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The present study examined the relation between study progress in the first year of education and different aspects of the process of study choice of 89 students of higher professional education. This study consists of three parts. Firstly, we explored which concepts are important in open interviews concerning choice of study and study progress. Secondly, we examined the relations between future time perspective and motivation on the one hand and study success on the other hand. Students who focus on the here and now generally continued their studies while students focusing on the future and the ulterior profession, presenting an extended future time perspective, drop out more frequently. Intrinsic motivation is strongly related to positive study progress, and extrinsic controlled motivation is strongly related to dropout. Extrinsic autonomous motivation is in between. Furthermore, students’ attitudes towards their future studies were examined in relation to their study progress. The results show that students with an attitude characterized by doubt have the highest risk to drop out. Finally, comparing different orientation programs, we show that students who prepare themselves more intensively before making their choice show less dropout.
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Research Article
The Role of Time Perspective, Motivation, Attitude, and
Preparation in Educational Choice and Study Progress
Jeany Slijper,1E. Saskia Kunnen,2Jeroen Onstenk,3and Paul van Geert2
1Inholland University of Applied Sciences and University of Groningen Faculty of Behavioural and Social Sciences,
Groningen, Netherlands
2University of Groningen Faculty of Behavioural and Social Sciences, Groningen, Netherlands
3Inholland University of Applied Sciences, Hoofddorp, Netherlands
Correspondence should be addressed to Jeany Slijper; jeany.vanbeelen@inholland.nl
Received  April ; Accepted  October 
Academic Editor: Eddie Denessen
Copyright ©  Jeany Slijper et al. is is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License,
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
e present study examined the relation between study progress in the rst year of education and dierent aspects of the process
of study choice of  students of higher professional education. is study consists of three parts. Firstly, we explored which
concepts are important in open interviews concerning choice of study and study progress. Secondly, we examined the relations
between future time perspective and motivation on the one hand and study success on the other hand. Students who focus on
the here and now generally continued their studies while students focusing on the future and the ulterior profession, presenting
an extended future time perspective, drop out more frequently. Intrinsic motivation is strongly related to positive study progress,
and extrinsic controlled motivation is strongly related to dropout. Extrinsic autonomous motivation is in between. Furthermore,
students’ attitudes towards their future studies were examined in relation to their study progress. e results show that students
with an attitude characterized by doubt have the highest risk to drop out. Finally, comparing dierent orientation programs, we
show that students who prepare themselves more intensively before making their choice show less dropout.
1. Introduction
Daily practice shows that choosing a higher professional edu-
cationisnoteasyforsecondaryschoolstudents.Universities
oer try-out classes, open days, and summer schools to help
prospective students to make a good choice. e main focus
of these activities is to enable students to start their education
with more realistic expectations. However, despite these
eorts, dropout in the rst year of higher education is very
high [, ]. e main aim of this study is to gain insight into
the process of making an educational choice. We examined
the higher education choice process from an individual
developmental perspective. In this study we examined the
relation between study results in the rst year and dierent
aspects that are relevant for this process for students studying
law or Social Legal Services in higher professional education.
In our study we interviewed students three times before and
during the rst year of their studies about the process of their
choice of studies. e concepts we addressed in this study
were chosen because they emerged in the interviews: the
students mentioned them spontaneously when talking about
the process of their choice of studies. In this study we used
mixed methods. In the rst part of this study we approached
these topics in an explorative way in order to get an in-
depth overview of the factors that play a role in this choice
process and the subsequent progress during the education.
We investigated topics that were frequently reported in the
interviews as an explorative question, based on the principles
of Grounded eory []. In the second part, we made a
quantitative analysis of the concepts found to be relevant,
on the basis of what students reported in the interviews.
Aer these quantitative results we gave examples of interview
quotes, underlying the quantitative results in a qualitative
way. In the third and last part of this study, we examined
one specic part of the educational choice process: preparing
programs and orientation activities, especially their role for
study success. In short: we explored the relation between
educational success in the rst year of the study and time
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Education Research International
Volume 2016, Article ID 1382678, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/1382678
Education Research International
perspective, motivation, and attitude towards the studies and
intensity of preparation before making a choice.
2. Preparatory Explorative-Qualitative Study
Research Questions
() Which topics emerged frequently in the interviews?
() Is it possible to assign classications for these issues
that students reported spontaneously?
2.1. Method
2.1.1. Participants. e participants in this study were 
students of the Inholland University of Applied Sciences
(higher professional education), from the studies of law and
Social Legal Services. e age range was between  and
 years. e participants were randomly selected from a
group of  students, and the group consisted of  men
and  women. is ratio is representative for the students
in the studies of law and Social Legal Services. During an
information session two months before the start of the study
year, nearly  participants were asked to participate.
2.1.2. Instruments. For this study we used the half-open inter-
views that were administered as part of the Groningen
Identity Development Scale, the GIDS []. We recorded all
interviews. e GIDS consists of a semistructured interview,
organized per domain, and questionnaires measuring the
commitment, the strength of commitment, and the level of
exploration in dierent domains that are personally relevant
for adolescents. In this study we only used the interview data
of the domain education and career and not the identity
questionnaires and outcomes of the GIDS [], explaining
developmental changes (this paper is part of an overarching
Ph.D. study into the processes behind educational choice
and educational success of higher professional education
students.). During the interviews, open questions were used
to stimulate the participants to talk about their career choice.
Weaskedquestionssuchasthefollowing:“Withregardtothis
study, what is really important for you?”; “Did you talk with
others about your study choice?”; and “Do you have ideas for
the future concerning this study?”; in addition to the open
interview, specic questions were asked with regard to the
type of preparation that was followed and the educational
career prior to the career choice.
2.1.3. Procedure. Over a time period of one year, a comparable
half-open interview was administered three times with six
months in between. e rst interview was shortly before the
student started the chosen education, and the last interview
was aer the end of the rst year of education. e partici-
pants were interviewed by the rst author, in a quiet room.
Each interview lasted about  minutes. Interviews were
administered three times. e interview data were coded and
analyzed step by step according to the Grounded eory
approach []. e interviews were transcribed and relevant
partswereindicatedandlabelledbyusingthesoware
package MAXQDA. In the rst steps of this analysis of
the interviews we explored which topics were mentioned
frequently.
2.2. Results. Firstly, we observed that almost all students
spontaneously talked about their future. eir discussions of
the motives to choose this study referred to dierent time
perspectives. By time perspective we mean the time-span of
the perception of the student. ey either focused on the
present and proximal situation of their education or focused
on the professional future further away and particularly on
job characteristics. Especially in the rst interview students
reported whether they had chosen this study focusing on
a future job. A considerable group indicated the future job
as being the main reason for their educational choice (i.e.,
Ididnotlookatthecontentsofthestudy,onlyatthefuture
jobs). Furthermore, students frequently reported about the
driving forces behind their choice, their specic motives why
they chose this study. Some students based their study choice
purely on interest in legal topics and the contents of the study.
Others were also interested in legal topics but for the sake of
the later profession (i.e., IwanttolearnaboutLawbecauseI
want to become a layer,orIliketolearnaboutlegalandsocial
topics because there are a lot of possibilities in work later on).
For a third group the contents of their goals seemed to be
dened by feelings of obligation or pressure (i.e., Actually I
wanted to start a job but since I could not nd one, I started this
study).Basedonthedierentmotivesbehindtheeducational
choice reported in the interviews, we distinguished between
intrinsic motivation, extrinsic autonomous motivation, and
extrinsic controlled motivation. ese three categories are
based on studies making a distinction between autonomous
forms of motivation and controlled forms of motivation
[, ].
Finally, a third issue that emerged in almost all interviews
was the attitude of students towards the study of their choice.
