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Promoting sustainable housing and urban development for Qatar through PPP model

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Qatar is a unique country blessed with a strong people and a distinctive natural environment. As the world’s third largest holder of natural gas reserves, the economic prosperity of Qatar is guaranteed for generations to come. Despite this abundance of natural wealth, Qatar recognizes the need to continue to invest strongly in its people and to create a diversified economy where the private sector plays a prominent role. Nowadays Qatar as one of the Gulf countries is devising strategies to tackle over the 60% plunge in oil prices. The impact of falling oil prices on the wider economy could create pressure on economic planning in Qatar, which has an oil-linked pricing mechanism for its supplies. To overcome these challenges, Qatar is increasingly interested in public private partnerships for its development and infrastructure projects as an ideal solution to complement government spending and drive growth. This paper aims to provide insight into how the PPP model can help promote sustainable housing and urban development for Qatar. It reviews PPP model focusing on the importance of PPP, the advantages and dis-advantages of PPPs. The paper also explores challenges for PPPs in housing and urban development. It seeks through a critical evaluation to provide practical recommendations that serve to enhance the implementation of PPPs in Qatar.
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1st International Conference on Urban Planning - ICUP2016
Publisher
Faculty of Civil engineering and Architecture, University of Nis
For Publisher
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Petar Mitkovic, PhD
Editor
Petar Mitkovic, PhD
Co-Editor
Milan Tanic, PhD
Text formatting, prepress and cover
Milan Brzakovic
Ana Curk
Vojislav Nikolic
ISBN 978-86-88601-22-1
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Grafika Galeb Nis
1st International Conference on Urban Planning - ICUP2016
Is organized by
Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Nis
Urban Planning Cluster, Nis
Under patronage of the
GOVERNMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA MINISTRY OF EDUCATION,
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT
SCIENTIFIC PROGRAM COMMITTEE
Petar Mitkovic, PhD, Chairman, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Nis,
Serbia
Ljiljana Vasilevska, PhD, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Nis, Serbia
Milena Dinic Brankovic, PhD, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Nis, Serbia
Goran Jovanovic, PhD, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Nis, Serbia
Aleksandar Kekovic, PhD, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Nis, Serbia
Danica Stankovic, PhD, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Nis, Serbia
Milan Tanic, PhD, Urban Planning Cluster, Serbia
Milica Bajic Brkovic, PhD, Faculty of Architecture, University of Belgrade, Serbia
Eva Vanista Lazarevic, Faculty of Architecture, University of Belgrade, Serbia
Aleksandra Djukic, PhD, Faculty of Architecture, University of Belgrade, Serbia
Jelena Zivkovic, PhD, Faculty of Architecture, University of Belgrade, Serbia
Mila Pucar, PhD, Institute of Architecture and Urban & Spatial Planning of Serbia
Igor Maric, PhD, Institute of Architecture and Urban & Spatial Planning of Serbia
Rajica Mihajlovic, PhD, Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Belgrade, Serbia
Paolo Scattoni, PhD, Sapienza Università di Roma, Italy
Grigor Doytchinov, PhD, Graz University of Technology, Austria
Demetrio Muñoz Gielen, PhD, Radboud University Nijmegen, Netherlands
Kishii Takayuki, College of Science and Technology, Department of Civil Engineering, Nihon
University, Japan
Marie-Alice L'Heureux, PhD, School of Architecture, Design & Planning Architecture Department,
The University of Kansas, Lawrence, USA
Bonnie Johnson, PhD, School of Architecture, Design & Planning - Department of Urban Planning,
The University of Kansas, Lawrence, USA
Серебряная Валентина Васильевна, PhD, Volgograd State University of Architecture and Civil
Engineering, Russia
Птичникова Галина Александровна, PhD, Volgograd State University of Architecture and Civil
Engineering, Russia
Pavle Krstic, PhD, Faculty of Architecture, University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Brankica Milojevic, PhD, Faculty of Architecture, Civil Engineering and Geodesy, Univesity of Banja
Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Aleksandra Miric, PhD, chercheur associé, Institut de recherche sur l'architecture antique, France
Ali A. Alraouf, Phd, Head of CB, Development, CB and Research Unit-QNMP, Research and Training,
Ministry of urban planning, Doha, Qatar
Hossam Samir Ibrahim, Phd, Urban and Environmental Planning Expert, Deputy Team Leader -
QNMP Group at Ministry of Municipality and Environment, Doha, Qatar
Zorica Nedovic –Budic, Professor Chair of Spatial Planning School of Geography, Planning and
Environmental Policy University College Dublin
Cristian Suau, PhD, Studio Pop C.I.C., Glasgow, Scotland
Aida Nayer, Ph.D, Assistant Professor, Arch Dept., Effat University, Saudi Arabia
ORGANIZING COMMITTEE
Milan Tanic, PhD, Chairman
Tanja Obradovic
Milena Dinic Brankovic, PhD
Slavisa Kondic
Vojislav Nikolic
Vuk Milosevic
Milan Brzakovic
Milica Radosavljevic
Milja Penic
Marija Marinkovic
Ana Curk
FOREWORD
It is with great pleasure that I present to you the following Proceedings of the International
Conference on Urban Planning ICUP2016, held in Nis on November 18-19, 2016. This is the first
conference organized by the Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Nis and Urban
Planning Cluster, with the aim of bringing together scholars, researchers and students from all areas of
Urban Planning.
The ICUP conference explores a broad spectrum of Urban and Spatial Planning issues from both
theory and practice. Some of the topics that we are focusing on this year include sustainable
development, urban regeneration, urban design, land readjustment, public-private partnerships in urban
development, urban management, knowledge-based urban development, smart cities, architectural
heritage and various current problems of planning and development. These topics are discussed in more
than 40 conference papers from various study areas and diverse places in the world, and therefore
provide a valuable insight into contemporary urban policies and approaches. They also make good
grounds for discussion at the conference and a good basis for further research. The authors are
professors, researchers, PhD students and planning professionals. We are especially proud of our keynote
speakers and the members of our Scientific Program Committee, who are eminent experts in their fields
from all over the world.
Urban structure is a complex and multidimensional system that is prone to change. Therefore, it
requires to be closely monitored by continuous research, which brings up some entirely new issues or
sheds new light on the old ones. Given the importance of the planning topics elaborated at the
conference and numerous questions that are raised here, we firmly believe that it is our task to continue
exploring this matter. Hence, we are striving for the ICUP conference to have a biennial character in the
future, and establish itself as a traditional manifestation of the University of Nis.
I take this opportunity to thank all of the authors and co-authors of papers, reviewers, keynote
speakers, members of the Scientific Program Committee, as well as teachers and associates engaged in
the technical preparation of these Proceedings. And finally, I am pleased to invite all authors from the
academic and research community to participate and give their scientific and professional contributions
to the future Conferences, for the benefit of all of us.
Petar Mitkovic, PhD, Full professor
Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Nis
Chairman of the Scientific Program Committee
Disclaimer
The contents of the papers presented in this publication are the sole responsibility of their authors
and can in no way be taken to reflect the views of the Organizer.
H. IBRAHIM ET AL.: PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT FOR QATAR THROUGH PPP MODEL
ICUP 2016
PROCEEDINGS
Nis: November 2016 211
PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT FOR
QATAR THROUGH PPP MODEL
Hossam Ibrahim
PhD, Urban Planning Expert, Qatar National Master Plan, Ministry of Municipality & Environment, Qatar.
Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Urban & Regional Planning, Cairo University.
Senior Lecturer, Mansoura Higher Institute for Engineering & Technology.
h1_sadeldin@yahoo.com
Ali Feraish Mubark Saleh
Head of Planning Implementation Section, Ministry of Municipality & Environment
asaleh6@mme.gov.qa
ABSTRACT
Qatar is a unique country blessed with a strong people and a distinctive natural environment.
