Nam.
Administrative Atlas 2007). Online version of the
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (2016) was used
for estimation of preliminary species conservation
status. Place of housing of cited specimens are
indicated by accepted acronyms or respected Herbaria.
ANNOTATED CHECKLIST OF NEW
ORCHID IN VIETNAM
Ascocentrum ampullaceum (Roxb.) Schltr., 1913,
Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 1: 975; Pearce,
Cribb, 2002, Orch. Bhutan: 500; Chen, Wood, 2009, Fl.
China, 25: 502. Aerides ampullacea Roxb., 1832, Fl.
Ind. ed. 1832, 3: 476. Fig. 1A-C.
Described from India (“Found by Mr. M.R. Smith
growing on trees in the forest, in blossom in May”).
Type (“M.R. Smith, Roxburgh’s drawing 2347”) K.
Habitat, phenology and conservation status.
Trunk and branch epiphyte. Broad-leaved evergreen
forests. 11001500 m. Fl. AprilMay. Very rare.
Estimated IUCN Red List status - DD.
Distribution. Vietnam: northwestern provinces
allied to Laotian border. Nepal, Bhutan, India, Andaman
Islands, Myanmar, SW. China (Yunnan), Thailand, Laos.
Notes. The discovery of this montane Himalayan
species in northwestern Vietnam essentially expands its
known area in southeastern direction. This ornamental
plant highly demanded on local markets undoubtedly
becomes very rare and certainly stands in our days on the
verge of full extinction in the nature. Meanwhile, any field
data about its habitats in Vietnam are not yet available.
Studied specimens. Plant received from Hanoi street
market, originated expectedly from NW. Vietnam, 22 April 2015,
V.Q.Binh, L.Averyanov, T.Maisak, P.K.Loc, AL 2 (LE).
Ascocentrum rubrum (Lindl.) Seidenf., 1988, Opera
Bot. 95: 312; Pearce, Cribb, 2002, Orch. Bhutan: 500.
Saccolabium rubrum Lindl., 1833, Gen. Sp. Orch. Pl.:
222. Fig. 1D-F.
Described from Nepal and peninsular Myanmar (“Hab.
in Napalia, Moalmyne, as ripas fluminis Attran, Wallich”).
Type (“Moulmein, Wallich 7310A”) - K-LINDL.
Habitat, phenology and conservation status.
Epiphyte. Broad-leaved evergreen forests. Fl. April
May. Very rare. Estimated IUCN Red List status DD.
Distribution. Vietnam: northern provinces allied to
Laotian and Chinese border. Nepal, Malacca Peninsula.
Notes. Poorly known species allied to A.
ampullaceum. The occurrence of this species in
Vietnam needs confirmation by field data.
Studied specimens. Vietnam: Plant received from Hanoi
street market, originated expectedly from northern Vietnam. 22 April
2015, V.Q.Binh, L.Averyanov, T.Maisak, P.K.Loc, AL 3 (LE).
Bidupia khangii Aver., sp. nov. Fig. 2.
Described from northern Vietnam (Nghe An
province, Ky Son district, Na Ngoi municipality,
eastern slopes of Phu Xai Lai Leng Mountain, around
point 19°1254′′N 104°1201′′E). Type (“26 October
2013, L.Averyanov, N.T.Hiep, N.S.Khang, L.M.Tuan,
N.A.Trang, L.H.Dan CPC 6323a”) LE (holotype).
Digital epitype d-EXSICCATES OF VIETNAMESE
FLORA 0259/CPC 6323a.
Description. Perennial sympodial terrestrial
creeping herb. Plagiotropic stem dull brownish-pink,
epigeous, leafless, fleshy, rooting at nodes, to 16 cm
long, 46 mm in diam.; floriferous stem erect, to
(18)20–24(28) cm, at the base with (3)4(5) closely
spaced, spirally arranged leaves, terminated by lax
spike. Leaves shortly petiolate; petiole and sheath
(1)1.53(3.5) cm long, (3)4–5(6) mm wide; leaf blade
narrowly ovate to ovate, slightly oblique, irregularly
undulate along margin, with 1 main vein, acute, (5)6
8(9) cm long, (1.6)23(3.4) cm wide, dark velvety
olive-brown with white median stripe above, uniform
glossy pale pink-brownish below. Scape and rachis
straight, hairy with short soft hairs; scape with (3)2(1)
sterile tubular, broadly lanceolate, obtuse bracts (0.6)1
1.8(2) cm long, (4)56(7) mm wide (when flat); rachis
(5)68(10) cm long, with (12)14–16(20) spirally
arranged flowers, spaced on (4)56(8) mm. Floral
bracts reddish-brown, outside sparsely hairy, triangular
broadly lanceolate, tubular-convolute, obtuse, (6)8
10(12) cm long, (3)3.54(4.5) mm (when flat), scarious,
entire. Ovary glabrous, narrowly conoid, dull reddish
brown, (8)911(12) mm long, (2)2.22.8(3) mm in
diameter near the base, narrowing to the apex, twisted
on 180°, placed almost perpendicular to the rachis.
Flowers sessile, widely opening, (0.6)0.819(1.2) cm in
diameter; sepals pale brownish-pink or brown-greenish;
petals white at the base, olive-brownish in apical part;
lip white, spur reddish-brown, claw white; column
reddish-brown, anther cap dull yellowish. Sepals free,
with no distinct veins, subglabrous; median sepal
narrowly ovate, concave, straight, erect, slightly
December 2016 Averyanov et al.: New Orchids in the Flora of Vietnam
321
Fig. 1. New orchids in the flora of Vietnam. A-C - Ascocentrum ampullaceum (Roxb.) Schltr. (V.Q. Binh et al., AL 2).
D-F - Ascocentrum rubrum (Lindl.) Seidenf. (V.Q. Binh et al., AL 3). G - Bulbophyllum bicolor Lindl. var. bicolor (L.Averyanov et al.,
CPC 6892). H, IB. psychoon Rchb.f. (L.Averyanov et al., HAL 11748a). Photos by L. Averyanov.
Taiwania Vol. 61, No. 4
322
Fig. 2. New orchids in the flora of Vietnam. Bidupia khangii Aver. Digital epitype - d-EXSICCATES OF VIETNAMESE FLORA
0259/CPC 6323a.
December 2016 Averyanov et al.: New Orchids in the Flora of Vietnam
323
attenuate and acute, (5.8)67(7.2) mm long, (2.5)2.6
2.8(3.1) mm wide; lateral sepals oblong ovate,
(8.4)8.69(9.2) mm long, (3.4)3.63.8(4) mm wide,
more or less flat, horizontally or upward spreading,
somewhat twisted at the base, with acute falcate apex.
Petals little longer than median sepal, (2.3)2.42.6(2.7)
mm wide, glabrous, straight, strongly oblique,
narrowing from broad, strongly oblique base to
acuminate, falcate, acute apex, 1-veined, connivent and
forming narrow hood with the dorsal sepal. Lip
glabrous, trilobed, spurred, clawed, apically 2-lobuled,
about 5 mm long, distinctly divided into hypochile,
mesochile (claw) and epichile. Hypochile rudimentary,
in form of small rectangular concave hollow 2.8–3.0
mm long, 2.52.7 mm wide, closed by flat, triangular
side lobes firmly adpressed to each other. Mesochile
(claw) in form of short subterete, straight or slightly
incurved tube, (1.4)1.52(2.2) mm long, 0.1–1.2 mm in
diameter, grooved adaxially. Epichile in form of
2-lobuled plate, placed at the apex of mesochile; lobules
adaxially spreading, broadly obovate to almost circular,
(3.8)44.2(4.3) mm long and wide, finely denticulate and
round apex, joined to each other by a small down
recurved neck. Spur small, hemispheric, (2.7)2.83(3.1)
long and wide, inside with low longitudinal keel rising
near apex of hypochile into prominent flat dent 1.01.2
mm tall, outside longitudinally shallowly grooved and
obscurely notched at apex, inside with 2 massive, fleshy,
stalked, discoid glands 1.61.8 mm tall and wide.
Column shortly cylindrical, (2.4)2.62.8(3.4) mm tall
and broad; in basal half at front with 2 large lamellate
keels, 2.83 mm long, 1.82 mm tall and 0.81 mm wide,
each divided distally into 2 small denticulate diverging
plates; stigma in form of 2 hardly connected lobes,
placed at front of column, each lobe convex, almost
circular, glossy orange-brown; rostellum prominent,
narrowly triangular, longitudinally concave, forward
directed, straight or slightly curved, 1.41.6 mm long;
anther cap obovoid, (2.6)2.83(3.2)mm long, (1.3)1.4
1.6(1.7) mm wide, with narrowly triangular, straight or
slightly curved, conduplicate, beak; viscidium lanceolate,
1.01.4 mm long, whitish. Pollinia 2, white, stalked,
clavate, secund, sectile, (2.7)2.83(3.1) mm long, each
consisting of 2 hemipollinaria, 0.40.5 mm in diameter.
Etymology. Species is named after it’s discoverer
Dr. Khang Sinh Nguyen.
Habitat, phenology and conservation status.
Creeping terrestrial herb. Primary broad-leaved and
coniferous evergreen humid forests (with
Cunninghamia konishii) on sandstone and shale,
commonly on rich soils in shady places of steep slopes.
11002000 m. Fl. June–August. Not common.
Estimated IUCN Red List status - DD.
Distribution. Vietnam provinces: Ha Giang (Bac
Me district), Nghe An (Phu Xai Lai Leng Mountains)
and Tuyen Quang (Na Hang district). Endemic.
Notes. This is remarkable discovery of the second
species of earlier monotype genus recently described
from Bidoup Mountains in Lam Dong province of
southern Vietnam (Averyanov et al., 2016c). New
species closely allied to the type species, but distinctly
differs in twice smaller flowers, ovary twisted on 180°
(not 360°), short straight mesochile (claw), 1.42.2 mm
long (not strongly recurved, 3.8–4.7 mm long), almost
circular lobules of epichile (not elliptic lanceolate),
lamellate (not triangular-pyramidal) keels at front of
column, bifid stigma with almost separate round lobes
(not entire), discoid glands inside spur (nor pyramidal
glands), and short, narrowly triangular, straight anther
cap beak and rostellum, 1.4–1.6 mm long (not linear,
arcuate, 2.83.2 mm long).
Studied specimen (paratype). Vietnam: Northern
Vietnam, border area between Phieng Luong municipality (Ha Giang
Prov., Bac Me Distr.) and Sinh Long municipalitiy (Tuyen Quang
Prov., Na Hang Distr.), primary broad-leaved humid evergreen and
mixed forest on very steep slopes and along rocky ridge composed
with solid crystalline highly eroded limestone at 11001170 m,
22°3824.3′′N 105°2021.3′′E, creeping terrestrial herb, occasional, 14
November 2014, L.Averyanov et al., CPC 7431b / TM 1143 (LE).
Bulbophyllum bicolor Lindl., 1830, Gen. Sp. Orch. Pl.:
49; Chen, J.J. Verm., 2009, Fl. China, 25: 428; Barretto,
Cribb, Gale, 2011, Orch. Hong Kong: 556; Aver. et al.,
2012, Taiwania, 57, 2: 127; Aver., 2016, Turczaninowia
19, 3: 11, fig. 2. Cirrhopetalum bicolor (Lindley)
Rolfe, 1893, Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 36: 14.
B. bicolor var. bicolor Fig. 1G.
Described from China (“Hab. in China…”). Type
(“Reeves drawing”) K.
Distribution. Vietnam provinces: Dien Bien (Dien
Bien City area) and Thanh Hoa (Thuong Xuan district).
SE. China (Hong Kong), NE. Laos (Houphan province).
Habitat, phenology and conservation status.
Creeping lithophyte and epiphyte in primary evergreen
broad-leaved forests on rocky karstic limestone. 100
950 m. Fl. MayJune, August. Locally common.
Estimated IUCN Red List status DD.
Notes. This variety regarded earlier as a local
endemic of Hong Kong (Chen and Vermeulen, 2009;
Barretto et al., 2011) was observed as locally fairly
common plant in discovered localities both in Laos and
in Vietnam. It is noteworthy that in eastern Indochina
the species was observed exclusively in forests on
rocky limestone. Ornamental.
Studied specimens. Laos: Northeastern Laos, Houphan
province, Viengxay district, Vieng Xai village, 7 April 2015, N.T.Hiep,
L.Averyanov, N.S.Khang et al., LA-VN 1152a / TM 1271 (LE).
Vietnam: Northern Vietnam, Dien Bien prov., Dien Bien City area,
MayJun 2010, P.K. Loc, CXC 5 (CPC Herbarium, LE). Northern
Vietnam, Thanh Hoa province, Thuong Xuan district, Van Xuan
municipality, Hang Cao village, Xuan Lien natural reserve, remnants of
primary and secondary broad-leaved evergreen forest on highly eroded
rocky limestone hills at 100200 m, 19°5047.2′′N 105°1442.7′′E,
creeping lithophyte on open mossy rocks near mountain top, occasional,
8 November 2013, L.Averyanov et al., CPC 6892 (LE).
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324
B. bicolor var. funingense (Z.H. Tsi et H.C. Chen)
Aver., stat. et comb. nov. B. funingense Z.H. Tsi et
H.C. Chen, 1981, Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 1, 12: 112;
Aver., Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.:
15; Chen, J.J. Verm., 2009, Fl. China, 25: 423.
Described from SW. China (“Yunnan: Funing … alt.
1000 m”). Type (“22 Apr. 1940, in saxo C. W. Wang
88792”) PE (holotype 00027313; isotype 00201501).
Habitat, phenology and conservation status.
Creeping lithophyte and epiphyte. Primary evergreen
broad-leaved and coniferous forests (often with Pinus
wangii) of rocky karstic limestone, commonly near
mountain or hill tops on mossy substratum. 13001500
m. Fl. MarchApril, August. Locally common.