Students reported about their expectations and attitudes to
make this particular choice. Some students talked about the
attractive and positive characteristics of the study of their
choice and were very positive about what they expected
to learn in their studies or what they expected to become
later on. Others seemed to make a choice based on negative
argumentation: the other options had more disadvantages
(i.e., Ididnotwantastudycontainingmaths). A third group
showed a doubtful attitude about their study choice (i.e., I
don’t know if I am I able to persist in this study,orDo I make
the right choice of study?).
e interview data showed that many students seem to
have made a choice with the intention to continue their stud-
ies aer one year at university to get the Master of Law degree
(LL.M), because they hope to get a legal robed profession. e
Dutch educational system oers the possibility of following
a sequence of studies with an increasing level (a Dutch
university of applied sciences (higher professional education)
prepares for a Bachelor degree of applied sciences; a Dutch
university prepares for a Bachelor degree and aer that for
a Master degree, necessary for a legal robed profession).
However, in this group the focus on the robed professions
seems very frequent and salient, and this nding led us
to analyze the group with an intention to continue at the
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university in more detail. We dened this phenomenon as
“perspective to switch to university.”
Based on our ndings of the explorative-qualitative
research, we made the following qualications. e classi-
cation of time perspectives resulted in two categories: short-
term time perspective and long-term time perspective. e
criteria used for the coding were the following:
(i) Participants were coded with a short-term (ST) time
perspective if, in the discussion of educational choice,
[s]he focused on the here and now of the studies:
the attractiveness and contents of the topics and the
education.
(ii) Participants were coded with a long-term (LT) time
perspective if the participant, in the discussion of
educational choice, focused on a future professional
career and on possible jobs opportunities aer educa-
tion. In the School of Law, students typically focused
on the so-called legal robed professions such as lawyer
and judge.
Interrater agreement was %, aer discussion, adjust-
ment of the coding directions, and a second round of coding.
We distinguished between three categories of utterances
concerning motivation: intrinsic, extrinsic autonomous, and
extrinsic controlled utterances. e criteria used for the
coding were the following:
(i) Participants’ utterances were coded “intrinsic” if they
described their study choice as a goal in itself; the
motivation to learn legal topics was a motivation that
came from within.
(ii) Participants’ utterances were coded “extrinsic auton-
omous” if they explained their study choice as based
on material or other rewards, thus as an external goal,
but when they also expressed volition and free choice.
(iii) Participants’ utterances were coded “extrinsic con-
trolled” if they explained their study choice as based
on material of other rewards, thus as an external goal,
and they expressed a sense of pressure or obligation.
ese participants expressed no genuine interest in
the studies.
Interrater agreement was %, aer discussion, adjust-
ment of the coding directions and a second round of coding.
For attitude we distinguished between a positive, a neg-
ative and an ambivalent attitude. e criteria used for the
coding were the following:
(i) Participants were coded with a positive attitude when
he or she expressed condence and optimism with
regard to his or her choice, the contents and charac-
teristics of the studies, and the personal experience of
the studies.
(ii) Participants were coded with a negative attitude when
(s)he described the choice for the study in negative
terms: it was second choice or the choice was based
on negative arguments or the choice was motivated
by lack of other options.
(iii) Participants were coded with an ambivalent attitude
when doubt was expressed with regard to the choice
of study or their capacity to succeed in this study. A
part of the codes was independently rated by the rst
and the second author.
e interrater reliability of attitude was computed by cal-
culating the rate of agreement, corrected for chance. Aer
discussion and adjustment of the coding directions the two
coders agreed upon the codes for eight out of ten interviews.
e disagreements were found to be based on subtleties that
could not be caught by sharpening of the code directions.
2.2.1. Classication of Respondents Based on the Results of the
Explorative-Qualitative Research. Participants were classied
into six various groups according to the preparation they fol-
lowed(ordidnotfollow)forpreparingthestudychoice.Each
group contained approximately  students. e participants
prepared themselves before making their educational choice
in dierent ways. We classied these preparatory programs
in two ways: a dierentiated and a more global way. We did
so because, for some analyses, the dierentiated classication
resulted in many very small or even empty cells. However,
if possible, we used the dierentiated classication, in which
we distinguished six groups on the basis of the type of
preparation of their educational choice.
Group LS. ey are students following Law Summer School:
an intensive orientation program of two weeks.
Group FE.eyarestudentswhoswitchedtotheLawSchool
in the winter semester, so-called February students, who
generally have followed a course in another higher education
study during rst semester.
Group MH. It is Mbo-Hbo trajectory: two days especially
for graduates from senior secondary vocational education
(MBO).
Group OR. It is orientation: dierent short orientations such
as open day, “a student for one day,” or a combination.
Group PK. Prior knowledge: they are students who did
not prepare by organized activities but their knowledge is
based on previous studies (at a lower level or at a dierent
university).
Group WO. Without: students started without any ocial,
organized preparation.
ese groups were not completely mutually exclusive. In case
they could be classied in more than one group, they were
classied in the group with the most intensive preparation.
e global classication distinguished four groups, in
which participants were classied with regard to the intensity
of the preparation. We formed three preparation groups: “no
preparation” (group WO of the dierentiated classication),
“preparation of some days” (MH and OR), and “preparation
of two weeks” (LS). A fourth group is “former experience”
(PK), and this group consisted of participants who did not
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follow a formal preparation but who had knowledge of
the studies because they did comparable lower level studies
before. Participants classied as FE group belonged to PK
group if their previous study was also law-oriented and to WO
if their previous study was not law-oriented.
2.3. Conclusion Explorative-Qualitative Research. e con-
cepts time perspective, motivation, and attitude have been
foundrelevantonthebasisofwhatstudentsreportedinthe
interviews. Apparently these themes are important in the
process of educational choice. Time perspective was cate-
gorized in two classications: short-term time perspective
and long-term time perspective. We distinguished between
three motivational categories with regard to the utterances
about educational choice: intrinsically motivated, extrinsi-
cally autonomously motivated, and extrinsically controlled
motivated categories. For the concept attitude, we distin-
guished between the categories positive, negative, and doubt-
ful. For all codes intercoder reliability was satisfying. In the
next section, we will discuss literature on career counseling
theories and research on (vocational) identity development
in which these three concepts are related to career choice
processes.
3. Quantitative Empirical Study:
The Relation between Time Perspective,
Motivation, Attitude, and Study Success
Time Perspective. Several authors dene Future Time Per-
spective eory (FTPT) as the extent to which one considers
the future important. In principle, the term of FTPT itself
(always) refers to the future, but a distinction has been made
betweenafocusongoalsinthenearfutureorthefuture
further ahead [, ]. Simons et al. [] distinguish between
short-term (ST) time perspective and long-term (LT) time
perspective. In both career choice and motivation and in
identity theories the concept of time perspective has been
examined in relation to concepts that are expected to be
relevant for study progress, such as intrinsic motivation [,
].
Time Perspective and Motivation.Futuretimeperspective
plays a role as a motivational source: dierences in time
perspective—goals for the distant or far future—do have
motivational eects. In studies investigating someone’s moti-
vation to achieve (future) goals and ambitions, a distinction
has been made between autonomous forms of motivation—
intrinsic and extrinsic autonomous—and controlled forms of
motivation—extrinsic controlled [, , ]. ese studies are
rooted in the self-determination theory (SDT) of Deci and
Ryan [, ]. In line with Deci and Ryan [, ] these studies
distinguish three types of motivation. Besides internal moti-
vation, a motivation that comes from within, Vansteenkiste
et al. [] distinguish extrinsic controlled motivation from
extrinsic autonomous motivation. Extrinsic controlled moti-
vation occurs when behaviors are executed with a sense
of pressure or obligation, whereas extrinsic autonomous
motivation refers to behaviors executed with an external goal
but also involves the experience of volition and choice. In case
of extrinsic autonomous motivation, learning outcomes can
be just as good as goals based on intrinsic motivation [, ].
Time Perspective, Motivation, and Performance.Severalstud-
ies demonstrated a relation between time perspective, moti-
vation, and performance. Vansteenkiste et al. [] investigated
whether the contents of a goal—with intrinsic or extrinsic
value—plus the context in which this goal is formulated—
autonomously or controlled—aect (physical) performances.
