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Strategies to Increase Technology Acceptance

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Abstract

Despite efforts by school leaders, teachers, technologists, and researchers; much teaching is unchanged since the arrival of information and computer technology (ICT). The same devices that are deeply embedded in everyday life are still marginalized in many classrooms. Technology acceptance is a framework that has contributed to the development of ICT and ICT-based practices in many fields other than education. Three strategies for supporting ICT in schools that focus on increasing technology acceptance are described from the participants’ perspective. The experiences are discussed from several perspectives to both understand technology acceptance as a framework for planning in education and to identify some unanswered questions about technology acceptance that are relevant to education populations.

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... Between 2014 and 2016, the author was retained as an internal or external consultant by individual or groups of school leaders to plan and complete projects in which ICT was applied to instructional problems (Ackerman, 2017;Ackerman, 2018). Each articulated a different motivation for the project. ...
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Schools have become places filled with digital tools. Despite this fact, school leaders find technology planning to be an area of relative weakness. This chapter describes the experiences of four school leaders who adopted an unfamiliar strategy for making technology decisions. The leaders participated in a series of semi-structured interviews. Two leaders displayed characteristics of early adopters of the innovative planning strategy and two displayed characteristics of early majority users of the strategy. Profiles of the two types of leaders are presented. The aspects of the planning strategy that differentiated it from more familiar planning strategies for these leaders are discussed.
... UTAUT posits that technology perceived to be easy to use (high effort expectancy), useful (high performance expectancy), and used by others (high social expectancy) is more likely to be used than other technologies. While originally designed to predict and explain decisions to use technology in setting other than education, there is growing evidence that it describes the use of technology in these populations (Holden & Rada, 2010;Hu, Clark, and Ma, 2003;Smarkola, 2007) and also that efforts to increase technology acceptance can improve the degree to which technology is used in K-12 schools (Ackerman, 2017;Straub, 2009). These data further support the applicability of technology acceptance as a heuristic for predicting and explain technology use in schools. ...
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Anyone is free to use open source software without the need to purchase the right to install it. Despite its appeal to school and technology leaders in rural communities, they are less likely to install it than others. In this chapter, three cases in which open source technology was installed to support teaching and learning in three rural communities are described. In each, the systems were deployed and refined using decision-making grounded in educational design research. The projects are detailed, and the method of technology planning is assessed. Unanswered questions are also addressed.
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Anyone is free to use open source software without the need to purchase the right to install it. Despite its appeal to school and technology leaders in rural communities, they are less likely to install it than others. In this chapter, three cases in which open source technology was installed to support teaching and learning in three rural communities are described. In each, the systems were deployed and refined using decision-making grounded in educational design research. The projects are detailed, and the method of technology planning is assessed. Unanswered questions are also addressed.
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Educational design research is a genre of research in which the iterative development of solutions to practical and complex educational problems provides the setting for scientific inquiry. The solutions can be educational products, processes, programs, or policies. Educational design research not only targets solving significant problems facing educational practitioners but at the same time seeks to discover new knowledge that can inform the work of others facing similar problems. Working systematically and simultaneously toward these dual goals is perhaps the most defining feature of educational design research. This chapter seeks to clarify the nature of educational design research by distinguishing it from other types of inquiry conducted in the field of educational communications and technology. Examples of design research conducted by different researchers working in the field of educational communications and technology are described. The chapter concludes with a discussion of several important issues facing educational design researchers as they pursue future work using this innovative research approach.
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A unified framework for researching technology acceptance, the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), was previously proposed and validated. The aim of this article is to explore the application UTAUT to websites used by students in higher education. Both prescribed websites and user-selected sites were studied using a non-experimental research design and questionnaire-based measures. The results support direct and moderated effects of technology-acceptance variables on acceptance outcomes in the research model, supporting UTAUT. As predicted, the research model-based on UTAUT-was more successful in explaining the acceptance of a prescribed library site than that of a prescribed virtual learning environment. The model was also successfully applied to user-selected websites. User-selected sites were especially intrinsically motivating. The effect of intrinsic motivation on performance expectancy, mediated by effort expectancy, was confirmed. The results demonstrate the broad scope of applicability of UTAUT and motivate its recommended wider use.
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In this chapter we briefly review the literature on motivation and cognitive engagement, and discuss how the key features of learning sciences-based environments are likely to influence them. We indicate some challenges posed by each of these features, for students and for teachers, which may have negative effects on motivation. We describe strategies for meeting these challenges, and argue that the challenges should be taken into account when designing learning environments and when enacting them in the classroom. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The present research develops and tests a theoretical extension of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) that explains perceived usefulness and usage intentions in terms of social influence and cognitive instrumental processes. The extended model, referred to as TAM2, was tested using longitudinal data collected regarding four different systems at four organizations (N = 156), two involving voluntary usage and two involving mandatory usage. Model constructs were measured at three points in time at each organization: preimplementation, one month postimplementation, and three months postimplementation. The extended model was strongly supported for all four organizations at all three points of measurement, accounting for 40%--60% of the variance in usefulness perceptions and 34%--52% of the variance in usage intentions. Both social influence processes (subjective norm, voluntariness, and image) and cognitive instrumental processes (job relevance, output quality, result demonstrability, and perceived ease of use) significantly influenced user acceptance. These findings advance theory and contribute to the foundation for future research aimed at improving our understanding of user adoption behavior.