As the world’s third largest holder of natural gas reserves, the economic prosperity of Qatar is
guaranteed for generations to come. Despite this abundance of natural wealth, Qatar recognizes
the need to continue to invest strongly in its people and to create a diversified economy where the
private sector plays a prominent role. Nowadays Qatar as one of the Gulf countries is devising
strategies to tackle over the 60% plunge in oil prices. The impact of falling oil prices on the wider
economy could create pressure on economic planning in Qatar, which has an oil-linked pricing
mechanism for its supplies. To overcome these challenges, Qatar is increasingly interested in public
private partnerships for its development and infrastructure projects as an ideal solution to
complement government spending and drive growth.
This paper aims to provide insight into how the PPP model can help promote sustainable
housing and urban development for Qatar. It reviews PPP model focusing on the importance of PPP,
the advantages and dis-advantages of PPPs. The paper also explores challenges for PPPs in housing
and urban development. It seeks through a critical evaluation to provide practical
recommendations that serve to enhance the implementation of PPPs in Qatar.
Keywords: urban planning; sustainable housing; urban development; PPP.
1. INTRODUCTION
Qatar is a unique country blessed with a strong people and a distinctive natural environment. As the
world’s third largest holder of natural gas reserves, the economic prosperity of Qatar is guaranteed for
generations to come. Despite this abundance of natural wealth, Qatar recognizes the need to continue to
invest strongly in its people and to create a diversified economy where the private sector plays a prominent
role. Qatar is striving to become an internationally recognized destination attracting high-end business, high
performing education and research development, premier sporting and conference events, as well as luxury
leisure.
The population of Qatar has more than doubled over the last eight years. The resulting urban development and
the provision of infrastructure to support this growth is challenging. Furthermore under Qatari National
Housing Program (NHP) male Qataris who marry are provided with free land plots once in their lifetime, to
establish a family home. The current allocation is 625 m2 within Doha Municipality and 1,000 m2 elsewhere in
Qatar. NHP has put a strain on the supply of suitable residential land. About 21,000ha of land is currently
understudy for potential supply of housing for Qatari households,85% of which is located outside the
Metropolitan Doha growth boundary(MME, 2014).The supply of vacant Government land zoned for residential
use within Doha Municipality is seriously constrained. However most of the new sites are located in generally
un-serviced locations on the urban fringe, which exacerbates the urban sprawl problem. In order to solve this
H. IBRAHIM ET AL.: PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT FOR QATAR THROUGH PPP MODEL
212 ICUP 2016
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issue Qatar National Development Framework (QNDF) highlighted a policy to ensure that sufficient land is
available to cater for future demand by Qatari households (MME, 2014). Box 1 shows the housing policy in
QNDF.
Box 1: Housing policy in QNDF
Nowadays Qatar as one of the Gulf Countries is facing the oil crisis and its impact on the GDP. The collapse in
the price of oil, from more than $100 a barrel in 2014 to under $40 has a great impact on all sectors including
housing and other basic infrastructure assets. The ever-widening gap between the demand and supply of
housing and community facilities in GCC countries is pressing the governments in the region to have an urgent
look at the issue. To overcome these challenges, Qatar is increasingly interested in Public Private Partnerships
(PPPs) for its development and infrastructure projects as an ideal solution to complement government
spending and drive growth (Chadwick, P. et.al. 2015). Qatar recent initiatives are encouraging, where
government are coming forward to encourage private sector to participate in providing housing and
community facility by using many approaches such as:
Provide land in good locations and at reasonable prices.
Provide incentives to developers
To sum up there has been a higher acceptance of PPP in the GCC, in recent years, due to the enhanced ability
of the private sector to execute housing and community facility projects on a large-scale. However PPPs are
unlikely to entirely replace traditional infrastructure financing and development any time soon, if ever. PPPs
are just one tool among many. Governments typically have a number of objectives when building
infrastructure: getting good value for money, timely delivery, meeting public needs and so on. The
procurement model that best addresses these objectives is the one that should be chosen in each individual
circumstance. PPPs have shown their potential as an important way to meet these objectives and address
infrastructure shortages. For example, they provide new sources of capital for public infrastructure projects.
Private equity, pension funds and other sources of private financing must still be repaid, but shifting the
responsibility for arranging the financing to the private partner can help deliver infrastructure if a public entity
is unwilling or unable to shoulder the full debt or the associated risk of the project at a certain point in time
(Burger et.al. 2011).