Providing a future intrinsic goal in an autonomy supported
waywasfoundtohavepositiveeectsontheseperformances.
De Bilde et al. [] report, again through the lens of SDT, a
positive relation between an extended future time perspective
and eective self-regulating learning. Based on these studies
summarizedabove[,],demonstratingthathavingan
extended future time perspective is associated with enhanced
motivation and better performance and that (long) future
time perspectives are positively related to autonomous forms
of motivation, we can presume that an extended or long
future time perspective is positively related to better learning
outcomes. us, having or developing a future oriented per-
spectivemaybeexpectedtorelatetolessdropout.
However, identity theories as discussed by Bosma and
Kunnen [], based on the concept “concerns” stemming
from Frijdas emotion theory [], suggest another relation
between time perspective and educational success. Concerns
are dened as the driving force behind the behavior of people.
Concerns thus refer to their goals. Bosma and Kunnen []
and Frijda [] state that proximal concerns are stronger
motivators than distal concerns, concerns and goals far away
in time as being less “urgent” and motivating. From this per-
spective, a proximal concern, such as choosing an interesting
and satisfying study, ts in the short-term time perspective,
whereas a distal concern, that is, the image of the future far
ahead, ts in the long-term time perspective.
From the perspective of Frijda’s emotion theory [] it
may be expected that an attitude that is characterized by
positive feelings, expectations, and perceptions resembles a
positive concern and is thus a stronger motivator than an
attitude that is characterized by more negative perceptions,
expectations, and feelings. Research has shown that high
expectations are a better condition for study success com-
pared to low expectations. [, ] Concerning a doubtful
attitude, Germeijs et al. [] report about the role of inde-
cisiveness and high school students’ career decision-making
process. In general, students with doubts benet more from
guidelines to structure information instead of providing them
with more, other information [, ].
us, dierent theories predict a dierent relation be-
tween time perspective and motivation and dierent impli-
cations for educational success. Because of this seeming con-
tradiction, the complexity of the dierent concepts, and the
lack of empirical knowledge about their relations, we chose
to investigate the relation between time perspective and edu-
cational success in an open, explorative way. Furthermore,
we formulated hypotheses based on the literature concerning
the relation between study success and motivation and
attitude. We expect that there is a positive relation between
Education Research International
T : Dierence in time perspective between persisters and dropouts (𝑛=73).
Study success Time perspective
Short-term Long-term 𝑛total
Persisters  (%)  (%)  (%)
Dropouts  (%)  (%)  (%)
Total  
Value df Asymp. Sig. (-sided)
Pearson Chi-square . .
autonomous forms of motivation and study success, and we
expect to associate a positive attitude with study success. A
special question will be addressed to the phenomenon that
we dened as “ambition to switch to university.”
3.1. Research Questions Quantitative Empirical Studies
An Empirical Study of the Relation between Time Perspective,
Motivation, Attitude, and Study Success
Research Questions
(1) Open Questions
() What is the relation between time perspective and
educational success, in terms of persistence or
dropout?
() What is the role of the phenomenon dened as
“perspective to switch to university”?
(2) Hypotheses
() We expect that autonomous forms of motivation are
related to better learning outcomes.
() We expect that a positive attitude is related to better
learning outcomes.
3.2. Operationalization
Study Success. Educational success was operationalized by
classifying the participants into two categories: persisters
and dropouts. Persisters were students who successfully
nished their rst year—meaning with a minimum of 
credit points—and continued their studies at the same school
or continued in a juridical track at the university, if they
obtained  credit points. Dropouts were students who quit
the law studies, either because of own choice or because of
being forced, because of low achievements. Note that success
is operationalized not from the retention perspective of the
school but from the persistence perspective of the student.
Switching to the university means “a loss” for the school
butmayreectasuccessfulcontinuationofonespersonal
educational career. Some students switched within the rst
year from law to Social Legal Services or vice versa. is
means that these switchers were classied as persisters if they
successfully continued education following the switch or as
dropouts when they dropped out aer they made a switch.
3.3. Analyses. We used Chi-square analysis to test the relation
betweenstudysuccess,ontheonehand,andtimeperspective,
motivation, and attitude on the other hand. In addition, to
test the signicance of the dierences between each of the
categories in case we had too many small or empty cells, we
used resampling (Monte Carlo) techniques. ese techniques
are particularly suited for small and unevenly distributed
samples. Resampling techniques start from the assumption
that dierences between two categories or groups are the con-
sequence of a random distribution. As a next step we tested,
by repeated shuing of the data, how oen the empirically
found dierence between two categories or groups is found by
random reshuing. 𝑝represents the percentage of outcomes
fromtherandomshuinginwhichthesameorabigger
dierence was found. We then returned to the interview con-
tentstogainmoreinsightintothequalitativeaspectsofthe
dierent categories and relations.
3.4. Results
3.4.1. Time Perspective and Study Success (Question 3).
Table  shows the relation between time perspective and study
success.
Table  shows a signicant relationship between time per-
spective and educational success (𝑝 < 0.01). In these analyses,
 students were included as sixteen students could not be
classied with regard to their time perspective. e majority
of continuing students had a short-term time perspective,
while almost all dropouts had a long-term time perspective.
Table  shows examples of utterances in which a person
discussed his or her educational choice, which are classied as
short-term and long-term future time perspective. e code
at the end of each utterance indicates the type of preparation
of the participant.
In the short-term (ST) utterances, the future was clearly
not perceived relevant. Even if it was mentioned, for example,
quote  of participant OR, the future perspective did not
contribute to the study choice. We see that when interest in
law topics was mentioned, the quotes remained very global.
Commontermsare“interesting”or“Ilikeit.”elong-
term utterances mainly mentioned future jobs like becoming
ajudgeoralawyer.Interestingisthatthosejobscannotbe
achieved by studying law at a school for higher professional
education; to reach those goals, students have to switch to
the university (A Dutch university of applied sciences (higher
professional education) prepares for a Bachelor degree of
applied sciences; a Dutch university prepares for a Bachelor
Education Research International
T : Quotes about time perspective in the higher education choice process.
Time
perspective Interview Quotes
ST (1) “With regard to choosing Social Legal Services (SLS) it is important to me that I
feel at ease and that I like the subjects” (OR)
ST
(2) “I then started looking around and reading about it. I also went to an open day
here. e information was very clear, I knew exactly what subjects I would get, they
discussed everything elaborately” (FE)
ST
(3) “I really like the contents of the education. I like all subjects. I thought that I
wouldn’t like economics and tax law at all. Now that I’ve nished it, I think it is
really interesting” (MH)
ST (4) “I actually like all of it. Because I really love law, I think it’s just really
interesting” (PK)
ST (5)“IlikethestudySocialLegalServices,butIdontlikethepossiblefuture
professions” (OR)
LT
(6) “Within Law, I like it that there is a diverse range of subjects...Iwanttogoto
university...I want to practice law later on. I want to continue my study at the
university” (LS)
(7) “I think it’s important that the subjects focus on the later profession. In law I can
see what the future is, it’s clear which direction you’re heading, what the professions
are. With my previous education, IBL (international business & languages), this was
a bit ambiguous. You had to study subjects, IBL and didn’t study to g et a certain
profession. at was not the case, but now it is”
(8) “In terms of future, I mustn’t expect to pass every subject. I am not motivated to
swot for ambiguous subjects” (LS)
(9) “I quitted because of the job perspective and the image that I got of the later
profession. I didn’t want to end up in a boring oce” (LS)
LT (10) “I never looked at Law contents-wise, rather I looked at what I could become
later on” (MH)
LT  (11)“Imostlylikethefuturejob.Iwanttobealawyerorajudge...(OR)
LT (12)“Ilookedattheendgoals.WhatcanIachievelateron?AnddoIwantto
achieve this” (PK)
LT
(13) “Yes I chose SLS only because of the later profession. I already liked the
overview of subjects with Law better during the rst interview. Perhaps it’s a
challenge to get better results for these subjects” (PK)
LT (14)“Itsbecauseofmyuncle.Heisalawyer.SoheinspiredmetostudyLaw
(PK)
LT 
(15) “My stepfather is an injury expert. I really like that profession. en he said: if
you study Law you will head into the same direction of my current profession”
(OR)
LT 
(16)(question about talking about Law, with people in your environment) ...always
with my father and mother. ey want it the most that I go the university. Or at least
that I anticipate on how to do this in the fastest and best way that I can. is
weekend my father was completely shocked when he heard about the new
legislation”(PK)
Aer the rst year you can no longer go automatically to university, without conditions.