Estimated IUCN Red List status DD.
Distribution. Vietnam province: Hoa Binh (Mai
Chau district). S. China (SE. Yunnan).
Notes. This variety described as a rare plant from
southeastern Yunnan was observed as locally fairly
common orchid in discovered locality in northwestern
Vietnam. Flowers of studied samples have strong
unpleasant smell of rotten fish. Ornamental.
The relation between two mentioned varieties, B.
chinense (Lindl.) Rchb.f. and B. blaoense Aver. et Tich
remains unclear due to scarcity of available materials
for study. It is quite probable that all these taxa are
desire varietal status of lone variable B. bicolor widely
distributed in southern China, Vietnam and Laos with
extreme northeastern enclave in Hong Kong. Available
specimens of var. funingense differs from the type
variety in entire margin of median sepal (not
denticulate or fimbriate) and curiously ciliate or
fimbriate frontal surface of operculum.
Studied specimens. Vietnam: Northern Vietnam, Hoa Binh
province, Mai Chau district, Hang Kia municipality, near Pa Khong
village, 20º44'40''N 104º52'32''E, primary broad-leaved evergreen dry
forest with Pinus wangii along tops of highly eroded remnant karstic
limestone ridge at 13001440 m, epiphyte and lithophyte, not common,
9 April 2001, N.T.Hiep et al., HAL 783 (HN, LE).
Bulbophyllum psychoon Rchb.f., 1878, Gard. Chron.
n.s., 10: 170; Aver., 2013, Turczaninowia 16, 4: 30. B.
lockii Aver. et Averyanova, 2006, Komarovia 4: 5.
Fig. 1H, I.
Described from NE. India (“… coming from
Assam”). Type (“… Freeman W. Bull …”) W?
Habitat, phenology and conservation status.
Clustering miniature epiphyte. Primary evergreen
broad-leaved and coniferous humid forests on any kind
of soils, but preferably on limestone, commonly on
mossy trees near mountain tops. 5001600 m. Fl.
NovemberApril, June. Not common. Estimated IUCN
Red List status DD.
Distribution. Vietnam provinces: Dien Bien (Tua
Chua district), Ha Giang (Quan Ba district), Hoa Binh
(Mai Chau district) and Quang Binh (Minh Hoa
district). NE. India, N. Thailand, Laos.
Notes. This uncommon species is close to
Bulbophyllum levinei Schltr. (= Bulbophyllum insulsum
(Gagnep.) Seidenf.), rather common plant in humid
highlands of the northern Vietnam, but well differs in
serrulate or finely denticulate petals and densely
clustered, finely wrinkled pseudobulbs “…
reminding … eggs of certain butterflies when seen
under through a good lens, hence the name”
(Richenbach, 1878). Flowers usually pale yellowish, or
yellowish with light purple tint, with purple lip and
strong, very unpleasant smell.
Studied specimens. Vietnam: Northern Vietnam, Dien
Bien province, Tua Chua district, Sin Chai municipality, 22°0338′′N
103°1956′′E, primary humid evergreen broad-leaved forest on very
steep rocky slopes and on tops of remnant mountain composed with
highly eroded marble-like solid crystalline limestone at 13501500 m,
epiphyte on mossy tree, flowers light yellowish, lip purple, not
common, 14 December 2010, L.Averyanov, P.K.Loc, P.V.The,
N.T.Vinh, CPC 921 (LE). Northern Vietnam, Ha Giang province,
Quan Ba district, Apr. 2013, N.S.Khang s.n. (LE - photo). Northern
Vietnam, Hoa Binh province, Mai Chau district, Pa Co municipality,
20°44'33''N 104°53'54''E, 1150–1250 m, in logged primary closed
evergreen tropical seasonal coniferous (Pinus wangii) on top ridges
submontane forests of limestone mountains, epiphyte, rare, 2
December 2003, Phan Ke Loc, P 10687 (LE - photo). Northern
Vietnam, Quang Binh province, Minh Hoa District, Dan Hoa
municipality, Vietnam - Laotian border, around Cha Lo border gate,
17º4250′′N 105º4554′′E, broad-leaved primary forest on very steep
slopes and along ridge of remnant mountain composed with highly
eroded solid marble-like gray limestone at 500750 m, epiphyte on
mossy trees along ridge edge, occasional, 20 April 2008, L.Averyanov,
P.K.Loc, N.T.Vinh, N.S.Khang, HAL 11748a (LE).
Bulbophyllum striatulum Aver., sp. nov. - B. careyanum
auct. non (Hook.) Spreng: Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot.,
114: 275, p.p. Fig. 3; 4 A-D.
Described from southern Vietnam (“Province Gia
Lai Kon Tum, Kon Tum, Dacuy, epiphyte in dry
woodlands, abundant”). Type (“25 May 1985,
L.Averyanov et al., LX-VN 2218/213”) LE (holotype),
HN, LE (isotype).
Description. Creeping trunk or branch epiphyte.
Rhizome long, rigid, semi-woody, (3.5)45(5.5) mm in
diam., with erect pseudobulbs distant on (5)68(9) cm.
Pseudobulbs pale dull yellowish-green to olive-brownish,
often with purple-brown tint, narrowly conical, (2)2.5
4.5(5.5) cm tall, (0.7)11.5(1.8) cm in diam., glossy, at
the base often with wooly, light gray bract remnants.
Leaf petiolate; leaf blade rigid, coriaceous, oblong
broadly lanceolate, (8)1022(25) cm long, (1.2)1.5
3(3.5) cm wide, narrowing into terete, shallowly
grooved petiole, (0.8)13(3.5) cm long, 23(3.5) mm in
diam., obtuse at apex. Inflorescence with horizontal
peduncle and pendulous dense flowered raceme;
peduncle (12)1520(22) cm long, (1.4)1.62.2(2.5) mm
in diam., straight, erect and down arching at the middle,
yellowish-pink to dull brownish-purple, with (3)45(6)
sterile, broadly ovate, obtuse, pinkish bracts more or
less distant along the scape; rachis (7)812(14) cm long,
glabrous, pinkish, stout, straight down drooping, with
December 2016 Averyanov et al.: New Orchids in the Flora of Vietnam
325
Fig. 3. New orchids in the flora of Vietnam. Bulbophyllum striatulum Aver. A flowering plant. Bportion of inflorescence. C
flattened flower, frontal view. Dintact flower, pedicel, ovary, floral bract and portion of the rachis, side view. E flower with lateral
sepal removed, side view. Fflower with lateral sepal and petal removed, side view. G – petal. H lip, frontal view. I flattened lip,
view from below. Jlip, side view. K lip, sagittal section. L column, frontal view. Moperculum, half side view. Npollinarium,
half side view. All drawn from the type – LX-VN 2218/213 by L. Averyanov.
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many flowers opening simultaneously. Floral bracts light
dull pinkish or yellowish, papyraceous, narrowly
triangular, broadly lanceolate, erect, acuminate, (4)57(8)
mm long, (0.6)0.81.2(1.4) mm wide. Pedicel and ovary
(1.8)2.54(4.2) mm long, ovary obconical, longitudinally
slightly grooved (0.6)0.81(1.2) mm in diam near flower
base. Flowers with strong, unpleasant smell, not much
opening, 56 mm across, spirally arranged into dense
spike-like cylindrical raceme (7)812(14) cm long,
(1)1.21.5(1.6) cm in diam. Sepals 3-5–veined, dull light
yellowish-orange, each with 3 purple-brown longitudinal
irregular stripe and purple-brown along the margin,
spreading, narrowly triangular-ovate, acute to slightly
acuminate, glabrous, median sepal (5)5.56.5(7) mm
long, 1.82.2 mm wide; lateral sepals oblique, (7.5)8
8.5(9) mm long, (2.4)2.53(3.2) mm wide, free or joined
at apex. Petals dull light yellowish-orange, purple-brown
along margin, triangular, narrowing from broad base into
aristate apex, (2.4)2.52.8(3) mm long, (0.8)0.91.1(1.2)
mm wide near the base; with subulate arista (0.6)0.8
1(1.1) mm long. Lip white finely speckled with pink or
dull purple, fleshy, oblong narrowly ovoid, (3)3.2
3.5(3.6) mm long, (0.9)11.2(1.3) mm wide, recurved
near the base, broadly grooved, finely papillose and
shortly ciliate along margin, without distinct keels,
rounded or blunt at apex, at the base with 2 forward
directed, broad, falcate, obtuse ears. Column white,
shortly cylindric, broad, (1.4)1.51.8(2) mm tall,
(0.8)1(1.2) mm wide, with oblong, concave stigma and
long, acuminate stelidia 0.81(1.2) mm long, much
exceeding operculum; operculum yellow, hemispheric,
papillose, 0.70.8 mm in diam.
Etymology. Species name refers contrasty striated
coloration of sepals.
Habitat, phenology and conservation status.
Creeping trunk and branch epiphyte. Dry broad-leaved
evergreen and semideciduous forests and woodlands on
basalt, shale and granite. 600–1000 m. Fl. November
December. Locally common. Estimated IUCN Red List
status - DD.
Distribution. Vietnam provinces: Dak Lak (Chu
Yang Sin Mountains) and Kon Tum (Dak Ha disrict,
Dak Uy commune). Endemic.
Notes. The species belongs to Bulbophyllum sect.
Racemosae Benth. et Hook.f. and most close to
widespread Bulbophyllum careyanum (Hook.) Spreng.,
but distinctly differs in long scape, much longer rachis
and distinctly larger flowers. In floral morphology it
also has some similarity with Malayan species - B.
lilacinum Ridl., from which differs in aristate petals and
subulate stelidia much exceeding anther cap. Described
plant differs additionally from both mentioned species
in yellow-orange color of flowers with sepals sharply
striated with brownish-purple, as well as white lip
speckled with pink or purple, and broad, almost
half-circular lip auricles.
Studied specimens. Vietnam: Southern Vietnam, Dak Lak
province, Chu Yang Sin Mountains, 2 December 2015, Le Van Duc,
L.Averyanov, T.Maisak, AL 138 (LE, LE photo).
Bulbophyllum subtenellum Seidenf., 1979, Dansk Bot.
Ark. 33, 3: 46, fig. 21. Fig. 4E-G.
Described from NE. Thailand (“Buen Kan, Nonkhai
120 m”). Type (“TS s.n.”) C.
Habitat, phenology and conservation status. Tiny
creeping or clustering branch epiphyte. Primary
broad-leaved evergreen humid forests on granite.
(120)10001500 m. Fl. SeptemberDecember. Very
rare. Estimated IUCN Red List status DD.
Distribution. Vietnam province: Khanh Hoa (Hon
Ba Mountains; Tay Nguyen Plateaus). NW. Thailand.
Notes. Species belongs to Bulbophyllm sect.
Minutissima Pfitzer. Specimens from Vietnam look
indistinguishable from Thailand plants though their
localities are situated on much lower elevations and
distance between them is rated more than 1400 km.
Species is very close to B. moniliforme E.C. Parish et
Rchb.f., differing solely in little smaller flowers and
lateral sepals with 3 (not 45) nerves.
Studied specimens. Vietnam: Southern Vietnam, Khanh
Hoa province, Hon Ba nature reserve, Cam Lam district, Hon Ba
Mountains, September 2014, Truong Ba Vuong, s.n. (LE - photo).
Southern Vietnam, Tay Nguyen Plateaus (Central Highlands),
herbarium specimen collected from cultivated plant, flowers dull
orange, tepals with reddish nerves, lip red, operculum white, 17
December 2015, Nguyen Phong, L.Averyanov, T.Maisak, P.K.Loc, AL
208 (LE, LE - photo).
Bulbophyllum tipula Aver., sp. nov. Fig. 5.
Plant was collected in northern Vietnam (“Ha
Giang province, Bac Me district, Phieng Luong
municipality, around Phieng Luong village, at elevation
11001150 m a.s.l. around point 22°3807.1′′N
105°1922.1′′E, 13 November 2014, CPC 7398a,
L.Averyanov, N.T.Hiep, N.S.Khang, T.Maisak,
L.Osinovetz”). Type (“27 June 2016, CPC 7398a/TM
1133, L. Averyanov”) LE (holotype). Digital epitype
d-EXSICCATES OF VIETNAMESE FLORA
0256/CPC 7398a / TM1133.
Description. Creeping branch and canopy epiphyte.
Rhizome creeping, tiny, (7)912(16) cm long, (0.5)0.7
0.8(0.9) mm in diam., with erect pseudobulbs distant on
(1)1.52.5(3) cm. Pseudobulbs light pale green, often
with purple-brown tint, narrowly ovoid to ovoid,
(4.5)57(9) mm tall, (2.5)34(5) mm in diam., glossy,
irregularly finely grooved and wrinkled, young with
papyraceous, yellowish-white bract remnants. Leaf
shortly petiolate; leaf blade rigid, coriaceous, narrowly
ovate, (1.5)1.61.8(2.2) cm long, (7)89(10) mm wide,
adaxially finely rugose dark green, with prominent
conduplicate fold, abaxially smooth, light pale green,
speckled with white, notched or shortly bilobed at apex;
petiole very short, subterete, shallowly grooved, (0.8)1
1.2(1.4) mm long and wide. Inflorescence arising from
December 2016 Averyanov et al.: New Orchids in the Flora of Vietnam
327
Fig. 4. New orchids in the flora of Vietnam. A-D - Bulbophyllum striatulum Aver. (Le Van Duc et al., AL 138). E-GB. subtenellum
Seidenf. (N.Phong et al., AL 208). H, I - Cephalantheropsis laciniata Ormerod (15 January 2015, Truong Ba Vuong, s.n.). Photos by
L. Averyanov (A-G) and Truong Ba Vuong (H, I).
Taiwania Vol. 61, No. 4
328
Fig. 5. New orchids in the flora of Vietnam. Bulbophyllum tipula Aver. Digital epitype - d-EXSICCATES OF VIETNAMESE FLORA
0256/CPC 7398a / TM1133
December 2016 Averyanov et al.: New Orchids in the Flora of Vietnam
329
base of pseudobulb, 1-flowered; peduncle rather rigid,
filiform, (4)4.55.5(6) cm long, slightly curved to
almost straight, erect yellowish to dull brownish-purple,
with 13 negligible sterile whitish scarious distant
bracts. Floral bract scarious, whitish to light pale
yellowish-pink, narrowly ovate, obtuse, (1.6)1.82(2.2)
mm long, (0.6)0.7–0.8(0.9) mm wide. Pedicel and
ovary light yellowish-green speckled with purple,
(5)5.56.5(7) mm long, ovary narrowly obconical,
longitudinally slightly grooved (1.3)1.41.5(1.6) mm
long, (0.6)0.70.8(0.9) mm in diam. near flower base.