This paper through a critical desk analysis for PPPs literature review aims to provide insight into how the PPP
model can help promote sustainable housing and urban development for Qatar. Therefore the paper is divided
into seven sections. First section reviews PPP model focusing on the importance of PPP. Then a brief overview
PPPs stages is provided. The third section reviews different patterns in applying PPPs model to housing and
urban development. Then the paper also explores the advantages and dis-advantages of PPPs followed by brief
discussion of challenges for PPPs in housing and urban development. Then a discussion of Qatar initiatives
takes place. Finally some practical recommendations that could help to enhance the implementation of PPPs in
Qatar are highlighted.
2. PPPS MODELS
A public-private partnership, or PPP, refers to a contractual agreement formed between a government agency
and a private sector entity that allows for greater private sector participation in the delivery of public projects
(OCED, 2012). PPPs are used around the world to build new and upgrade existing public facilities such as
schools, hospitals, roads, waste and water treatment plants and prisons, among other things. Compared with
traditional procurement models, the private sector assumes a greater role in the planning, financing, design,
construction, operation, and maintenance of public facilities. Risk associated with the project is transferred to
In accordance with current Government policy prepare a phasing strategy which identifies and releases
sustainable sites for the Qatari NHP based on achieving the following criteria:
Located on vacant Government-owned land zoned for residential purposes;
Provided with utilities, community facilities and public transportation services;
Designed in accordance with best practice planning principles and accords with National Planning Codes and
Standards.
Source: QNDF (MME, 2014)
H. IBRAHIM ET AL.: PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT FOR QATAR THROUGH PPP MODEL
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the party best positioned to manage it (Eggers, w, 2006). Figure 1 illustrates the most common PPP models and
the Scale of Public-Private Partnerships. Box 1 describes the most common PPP models.
Figure 1: The Scale of Public-Private Partnerships: Risk Transfer and Private Sector Involvement
Source: Canadian Council for Public-Private Partnerships
Box 1: PPP models
Design-Build: The private sector designs and builds infrastructure to meet public sector performance
specifications, often for a fixed price, so the risk of cost overruns is transferred to the private sector. (Many
do not consider Design-Build Models to be within the spectrum of PPPs).
Finance Only: A private entity, usually a financial service industry, funds a project directly or uses various
mechanisms such as long-term lease or bond issues.
Operation and Maintenance Contract: A private operator, under contract, operates a publicly-owned asset
for a specified term. Ownership of the asset remains with the public entity.
Build-Finance: The private sector constructs an asset and finances the capital cost only during the
construction period.
Design-Build-Finance-Operate: The private sector designs, builds and finances an asset and provides hard
facility management or maintenance services under a long-term agreement.
Design-Build-Finance-Maintain-Operate: The private sector designs, builds and finances an asset, provides
hard and/or soft facility management services as well as operates under a long-term agreement.
Build-Own-Operate: The private sector finances, builds, owns and operates a facility or service in
perpetuity. The public constraints are stated in the original agreement and throughout on-going regulatory
authority.
H. IBRAHIM ET AL.: PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT FOR QATAR THROUGH PPP MODEL
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3. PPPS STAGES
There are different stages of understanding and applying PPPs. This is depending on many factors
including local geography, political climate, the sophistication of the capital market, the forces driving
formation of partnerships and the factors enabling their creation. Figure 2 define the PPPs stages.
Figure 2: the PPPs stages
Source: (Eggers, w, 2006)
4. PATTERNS IN APPLYING THEPPP MODEL TO HOUSING ANDURBAN DEVELOPMENT
This section describes some global patterns in the application of PPPs for the most prominent urban
infrastructure sectors, including affordable housing, transport, water service, schools and hospitals (Moskalyk.
A, 2011).
4.1. Urban Housing
The PPP approach to housing projects in most of developed countries has included a joint venture where
the private and public sectors jointly finance, own, and operate a housing project, and where risk is shared
according to predetermined contractual provisions.