degree and aer that for a Master degree, necessary for a
legal robed profession.). Several long-term quotes reected an
almost blind choice for these studies; the goal of students with
a long-term time perspective was to continue their studies
at the general university. In the next section, we will come
back to this “University Study Perspective.” In some long-
term quotes we clearly see that important others played a role
in the educational choice (quotes , , and ). In quote
 it is demonstrated that the time perspective may change
over time: this person started with a rather short-term time
perspective but changed to a long-term time perspective in
later interviews. is long-term time perspective resulted in
adecisiontoquitthestudies.
3.4.2. Ambition Switching to the University and Study Success
(Question 4). We decided to explore the frequently reported
perspective to switch to the university and analyzed whether
this intention is related to the educational success. As a
rst step we applied a Chi-square analysis to test whether
there were signicant relations, and next we analyzed the
Education Research International
T : e relation between study success and the intention to switch to the university (𝑛=89).
Study success University Study Perspective
No ambition Ambition 𝑛total
Persisters  (%)  (%)  (%)
Dropouts  (%)  (%)  (%)
Total  
Value df Asymp. Sig. (-sided)
Pearson Chi-square . .
T : Examples of quotes expressing the intention to switch to the university, with references to the status and to long existing dreams.
Prestige of the occupation/social status Future dream
(about the profession/the future) “at you have to do
preparatory work for someone else. Whereas I want to
be the one who signs the papers...” (LS-P )
“When I was in the last class of primary education I
already thought: it would be nice to become a judge or a
lawyer later on” (MH-P)
“But then I was ‘just a paralegal’ during my internship, I
was only allowed to do simple things” (PK-P)
“I have known for a very long time that this is what I
want to do” (OR-P)
“I chose Law because I had wanted this for a very long
time, how does law work” (LS-P)
“I already work at a law rm.... ey’re not kind, and
they look down on you” (FE-P)
Ivewantedtodothisforaverylongtime.Ivewanted
thissince the rst year of secondary school. So I’m
really proud” (FE-P)
A legal robed profession.
T : e relation between type of motivation and study success.
Study success Motivation
Intrinsic Extrinsic autonomous Extrinsic controlled 𝑛total
Persisters  (%)  (.%)  (. %) 
Dropouts  (%)  (%)  (%) 
Total  (%)  (%)  (%) 
Value Df Asymp. Sig. (-sided)
Resampling Average and signicance . . .
interviews to get a better understanding of the intention
to continue the studies at university. Table  shows the
relation between study success and intention to switch to the
university.
With regard to the intention to switch to the univer-
sity, there was no signicant dierence between persisters
and dropouts. Also, during the interviews, the intention to
continue at university was oen mentioned. Sometimes it
was described as a long existing dream for the future; other
students described this intention in relation to the higher
status of the jobs that can be reached by having a university
degree. Some students found out that their dream jobs
were not within reach during their present studies at higher
professional education. Table  shows examples of quotes
concerning the intention to switch to the university, with
references both to the status and to the long existing dreams.
3.4.3. Motivation and Study Success (Hypothesis 1). Ta b l e 
shows that intrinsic motivation occurred mostly among
persisters. Extrinsic motivation did not necessarily turn out
to be a dysfunctional motivation. More than half of the stu-
dents who were extrinsically autonomously motivated were
persisters, while all students who were extrinsically controlled
motivated were dropouts. ese results were signicant.
Because we did not meet the Chi-square requirements
concerning cell size and because we wanted to test each
pair of categories separately, we did additional analyses using
resampling techniques. We assessed the chance that the dif-
ferences between the three categories were caused by random
distribution. Persisters got value , dropouts got value ,
andwecomputedtheaveragevalue(thustheratebetween
persisters and dropouts) for each motivation category. Out-
comes that diered signicantly (𝑝 < 0.01)fromeachother
were marked by the same letter. us, for example, intrinsic
and extrinsic autonomous are both marked with 𝑎and they
dier signicantly from each other. us persisters as com-
pared to dropouts gave intrinsic motivations more oen than
either extrinsic autonomous or extrinsic controlled motiva-
tions for their choice and extrinsic autonomous motivations
more oen than extrinsic controlled motivations.
Education Research International
T : Examples of quotes representative for dierent forms of motivation.
Motivation Persister/dropout
IN Persister “To me it seems like a very nice education. It seems interesting to me.
Just that, learning about Law” (SM)
IN Persister
“I think the social part is important in an education. at is the
reason why I chose Social Legal Services. I like all subjects, especially
anintroductiontolaw,butalsothesocialsubjects”(MH)
IN Persister “I like to gure out, explore things. at seems interesting to me”
(JS)
EA Persister
“I used to want to become a lawyer, because I really liked this. And I
watched interesting series and so on. en my mother said; why not
studying Law? en I thought this was a good idea” (SZ)
EA Persister
“At rst I wanted to do something arty, like the lm academy. en I
realized I did not want to choose a study without any job possibilities.
In that case, I prefer a job at the oce which interests me. I spoke
about it with my mother, who is a judge” (SZ)
EA Persister
“First I wanted to study psychology of applied sciences, but this was
all the way in Amsterdam. I chose not to do this, too far away. Finding
a place to live in Amsterdam can be very dicult. en I visited the
open days of the Law School for Applied Sciences and I thought: this
really appeals to me” (JS)
EC Dropout
“I live together now with my boyfriend, so I’m looking at the future.
My boyfriend is older than I am, and we want children. So, I should
nish the rst year rst, and then quit, so we can have a child. I
should also see whether I’m able to succeed at all, and see whether it’s
not too hard” (FE)
EC Dropout
“In the rst place, I chose the school. Aer that, the education. I
prefer a large school with a lot of windows over a little one with only
one oor or so. Because, yes, I have claustrophobia, so I feel safer over
here than in another school” (SV)
EC Dropout
“In the beginning I did not want to continue my studies, I wanted to
work. I had bad experiences with the organization at my former
school. en my mother said: you don’t know what it’s going to be like
at a new school, maybe it’s dierent, you are so young, why not
continue studying.... I did not visit open days because I did not want
to continue my studies. I rst needed to change my mindset” (SV)
T : Dierences in attitude between persisters and dropouts (𝑛=78).
Study success Attitude
Positive Negative Doubt 𝑛total
Persisters  (%)  (%)  (%) 
Dropouts  (%)  (%)  (%) 
Total  (%)  (%)  (%) 
Value df Asymp. Sig. (-sided)
Pearson Chi-square . .
Tableshowsutterancesconsolidatingtheresultsofthe
Chi-square analysis. ese quotes are examples of the clas-
sications intrinsic (IN) motivation, extrinsic autonomous
(EA) motivation, and extrinsic controlled (EC) motiva-
tion.
3.4.4. Attitude and Study Success (Hypothesis 2). In these
analyses  students were included as eleven students could
not be classied with regard to their attitude. Table  shows
that continuing students had a positive attitude more oen
than dropouts. In addition, while a slight majority of the
students with a negative attitude continued, more than half
of the students with an ambivalent attitude dropped out.
To gain more insight into these outcomes we analyzed the
quotes in the interviews that underlie the positive, negative,
and ambivalent attitudes. ese quotes, at the end of Table ,
show two types of ambivalence: students who doubted wheth-
er they made the right choice and students who doubted
whether they could successfully nish their studies. Table
shows these quotes.