Flowers almost odorless, widely opening, (1.7)1.8
1.9(2.1) cm long, (4.2)4.64.8(5.2) mm wide. Sepals
and petals straight, entire along margins, yellow with
purple-brown stripes along nerves, apical part of lateral
sepals entirely purple-brown. Median sepal erect, ovate,
5–5.5 mm long, 4.44.6 mm wide, concave, acute, with
5 nerves. Lateral sepals free, obliquely falcate, (13)14
15(16) mm long, (2.4)2.5–2.6(2.7) mm wide near the
base, with (4)5 nerves, in basal part twisted, in apical
half with inverted connivent margins forming attenuate,
obtuse tube 0.8–1 mm in diam. Median and lateral
sepals distant on column foot, which bears on its sides
broadly triangular segment (1.2)1.3–1.4(1.5) mm wide,
attenuate into shortly-cylindric, yellowish, fingerlike
fleshy seta, (0.3)0.40.5(0.6) mm long. Petals obliquely
triangular narrowly ovate, (2.4)2.62.8(3) mm long,
(1.5)1.61.8(2) mm wide near the base, obtuse, with 3
nerves. Lip yellow above, white below, finely speckled
with purple in basal part, fleshy, narrowly triangular,
(3.7)3.84(4.2) mm long, (0.7)0.8–1(1.2) mm wide,
recurved, broadly grooved, smooth, without keels or
ears, rounded or blunt at apex, movably attached to
column foot apex. Column white, speckled with purple
at front finely, shortly cylindric, broad, (1.9)22.2(2.3)
mm tall and wide, with half-round, concave stigma and
large triangular forward directed wings bearing in
apical part erect, small triangular, stelidia; operculum
dull yellow, hemispheric, smooth, (0.7)0.80.9(1) mm
in diam.
Etymology. Flower of this species resembles long
legs Diptera (Tipula, Tipulidae).
Habitat, phenology and conservation status.
Creeping branch and canopy epiphyte. Primary
broad-leaved humid evergreen forests on crystalline
karstic highly eroded limestone. 11001150 m. Fl.
JuneJuly. Not common. Estimated IUCN Red List
status DD.
Distribution. Vietnam province: Ha Giang (Bac
Me district). Endemic.
Notes. This new species has no clear relations.
Additional outer perianth segment is curious and rare
(apomorphic?) character observed only in Bulbophyllum
bisetum Lindl. and B. bisetoides Seidenf.; both from B.
sect. Racemosae Benth. et Hook.f. At the same time, the
plant has long lateral sepals (much longer than median
sepal) twisted at the base with connate margins forming
tube at their apical half that fits well with characters of B.
sect. Cirrhopetalum (Lindl.) Rchb.f. On the other hand,
such features as entire margin of sepals and petals, as
well as free at base lateral sepals and 1-flowered
inflorescence place this plant to B. sect. Micromonanthe
Schltr. among such similar species as Bulbophyllum
monanthos Ridl., B. nanopetalum Seidenf. or B.
tenuifolium Lindl. In fact, discovered plant has indefinite
intermediate position among mentioned sections
according to its unique combination of morphological
features. This illustrates once again still tentative
sectional division in the genus Bulbophyllum Thouars.
Cephalantheropsis laciniata Ormerod, 1998, Orchid
Digest 62: 157. Fig. 4H, I.
Described from Malacca Peninsula (“Peninsular
Malaysia, Kedah Peak, 1160 m). Type (“30 Nov. 1915,
Robinson & Kloss 5998”) - K [holotype K000718292].
Habitat, phenology and conservation status.
Terrestrial herb. Primary and old secondary broad-leaved
evergreen submontane forests. Fl. JuneJuly, January.
Very rare. Estimated IUCN Red List status - DD.
Distribution. Vietnam province: Khanh Hoa
(Khanh Son district). Malacca Peninsula.
Notes. This species is closely related to C.
obcordata (Lindl.) Ormerod, but differs in the white
flowers and the erose-dentate to irregularly laciniate
margins on the epichile and lip claw. It was recorded as
a local endemic of Kedah Peak Mountains situated at
the middle part of Malacca Peninsula (Ormerod, 1998).
Discovered location of this rare plant in southern
Vietnam is at a distance more than 1200 km to the
northeast from early known area of its distribution.
Studied specimens. Vietnam: Southern Vietnam, Khanh Hoa
province, Khanh Son district, Son Trung municipality, O Kha (Suoi Che)
Mt., 11 July 2013, Nguyen Thien Tich, Tich 110713 (SGN). Southern
Vietnam, Khanh Hoa province, Hon Ba nature reserve, Cam Lam district,
Hon Ba Mountains, 15 January 2015, Truong Ba Vuong, s.n. (LE).
Chiloschista lunifera (Rchb.f.) J.J. Sm., 1905, Orch.
Java: 553; Seidenf., 1988, Opera Bot. 95: 175, fig. 107,
pl. 18b; id., 1992, Opera Bot., 114: 411; Newman et al.,
2007, Checkl. Vasc. Pl. Lao: 258; Schuit. et al., 2008,
Nord. Journ. Bot., 26: 274. Thrixspermum luniferum
Rchb.f., 1868, Gard. Chron. 1868: 786. Chiloschista
javanica Schltr., 1919, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg.
Beih. 4: 275; Comber, 1990, Orch. Java: 301, fig.
Sarcochilus segawae Masam., 1934, Trans. Nat. Hist.
Soc. Formosa 24: 212. Chiloschista segawae (Masam.)
Masam. et Fukuy., 1938, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 52: 247;
Su Horng-Jye, 2000, Fl. Taiwan 5: 804, pl. 339; Chen,
Wood, 2009, Fl. China, 25: 471. C. hoii S.S. Ying,
1987, Quart. Journ. Exp. Forest. Taiwan 1, 1: 89.
Fig. 6A-C.
Described from Myanmar (“… Burmah possesses this
species”). Syntypes (“Messrs. Veitch & Sons”) W (“Herb.
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330
Reichenbach 26237 [W 0017162], Herb. Reichenbach
41550 [W 0017163], Herb. Reichenbach 41549 [W
0017164], Herb. Reichenbach 11583 [W 0017165]”).
Habitat, phenology and conservation status.
Canopy and branch epiphyte. Lowland secondary
broad-leaved evergreen dry forests, commonly on tall trees
along streams and rivers. 3001000 m. Fl. AprilMay.
Very rare. Estimated IUCN Red List status EN.
Distribution. Vietnam province: Dak Lak (Lak
district, Krong No commune). Myanmar, Taiwan,
Thailand, Laos, Java.
Notes. Peculiar ornamental species highly
demanded on national and international orchid market.
Studied specimens. Vietnam: Southern Vietnam, Dak Lak
province, Krong No commune, Nam Ha municipality, secondary
broad-leaved evergreen dry closed forest on rocky slopes of river valley
composed by brown volcanic tuffs at 360 m, 27 November 2014,
L.Averyanov, N.T.Hiep, N.V.Duy, Q.V.Hoi, CPC 7681 (LE). Southern
Vietnam., Dak Lak province, Ea H’leo district, Ea Drang, evergreen dry
forest, 29 April 2015, Le Thanh Son, L.Averyanov, T.Maisak, AL 45 (LE).
Cleisostoma dorsisacculatum Aver., sp. nov.
Fig. 6D-G; 7.
Described from southern Vietnam (“Lam Dong
province, Bao Loc town area”). Type (“28 November
2015, Hoang Thai Ha, L.Averyanov, T.Maisak, AL 98”)
LE (holotype).
Description. Perennial monopodial epiphytic herb.
Stem simple or basally few branched, rigid, ascending
to erect, (8)15–25(35) cm long, (3.5)45(5.5) mm in
diam., with few wiry, straight or flexuose roots
branching at apex; internodes (0.6)12(2.4) cm long.
Leaves sessile, dorsiventral, leathery, straight or
slightly recurved, oblong lanceolate, (6)812(14) cm
long, (1.4)1.62(2.2) cm wide, unequally bilobed, with
oblong, apically rounded lobes. Inflorescence lateral
panicle (12)1530(35) cm long, scape and rachis grassy
green; scape (10)1215(18) cm long horizontal or
ascending, often curved or slightly flexuose, with 24
short, broad, light pale gray-brownish sterile bracts,
with (4)512(14) branches (1)210(12) cm long,
raceme rachis straight to slightly flexuose, branch
rachides almost straight, with many spirally arranged,
lax flowers distant on (1)24(5) mm. Floral bracts
minute, triangular, acute, about 1 mm long and wide.
Pedicel and ovary (4)4.55.5(6) mm long and (0.6)0.7
0.9(1) mm in diam., light green to dull olive, sometime
hardly hairy with sparse very small rusty trichomes,
usually S-curved, abruptly broadening at the base.
Flowers widely opening, (6)6.5–7(7.5) mm across;
sepals and petals rather fleshy, very sparsely hairy with
very small rusty trichomes, spreading, later turned back,
brown, sometime with 1 indistinct brown-yellowish
longitudinal strip and dull yellowish along the margin;
lip white, with purple apex of side lobes; column white,
sometime with light purple tint, apically at sides with
dark purple spots; anther cap white with light yellow
tint; pollinia yellow. Sepals oblong obovate, concave,
cucullate, blunt to rounded at apex, (3.2)3.43.6(3.8)
mm long, (2)2.2(2.4) mm wide, lateral sepals slightly
oblique. Petals oblong broadly lanceolate, blunt, as long
as sepals, (0.8)0.91.1(1.2) mm wide, slightly oblique.
Lip spurred, (4.2)4.54.8(5) mm long (from spur apex
to the upper side of side lobes), 3-lobed; side lobes
narrowly triangular, truncate, parallel and forward
protruding, (1.1)1.21.4(1.5) mm long, 0.5–0.6 mm
wide at the base, each side lobe at the base (on upper
margin) with small enrolled fold and prominent broadly
conic papillose boss placed near the middle on internal
surface; median lobe fleshy triangular to obscurely
sagittate, (1.2)1.41.5(1.6) mm long, (1.6)1.8–2(2.2)
mm wide, blunt to roundish or subtruncate, straight,
forward directed or slightly upright, finely irregularly
rough, disc with 2 papillose inflations separated by
median furrow ending proximally by small hairy boss
continuing into the spur in form of high almost
glabrous keel (incomplete septum); spur ovoid, saccate,
vertically down directed, at the apex sometime slightly
back curved, flattened, dorsally strongly concave,
(2.8)33.2(3.4) mm long, (2)2.2–2.4(2.6) wide with
entire, round apex and incomplete longitudinal septum
inside. Back-wall callus in form of large, flattened,
pillow-like, half-ovoid, finely papillose container 22.2
mm long, 1.6–1.8 mm wide, swelling during anthesis
and sometimes opening with age at apex by two narrow
lateral splits. Column short, broad, (1.6)1.82(2.2) mm
high, 2.42.5(2.6) mm wide, with large, forward
directed subquadrate arms of rostellum supporting at
apices viscidium lobes; stigma concave, transversely
oblong with adaxial margin in form of fleshy shortly
conoid swelling. Anther cap hemispherical, 0.91 mm
broad, elliptic viscidia. Pollinia 2, each deeply split into
2 with elongate, apically bifid beak. Stipe (tegula) 0.8
1 mm long, in form of plate, flat at the base,
conduplicate folded and bent at apex, in flat part
attached to viscidium; viscidium saddle-shaped with
two parallel narrowly subequal hemispheric portions,
0.350.45 mm in diam. Fruits unknown.
Etymology. Species name refers unusual
pillow-like container placed on the spur back-wall,
unique among its congeners.
Habitat, phenology and conservation status.
Canopy epiphyte. Primary and secondary broad-leaved
evergreen forests on silicate rocks. 8001200 m. Fl.
OctoberDecember. Very rare. Estimated IUCN Red
List status DD.
Distribution. Vietnam province: Lam Dong (Bao
Loc). Endemic.
Note. This species belongs to artificial group
known as Cleisostoma sect. Paniculata Seidenf.
(Seidenfaden, 1975, 1992), which includes in eastern
Indochina five species, namely C. chapaense
(Guillaum.) Garay, C. duplicilobum (J.J.Sm.) Garay, C.
December 2016 Averyanov et al.: New Orchids in the Flora of Vietnam
331
Fig. 6. New orchids in the flora of Vietnam. A-C - Chiloschista lunifera (Rchb.f.) J.J. Sm. (Le Thanh Son et al., AL 45). D-G -
Cleisostoma dorsisacculatum Aver. (type - Hoang Thai Ha et al., AL 98). H, I - Collabium chapaensis (Gagnep.) Seidenf. et
Ormerod (L.Averyanov et al., CPC 7011). Photos by L. Averyanov.