4.2. Urban Transport
In urban transport, PPPs have emerged as an effective tool for the expansion, maintenance, and
construction of new roads, railways, airports, seaports and other forms of transport. The financial viability of
urban transport projects makes this sector a more attractive investment option to the private partner,
particularly in developed countries where there is a growing public acceptance of tolls, or other user fees for
roads and bridges.
4.3. Urban Water and Sanitation Management
Water and sanitation management represents another fast growing urban sector for PPPs around the
world. Being more specific many governments are moving away from traditional state management of water
service delivery and towards private sector involvement.
4.4. Urban Schools and Hospitals
Public-private partnerships are also becoming an accepted norm in global education and health sectors.
Governments are realizing the need for involving the private sector to help deal with the escalating costs of
health and education.
H. IBRAHIM ET AL.: PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT FOR QATAR THROUGH PPP MODEL
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5. ADVANTAGES AND DIS-ADVANTAGES OF PPPS
While this section highlights the important key advantages associated with PPP model, it also considers
some of the arguments made against PPP procurement for wider urban development.
5.1. Advantages of PPPs
Some of the advantages of PPPs can be defined as follows:
Cost Savings
Encouraging innovation to take place by motivating the private partner to develop new methods
and approaches for project delivery.
Linking payments to performance.
Motivating the private sector to organize its activities in a way that drives efficiencies and
maximizes returns on investments.
Transferring risk between the public and private sectors based on the ability to manage that risk
cost-effectively.
PPPs Deliver On-Time
Enhancing Public Management by focusing on other important policy issues
Enabling the Public Sector to Focus on Outcomes and Core Business
Improving Levels of Service
5.2. Disadvantages of PPPs
Some disadvantages of PPPs can be defined as follows:
PPP contract requires that each partner spend considerable time and resources on outside
experts to help anticipate and oversee all possible future contingencies
Reduced Control of Public Assets
Loss of Accountability
6. CHALLANGESS TO PPPS IN HOUSINGAND URBAN DEVELOPMENT
Almost all countries around the world have witnessed some form of PPP investment in the provision of
housing and urban infrastructure since the early 1990s.However when applying PPPs governments around the
world are facing a range of challenges. These challenges vary depending on the country’s level of
understanding and development in using the partnership model (Moskalyk. A, 2011). This section highlights
some of the most common PPP challenges facing governments today:
Differing Goals between the private sector and the public sector.
Public Acceptability.
Lack of internal capacity including negotiation, finance, contract and other skills required to
manage highly complex urban projects such as PPPs.
Integration of sustainable development into planning and implementation process.
7. DISCUSSION OF QATAR INITIATIVES
Over 10 years ago, Qatar had already initiated its privatisation programme by transferring the
responsibility of the state-owned electricity and water corporation to an independent authority. More recently
the BOOT was used to implement the Ras Laffan IWPP (Independent Water and Power Project). There is great
scope for widening the use of PPPs in Qatar and there is a strong indication that this is the path Qatar is taking
with its future plans for its rapid major infrastructure development. Qatar is also looking to partner with the
private sector to improve delivery of public services and efficient management of public assets.
Qatar recent initiatives are encouraging, where government are coming forward to encourage private sector to
participate in providing housing and community facilities this including but not limited to:
Hospitals
Schools
Tourism projects
Affordable housing for expats and workers in Qatar
H. IBRAHIM ET AL.: PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT FOR QATAR THROUGH PPP MODEL
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The country inter to this partnership by
Provide land in good locations and at reasonable prices.
Provide land free of charge.
Provide incentives to developers.
From the previous illustration of Qatar initiatives towards PPPs it can be clarified that Qatar is still in the first
stage of applying PPPs and mostly using the two models, Design-Build-Finance-Maintain-Operate and Build-
Own-Operate- Transfer. The next section will provide recommendations for Qatar in order to enhance the
implementation of PPPs and move forward to the higher stages.
8. RECOMMONDATIONS
Latecomers to the PPP party can avoid some of the mistakes often made in earlier stages of maturity the
tendency to apply a one-size-fits-all model to all infrastructure projects. Furthermore they can adopt from the
outset some of the more flexible, creative and tailored PPP approaches now being used in trailblazer countries.