Education Research International
T : Quotes that are illustrative for dierent attitudes.
Attitude Persister or
dropout Quote
Positive Persister
(1) (about law at the university of applied sciences) “ere is a lot to learn, which is
tough,butIvealwaysbeengoodatit,forexamplewithHistory.SoIcandothat
(OR)
Positive Persister (2) “I’m denitely motivated, if I set my mind to something, I really go for it. I will
keep going until I understand. I want to understand what I’m studying” (FE)
Positive Persister
(3) “I actually expected the education to be much more dicult. Law, that will be
something...But they really start from scratch.” “I didn’t have any prior knowledge
butIthinkImmanagingjustne.IhavetodoalotofhomeworkandImakealot
of summaries” (MH)
Negative Dropout
(4) “I had already nished my study for half a year so I wanted to get a job, but I
couldn’t nd one”
“Or really, I just wanted something else. First I wanted to be nurse, but I couldn’t
start that education until September so I didn’t do that” (FE)
Negative Persister
(5) “No. I also did a test. e results always said something wit Law or Defence, So I
wanted to join the Air Force. But I didn’t pass the test so I immediately knew what
to do: apply here and study Law” (WO)
Negative Persister
(6)“...ButthatwasntpossiblebecauseIhadnttakenMathsinsecondaryschool.
And Law was actually my second choice. So I went for it, because it seemed like the
best thing to do besides Psychology” (OR)
Negative Persister
(7)“...I didn’t really like Economics, I also looked into that. I’m not really good at
Maths.
I like the social part, but I already did that during my MBO study. So I chose the
business side. anks to my MBO-internship Id already acquired some social
skills...” (MH)
Negative Dropout (8) “Actually I wanted to go to the Willem de Koning Academy (School of Arts), but
my mother did not like this” (SV)
Doubting Dropout (9) “Aer the secondary vocational education I was not sure I wanted to follow this
education. I was doubting. It’s all confusing” (MH)
Doubting Persister
(10)“Ihavedyslexia.... I spoke to someone at the open day who reassured me, he
also had dyslexia...I did not subscribe because I was uncertain. I wanted to wait till
this conversation...”(OR)
Doubting Dropout
(11)“Imdreadingit,Idonthaveanylegalbackground,andIfollowedasecondary
vocational education. ey also warned us over there; higher vocational education
is not easy” (MH)
Doubting Dropout
(12) “I applied for Social Legal Services, but I’m not entirely sure yet.
At vocational education I did not choose for Personnel Work, because you have to
work a lot with people. So I choose Business Services. at’s why I now doubt if this
is the right profession for me.” “If I pass all my resits this period, I’m ne with it. But
if I fail the social subjects again, I will start doubting...Now I am doubting if I have
made the right choice” (PK)
Doubting Dropout
(13)(about the moment of applying for a study) “...because I was vacillating
between Social Legal Services and Law. July, August, yes I think it was August that I
applied. I also applied for Social Work because I was still making up my mind. Yes, I
put a lot of thought into it, because I had to make a choice. What am I going to do:
Social Work or Social Legal Services” (WO)
3.5. Relation between Time Perspective, Motivation, Attitude
and Educational Success. Students with a long-term time
perspective were found to drop out more oen (question ).
Nevertheless, no dierence was found between the inten-
tion to switch to the university and study success (question
). We found that educational success is positively related to
intrinsic and extrinsic autonomous motivation; hypothesis
was conrmed. Furthermore, extrinsic controlled motivation
only occurred among the dropouts. Not surprisingly, we
found a strong positive relation between choosing a study
out of a positive attitude and continuation of the study;
hypothesis  was conrmed. More than half of the students
who started with an ambivalent attitude became a dropout.
Furthermore, the quotes suggest that the quality of the
ambivalence may dier between persisters and dropouts.
Some students - quotes ,  and  - doubted their capacities
 Education Research International
T : e relation between time perspective and intensity of preparation (𝑛=73).
Intensity of preparation Time Perspective
Short-term time perspective Long-term time perspective 𝑛total
Two weeks  (%)  (%)  (%)
Some days  (%)  (%)  (%)
Former experience  (%)  (%)  (%)
No preparation  (%)  (%)  (%)
Total  
Value Df Sign. (-sided)
Resampling average level of preparation . . .
to succeed in their studies, while others -quotes  and -
doubted the rightness of their choice, and whether or not the
study tted them well.
4. An Empirical Study of Preparation
Programs and Orientation Activities
In this third section we investigated how the intensity of
preparation before making an educational choice is related
to the time perspective. Furthermore, we explored whether
there was relation between the ambition to switch to the
university and the intensity of the preparation before the
start of the study. Finally, we examined the relation between
these dierent types of preparation that were followed by the
students, and their study success.
Study preparation programs may help prospect students
to make them aware of proximal topics such as the con-
tentsofsubjects,butalsooerarealisticimageofthe
more distal issues such as the professional context or the
future profession. In the interviews students discussed the
information they had about the studies, and the exploration
process prior to the choice. Students develop their image of
a study during the process of making an educational choice.
Because of the high dropout rates, universities oer students
elaborate orientation activities and intensive programs to
support students in this process. Inholland University of
Applied Sciences oers dierent types of orientation activities
and preparatory programs. In previous studies it was found
that students who attend an organized preparation oen are
more successful in their studies than students who do not
attend such a preparation, and they start their studies with
a more realistic image [, ]. Germeijs and Verschueren []
investigated the exploratory behavior of adolescents choos-
ing a study in higher education. eir study distinguished
between six dierent steps in the career decision- making
process, that is, choice actualization, academic adjustment,
commitment to the chosen study. ey provided evidence
for the importance of orientation and broad exploration at
the beginning of the career decision-making process, whereas
in-depth exploration and decisional status are considered
important later on []. Kunnen emphasized in her research
of these dierents steps, that eective guidance trajectories
should focus on personal development, and the importance
of considering educational choice as one step in a longer
process [].
4.1. Research Questions
() Do students with more intensive preparation have
another time perspective than students with less
preparation?
() Is there a relationship between the ambition to switch
to the university and the type of preparation program
or orientation activities that student followed? We
addressed these two questions as open questions.
Furthermore, based on the research discussed above,
we hypothesize that more intensive preparation is
positively related to study success.
Hypothesis 3. We expect that the more intensive the prepara-
tion,thehigherthechanceofstudysuccess.
4.2. Results
4.2.1. Time Perspective and Preparation for Educational Choice
(Question 5). Ta bl e  shows the re l a t i o n b e t w e e n t i m e p e r-
spective and the type of preparation. For this analysis we
used the more global classication of types. e focus of our
analysis was on the knowledge the students had about their
studies. Based on their intensity, we formed three preparation
groups ranging from “no preparation” to “preparation of two
weeks”. A fourth group consisted of participants who did
not follow a formal preparation, but who had knowledge of
the studies because they did a comparable lower level studies
before. In these analyses,  students were included as sixteen
students could not be classied with regard to their time
perspective.
A signicant dierence between the preparation groups
was found. e group with the most intensive preparation
most oen had a short-term time perspective, while the group
who started their studies without any preparation or knowl-
edge at all oen had a long-term time perspective. Again, in
Table , we did not meet the Chi-square requirements con-
cerning cell size. Just as for Table , we did additional analyses
using resampling techniques. We rank ordered the dierent
formsofpreparationsbyintensity,bygivingnumbersto
the dierent types: from  for No Preparation to  for Two
Week s. We computed the average value rank ordered scores
forshort-termandlong-termperspective.Forthisanalysiswe
assessed the chance that dierences in scores between both
time perspectives were caused by random factors. Dierences
Education Research International 
T : e relation between the intention to switch to the university and the types of preparation (𝑛=89).
Preparation1University Study Perspective
No ambition Ambition 𝑛total
LS  (%)  (%)  (%)
FE  (%)  (%)  (%)
MH  (%)  (%)  (%)
OR  (%)  (%)  (%)
PK  (%)  (%)  (%)
WO  (%)  (%)  (%)
Total  
Value df Asymp. Sig. (-sided)
Pearson Chi-square . .