Taiwania Vol. 61, No. 4
332
Fig. 7. New orchids in the flora of Vietnam. Cleisostoma dorsisacculatum Aver. Aflowering plant. B leaf. C portion of
inflorescence. D - flower, frontal, side views and view from behind. E flattened flower, with lip, anther cap and pollinarium removed. F, G
lip, frontal view and view from behind. Hcolumn and spur back wall, view from inside. I spur frontal wall, view from inside. Jintact
spur, side view. Kspur, tangential section (along line marked on figure H and I as line *). L, Mspur, sagittal section at the beginning (L)
and at the end of anthesis (M). N intact lip, view from above. Oflattened lib, view from below. Pintact column with anther cap, frontal
and side view. Qlip with anther cup removed, side view. Ranther cup, view from above, half-side view and view from below. S
pollinarium, views from different sides. All drawn from the type Hoang Thai Ha et al., AL 98 by L. Averyanov and T. Maisak.
December 2016 Averyanov et al.: New Orchids in the Flora of Vietnam
333
equestre Seidenf., C. inflatum (Rolfe) Garay and C.
paniculatum (Ker-Gawl.) Garay. Among them new
species may be more or less close to C. duplicilobum, C.
inflatum and C. paniculatum with superficially similar
flowers and pollinarium stipe of complicated structure.
However, it strikingly differs from them, as well as
from all other congeners in large, inflated, flattened,
pillow-like container placed on back wall inside spur.
This mysterious formation is unique in the genus. It is
swelling during anthesis and sometimes opening with
age at its apex by two narrow lateral splits. Adaptive
significance of this strange air filled hollow is very
unclear. The discovery of this unusual species confirms
supposition, which suggests that many small-flowered
species of the genus remain in Vietnam undescribed
(Averyanov et al., 2015a). New species is probably strict
endemic of Di Linh Bao Loc Plateau comprising
southern part of the highland area known in Vietnam
geography as Tay Nguyen Plateau or Central Highlands.
Collabium chapaensis (Gagnep.) Seidenf. et Ormerod,
2001, Oasis, Suppl. 2: 8. Tainia chapaensis Gagnep.,
1932, Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. (Paris) 2 ser. 4: 707.
Collabiopsis formosanum auct. non (Hayata) Ying:
Aver., Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch.
Viet.: 24. Collabium formosanum auct. non Hayata:
Seidenf., 1983, Opera Bot. 72: 25, fig. 10; id., 1992,
Opera Bot., 114: 324, fig. 218; Aver., 1994, Ident.
Guide Vietnam. Orch.: 294; P.H. Ho, 2000, Ill. Fl.
Vietnam 3: 921. Chrysoglossum chapaense (Gagnep.)
Tang et F.T. Wang, 1951, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 1: 77;
Lang et Tsi, 1976, Icon. Corm. Sinic. 5: 684, fig. 8198.
Fig. 6H, I.
Described from northern Vietnam ("Chapa").
Lectotype ("Tonkin, Chapa, 1500 m 2 October 1929,
Petelot 5148" proposed by Ormerod, 2001, Oasis,
Suppl. 2: 8) P [lectotype P0063223, isolectotypes
P00436689, P00436690], AMES (isolectotype).
Habitat, phenology and conservation status.
Primary broad-leaved, mixed and coniferous humid
submontane and montane forests on granite and
sandstone, commonly on steep shady slopes near
mountain tops. 12001900 m. Fl. JulyOctober. Rare.
Estimated IUCN Red List status - DD.
Distribution. Vietnam provinces: Son La (Van Ho
district) and Lao Cai (Chapa district). Endemic.
Notes. Local endemic of NW. Vietnam closely
related to Taiwanese Collabium formosanum Hayata,
from which differs in green flowers, white column
(purple at apex), long, narrowly lanceolate floral bracts
and shortly conical, saccate spur (Ormerod, 2001). This
rare, poorly known species was earlier found only by
three collections from lone type locality.
Studied specimens. Vietnam: Northern Vietnam, Lao Cai,
Tonkin, Chapa, 1900 m, July 1929, Petelot 5165 (P P00436691).
Northern Vietnam, Lao Cai, Tonkin, Chapa, 1600 m, October 1930,
Petelot 5880 (P P00436688). Northern Vietnam, Son La province,
Van Ho district, Chieng Xuan municipality, Co Hong village,
territory of Xuan Nha natural reserve, Pha Luong Mountain, primary
coniferous and mixed forest with Pinus cernua on very steep slopes
along ridge edge composed by brown sandstone at 1200–1400 m,
creeping herb in shady places, leaves green with unclear dark green
spots, not common, 13 November 2013, L.Averyanov, N.T.Hiep,
N.S.Khang et al., CPC 7011 (CPC Herbarium, LE).
Cymbidium repens Aver. et Q.T. Phan, sp. nov.
Fig. 8; 9.
Described from northern Vietnam (“Phu Tho
province”). Type (“25 August 2015, Quang Thinh
Phan, PT 25”) LE (holotype).
Description. Short creeping sympodial epiphytic
vine. Rhizome plagiotropic, simple or few branching,
semi-woody, (0.4)0.51(1.5) m long, (4)57(8) mm in
diam., densely covered by terete, imbricate greenish or
yellowish-green (later dull pale gray-brownish,
papyraceous), obtuse bracts, (0.8)1.21.6(2) cm long,
bearing 35(7) orthotropic stems distant on (10)15
20(25) cm long. Stem not swelling, erect, (3)47(9) cm
long, covered at the base by (3)4–5(7) imbricate,
cuneate, conduplicate cataphylls and (6)812(14)
leaves. Cataphylls (1.5)26(8) cm long, (0.8)11.5(1.8)
cm wide, greenish to yellowish-green, becoming gray,
papyraceous and eventually fibrous with age. Leaves
sessile, imbricate, distichous, sheathing and
conduplicate at the base, with distinct articulation, leaf
blade coriaceous, linear, arcuate, (30)4060(70) cm
long, (0.6)0.81.2 (1.4) cm wide, tapering into acute
apex. Inflorescence erect, lax raceme (25)3035(40) cm
tall, arising from the stem base; peduncle light green,
(8)1012(14) cm long, covered by (5)67(8)
cymbiform, acute, whitish, scarious bracts up to 6.5 cm
long, 1 cm broad (being flattened), spreading apically
and with cylindrical base; rachis (18)22–26(30) cm
long, with (12)15–22(25) spirally arranged flowers.
Floral bracts light green, narrowly triangular, acute to
acuminate, (2)34(6) mm long, 12 mm wide. Pedicel
and ovary light green, slender, curved, (1.8)22.5(2.7)
cm long, 1.21.6 mm in diam., ovary slightly
broadening toward flower base, shallowly grooved.
Flowers widely opening, (3.5)44.5(5) cm across,
sepals and petals spreading to recurved, light
yellowish-green, lip whitish, side lobes striped with
dull purple, medial lobe dull purple with yellow center,
disc and keels white, column light yellowish-green,
anther cap light pale yellow. Sepals rather fleshy,
subsimilar, narrowly obovate, slightly concave,
(2.2)2.42.6(2.8) cm long, (8)911(12) mm wide, blunt
to obtuse at apex, lateral sepals slightly oblique. Petals
narrower than sepals, broadly elliptic as long as sepals,
(5)5.56.5(7) mm wide, obtuse. Lip 3-lobed, joined by
narrow basal junction, not fused to the column base,
being flattened deltoid in outline, (1.5)1.61.7(1.8) cm
long, (1.2)1.41.6(1.8) cm wide, glabrous; side lobes
triangular, erect, obtuse, (9)1011(12) mm long,
(3.5)4–5(5.5) mm tall; median lobe almost rounded
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334
Fig. 8. New orchids in the flora of Vietnam. Cymbidium repens Aver. et Q.T. Phan. Aflowering plant. Bflowers, and portion of
rachis. Cflattened sepals and petals. D flattened lip. Etransversal lip section along line marked by asterisk on figure D. F
pedicel, ovary, column and lip, side view. Gcolumn, frontal view. I column, half side view. J pollinarium, frontal view and view
from behind. Kanther cap, frontal view and view from behind. Lanther cap, view from below. All drawn from the type – Quang
Thinh Phan, PT 25 by L. Averyanov and T. Maisak.
December 2016 Averyanov et al.: New Orchids in the Flora of Vietnam
335
Fig. 9. New orchids in the flora of Vietnam. Cymbidium repens Aver. et Q.T. Phan. Digital epitype – d-EXSICCATES OF
VIETNAMESE FLORA 0245/PT 25. Photos by Quang Thinh Phan, design and image correction by L. Averyanov.
Taiwania Vol. 61, No. 4
336
(5)67(8) mm across, strongly decurved, finely
irregularly undulate along the margin; disc with 2
prominent, glabrous, slightly longitudinally folded
keels extending to the base of epichile in form of low
oblong cushions. Column stout, slightly curved, (0.8)1
1.2(1.4) cm long, (3)3.54(4.5) mm wide, slightly
broadening and weakly winged toward the apex,
concave at the base. Anther cup hemispheric, obscurely
bifid, 2.53 mm across. Pollinia 2, yellow, ovoid
slightly oblate, 1.21.4 mm across, deeply cleft, on
triangular crescent concave scarious viscidium.
Etymology. Species name refers creeping
rhizomatous plant habit unique among its congeners.
Habitat, phenology and conservation status.
Short creeping epiphytic vine. Primary and old
secondary broad-leaved evergreen forests on rocky
karstic limestone, commonly on trunks of Livistona
chinensis. 400600 m. Fl. AugustSeptember. Very
rare. Estimated IUCN Red List status - DD.
Distribution. Vietnam provinces: Hoa Binh (Lac
Son district) and Phu Tho. Endemic.
Notes. It is unique species in the genus for its
creeping rhizomatous habit. Discovered plant in
combination of its characters has no similarity with any
hitherto known species (Liu et al., 2006; Puy and Cribb,
2007). It has no swelling pseudobulbous stems and
grows as a short creeping vine on vertical trunks of
Livistona chinensis (Jacq.) Mart. The species has no
obvious relations among its congeners and certainly
desires segregation in rank of separate section or
subgenus. Available attempts for cultivation of this rare
species were not successful.
Studied specimen (paratype). Vietnam: Northern
Vietnam, Hoa Binh province, Lac Son district, Tu Do municipality, Coi
Gao village, 20°2607′′N 105°1719′′E, secondary rich forest on steep
rocky slopes of limestone mountain at 400600 m, creeping epiphyte on
Livistona chinensis, very rare, 24 March 2011, N.Q.Hieu, L.Averyanov,
N.T.Hiep et al., CPC 1461 (LE).
Dendrobium congianum Aver., sp. nov. Fig. 10.
Plant originated from southern Vietnam (“Lam
Dong province, Dalat City area, 1 December 2015, Vo
Van Cong s.n.”). Type (“Prepared from cultivated plant,
25 April 2016, L. Averyanov, AL 123”) LE (holotype).
Digital epitype d-EXSICCATES OF VIETNAMESE
FLORA 0250/AL 123.
Description. Perennial clustering sympodial
epiphytic herb. Rhizome very short, creeping, simple or
few branching, (0.5)11.5(2) cm long, composed
densely allied stem bases. Roots few, white to light
gray, flexuose. Stems densely clustering, terete, erect,
rigid, slightly swelling, (5)714(16) cm long, (4)56(7)
mm in diam., with (5)610(12) nodes and (2)35(6)
leaves in apical part; young stems glossy yellow-green,
enveloped by white to light greenish hyaline leaf
sheaths densely haired by short black hairs, old roughly
grooved, dirty gray-brownish, naked or with brownish
papyraceous sheath remains at nodes. Leaves,
distichous, sessile, sheathed; sheath tubular, as long as
internode or little shorter, completely disintegrating or
remaining in form of papyraceous remnants on
second-year stems; leaf blade conduplicate, with
prominent median vein, suberect or oblique, herbaceous
to coriaceous, broadly oblanceolate to narrowly obovate,
(2.5)36(7.5) cm long, (0.8)1–1.6(1.8) cm wide, obtuse,
shortly unequally bilobulate at apex, sparsely hairy with
short black hairs adaxially. Inflorescence 1(2), arising
from the apical part of mature leafy stem, suberect, 1
2(3) flowered, very short (3)4–6(8) mm long, light
green, black hairy, with 12 small narrowly triangular,
scarious, light yellowish, hairy, sterile bracts (2)34(5)
mm long, (0.6)11.4(1.6) mm wide. Floral bracts, light
greenish, narrowly triangular, straight, conduplicate,
tapering and acute at apex, (4)68(10) mm long,
(1)1.51.8(2) mm wide. Pedicel and ovary light green
to almost white, cylindric, glabrous, (3.2)3.53.8(4)
mm long, erect, curved at apex; ovary slightly
longitudinally grooved. Flowers horizontally oriented,
widely opening, rather coriaceous, (2.2)2.4–2.8(3) cm
across, white, lip disc white or with light pinkish tint.
Sepals spreading, narrowly ovate, attenuate, (1.5)1.6
1.8(2) cm long, (6)7–8(9) mm wide; lateral sepals at the
base oblique broadening to (1.4)1.61.8(2) cm wide,
forming long, cylindric, slightly curved, obtuse mentum,
(0.8)11.2(1.4) cm long, (2.2)2.53(3.5) mm wide.
Petals spreading, narrowly obovate, round and finely
irregularly undulate at apex, as long as sepals, (8)9
11(12) mm wide, distinctly broader than sepals. Lip
3-lobed, rhomboid in outline, (1.9)22.2(2.3) cm long
and wide, glabrous, recurved; side lobes erect, straight,
obliquely obovate, 1.41.6 cm long, 0.81 cm wide,
round and finely irregularly crenulate at apex; median
lobe narrowly obovate, 810 mm long, 68 mm wide,
strongly recurved, irregularly denticulate and crisped
along the margin; disc with simple low, wide fleshy
keel and fleshy lateral nerves coming to side lobes.