The public interest is paramount.
Good practices in accountability and transparency measures must be maintained throughout
the lifecycle of the project.
A PPP project needs to be carefully planned, well-defined in scope and fundamentally clear in its
objectives.
The viability of the project needs to be measured against a criteria set by the initiating partner
to assist it in determining its potential suitability for PPP procurement.
The selected PPP model must provide value for money in terms of cost and time savings with
appropriate consideration of risk transfer.
The PPP tendering process must be competitive, fair and subject to proper due diligence on the
part of the partnership.
An urban sector PPP must reflect the needs of the affected community and must integrate into
the project key stakeholder priorities.
Finally it is certain that PPP models developed in mature PPP markets in other regions can be used as a
guideline. Ultimately, however, states such as Qatar will look to adopt a PPP delivery solution and find their
own structures that are adapted to the local market and to government requirements.
REFERENCES
1. Burger, P., Hawkesworth, I., 2011. How To Attain Value for Money: Comparing PPP and Traditional
Infrastructure Public Procurement, OECD Journal on Budgeting, 11(1). pp 1-56.
2. Chadwick, P., Bastress, S., 2015. Prospects of public-private partnerships for Qatar’s
infrastructure.http://www.qatarconstructionnews.com/prospects-public-private-partnerships-
qatars-infrastructure/#sthash.IfEMxRmK.dpuf [Accessed: 1st October 2016]
3. Eggers, W., 2006. Closing the Infrastructure Gap: The Role of Public-Private Partnerships, Deloitte
Development LLC.
4. MDPS, 2008, Qatar National Vision 2030, Ministry of Development Planning and Statistics (MDPS),
Doha, Qatar.
5. MME, 2014. Qatar National Development Framework (QNDF), Ministry of Municipality and
Environment (MME), Doha, Qatar.
6. Moskalyk, A., 2011. Public-Private Partnerships in Housing and Urban Development, The Global
Urban Economic Dialogue Series, UN-HABITAT, Nairobi,ISBN Number (Volume): 978-92-1-132356-6.
7. OECD, 2012. Recommendation of the Council on Principles for Public Governance of Public-Private
Partnerships.
1st International Conference on Urban Planning - ICUP2016
Supported by
Potisje Kanjiža, Fibran, Sika, Knauf Insulation, Dunav Osiguranje, “TRACE PZP NIŠ” AD, Diz komerc,
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711.4(082)
INTERNATIONAL Conference on Urban Planning
(1st ; 2016 ; Niš)
Proceedings / [1st] International Conference on
Urban Planning ICUP 2016, Nis, 18-19 November 2016
; [is organized by Faculty of Civil Engineering and
Architecture, University of Nis [and] Urban Planning
Cluster, Nis
; editor Petar Mitkovic]. - Nis : Faculty of Civil
Engineering and Architecture, University, 2016 (Nis
: Grafika Galeb). - 355 str. : ilustr. ; 30 cm
Tiraž 150. - Str. 5: Foreword / Petar Mitković
. - Napomene i bibliografske reference uz tekst
. - Bibliografija uz svaki rad.