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Wireless value-added pay-per-use services, such as short messaging services (SMS), have attracted increased attention in recent years. Nevertheless, the extant literature has provided little insight into technology adoption of wireless pay-per-use services. Our study examined this adoption by combining marketing and IS perspectives through an empirical survey of 222 young–adult SMS users. It was hypothesized that perceived value would be a key multidimensional determinant of behavioral intentions. The paper therefore discusses a broadened conceptualization of technology adoption in which value tradeoffs (i.e., price, social, emotional and quality) are critical drivers in the adoption decision.
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Critical realism is a subject of growing interest in the IS literature. This article aims at implementing a critical realist framework: Archer [Archer, M. (2003). Structure, agency and the internal conversation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press] internal conversation theory. As a contemporary sociologist, Archer suggests both a general vision of social practice and a typology of reflexivity modes. Her multilayered framework could be extremely useful in overcoming a current limitation in IS: the weakness of reflexivity modeling. Indeed, though much research sheds light on the structure–action relationship, it does not illuminate users’ biographical realms and reflexivities. In consequence, some genuine motives in ICT-related practices remain poorly understood. To address this deficiency, this article applies Archer’s framework to an IS environment through a meta-analysis of interviews. Results partially confirm the relevance of internal conversation theory and its potential added value to the study of ICT-mediated interactions. A further reflexivity mode and possible re-organizations of the Archer framework are also proposed.
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The role of information technology (IT) in education has significantly increased, but resistance to technology by public school teachers worldwide remains high. This study examined public school teachers’ technology acceptance decision-making by using a research model that is based on key findings from relevant prior research and important characteristics of the targeted user acceptance phenomenon. The model was longitudinally tested using responses from more than 130 teachers attending an intensive 4-week training program on Microsoft PowerPoint™, a common but important classroom presentation technology. In addition to identifying key acceptance determinants, we examined plausible changes in acceptance drivers over the course of the training, including their influence patterns and magnitudes. Overall, our model showed a reasonably good fit with the data and exhibited satisfactory explanatory power, based on the responses collected from training commencement and completion. Our findings suggest a highly prominent and significant core influence path from job relevance to perceived usefulness and then technology acceptance. Analysis of data collected at the beginning and the end of the training supports most of our hypotheses and sheds light on plausible changes in their influences over time. Specifically, teachers appear to consider a rich set of factors in initial acceptance but concentrate on fundamental determinants (e.g. perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use) in their continued acceptance.
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For years, web-based learning systems have been widely employed in both educational and non-educational institutions. Although web-based learning systems are emerging as a useful tool for facilitating teaching and learning activities, the number of users is not increasing as fast as expected. This study develops an integrated model of instructor adoption of web-based learning systems by incorporating existing literature and multiple empirically verified theories, including the technology acceptance model and DeLone and McLean’s information system success model. Survey data collected from 268 university instructors were examined using structural equation modeling to verify the proposed theoretical model. The research results further illuminate the factors that explain and predict the instructor adoption of web-based learning systems. Implications of this study are also discussed.
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An important aspect in successfully implementing instructional technology in educational settings is user acceptance, which is greatly influenced by users’ attitudes towards computers. Today, computers have become an integral part of instruction at all levels of education and it is important for educators and policy makers to understand how various factors interact with the user’s characteristics to influence the teaching and learning process involving the use of computers. Over the years, many scales have been developed to measure computer attitudes of secondary students and adults. Few have been develop to be used for students in the primary schools. The aim of this study is to develop and validate a computer attitude measure for young students (CAMYS). The revised 12-item CAMYS was piloted with 256 students aged 10–12 with a mean of 11.9 years (SD = 0.31). Several statistical analyses were performed to assess the reliability and validity of the measure. The measure, together with suggestions for administration and scoring are included.
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With the radical changes in information production that the Internet has introduced, we stand at an important moment of transition, says Yochai Benkler in this thought-provoking book. The phenomenon he describes as social production is reshaping markets, while at the same time offering new opportunities to enhance individual freedom, cultural diversity, political discourse, and justice. But these results are by no means inevitable: a systematic campaign to protect the entrenched industrial information economy of the last century threatens the promise of today's emerging networked information environment. In this comprehensive social theory of the Internet and the networked information economy, Benkler describes how patterns of information, knowledge, and cultural production are changing-and shows that the way information and knowledge are made available can either limit or enlarge the ways people can create and express themselves. He describes the range of legal and policy choices that confront us and maintains that there is much to be gained-or lost-by the decisions we make today.
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A sample of 138 students was assessed for their computer attitudes using a Likert-type questionnaire with three subscales: Computer Importance, Computer Enjoyment, and Computer Anxiety. An overall positive attitude towards computers was found. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed no significant differences in computer attitudes by gender although male students reported more positive attitudes towards computers than female students. Implications for educators include managing the perceptions of students that the computers are useful for learning purposes, in addition to using them for leisure and entertainment.
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this article are to elaborate on the reasons for choosing qualitative methodologies, and to provide a basic introduction to the features of this type of research
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