1Group LS—Law Summer School: an intensive preparation program of two weeks.
Group FE: students who switch to the Law School in the winter semester, so-called February students, who generally have followed another higher education
course in the rst semester.
Group MH, Mbo-Hbo trajectory: two days especially for graduates from senior secondary vocational education (MBO).
Group OR, preparation: dierent short preparations such as open day, “one day a student,” or a combination.
Group PK, prior knowledge: students who did not prepare by organized activities but their knowledge is based on previous studies (at a lower level or at a
dierent university).
Group WO, without: students started without any ocial, organized preparation.
between long-term and short-term perspective were found to
be signicant (𝑝 < 0.001).
4.2.2. Ambition to Switch to the University and Preparation
for Educational Choice (Question 6). For the analysis of the
intention to continue at university and the dierent types of
preparation before choosing the studies, it was possible to
choose for the more dierentiated classication, given the
cell sizes. Table  shows the relation between the intention
to switch to the university and the types of preparation. e
dierences between the types of preparation are signicant,
but this signicance should be considered with caution,
because one of the cells is empty.
e Law Summer School (LS) group contained a majority
of students who aimed to continue at university, and no stu-
dents from the Preparation for Secondary Vocational Educa-
tion graduates, meaning group (MH), showed that intention.
isresultisabitsurprisingwhenwerelateittoourearlier
ndings above, which stated that a long-term time perspec-
tive is related to dropout chances. In the previous section
we found out that dropouts predominantly have a long-term
time perspective, while the ambition to continue at university
does not dierentiate between students who continue or
dropout. However, when we consider the group with the most
intensive preparation, the Summer School group, we see that
this group shows the intention to continue at university most
frequently,andatthesametime,oenhaveashort-term
time perspective. is seems counterintuitive. How can these
students choose a study while focusing on the here and now,
the proximate focus, and at the same time intend to continue
at university, which sounds like a long-term time perspective?
To get a better understanding of this discrepancy, we analyzed
the interviews in detail. Table  shows that many students
started their studies with a short-term time perspective in the
rst interview, so before they had started their studies, and
during the year, thus in the second and third interview, they
developed a long-term time perspective and started to focus
on the possibility of continuing the law study at university.
ese quotes suggest that the intention to switch to the
university in the groups with an intensive preparation, the
Law Summer School (LS codes) group and also the Short
Preparation, group OR, developed throughout the year. e
quotes of the dropouts from groups with less preparation
show that their intention to go to university was already
mentioned in the rst interview, but seemed to be almost
“blind”, without arguments or knowledge about the studies.
4.2.3. Preparation before the Choice and Study Success (Hy-
pothesis 3). We investigated the relationship between edu-
cational success and preparation, and we used the more
global classication in four groups. Table  shows the rela-
tion between study success following dierent preparatory
programs of dierent intensity. We explored the relation with
Chi-square as a one sided test of signicance.
We found a sig n i c a n t ( 𝑝 < 0.05) dierence in chance of
success between preparatory programs of dierent intensity.
Almost all students with a two-week preparation continued
successfully and most dropouts were found in the groups with
no preparation, or former experience only. is conrms our
hypothesis that more intensive preparation is related to less
chance of dropout.
4.2.4. Preparation Programs and Orientation Activities. We
found that participants who followed a more intensive form
of preparation more oen gave reasons for their choice that
couldbeclassiedasshort-termtimeperspective(question
).
We found signicant dierences concerning the intention
to continue at university in the preparation groups: the Sum-
mer School group had the intention to continue at university
somewhat more oen than the other groups (question ). e
interviews gave a more detailed view, revealing that especially
 Education Research International
T : Quotes that illustrate the developing ambition throughout the academic year to switch to the university versus participants wishing
to switch to the university from the very beginning of the academic year.
Persister/dropout Interv Time Persp Quote regarding stepping over to university aer one
year
Persister  ST
(1)“ItsnotthatIdontlikeitanymore,butIdidallI
could, I can now try going to university, so why not”
(LS)
Persister  ST
(2)“IfIpassalltestsofyearandnishtherstyearI
will denitely go to university (Law school). I know
what I’m about to start, if you don’t try you’ll never
know. I’ve asked multiple people about the university
study” (LS)
Persister  ST
(3)“I do want to nish the rst year. I already applied to
the university. It was never my plan. But I now found
out that this is really the way for me and I started
doubting the path I was on. Someone suggested this to
me, so I’ve already applied” (LS)
Persister
ST
(4) (talking about education) “with the girls from my
class. I mean, one wants to go to university and the
other just wants to nish the professional bachelor
course and then go to university. e other thinks: I’m
ne where I am right now and I don’t know about the
rest...I’m not so sure about it. Because, of course, going
to university...what if, you don’t make it, then you have
to go back!” (OR)
(5) “I’m not sure if I had already decided this during
our previous interview, but I have now decided to go to
the university. At least, thats what I want to do. And I
think it’s important that I have a good basis before I get
there. Because I’m actually doing quite well. And not
just because of that. Because I originally just wanted to
do my professional bachelor” (OR)
Persister ST
(6) “I just think it’s a really great study. I think its
interesting...Just that you’re studying law.” “And I want
to try to get my propaedeutic. Not because I then want
to go to university. But I would then at least have the
opportunity to go” (OR)
Dropout  LT
(7)“IknowforsurethatIwanttogotouniversityand
become a lawyer. I want to specialise in criminal law”
(OR)
Dropout  LT
(8) “What I want the most is nishing the rst year and
go to university. Because my friends are there as well...
(WO)
Dropout  LT
(9) (about the parents) “ey think Law (of applied
sciences) is alright, but they rather see me going to
university. So I’m going to try nishing the rst year”
(OR)
Dropout  LT
(10) “My goal is to get my Propedeuse in the rst year,
and then go to university. I actually didn’t look at other
options. My goal is to pursue a Law degree” (LL.M)
the Law Summer School (LS) and the Short Preparation
(OR) groups seemed to develop their university ambition
throughout the year. ey started with a focus on proximal
characteristics such as the contents of the study, and gradually
developed a longer-term time perspective throughout the
year, in which they formulated the intention to continue their
studies at university. e intention to continue at university
in the other groups seemed to be a more abstract view of
a future far ahead. e interviews were very clear at this
point; in almost all interviews this was a general theme,
except from the group with graduates from senior secondary
vocational education (e complete data set (in Dutch) is
available on demand, please contact the corresponding au-
thor.).
e hypothesis concerning the relation between the type
of preparation is also conrmed: the groups with the most
Education Research International 
T : Study success following dierent preparatory programs of dierent intensity (𝑛=89).
Study success Preparation
Two-week Some days Former experience No preparation 𝑛total
Persisters  (%)  (%)  (%)  (%) 
Dropouts  (%)  (%)  (%)  (%)
Total  (%)  (%)  (%)  (%) 
Value df Asymp. Sig. (-sided)
Pearson Chi-square . .
intensive preparation activity drop out less frequently than
those without preparation.
5. General Conclusions and Discussion
Our ndings concerning time perspective and the students’
motivation and attitudes towards and preparation on their
studies provide some insight into the way in which these
concepts relate to study success in the rst year. Students
with a long-term time perspective were dened as students
who based their choice on later job possibilities; students
with a short-term time perspective focused on the contents
and characteristics of the studies. Dropouts were found to
be almost always students with a long-term time perspective.
Dropouts seemed to be ambitious at the beginning, because
they oen indicated that they aimed to continue their educa-
tion at university. Our results, especially the quotes of these
students,suggestthattheirchoicemaynotbewell-informed.
Some students were categorized with “ambition to switch
to university”; they had a rather abstract idea, sometimes
baseduponalongexistingdreamforthefuture,ofboththe
university and the legal robed professions that they aimed for.