Column white, erect, stout, shortly cylindric, 3.54.5
mm tall, 2.62.8 mm wide, at apex with prominent
lateral triangular-subulate stelidia 1.51.8 mm tall,
slightly exceeding operculum; stigma large,
sub-circular, concave; rostellum in form of small,
fleshy, truncate plate; column foot much longer than
the column proper, thick, concave, 1.5–1.8 cm long,
2.83.2 mm wide, slightly forward curved. Anther cap
white, simple, obscurely cubiform, rather smooth, 2.2
2.4 mm tall and wide, at front truncate, in basal part
long papillose. Pollinia 4 in two pair, yellow, narrowly
oblong ovoid, each 1.82 mm long, 0.30.4 mm wide.
Etymology. Species is named after its discoverer
Mr. Vo Van Cong.
Habitat, phenology and conservation status.
Clustering epiphytic herb. Primary broad-leaved
evergreen forests on granite. 15001800 m. Fl. March
December 2016 Averyanov et al.: New Orchids in the Flora of Vietnam
337
Fig. 10. New orchids in the flora of Vietnam. Dendrobium congianum Aver. Digital epitype d-EXSICCATES OF VIETNAMESE
FLORA 0250/AL 123. Photos, design and image correction by L. Averyanov.
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338
April. Very rare. Estimated IUCN Red List status DD.
Distribution. Vietnam province: Lam Dong (Dalat
City area). Endemic.
Notes. Our plant belongs to Dendrobium sect.
Formosae (Benth. et Hook.f.) Hook.f. and allies to the
group of species with white flowers, broad petals and
narrow epichile, such as D. infundibulum Lindl.,
D.multilineatum Kerr. and D. wattii (Hook.f.) Rchb.f. well
segregated morphologically (Averyanov et al., 2016a).
New species differs from these taxa in much smaller
flowers and relatively long median lip lobe. It may be
close to Dendrobium vocongii Schettler et D.M. Pham
(Schettler and Minh, 2016) closely allied to D. wattii, from
which differs in smaller, almost pure white flowers and
entire acute (not emarginate) epichile. It is highly probable
that D. vocongii is natural hybrid, which exhibits visible
intermediate vegetative and floral morphology between D.
wattii and our new species and obviously originated by
means their natural hybridization.
Dendrobium transparens Wall. ex Lindl., 1830, Gen.
Sp. Orch. Pl.: 79; Pearce, Cribb, 2002, Orch. Bhutan:
414, pl. 23; Schuit. et al., 2008, Nord. Journ. Bot., 26:
288. Fig. 11A-C.
Described from Nepal (“Hab. in Napalia”). Type
(“Wallich Cat. no. 2008.1”) K (holotype [K000894335];
isotypes [K001114893, K001114894]), E (isotype
[E00383699]).
Habitat, phenology and conservation status.
Trunk and branch epiphyte. Broad-leaved evergreen
dense humid forests. 5001500 m. Fl. MarchMay.
Rare. Estimated IUCN Red List status DD.
Distribution. Vietnam: northwestern provinces
allied to Laotian border. Nepal, Bhutan, N. India,
Bangladesh, Myanmar, NW. Laos.
Notes. The discovery of this Himalayan species in
northwestern Vietnam is not too surprising, but still
needs verification by field observations and more
voucher herbarium collections. Its discovery essentially
expands known area of the species in eastern direction.
This ornamental plant is highly demanded on local
markets undoubtedly become very rare and certainly
stands in accessible areas on the verge of full extinction.
Data on its ecology are based on data from Bhutan
(Pearce and Cribb, 2002).
Studied specimens. Vietnam: Plants received from Hanoi
street market, originated expectedly from NW. Vietnam, 22 April 2015,
Vu Quoc Binh, L.Averyanov, T.Maisak, P.K.Loc, AL 4 (LE). Northern
Vietnam. Lai Chau province, 27 April 2015, V.V.Cong, sine no (LE -
photo). Vietnam, 5 December 2014, N.V.Canh, sine no (LE - photo).
Flickingeria xanthocheila Aver., sp. nov.
F. fugax auct. non (Rchb.f.) Seidenf.: Aver., 1994, Ident.
Guide Vietnam. Orch.: 401; Aver., Averyanova, 2003,
Updated Checkl. Orch. Vietnam: 36; id., 2006, Manual
Ident. Fl. Plants Cuc Phuong National Park, 2: 180.
Fig. 11D-F; 12.
Described from northern Vietnam (“Hoa Binh
province, Lac Son district, Tu Do municipality, Mon
village, secondary evergreen dry broad-leaved forest on
steep rocky slopes of remnant mountain composed with
highly eroded marble-like solid crystalline limestone at
elevation about 300 m a.s.l., creeping epiphyte on tall
tree, locally abundant. Type (“23 March 2011, N.Q.
Hieu, L. Averyanov, N.T. Hiep, P.K. Loc, P.V. The, N.T.
Vinh, T.B. Ngan, N. Tap, D.D. Dao, V.T. Ha, T. Maisak,
L. Osinovetz, CPC 1387a”) LE (holotype).
Description. Perennial sympodial rhizomatous
epiphytic or lithophytic herb with erect stems ascending
near base. Rhizome creeping, few branching, (4)5
15(25) cm long, composed by plagiotropic, terete, (4)5
7(8)-nodal segments, each (1.5)25(6) cm long, (2.5)3
4(5) mm wide, rooting at nodes. Roots numerous, white
to gray, wiry, flexuose, much branching. Stem rigid,
simple or few branching, twig-like, at nodes with
tubular papyraceous sheaths early disintegrating into
fibrous remnants, (12)1545(50) cm long, bearing 1
5(6) lateral and 1 apical terminal pseudobulb.
Pseudobulbs 1-leaved, fusiform, terete, usually slightly
recurved, truncate, glossy, yellowish to yellowish-green,
(2)34(5) cm long, (3)48(10) mm in diam. Leaves
sessile, rigid, narrowly ovate to broadly lanceolate,
broadest in basal half, (5)712(15) cm long, (1.2)1.5
2.5(3) cm broad, acute, at apex entire or shortly bilobed,
with very small unequal teeth, without median seta at
sinus. Inflorescence 1–2-flowered, arising below leaf
base, from bundle of many dry, fibrous, overlapping
scales placed on adaxial and abaxial sides of
pseudobulb apex. Flowers on short glabrous pedicel,
widely opening, one-day lasting, white, light yellowish
or greenish; lip white or light yellowish, epichile
yellowish-pink, pink-orange, bright orange to
orange-red, keels edge pale pink-orange to olive-green.
Sepals and petals strongly recurved or curled back;
sepals oblong narrowly ovate, obtuse, (14)15–17(18)
mm long, (4.5)56(6.5) mm wide, lateral sepals
suddenly broadened basally forming broadly conoid to
almost hemispheric mentum 4–4.5 mm long, 56 mm
wide; petals oblong lanceolate, obtuse, (11)1314(15)
mm long, 2.83(3.2) mm wide. Lip (1.3)1.51.8(2) mm
long, (12)1315(16) mm wide, 3-lobe, entire along
margin; disc with keels arising from the lip base to the
middle of claw; keels between side lobes lamellate, flat
and straight, rising abaxially, on claw finely crisped;
side lobes obliquely broadly triangular with blunt or
roundish apex, erect, partially embracing column;
median lobe with distinct claw, 3.54 mm tall, 2.53
mm broad, bilobulate, the lobules strongly undulate on
lateral sides near the base, spreading, almost
perpendicular to the lip axis, diverging, obtriangular,
truncate roundish at apex, 78 mm long, 56(7) mm
wide, with small triangular tooth in very broad sinus.
Column pure white to yellowish, 45 mm long and
December 2016 Averyanov et al.: New Orchids in the Flora of Vietnam
339
Fig. 11. New orchids in the flora of Vietnam. A-C Dendrobium transparens Wall. ex Lindl. (A - 5 December 2014, N.V.Canh, sine
no; B, C - Vu Quoc Binh et al., AL 4). D-F - Flickingeria xanthocheila Aver. (type - N.Q.Hieu et al., CPC 1387a”). G-I - Gastrochilus
suavis Seidenf. (N.T.Hiep et al., CPC 3661). Photos by L. Averyanov.
Taiwania Vol. 61, No. 4
340
Fig. 12. New orchids in the flora of Vietnam. Flickingeria xanthocheila Aver. Aflowering plant. Bflower, frontal view. C – opening
flower, side view. Dflattened flowe and lip. Eflattened lip. All drawn from the type – N.Q. Hieu et al., CPC 1387a by L. Averyanov
and T. Maisak.
December 2016 Averyanov et al.: New Orchids in the Flora of Vietnam
341
wide; operculum white to yellowish, hemispheric, 2
mm across, truncate at front.
Etymology. Species name refers golden-yellow
color of flower labellum.
Distribution. Vietnam provinces: Bac Kan (Ba Be
district, Ba Be national park, Cho Don and Na Ri
districts), Cao Bang (Tra Linh and Trung
Khanhdistricts), Ha Giang (Quang Ba and Vi Xuyen
districts),Ninh Binh (Nho Quan district, Cuc Phuong
national park), Son La (Moc Chau district) and Thai
Nguyen (Vo Nhai district). S. China?
Habitat, phenology and conservation status.
Creeping epiphyte and lithophyte. Primary and
secondary broad-leaved, mixed and coniferous
evergreen lowland and submontane forests on rocky
eroded limestone, commonly on mountain tops. 250
1100 m. Fl. MayAugust. Locally very common.
Estimated IUCN Red List status - LC.
Notes. This species has been a long time identified
in earlier studies of Vietnamese flora as Himalayan
Flickingeria fugax (Rchb.f.) Seidenf. (Averyanov, 2000;
Averyanov and Averyanova, 2003, 2006; Nguyen Tien
Ban et al., 2005), with which it has some superficial
resemblance. Meanwhile, close studies of more
obtained materials revealed distinct dissimilarity of
Vietnamese plants, which distinctly differ in larger,
flowers, white to yellowish or yellowish-green sepals
and petals (without purple markings), pink-orange to
bright orange epichile with widely spreading obovate
lobules, roughly irregularly wavy at the base (along
adaxial margin), straight, white lamellate keels on the
disk and finely plicate, green to yellow keels on the
claw. New species is integral element of the flora of
rocky remnant karstic limestone mountains and hills
widely spreading in northern Vietnam. It is very
common in intact primary forests and often appears as
co-dominant of epiphytic and lithophytic herbaceous
plant communities. Open flowers sometime have
distinct celery fragrance. The species was observed as
abundant plant in some locations near Chinese border
why it may be certainly found in similar habitats on the
territory of China.
Studied specimens (paratypes). Vietnam: Northern
Vietnam, Ha Nam Ninh, Cuc Phuong, May Bac., 2 May 1985,
L.Averyanov et al., LX-VN 1825 / 68 (HN, LE). Northern Vietnam,
Cao Bang province, Tra Linh district, Co Muoi municipality,
vicinities of Lung Dat village, about 22 km from Cao Bang town to
the N, primary mixed semideciduous forest (with Pseudotsuga
brevifolia) along tops of limestone ridge at 900–1000 m, epiphyte on
high trees, not rare, 12 December 1998, L.Averyanov, N.Q.Binh,
N.T.Hiep et al., CBL 1144 (HN, LE, MO). Northern Vietnam, Son La
province, Moc Chau district, Chieng Hac municipality, vicinities of
Co Liu village, primary evergreen broad-leaved wet forest on very
steep slopes and bluffs of remnant karstic limestone ridge at 1000–
1100 m, epiphyte on high trees, flowers light yellowish, epichile
yellow-pink orange, very common, 29 May 1999, N.T.Hiep,
P.H.Hoang, L.Averyanov, NTH 2956 (LE). Northern Vietnam, Bac
Can province, Na Ri district, Kim Hy municipality, vicinities of Lung
Hin Con village, 27 km to 55° of Bac Can City, primary evergreen
mixed mossy forest with Pseudotsuga brevifolia and bamboo along
tops of karstic remnant limestone ridge at 650700 m, epiphyte on
high trees, very common, 20 October 1999, N.T.Hiep, P.K.Loc,
L.Averyanov, NTH 3729 (LE). Northern Vietnam, Thai Nguyen
province, Vo Nhai district, Than Sa municipality, vicinities of Kim
Son village, 23.3 km to 18° of Thai Nguyen city, primary
broad-leaved evergreen dry forest on very steep rocky slopes of karst
remnant limestone ridge at 300450 m a.s.l., epiphyte and occasional
lithophyte, common, 23 October 1999, N.T.Hiep, P.K.Loc,
L.Averyanov, NTH 3799 (LE). Northern Vietnam, Ha Giang province,
Quang Ba district, Sin Suoi Ho village, east side of Sin Suoi Ho River,
degraded forest along north ridge slope, limestone substrate and
exposed rock outcrops at 10001100 m, lithophyte, pseudobulbs light
green-yellow, occasional, 3 April 2000, D.K.Harder, N.T.Hiep,
L.V.Averyanov et al., DKH 5199 (LE, MO). Northern Vietnam, Ha
Giang province, Vi Xuyen district, Phong Quang municipality, Man
village, limestone peaks and ridges NE of the village, 595787 m,
occasional, creeping, lithophytic, to 0.5 m tall, stems and pseudobulb
yellow-green, leaves light green, 15 February 2001, D.K.Harder,
P.K.Loc, L.Averyanov et al., DKH 6411 (LE, MO). Northern Vietnam,
Ninh Binh province, Nho Quan district, Cuc Phuong municipality,
Cuc Phuong national park, Dang locality, secondary closed evergreen
seasonal broad-leaved lowland forest on limestone hills at 400 m,
lithophyte and epiphyte on mossy rocky outcrops on top of hill,
flowers: tepals light yellowish with green tint, lip light yellowish with
orange epichile, common, 19 May 2002, L.Averyanov, P.K.Loc,
M.V.Sinh et al., HAL 1646 (LE). Northern Vietnam, Bac Kan
province, Cho Don district, Ban Thi municipality, Cho Dien village,
Then Su Mt., heavily logged primary closed evergreen wet
broad-leaved forest on very steep slopes and cliffs of remnant
mountains composed with highly eroded crystalline limestone near
top of ridge at 250350 m, lithophyte and epiphyte, common, 26
December 2002, P.K.Loc, L.Averyanov, N.A.Duc et al., HLF 850
(LE). Northern Vietnam, Bac Kan province, Ba Be district, Nam Mau
municipality, Ba Be national park, mountain near Ban Cam,
fractionally logged primary evergreen closed broad-leaved forest on
mountain top composed with crystalline highly eroded marble-like
limestone at 423 m, lithophyte and epiphyte, very common, 27
December 2002, N.T.Hiep, D.H.Chung, V.H.Van et al., HLF 703
(LE). Northern Vietnam, Cao Bang province, Trung Khanh district,
Ngoc Khe municipality, Pac Nga village at 800850 m, remnants of
primary broad-leaved and coniferous forest on ridge tops and on very
steep slopes and cliffs of rocky ridge composed with light gray solid
marble-like highly eroded crystalline limestone, lithophyte and
epiphyte, flowers white, light yellowish, lip light yellowish with
olive-green keels and orange epichile, common, 9 June 2004,
L.Averyanov, P.K.Loc, P.V.The, N.T.Vinh, HAL 5480 (LE).