ISBN 978-86-88601-22-1 (FCEA)
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Article
Full-text available
Governments increasingly use public-private partnerships (PPPs) to pursue value for money. However, value for money is (or at least, should be) the driving force behind traditional infrastructure procurement. Therefore, any project, whether it is a PPP or a traditionally procured project, should be undertaken only if it creates value for money. It seems that the choice between using a PPP or traditional procurement should be simple: governments should prefer the method that creates the most value for money. However, in practice the value-for-money objective is very often blurred, and the choice between using a PPP and traditional infrastructure procurement may be skewed by factors other than value for money. Some factors skew choice towards traditional procurement, while others skew it towards PPPs. Drawing on the results of a questionnaire sent to all OECD and some non-OECD countries, this article considers the various factors that may skew this choice and thereby undermine the pursuit of value for money. The results of the questionnaire point especially to differences in the range and complexity of the ex ante and ex post value-for-money tests that some governments apply to PPPs and traditionally procured infrastructure projects. However, accounting standards, political preferences for or against PPPs, and the strength of public sector unions also play, among others, a role in skewing incentives and affecting choice in some countries. The findings of the questionnaire are augmented by four case studies setting out the procurement processes for PPPs and traditional infrastructure procurement in France, Germany, Korea and the United Kingdom. With the focus on the attainment of value for money and by exploring the issues raised in the responses to the questionnaire, this article sets out some good practices that will align the requirements for these two types of procurement and remove possible perverse incentives that favour one over the other. JEL classification: H400, H440, H540, H570 Keywords: value for money, public-private partnerships, PPPs, traditional public procurement, infrastructure, public choice
Public-Private Partnerships in Housing and Urban Development
  • A Moskalyk
Moskalyk, A., 2011. Public-Private Partnerships in Housing and Urban Development, The Global Urban Economic Dialogue Series, UN-HABITAT, Nairobi,ISBN Number (Volume): 978-92-1-132356-6.
AD, Diz komerc, Ingrad, New City Hotel – Niš, City View Guest House, Rosa, Teking, Lawyer's office Dragana Markovic -Niš CIP -Каталогизација у публикацији – Народна библиотека Србије, Београд 711.4(082) INTERNATIONAL Conference on Urban Planning (1st
  • Potisje Kanjiža
  • Fibran
  • Knauf Sika
  • Dunav Insulation
  • Osiguranje
Potisje Kanjiža, Fibran, Sika, Knauf Insulation, Dunav Osiguranje, " TRACE PZP NIŠ " AD, Diz komerc, Ingrad, New City Hotel – Niš, City View Guest House, Rosa, Teking, Lawyer's office Dragana Markovic -Niš CIP -Каталогизација у публикацији – Народна библиотека Србије, Београд 711.4(082) INTERNATIONAL Conference on Urban Planning (1st ; 2016 ; Niš) Proceedings / [1st] International Conference on Urban Planning – ICUP 2016, Nis, 18-19 November 2016 ; [is organized by Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Nis [and] Urban Planning Cluster, Nis ; editor Petar Mitkovic]. -Nis : Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University, 2016 (Nis : Grafika Galeb). -355 str. : ilustr. ; 30 cm Tiraž 150. -Str. 5: Foreword / Petar Mitković . -Napomene i bibliografske reference uz tekst . -Bibliografija uz svaki rad.
Prospects of public-private partnerships for Qatar's infrastructure
  • P Chadwick
  • S Bastress
Chadwick, P., Bastress, S., 2015. Prospects of public-private partnerships for Qatar's infrastructure.http://www.qatarconstructionnews.com/prospects-public-private-partnershipsqatars-infrastructure/#sthash.IfEMxRmK.dpuf [Accessed: 1st October 2016]
Closing the Infrastructure Gap: The Role of Public-Private Partnerships
  • W Eggers
Eggers, W., 2006. Closing the Infrastructure Gap: The Role of Public-Private Partnerships, Deloitte Development LLC.
Recommendation of the Council on Principles for Public Governance of Public-Private Partnerships
OECD, 2012. Recommendation of the Council on Principles for Public Governance of Public-Private Partnerships. 1st International Conference on Urban Planning -ICUP2016 Supported by
Qatar National Vision 2030
MDPS, 2008, Qatar National Vision 2030, Ministry of Development Planning and Statistics (MDPS), Doha, Qatar.
Qatar National Development Framework
MME, 2014. Qatar National Development Framework (QNDF), Ministry of Municipality and Environment (MME), Doha, Qatar.
Lawyer's office Dragana Markovic
  • Potisje Kanjiža
  • Fibran
  • Knauf Sika
  • Dunav Insulation
  • Osiguranje
Potisje Kanjiža, Fibran, Sika, Knauf Insulation, Dunav Osiguranje, "TRACE PZP NIŠ" AD, Diz komerc, Ingrad, New City Hotel -Niš, City View Guest House, Rosa, Teking, Lawyer's office Dragana Markovic -Niš