In line with the initial ndings on motivation [, , ,
] we found a positive relation between the two forms of
autonomous motivation with positive learning outcomes,
while studying out of external pressure was associated with
negative study outcomes. Our ndings conrmed that per-
sisters are characterized by intrinsic or extrinsic autonomous
motivation, whereas extrinsic controlled motivation oc-
curred only among dropouts.
Furthermore, utterances of the students in this study
showed that having an extended future time perspective is
associated with a strong drive. is nding is in line with the
studies discussed in the theoretical framework [, ]. Inter-
views showed that a lot of students studying law were oriented
towards a future far ahead and, besides that, they were very
driven to achieve the ultimate profession: lawyer or judge. On
the other hand, we could not relate more perseverance or
optimal learning outcomes to an extended future time per-
spective, since our ndings related an extended orientation to
the future to dropout. is nding is, surprisingly, compared
to the studies mentioned above [, ] but in line with the
earlier description of concerns in publications of Bosma and
Kunnen and Frijda. ey state that distal goals, far ahead in
thefuture,arelessmotivatingthanproximalgoals[,].
All in all, we recapitulate our results of the relation
between study success on the one hand and future time
perspective and motivation on the other hand as follows.
Extrinsic autonomous motivation can be just as meaningful
as intrinsic motivation when it comes to persistence. In the
interviews students with an extended future time perspective
showed a strong drive, but no evidence was found for the
relation between long-term future time perspective and more
study success. Students who followed a two-week Summer
School as preparation (the LS group) made their choice based
on the characteristics of the study. During the rst year
they developed an intention to continue their law studies at
university, and this emerging long-term time perspective is
not related to dropout.
Not surprisingly, students’ attitudes regarding educa-
tional choice were especially positive for students who suc-
cessfully continued their education. Less expected is that
more than % of students who started their studies with a
“negative” attitude still continued successfully. A more sur-
prising nding is that an ambivalent attitude turns out to be
related to dropout more strongly than a “negative” attitude.
Apparently a second choice or a choice based on the least
unattractive option (those where the criteria for a negative
attitude) can result in a positive educational success, while
that happens less in case of doubt. Our ndings showed that
students who showed doubt have the highest risk to dropout.
In the interviews quotes we distinguished between doubt
based on uncertainty about one’s own competence and doubt
based on uncertainty about whether one has made the right
choice of study. ese ndings are in line with the research of
Germeijs et al. who showed that indecisiveness forms a risk
factor for coping with career decisional tasks [].
Students who followed more intensive types of prepara-
tion gave short-term reasons for their choice more oen. An
explanation for this nding may be that in the preparation
they were provided with detailed information about the study.
Although this should be tested in additional research, it
is possible that, for students who found this information
attractive, it became an important reason for their choice,
while students who found the information not attractive may
have decided to choose another study.
Our hypothesis that more intensive preparation before
making an educational choice would be related to study
success was conrmed. e group with the most intensive
preparation showed the least dropout. e group of students
who did not follow any preparation showed the highest
dropout levels. e “prior knowledge” group did not follow
any organized preparation, but these students had knowledge
of the studies based on previous experience. is is a more
 Education Research International
complicated and probably vulnerable group. On the one
hand, they did follow some type of law education, so they had
some knowledge of these types of studies. On the other hand,
either these students dropped out because of their previous
similar level law studies at another institute or they followed
amorevocationalandlessdicultlawrelatedstudy.
Our ndings are relevant for the educational institutions.
First of all, they suggest that intensive preparation programs
may help students to start their studies with a more complete
image and with more realistic expectations. Secondly, we
foundthatatoostrongfocusonlaterjobs,beforebutalso
aer the start of the studies, may not be optimal. is seems
to be counterintuitive for institutions of higher professional
education, considering that they are oering programs which
are primarily practice oriented. Nonetheless, for career choice
preparation programs, it seems to be more important to focus
on the characteristics of the studies, and it is less desirable
to attract students with descriptions of specic later jobs.
Educational programs should adapt the vocational part of
their curriculum to a focus on professional context or job
related tasks instead of a focus on the “job itself.” Finally, insti-
tutions should pay special attention to students characterized
by indecisiveness and doubts. Although more evidence is
needed to ensure whether the risk for dropout with such
students is valid for other groups as well, this nding may
be relevant for the guidance of rst-year students, not only
during their intake sessions but also during their coaching
programs. Personal coaching in order to address doubts may
strengthen the students’ trust in their choice and foster their
educational success.
We should be careful, however, with the generalization of
these ndings to studies and students in general. is study
focused on students of one specic educational trajectory
in one city in Netherlands. In some of our analyses we
found very strong and convincing relations, for example, the
nding that almost all dropouts had a long-term perspective.
Our research shows that the distinction between a short-
term future time perspective and a long-term future time
perspective is too vague. ere are extended future time
perspectives that are not realistic and not made on the basis of
the contents of the studies. On the other hand, there are long-
term future time perspectives that are developed throughout
therstyear,rootedinknowledgeaboutthecontentsofthe
studies and their possibilities. ese results have implications
forfutureresearch:oneshouldconsidertheprecisegoalsand
the target group before associating an extended future time
perspective and success.
Relevant processes and factors (such as the focus on legal
robed professions) in this study may be very specic for this
specic type of education. We think that one of the lessons
of this study can be that if we want to understand what
really happens in educational choice and the later educational
successanddropout,weshouldfocusononespecicgroupin
detail, instead of trying to nd a broad and general sample in
which all specic processes disappear in the average numbers.
In that way, we may grasp the processes, instead of nding
relations that are statistically signicant but explain only a
small part of the variance and that are not really helpful in
designing career choice projects and educational guidance.
Naturally, a collection of such specic studies may help us to
gain insight into general processes and mechanisms and to
draw general conclusions for present and future career choice
information and guidance, as well as for the organization of
higher professional education.
Competing Interests
e authors declare that there are no competing interests
regarding the publication of this paper.
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... Pintrich et al. (1991) described a model in which academic motivation is addressed from a three-dimensional approach that includes the components of expectation -students' beliefs about their own abilities to perform an academic task-, of value -students' goals of the and beliefs about the importance and interest for academic tasks-, and of affection -students' emotional reactions to academic tasks-. (Andre et al., 2018;Ilustrisimo, 2016;Pavliuk et al., 2018;Peetsma et al., 2017;Slijper et al., 2016). A primacy of future time has been predominantly associated with the fulfillment of long-term goals and plans, increased motivation, persevering and disciplined behavior of subjects (Boyd & Zimbardo, 2005), greater cognitive control (Steindam, 2016) and successful coping mechanisms (Bolotova & Hachaturova, 2013), which in sum has a positive effect on academic performance and consequently on degree completion (Bukharina & Tolstykh, 2019;Janeiro et al., 2017;Phan, 2009;Steel et al., 2018). ...
... Statistically significant relationships among the examined variables were found. On one side, PP time perspective, academic achievement, and academic motivation were positively correlated, which was expected considering the existent literature (Andre et al., 2018;Barnett et al., 2020;Ilustrisimo, 2016;Kim et al., 2017;Kooji et al., 2018;Nausheen, 2016;Pavliuk et al., 2018;Peetsma et al., 2017;Slijper et al., 2016) and the theoretical implications that recollecting one's past positive memories, especially if they are based on academic experiences or events, could have on being academic motivated to accomplish academic goals. On the other side, procrastination was negatively associated with academic achievement, but it did not associate in a statistically significant way with PP time perspective and academic motivation (yet it was still a negative relationship). ...