Gastrochilus suavis Seidenf., 1988, Opera Bot. 95: 298;
Aver. et al., 2016, Turczaninowia 19, 3: 35. G.
obliquus (Lindl.) Kuntze var. suavis (Seidenf.) Z.H. Tsi,
1996, Guihaia 16: 141; Pearce, Cribb, 2002, Orch.
Bhutan: 524. Fig. 11G-I.
Habitat, phenology and conservation status.
Trunk and branch epiphyte. Primary and old secondary
broad-leaved evergreen forests on rocky limestone,
often on shady humid places along streams and small
rivers. 100500 m. Fl. MarchMay, October. Not
common. Estimated IUCN Red List status DD.
Ornamental.
Distribution. Vietnam provinces: Quang Binh
(Minh Hoa district) and Thanh Hoa (Thuong Xuan
district). N. India, N. Thailand, NW. Laos.
Notes. This species regarded earlier as endemic of
Thailand (Seidenfaden, 1988) was recently also found
Taiwania Vol. 61, No. 4
342
in northern Laos, Houaphan province (Averyanov et al.,
2016b). Flowers in all samples observed in Vietnam
were odorless.
Studied specimens. Vietnam: Northern Vietnam, Quang
Binh province, Minh Hoa district, Thuong Hoa municipality, environs
of Mo O village, 17°3911.6′′N 105°5453′′E, primary broad-leaved
closed forest on very steep rocky slope of remnant mountain
composed with highly eroded solid crystalline limestone at 400500
m, epiphyte on tall tree, not common, 24 July 2011, N.T.Hiep,
L.Averyanov, N.S.Khang, N.Q.Vinh, CPC 3661 (LE). Northern,
Vietnam, Thanh Hoa province, Thuong Xuan district, Van Xuan
municipality, Hang Cao village, Xuan Lien nature reserve, remnants
of primary and secondary broad-leaved evergreen forest on highly
eroded rocky limestone hills at 100200 m, 19°5047.2′′N
105°1442.7′′E, epiphyte on mossy trees on shady, very steep, rocky
slope, flowers odorless, tepals yellowish with brown spots, lip white
with purple marks, locally common, 8 November 2013, L.Averyanov,
N.T.Hiep, N.S.Khang et al., CPC 6932 (LE).
Grammatophyllum speciosum Blume, 1825, Bijdr.:
378; Seidenf., 1983, Opera Bot., 72: 96, fig. 54, pl. 7b;
id., 1992, Opera Bot., 114: 345; Comber, 1990, Orch.
Java: 383, fig.; id., 2001, Orch. Sumatra: 242, fig.;
Seidenf., Wood, 1992, Orch. Malay. Sing.: 557, fig.
253a-f.; P.H. Ho, 2000, Ill. Fl. Vietnam 3: 920, fig.
11423; Newman et al., 2007, Checkl. Vasc. Pl. Lao:
270; Schuit. et al., 2008, Nord. Journ. Bot., 26: 293.
Fig. 13A.
Described from Java (“Crescit: circa Buitenzorg in
arboribus”). Typenot located.
Habitat, phenology and conservation status.
Large humus epiphyte. Primary and secondary
broad-leaved evergreen lowland forests, commonly
along streams. 5300 m. Flowering of individual plant
may be observed in any time of the year, but usually
one time during 23 years.
Distribution. Vietnam province: Kien Giang (Phu
Quoc Island). Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Peninsular
Malaysia, Singapore, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Sulawesi,
New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Islands.
Notes. This remarkable species was observed as an
extremely rare plant in alone location of Phu Quoc
Island in Siam Gulf. Almost all samples from very
small known population were currently removed to
cultivation. Presently species stands on the verge of full
extinction in the nature. Record of Pham Hoang Ho
(2000) was not based on voucher herbaria and remains
uncertain.
Studied specimens. Vietnam: Southern Vietnam, Phu Quoc
Island, Bai Thom forest, 5 June 2010, N.T.Tich s.n. (LE photo).
Habenaria falcatopetala Seidenf., 1977, Dansk. Bot.
Ark. 31, 3: 74, fig. 39; id., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 56;
Kurzweil, 2011, Fl. Thailand 12, 1: 101, fig. 54. H.
stenopetala auct. non Lindl.: Gagnep., 1934, Fl. Gen.
Indo-Chine 6: 610. Fig. 13B.
Described from NW. Thailand (“Eastern spur of Doi
Inthanond, ending in Doi Pa Mawn”). Type (“Garrett 470”)
K [holotype K000796997; isotype K000796998].
Habitat, phenology and conservation status.
Tuberiferous ephemerid geophyte. Old secondary
mixed and coniferous submontane evergreen forests
and woodlands with Pinus kesiya Gordon, commonly
on steep open rocky slopes between mossy boulders.
1500 m. Fl. AugustSeptember. Very rare. Estimated
IUCN Red List status DD.
Distribution. Vietnam province: Lam Dong
(Langbian Mountain; Lac Duong district). NW.
Thailand.
Notes. Extremely rare species known except recent
Mr. Nguyen Phi Tam discovery only by two collections
separated geographically on more than 1300 km.
Vietnamese plants somewhat differs from the type in
rather distant leaves, little smaller flowers and much
shorter spur and ovary. They probably represent
separate variety which needs more material for further
study. Flowers of Vietnamese plant observed during
anthesis were white with light greenish tint (Fig. 13B).
Studied specimens. Vietnam: Sothern Vietnam, Langbian,
Eberhardt 1886 (P P00426410). Southern Vietnam, Lam Dong
province, Lac Duong district, Dung K’no village, evergreen mixed
and coniferous forest, among big mossy granite boulders, on slopes at
1500 m, 12 August 2015, Nguyen Phi Tam, AL 85 (LE).
Lecanorchis nigricans Honda, 1931, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo)
45: 470; Garay, Sweet, 1974, Orch. South. Ryukyu
Islands: 49; T. Hashimoto, 1990, Ann. Tsukuba Bot.
Gard. 9: 27, fig. 2022; Su Horng-Jye, 2000, Fl. Taiwan
5: 934; Chen, Cribb, Gale, 2009, Fl. China, 25: 172.
Fig. 13C, D.
Described from Japan (“Hondo: Iwada, prov. Kii”).
Type (“K. Kashiyama, anno 1931 typus in Herb. Imp.
Univ. Tokyo”) TI (holotype).
Habitat, phenology and conservation status.
Terrestrial achlorophyllous leafless mycotrophic herb.
Primary and secondary broad-leaved evergreen shady
lowland and submontane forests. Fl. JuneSeptember.
Very rare. Estimated IUCN Red List status - DD.
Distribution. Vietnam provinces: Binh Thuan
(Tanh Linh district) and Khanh Hoa (Khanh Son
district). SE. China (Fujian), Taiwan, Japan.
Notes. This small ephemeral leafless achlorophyllous
herb with tiny unattractive flowers is often overlooked
during botanical surveys and observations, why species
distribution may be much broader than it is indicated by
its scarce available collections.
Studied specimens. Vietnam: Southern Vietnam, Binh
Thuan province, Tanh Linh district, Nui Ong Mt., 841 m, 26 June
2011, N.T.Tich, Tich 26–6–11 (SGN). Southern Vietnam, Khanh Hoa
province, Khanh Son district, Son Trung municipality, O Kha (Suoi
Che) Mt., 10 September 2013, N.T.Tich, T.Gioi, L.H.Truong, Tich
11–9–13 (SGN, LE - photo).
December 2016 Averyanov et al.: New Orchids in the Flora of Vietnam
343
Fig. 13. New orchids in the flora of Vietnam. AGrammatophyllum speciosum Blume (5 June 2010, N.T.Tich s.n.). B - Habenaria
falcatopetala Seidenf. (Nguyen Phi Tam, AL 85). C, D - Lecanorchis nigricans Honda (N.T.Tich et al., 11-9-13). E-G - Phreatia
densiflora (Bl.) Lindl. var. vietnamensis Aver. (type - L. Averyanov, T. Maisak, AL 38). H, I P. formosana Rolfe ex Hemsl. var.
continentalis Aver. (L. Averyanov et al., CPC 7473b / TM 1167). Photos by N.T. Tich (A, C, D), N.P. Tam (B) and L. Averyanov (E-I).
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Phreatia densiflora (Blume) Lindl. var. vietnamensis
Aver., var. nov. Fig. 13E-G; 14.
Described from southern Vietnam (“Kon Tum
province, Kon Tum town area, submontane evergreen
broad-leaved forest, wild collected plants received from
street market”). Type (“28 April 2015, L. Averyanov, T.
Maisak, AL 38”) LE (holotype).
Description. Perennial epiphytic or occasionally
lithophytic herb. Stem erect, not pseudobulbous,
(0.5)12.5(3) cm tall, (4)5–10(12) mm in diam.,
covered by imbricate, distichous leaf sheaths and their
fibrous remnants. Leaves (3)4–8(10), sessile, with
articulation, conduplicate, oblong, ligulate, (4)615(18)
cm long, (3)48(10) mm wide, with two large, unequal,
rounded lobes. Inflorescence as long as leaves, shorter
or little longer, (8)1016(18) cm tall, scape as long as
rachis. Floral bracts pale yellowish-brown, scarious,
(2)2.54.5(5) mm long, with broad base, 0.51 mm
wide, suddenly narrowing into acuminate to filiform
apex. Pedicel and ovary 2.53(0.4) mm long, ovary
narrowly ovoid, 0.50.6 mm in diam. Flowers spirally
arranged or slightly secund, nectariferous, placed close
together, pure white, widely opening, (2)2.22.4(2.5)
mm across. Sepals and petals broadly ovate, 0.81 mm
long, lateral sepals slightly oblique and concave at the
base. Lip glabrous, sigmoid, 11.2(1.4) mm long, 0.71
mm wide, slightly longitudinally concave and
narrowing to the base, blunt to obtuse, rarely obscurely
3-lobed at apex.
Etymology. Varietal epithet refers country of its
main distribution.
Habitat, phenology and conservation status.
Epiphytic or occasionally lithophytic erect miniature
herb. Primary broad-leaved and mixed evergreen shady
forests on granite, gneiss and limestone, commonly on
mossy substratum on mountain tops or along stream
valleys. 5001500 m. Fl. MarchMay. Not common.
Estimated IUCN Red List status DD.
Distribution. Vietnam provinces: Khanh Hoa (Hon
Ba Mountains; Khanh Son district), Kon Tum (Kon
Tum town area), Lam Dong (Lac Duong district) and
Quang Binh (Minh Hoa district). Endemic.
Note. Vietnamese plants represent East-Indochinese
race of widely distributed P. densiflora s. lat. widely
distributed in Thailand, Malacca Peninsula, Malaysia,
Indonesia and Philippines. Phreatia densiflora var.
vietnamensis is rather common plant in Vietnam and also
may be found in allied areas of Cambodia and Laos. It
differs from the type variety in short inflorescence with
scape as long as rachis (not much exceeding leaves with
scape twice longer than rachis), suddenly, long attenuate
floral bracts with broad base (not narrowly triangular
tapering to the apex), broadly ovate petals (not ovate
with narrowed base), deltoid lip (not fan-shaped with
round apex) and short, stout column as tall as broad (not
rather cylindric, taller than broad). Both known varieties
have certainly close relation. Their distribution and
variation in Indochina need further studies.
Studied specimens. Vietnam: Northern Vietnam, Quang
Binh province, Minh Hoa district, 72 km to NWW from Dong Hoi,
Thuong Hoa municipality, vicinities of Yen Son village, limestone
massif Ke Bang, 17°40'N 105°57'E, primary evergreen open
broad-leaved dry forest on top of limestone mesas at 500550 m,
epiphyte on tops of mesas, not common, 16 May 1997, L.Averyanov,
N.T.Hiep, P.K.Loc, VH 4673 (LE). Southern Vietnam, Khanh Hoa
province, Khanh Son district, 42 km to NE from Dalat city, primary
closed broad-leaved evergreen forest along bluffs of giant waterfall in
upper reaches of Lieng Ly River on E macroslope of Hon Giao Ridge
at 1300 m, 12°12'N 108°44'E, lithophyte on shadow rocks, flowers
white, very common, 24 April 1997, L.Averyanov, N.Q.Binh,
N.T.Hiep, VH 4296 (LE, MO, P [P00408456]). Southern Vietnam,
Khanh Hoa province, Hon Ba Mountains, May 2014, T.B.Vuong 135
(PSU, LE photo). Southern Vietnam, Lam Dong province, Lac Duong
district, Da Chay municipality, 35 km to NE from Dalat City, closed
primary broad-leaved mountain forest along stream canyon on W
macroslope of Gia Rinh Ridge at 1500 m, 12°09'N 108°41'E,
epiphyte on mossy stems of large trees along stream, not common, 19
March 1997, L.Averyanov, N.Q.Binh, P.K.Loc, VH 2885 (LE, MO).
Phreatia formosana Rolfe ex Hemsl. var. continentalis
Aver., var. nov. Fig. 13H, I; 15; 16A.
P. evrardii Gagnep., 1931, Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat.
2, 3: 684.
Described from central Vietnam (“Quang Binh
province, Minh Hoa district, Dan Hoa municipality,
VietnamLaotian border, around Cha Lo military
station, point 17º42’50’’N 105º45’54’’E, broad-leaved
primary forest on very steep slopes and along ridge of
remnant mountain composed with highly eroded solid
marble-like gray limestone at elevation 500750 m
a.s.l.,”). Type (“20 April 2008, L. Averyanov, P.K. Loc,
N.T. Vinh, N.S. Khang, HAL 11740”) LE (holotype).
Description. Perennial epiphytic herb. Stem erect,
not pseudobulbous, (0.5)11.5(2) cm tall, (2)35(7)
mm in diam., covered by imbricate, sub-distichous leaf
sheaths and their fibrous remnants. Leaves (4)68(10),
sessile, with articulation, conduplicate, oblong, ligulate,
(3)4.510(12) cm long, (5)710(12) mm wide, obtuse
or obscurely hardly bilobed at apex. Inflorescence
much longer than leaves, (7)8–16(18) cm tall, scape as
long as, or shorter than rachis. Floral bracts pale
yellowish-brown, scarious, narrowly triangular ovate,
(1.5)23(3.5) mm long, tapering to acute apex. Pedicel
and ovary 2.53 mm long, ovary narrowly ovoid, 0.6
0.7 mm in diam. Flowers spirally arranged or slightly
secund, placed close together, pure white, campanulate,
(2)2.22.5(2.6) mm across. Sepals and petals, fleshy,
broadly ovate, (1.2)1.41.5(1.6) mm long, lateral sepals
slightly oblique and concave at the base. Lip (1)1.2
1.3(1.4) mm long, (0.8)1–1.1(1.2) mm wide, distinctly
divided into concave, almost hemispheric hypochile
and broad transversely broadly lunate epichile, densely
papillose at center, entire and round at apex, often
slightly undulate along margin.
Etymology. Varietal epithet refers its mainland
distribution.
December 2016 Averyanov et al.: New Orchids in the Flora of Vietnam
345
Fig. 14. New orchids in the flora of Vietnam. Phreatia densiflora (Bl.) Lindl. var. vietnamensis Aver. A flowering plant. B – apical
half of leaf. Cportion of inflorescence. D floral bract. Eflower, side and half-side views. Fflower, frontal view. G – flattened
flower with removed lip, frontal view and view from behind. H – flattened lip, adaxial and abaxial view. I – lip, side, half-side views and
sagittal section. J column, frontal, half-side and side views. K anther cap, view from above, from below and frontal view.
l - pollinarium. All drawn from the type – L. Averyanov, T. Maisak, AL 38 by L. Averyanov and T. Maisak.
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346
Fig. 15. New orchids in the flora of Vietnam. Phreatia formosana Rolfe ex Hemsl. var. continentalis Aver. A flowering plant. BLeaf. C
portion of inflorescence. D floral bract. Eflower, side view. Fflower, frontal view (flower with intact and retorted lip) and view from behind.
Glip, adaxial view. H lip, abaxial view. I column, frontal view with retorted anther cap, intact column, side view and frontal view with
removed anther cap and pollinarium. J pollinarium. All drawn from the type HAL 11740 by L. Averyanov and T. Maisak.
December 2016 Averyanov et al.: New Orchids in the Flora of Vietnam
347
Fig. 16. New orchids in the flora of Vietnam. APhreatia formosana Rolfe ex Hemsl. var. continentalis Aver. (L. Averyanov et al.,
HAL 11740). B-D - Podochilus rotundipetala Aver. et Vuong. (type – Truong Ba Vuong, BV / AL 86). E-G - Porpax grandiflora
Seidenf. (L. Averyanov et al., CPC 5372 / TM 1031). H, I - Taeniophyllum javanicum (J.J. Sm.) Kocyan et Schuit. (30 March 2016, T.B.
Vuong s.n.). Photos by L. Averyanov (A, E-G) and T.B. Vuong (B-D, H, I).
Taiwania Vol. 61, No. 4
348
Habitat, phenology and conservation status.
Epiphytic erect miniature herb. Primary broad-leaved
evergreen forests on limestone, shale, granite and
gneiss, commonly as branch epiphyte on mossy trees
on mountain tops, very steep slopes or along humid
canyons. 5001400 m. Fl. March–August. Not common.
Estimated IUCN Red List status DD.
Distribution. Vietnam provinces: Ha Giang (Bac
Me district), Kon Tum (Ngoc Linh Mountains; Kon
Plong district), Lam Dong (Dalat City area) and Quang
Binh (Minh Hoa district). Endemic.
Note. Vietnamese plants differ from true P.
formosana s. str. known from Taiwan in densely
papillose center of epichile rather than 2 hairy areas on
each side on the epichile base (P. Ormerod, pers.
comm., 2016), as well as in broader leaves and little
smaller flowers. Specimens recorded from Thailand and
Yunnan (Chen, Wood, 2009a) may also belong here.
Obviously, P. evrardii Gagnep. described from Dalat
City area of southern Vietnam also belongs to this
continental variety. Flowers of some specimens from
Vietnam has strong sweet fragrance and produce a lot
of viscid sugary nectar.
Studied specimens. Vietnam: Northern Vietnam, Quang
Binh province, Minh Hoa district, Hoa Son municipality, around
point 17°4238.5′′N 105°4852′′E, primary logged evergreen
broad-leaved forest and woodlands on slope of limestone mountain at
550650 m, epiphyte, occasional, 18 August 2011, N.T.Hiep, N.V.Tap,
N.S.Khang, L.T.Kien, CPC 4425 (LE). Northern Vietnam, Ha Giang
province, Bac Me district, Phieng Luong municipality, 22º3929′′N
105º1935′′E, heavily logged primary closed evergreen broad-leaved
forest along rocky stream valley at the base of steep slopes of
mountains composed with solid highly eroded shaly limestone at 900
m, epiphytic herb in shady places on mossy trees, common, 6 March
2005, L.Averyanov, P.K.Loc, N.T.Vinh, A.Averyanova, HAL 6516 (LE,
MO). Northern Vietnam, Ha Giang province, Bac Me district, Phieng
Luong municipality, around Phieng Day village, degraded primary
broad-leaved humid evergreen forest along rocky canyon of small
stream at the base of mountains composed with solid crystalline
highly eroded limestone at 9001000 m, 22°3843.8′′N 105°1919.8′′E,
clustering epiphyte on old mossy trees, not rare, 16 November 2014,
L.Averyanov, N.T.Hiep, N.S.Khang et al., CPC 7473b / TM 1167
(LE). Southern Vietnam, Kon Tum province, NW slopes of Ngoc
Linh Mountain system at 1400 m, primary evergreen forest, epiphyte
on large trees, 23 February 1995, L.Averyanov et al., VH 122a (LE).
Southern Vietnam, Kon Tum province, primary evergreen dry forest
on top of ridges at 1400 m on W slope of Ngoc Linh Mountain
system above Ngoc Linh village, epiphyte, especially on Quercus and
Lithocarpus ssp., flowers yellowish white, very common, 6 April
1995, L.Averyanov et al., VH 1205 (LE, MO, P [P-P00408457]).
Southern Vietnam, Kon Tum province, Kon Plong district, Mang
Canh, Thach Nham protected forest, 13 km NNE from Mang Den
town, epiphyte along river, 14°42'30''N 108°19'05''E, 1050 m, 16
April 2015, M.S.Nuraliev 1376 (LE). Southern Vietnam, Lam Dong
province, Dalat: petit ravin qui tombe dans parc forestier en face de
Manline, 1924–8–23, F.Evrard 1173 (P P00408458). Southern
Vietnam, Lam Dong province, Dalat City area, 1984, L.Averyanov et
al., SRV (Socialist Republic of Vietnam) 84-126 (LE).
Podochilus rotundipetala Aver. et Vuong, sp. nov.
Fig. 16B-D; 17.
Described from southern Vietnam (“Khanh Hoa
province, Hon Ba nature reserve, Hon Ba Mountain,
around point 12°06658 N 108°56394 E, evergreen
mountain forest at elevation about 1467 m a.s.l.,
lithophyte along stream”). Type (“2015, Truong Ba
Vuong, BV 130 / AL 86”) LE (holotype).
Description. Perennial clustering lithophytic herb.
Stem few to many, erect, slender, rigid, rather straight,
simple, leafy throughout, covered by sheathing leaf
bases, (8)1015(17) cm tall, densely tufted on short
insignificant plagiotropic rhizome. Leaves numerous,
distichous, lying in one plane, rigid, coriaceous, sessile,
joined, sheathing at base, elliptic, (8)1012(14) mm
long, (1.2)1.52(2.4) mm wide, with prominent median
vein, acute. Inflorescence terminal, short, (1)27(10)
flowered, raceme. Scape and rachis (2)47(10) mm
long, greenish with purple tint to light, pale pink-purple;
scape with few small conduplicate papyraceous bracts
or several greenish conduplicate rudimentary leaves.
Floral bracts greenish to pale purple, triangular,
conduplicate, acute, persistent, (1.2)1.52(2.2) mm
long, (0.5)0.61(1.2) mm wide. Pedicel and ovary
white, cylindrical, slightly curved, (2)2.22.8(3) mm
long, (0.6)0.81(1.2) mm in diam. Flowers opening in
succession, entirely white, not widely opening, (2)2.2
2.4(2.5) mm across. Sepals fleshy, subsimilar, broadly
ovate to sub-circular, (1.4)1.61.8(2) mm long and
wide; lateral sepals slightly oblique, adnate with their
flesh base with very short base of the column, forming
no mentum. Petals fleshy, almost circular, little shorter
than sepals, forward directed. Lip fleshy, spurless,
entire, shortly cymbiform, being flattened broadly
obovate to sub-circular, (1.3)1.41.5(1.6) mm long,
(0.9)11.2(1.3) mm wide, with fleshy apex and large
inflated callus on each side at the base, joined to
column base by short narrow stalk. Column shortly
cylindrical, footless, (0.7)0.81(1.2) mm tall and wide,
simple; rostellum in form of thin plate, bifurcate at apex;
stigma large, concave; anther cap 0.60.8 mm in diam.,
bilobe, with small umbo at apex. Pollinarium 0.5 mm
long, with narrowly ellipsoid viscidium and two half
funnel-like stipes, each bearing 2 narrowly conoid
pollinia. Fruit obovoid, ribbed, dirty purple capsule,
(2.8)34(4.2) mm long.
Etymology. Species epithet refers almost circular
petals.
Habitat, phenology and conservation status.
Clustering lithophytic herb. Primary humid
broad-leaved evergreen montane forests on granite.
14001500 m. Fl. JanuaryFebruary, MayJune. Rare.
Estimated IUCN Red List status DD.
Distribution. Vietnam province: Khanh Hoa (Hon
Ba Mountains). Endemic.
Notes. New species in its vegetative habit and
ecology resembles Podochilus banaensis Ormerod, P.
khasianus Hook.f. (= P. intermedius Aver.) and P.
microphyllus Lindl., widely distributed in eastern
Indochina including Vietnam. Meanwhile, it strikingly
December 2016 Averyanov et al.: New Orchids in the Flora of Vietnam
349
Fig. 17. New orchids in the flora of Vietnam. Podochilus rotundipetala Aver. et Vuong. Aflowering plant. Bapical part of shoot
with inflorescence. C – flower, frontal views. D, E – flower, half-side views. F – flower and lip, frontal view. G – flattened flower, frontal
view. Hintact lip, adaxial view. Ifattened lip, adaxial view. Jlip, side view. Klip, sagittal section. L column, frontal and side
views. M anther cap, views from above and from below. N - pollinaria. Opollinia. Ppedicel and ovary. All drawn from the type
Truong Ba Vuong, BV / AL 86 by L. Averyanov and T. Maisak.
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differs from these species in almost circular sepals,
actually footless, simple column having no distinct
stelidia, bifurcate rostellum and broadly ovate or even
almost circular lip (being flattened) bearing 2 large,
prominent lateral swellings at the base. In its floral
morphology P. rotundipetala has no similar species in
the flora of mainland Asia. Surprisingly, it was not yet
found anywhere in eastern Indochina outside Hon Ba
Mountains.
Porpax grandiflora Seidenf., 1977, Bot. Tidsskr. 72: 5,
fig. 3. Fig. 16E-G.
Described from NW. Thailand (“Doi Pa Mawn Spur,
Doi Inthanond 1740 m”). Type (“Garett 393”) C.
Habitat, phenology and conservation status.
Miniature branch epiphyte. Primary coniferous and
broad-leaved evergreen forests on rocky karstic, highly
eroded limestone, commonly on mountain tops. 1400 m.
Fl. MayJune. Locally common. Estimated IUCN Red
List status - DD.
Distribution. Vietnam province: Cao Bang
(Nguyen Binh district). NW. Thailand.
Notes. This tiny epiphyte grows on branches of tall
trees. It is difficult for observation and collecting hence
its general distribution and Red List status remains
unclear. Discovered location distant more than on 1000
km to the northeast from its earlier known area elevated
on 1700–1800 m a.s.l.