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Purpose The present research was based on an online questionnaire. A total of 256 undergraduate psychology students aged 18–44 ( M = 23.61; SD = 0.57) from the Pontifical Catholic University of Argentina took part in the study (137 women; 53.3%). A sociodemographic and academic survey and the locally adapted versions of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI), the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) and the Tuckman Procrastination Scale were used in this study. Participants were contacted by an email advertisement in which the main purpose of the study was explained, and the instruments remained open from September to November of 2021. Descriptive analyses – means, standard deviations and frequencies – were calculated using IBM SPSS v.25, and mediation and moderation analyses were conducted on PROCESS macro. Design/methodology/approach Academic achievement has always been a concern in the high undergraduate's community. Numerous studies have addressed psychological aspects of students' academic life; however, a past-positive (PP) time perspective, a warm and sentimental view of past events that took place in someone's life, has not been profoundly contemplated. The fact that students might organize their activities, employ different strategies to fulfill their tasks and motivate themselves to pursue their academic goals based primarily on their past experiences calls the attention on conducting research on this time perspective dimension and its relationship with procrastination and academic motivation. It was hypothesized that the PP time perspective would positively predict academic achievement via the mediation of academic motivation in a way that the potentiate effect of PP time perspective on academic achievement would be increased in highly motivated students, but this effect would be reduced in less motivated students. Also, it was hypothesized that the relationship between motivation and academic achievement would be negatively moderated by procrastination such that academic achievement would increase with academic motivation; however, that increase would be attenuated by procrastination. Findings Academic achievement was positively associated with PP time perspective ( r = 0.39; p < 0.01) and academic motivation (0.36; p < 0.01) and negatively associated with procrastination ( r = −0.15; p < 0.05). Results showed that academic motivation mediated the relationship between PP time perspective and academic achievement ( ß = 1.37; R ² = 0.21; p < 0.001). Additionally, procrastination moderated the relationship between academic motivation and academic achievement but only at the low ( ß = 0.76; p < 0.001) and medium ( ß = 0.44; p < 0.001) levels of procrastination, while at high levels of procrastination, that relationship was not statistically significant ( ß = 0.11; p > 0.05). Originality/value This is the first study that examined the mediated role of academic motivation in the relationship between PP time perspective and academic achievement and that included the moderating role of procrastination.
... These intentions are defined as the "level and type of education and occupation desired by the individual" (1993, p. 115), as well as the students' commitment to these objectives of educational attainment (goal commitment) and to the new school (institutional commitment). Educational and career aspirations (Hegna, 2014;Slijper et al., 2016), as well as those specifically related to the institution (Catterall et al., 2014) have been empirically related to dropout. ...
... While socioeconomic differences in summer "learning loss" and dropout risk of students are recognized , initiatives aimed at smoothing this transition tend to be school-wide and concentrate on organizational and administrative procedures, as well as on academics, rather than on children's social concerns Jindal-Snape & Miller, 2008;Topping, 2011). Likewise, research on interventions aimed at improving educational transitions (Berlin et al., 2011;Slijper et al., 2016) is scarce and rarely focuses on the transition from primary to secondary education van Rens et al., 2018), nor on dropout prevention. The quantitative effects of summer interventions on students' academic achievement are often the main concern Gorard et al., 2017). ...
Thesis
To access tertiary studies, to “land” a better job, to not have to go through what their parents went through, or just “to be someone in life” —students from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods are quick to provide a myriad of reasons why they ought to complete secondary education. In most societies nowadays all children, disadvantaged or not, are expected to start attending school at a specific age and to complete a certain amount of years of schooling. Yet there are many whom, for one reason or another, quit school at some point, before completing the necessary requisites to obtain a diploma. This phenomenon is commonly referred to as school dropout. Leaving school before completing secondary education puts these individuals at a disadvantage when they try to get a job or to continue their studies. Compared to secondary school graduates, those who drop out tend to perceive a lower income, have poorer health and well-being. High dropout rates have also been associated with multiple negative consequences and high costs for the society as a whole, such as increased delinquency, loss of tax revenues and more dependence on social welfare. Causes and consequences of school dropout have been extensively studied. Several theories and conceptual models exist that help to understand the process by which this outcome materializes. Yet dropout rates continue to be of concern. In 2015, the United Nations member countries agreed to achieve universal secondary school completion by 2030. This has increased the international pressure to reduce dropout rates, especially in parts of the world where massification of secondary education access and completion is rather recent and educational systems’ efficiency is not at its best, as is the case in Latin America. Uruguay is one of many Latin American countries which could benefit from narrowing the gap in secondary school completion between individuals from higher and lower socio-economic backgrounds. Having accomplished universal primary school graduation since a long time, the current challenges for Uruguay lie in smoothing the transition from primary to lower secondary school, as well as in fostering students’ successful academic and social integration in the first year of secondary education. To achieve this, the current knowledge base on secondary school dropout ought to be enriched by empirical research on the ways lower secondary schools can positively impact the trajectory through the first year of secondary school of students whose prior schooling, individual and family characteristics put them at higher risk of dropout. Understanding the specific circumstances under which disadvantaged, “high-risk” population live and attend school is key for designing, targeting, implementing and evaluating successful dropout prevention strategies. The overall objective of this research is, therefore, to contribute to the scientific knowledge on the secondary school dropout phenomenon. We aim to add to the empirical base of this field of research by combining statistical analyses and case studies in a mixed methods approach. We intend to contribute to the theoretical base of dropout research by applying and adapting Vincent Tinto’s “longitudinal model of student departure” to the Uruguayan lower secondary school setting, by assessing how well students pre-entry characteristics predict dropout, by analyzing the influence of preventive interventions in the summer transition period, as well as by exploring the particular role context variables—such as the socioeconomic composition of the school and community violence exposure—play in students’ academic success and dropout decisions. By providing insights on these aspects of the dropout phenomenon and intervention possibilities, we intend to support school staff, teachers and principals working in low-SES, high-violence settings in their dropout prevention efforts. We also wish to provide some recommendations and implications, based on our findings, for policymakers working in the fields of education and social development.
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... En vista de nuestros hallazgos, la perspectiva temporal de futuro también es relevante para explicar la probabilidad de persistencia de los estudiantes. Las investigaciones previas se han centrado en su efecto en el proceso de aprendizaje (Janeiro, et al., 2017;Slijper, Kunnen, Onstenk, & van Geert, 2016). En concreto, la perspectiva temporal de futuro se ha relacionado con la motivación y las estrategias de aprendizaje. ...
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... En vista de nuestros hallazgos, la perspectiva temporal de futuro también es relevante para explicar la probabilidad de persistencia de los estudiantes. Las investigaciones previas se han centrado en su efecto en el proceso de aprendizaje (Janeiro, et al., 2017;Slijper, Kunnen, Onstenk, & van Geert, 2016). En concreto, la perspectiva temporal de futuro se ha relacionado con la motivación y las estrategias de aprendizaje. ...
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I: Background.- 1. An Introduction.- 2. Conceptualizations of Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination.- II: Self-Determination Theory.- 3. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Perceived Causality and Perceived Competence.- 4. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Interpersonal Communication and Intrapersonal Regulation.- 5. Toward an Organismic Integration Theory: Motivation and Development.- 6. Causality Orientations Theory: Personality Influences on Motivation.- III: Alternative Approaches.- 7. Operant and Attributional Theories.- 8. Information-Processing Theories.- IV: Applications and Implications.- 9. Education.- 10. Psychotherapy.- 11. Work.- 12. Sports.- References.- Author Index.
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Two theories of motivation relevant to classroom learning result in conflicting recommendations for enhancing motivation and performance. The goal theory stresses only that stimulating an individual s natural curiosity will increase motivation. This theory relies on the distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Future time perspective theory stresses the importance of the personal future for motivation and learning and the utility of what is learned for the future. A series of studies investigated the role of three types of perceived instrumentality of a present task for an individual s goal orientation. Eighty-one adults and 229 high school students participated in three studies. They had to think of three actions they were regularly involved in during their daily life (Studies 1 and 2), or three courses they took (Study 3), corresponding to the three types of instrumentality. Afterwards, they responded to a questionnaire that assessed goal orientation in those three actions. Results suggested that stressing the personal future consequences of tasks, even when these were extrinsic, enhanced task orientation and decreased performance orientation, both in daily life and in study contexts, as predicted by future time perspective theory.