Studied specimens. Vietnam: Northern Vietnam, Cao
Bang province, Nguyen Binh district, Ca Thanh municipality, Ta Pin
village, primary coniferous forest with Pseudotsuga sinensis along
highly eroded rocky limestone ridge at 1400 m, clustering epiphyte
on mossy trees in shady places along ridge, not rare, 3 October 2013,
L.Averyanov, N.T.Hiep, L.M.Tuan et al., CPC 5372 / TM 1031 (CPC
Herbarium, LE).
Taeniophyllum javanicum (J.J.Sm.) Kocyan et Schuit.,
2014, Phytotaxa 161, 1: 72. Microtatorchis javanica
J.J. Sm., 1918, Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg 2, 26: 115.
Fig. 16H, I; 18A.
Described from Java (“Java: Priangan, Tjidadap bei
Tjibeber, in c. 1000 m ü. d. M., auf Theesträuchern
wachsend. (R.C. Bakhuizen van den Brink, bl. Und fr. Im
Oktober 1916; W.F. Winckel, bl. Und fr. Im Januar
1918)”). Type (“Cult. in Hort. J.J. Sm.”) L [L 0061689].
Habitat, phenology and conservation status.
Miniature canopy epiphyte. Primary broad-leaved
evergreen humid forests on granite. 14001500 m. Fl.
January, March, June. Very rare. Estimated IUCN Red
List status DD.
Distribution. Vietnam provinces: Khanh Hoa (Hon
Ba Mountains) and Lam Dong (Dalat City area).
Malacca Peninsula, Indonesia, New Guinea.
Note. This rare species grows as a twig epiphyte
commonly in peripheral zone of canopies of large trees
on tops of mountains and ridges. It is very difficult for
observation and collecting, hence its occurrence and
distribution in eastern Indochina remains very unclear.
Studied specimens. Vietnam: Southern Vietnam, Khanh
Hoa province, Hon Ba Mountains, 15 January 2015, T.B. Vuong s.n.
(LE - photo). Southern Vietnam, Khanh Hoa province, Hon Ba
Mountains, 30 March 2016, T.B. Vuong s.n. (LE - photo). Southern
Vietnam, Lam Dong province, Dalat City area N.T. Tich s.n., June 2011
(LE - photo).
Taeniophyllum pusillum (Willd.) Seidenf. et Ormerod,
1995, in Seidenf., Descr. Epidendrorum J.G.Konig
1791: 23; Chen, Wood, 2009, Fl. China, 25: 444.
Limodorum pusillum Willd., 1805, Sp. Pl. 4: 126.
Taeniophyllum obtusum Blume, 1825, Bijdr. 8: 357;
Seidenf., 1988, Opera Bot. 95: 18; id., 1992, Opera Bot.
114: 353; Comber, 1990, Orch. Java: 361, fig.; id.,
2001, Orch. Sumatra: 981, fig.; Seidenf., Wood, 1992,
Orch. Malay. Sing.: 577, fig. 261h-j; Aver., 1994, Ident.
Guide Vietnam. Orch.: 403; Aver., Averyanova, 2003,
Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 57. ? T. vietnamense
Tixier et Guillaumin, 1962, Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat.
(Paris) 2 ser. 34, 3: 262; P.H. Ho, 2000, Ill. Fl. Vietnam
3: 942, fig. 11507. Fig. 18B-D.
Described from Malacca Peninsula (“Habitat in
arboribus Indiae orientalis”). Type (“Thailand, Phuket,
Koenig s.n.”) not located (Seidenfaden, 1995).
Habitat, phenology and conservation status. Tiny
canopy and branch leafless epiphyte. Primary and
secondary broad-leaved evergreen lowland forests
along streams. 300500 m. Fl. JuneNovember. Rare.
Estimated IUCN Red List status DD.
Distribution. Vietnam provinces: Dak Lak (Ban
Me Thuot City area), Khanh Hoa (Khanh Vinh district)
and Dong Nai? S. China (S. Yunnan), Thailand,
Cambodia, Malacca Peninsula, Indonesia.
Notes. This tiny unattractive leafless epiphyte with
very small flowers grows on small branches in shady
dump places. It is easily overlooked during botanical
surveys and scarcely presented in botanical collections
hence its Red List status remains unresolved.
Taeniophyllum vietnamensis Tixier et Guillaumin
described from Dong Nai province of southern Vietnam
("environs de Dink-Quan") may be conspecific with T.
obtusum. However, insufficient conditions of the type
material do not permit surely solve this question.
Studied specimens. Vietnam: Southern Vietnam, Dak Lak
province, 2013, N.V.Canh, s.n. (LE photo). Southern Vietnam,
Khanh Hoa province, Khanh Vinh district, Khanh Son municipality,
Son Trung village, epiphyte on trees on stream banks, 7 November
2014, Nguyen Phu Khue, Tran Thanh Tung 27 (LE). Southern
Vietnam, Dak Lak province, Ban Me Thuot City area, wild collected
plant received from street market, 27 April 2015, L.Averyanov,
T.Maisak, AL 31 (LE).
Thecopus secunda (Ridl.) Seidenf., 1984, Opera Bot.
72: 101. Thecostele secunda Ridl., 1896, Journ. Linn.
Soc. Bot. 31: 299; Seidenf., 1971, Bot. Tidsskr. 66, 4:
347, fig. 33b. Fig. 18E, F.
Described from Kalimantan (“Sarawak (H.
December 2016 Averyanov et al.: New Orchids in the Flora of Vietnam
351
Fig. 18. New orchids in the flora of Vietnam. ATaeniophyllum javanicum (J.J. Sm.) Kocyan et Schuit. (30 March 2016, T.B. Vuong
s.n.). B-DT. pusillum (Willd.) Seidenf. et Ormerod (L.Averyanov, T.Maisak, AL 31). E, F - Thecopus secunda (Ridl.) Seidenf. (20
January 2016, Nguyen Van Canh, s.n.). G-I - Thrixspermum hystrix (Blume) Rchb.f. (L.Averyanov et al., AL 8). Photos by T.B.
Vuong (A), L. Averyanov (B-D, G-I) and N.V. Canh (E, F).
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Fig. 19. New orchids in the flora of Vietnam. A, B Thrixspermum hystrix (Blume) Rchb.f. (L.Averyanov et al., AL 8). C-F T.
trichoglottis (Hook.f.) Kuntze (L.Averyanov, T.Maisak, AL 22). Photos by L. Averyanov.
Everett!). Also in Perak, Malay Peninsula, v.v.”). Type
(“01011891 Everett, A.H. s.n.”) - SING (holotype).
Habitat, phenology and conservation status.
Trunk and branch epiphyte. Broad-leaved evergreen
forests. Fl. January. Very rare. Estimated IUCN Red
List status - DD.
Distribution. Vietnam province: Khanh Hoa (Chu
Yang Sin Mountains). Malaya, Borneo.
Notes. Very rare West-Malesian species in the flora
of Vietnam. It is close to Thecopus maingayi (Hook.f.)
Seidenf., but well differs “in half-moon shaped median
keels on the disk of the lip not with the backwards
protruding hooks and lip side lobes not broadening to
the apex” (Seidenfaden, 1971, 1984: 101).
Studied specimens. Vietnam: Southern Vietnam, Khanh
Hoa province, Khanh Vinh district, Chu Yang Sin Mountains, 20
January 2016, Nguyen Van Canh, s.n. (LE).
Thrixspermum hystrix (Blume) Rchb.f., 1874, Trans.
Linn. Soc. London 30: 136, 145. Cleisostoma fratrum
Guillaumin, 1956, Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. ser. 2, 28:
239. Dendrocolla hystrix Blume, 1825, Bijdr.: 291.
Thrixspermum trichoglottis auct. non (Hook.f.)
Kuntze:Comber, 1990, Orch. Java: 322; id., 2001, Orch.
Sumatra: 964, p.p. Fig. 18G-I; 19A, B.
Described from Java “Crescit: ad arbores circa
Buitenzorg”. Type (“Blume”) not located.
Habitat, phenology and conservation status. Tiny
branch and canopy epiphyte. Primary and secondary
broad-leaved evergreen and semi-deciduous forests and
woodlands. Fl. MarchMay. Rare. Estimated IUCN
Red List status DD.
Distribution. Vietnam provinces: Khanh Hoa (Cam
Ranh), Lam Dong (Dalat City area). S. China, Thailand,
Malacca, Java, Sumatra, Kalimantan, Philippines.
Notes. Tiny canopy epiphyte difficult for observation
and collecting in natural habitat. It is easy overlooked
during botanical surveys and scarcely presented in
herbaria hence its distribution and conservation status
remains unclear. Most probably Cleisostoma fratrum
Guillaumin, alone specimen of which, housed at Paris
Herbarium [P-P00324384] belongs here. This species is
very close to Thrixspermum trichoglottis (Hook.f.)
Kuntze and obviously mixed with it in many regional
floristic assessments (Comber, 1990, 2001; Seidenfaden,
December 2016 Averyanov et al.: New Orchids in the Flora of Vietnam
353
Wood, 1992; Averyanov, 1994; Pham Hoang Ho, 2000;
Averyanov, Averyanova, 2003; Chen, Wood, 2009b).
According to available observations, it differs in
lanceolate, acute leaves (not broadly oblong, apically
bilobe), in slender (not rather thick), long inflorescence
scape (longer than leaves), pale yellow (not white)
flowers and short glandular (not long glandular) hairiness
of the lip (Fig. 19A, B). This is first verified, documented
and well-illustrated record of this species for Vietnam.
Studied specimens. Vietnam: Southern Vietnam, Annam:
Dalat, C.R.S.T. no 162 / Leg. = 40 / EP, 1955, type of Cleisostoma
fratrum Guillaumin (P-P00324384). Southern Vietnam, Khanh Hoa
province, Cam Ranh town area, 2014, Nguyen Phong, sine no, flowered
in cult. 23 April 2015, L.Averyanov, T.Maisak, P.K.Loc, AL 8 (LE).
Thrixspermum trichoglottis (Hook.f.) Kuntze, 1891,
Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 682; Seidenf., 1988, Opera Bot. 95:
162, fig. 100, pl. 17a; Comber, 1990, Orch. Java: 322,
p.p.; id., 2001, Orch. Sumatra: 964, p.p.; Seidenf.,
Wood, 1992, Orch. Malay. Sing.: 655, fig. 296c-o, pl.
44d; Aver., 1994, Ident. Guide Vietnam. Orch.: 363;
P.H. Ho, 2000, Ill. Fl. Vietnam 3: 951, fig. 11541;
Aver., Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch.
Viet.: 59; Newman et al., 2007, Checkl. Vasc. Pl. Lao:
282; Schuit. et al., 2008, Nord. Journ. Bot., 26: 312;
Chen, Wood, 2009, Fl. China, 25: 469. Sarcochilus
trichoglottis Hook.f., 1890, Fl. Brit. India 6: 39; id.,
1892. Icon. Pl. tab. 2121. Fig. 19C-F.
Described from Malacca Peninsula (“Perak, ….
Singapore…”). Syntypes (“Scortechini, King’s
Collector, … Ridley”) – ?
Habitat, phenology and conservation status. Tiny
branch and canopy epiphyte. Primary and secondary
broad-leaved evergreen lowland forests along streams.
100500 m. Fl. MarchAugust, November. Rare.
Estimated IUCN Red List status DD.
Distribution. Vietnam provinces: Dak Lak (Yok Don
national park) and Khanh Hoa (Cam Ranh town area). NE.
India, Myanmar, China (S. Yunnan), Thailand, Laos,
Malacca Peninsula, Singapore, Indonesia.
Notes. The distribution of this and previous species
remains unclear due to insufficiency of verified field
observations and collections available for sure
identification lacking flowers (or having flowers strongly
deformed). Alone specimen, previously recorded for
Vietnam (Averyanov 1994: 363 [Cleisostoma fratrum
Guillaumin P-P00324384]) presently identified as
Thrixspermum histrix Rchb.f. Presented report is first
documented and illustrated record of this species in
Vietnam. Meanwhile, it may be enough common in
lowland areas of the southern part of the country.
Studied specimens. Vietnam: Southern Vietnam, Dak Lak
province, Yok Don, evergreen dry forest, January 2015, Nguyen Van
Canh, flowered in cult. 14 August 2015, L.Averyanov, T.Maisak, AL 22
(LE). Southern Vietnam, Ninh Thuan province, Ninh Phuoc district,
sunny dry forest, Pham Ngoc Lien, fl. and coll. in April 2014, Dinh Quang
Diep, s.n. (LE).
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We cordially thank authorities of the Center for Plant
Conservation (Vietnam Union of Science and Technology
Associations) and Tay Nguyen Institute for Scientific Research
(Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology) for organizing of
our field surveys, which were financially supported in part by the
research program of U.S.A. National Geographic Society
Exploration of primary woods along constructed highway Hanoi
Ho Chi Minh for their sustainable conservation (in limits of Ha
Tinh and Nghe An provinces of central Vietnam” (#9129-12) and
Rufford Small Grant - “Mapping and assessment of Xanthocyparis
vietnamensis subpopulations in Cao Bang, Ha Giang and Lang
Son provinces” (2014). Laboratory studies were funded and
supported by a Tay Nguyen 3 programme (Vietnam) and Russian
Foundation for Basic Research (Plant taxonomy, geography and
biology in local floras of eastern Indochina, 15-04-00419 А). We
particularly thank following persons: Le Thanh Son, Nguyen
Phong, Nguyen Phu Khue, Nguyen Van Canh, Phan Ke Loc, Tran
Thanh Tung, and Vu Quoc Binh for help and kind success to home
gardens and significant data about wild species cultivated in their
private collections. We are also grateful to André Schuiteman and
Paul Abel Ormerod for fruitful discussion on orchid taxonomy.
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