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Eugenia caryophyllata Thunberg (Family Myrtaceae): A Review

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Abstract

Eugenia caryophyllata Thunberg, belongs to family Myrtaceae, commonly known as clove, is an aromatic tree, native to Indonesia and used as a spice in cuisines in many parts of the world. Clove has been traditionally used from ancient times in the treatment of roundworms and tapeworms, asthma, toothache, soar throat, dental, respiratory disorders, digestive system ailments, dyspepsia, gastritis, diarrhea, as antipyretic, aphrodisiac, carminative, appetizer, expectorant, antiemetic, anxiolytic, myorelaxant, analgesic, decongestant, antiinflammatory, hypnotic, vermifuge, antibacterial agent etc. Clove is widely used in Indian Ayurvedic medicines, Chinese medicines, Unani medicines of Asian countries and Western herbal medicines. Research on clove has been done on a larger level in many parts of the world. Eugenol is the main constituent in essential oil of clove, which is responsible for its medicinal properties to larger extent. In view of its importance, it is worthwhile to compile a review article, which serves the needs of scientists and others involved in the medicinal plant research.
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__________________________________________Review Article
Eugenia caryophyllata Thunberg (Family Myrtaceae): A Review
Jitender Singh*, Anupama Baghotia and SP Goel
Sachdeva College of Pharmacy, Gharuan, Mohali, Punjab, India.
__________________________________________________________________________________
ABSTRACT
Eugenia caryophyllata Thunberg, belongs to family Myrtaceae, commonly known as clove, is an aromatic tree,
native to Indonesia and used as a spice in cuisines in many parts of the world. Clove has been traditionally used
from ancient times in the treatment of roundworms and tapeworms, asthma, toothache, soar throat, dental,
respiratory disorders, digestive system ailments, dyspepsia, gastritis, diarrhea, as antipyretic, aphrodisiac,
carminative, appetizer, expectorant, antiemetic, anxiolytic, myorelaxant, analgesic, decongestant, anti-
inflammatory, hypnotic, vermifuge, antibacterial agent etc. Clove is widely used in Indian Ayurvedic
medicines, Chinese medicines, Unani medicines of Asian countries and Western herbal medicines. Research on
clove has been done on a larger level in many parts of the world. Eugenol is the main constituent in essential
oil of clove, which is responsible for its medicinal properties to larger extent. In view of its importance, it is
worthwhile to compile a review article, which serves the needs of scientists and others involved in the
medicinal plant research.
Key Words: Clove, Eugenia caryophyllata, Myrtaceae, Eugenol.
INTRODUCTION
The genus Eugenia is one of 75 genera (~3000
species) belonging to the family Myrtaceae which
is native in the tropics, particularly in tropical
America as well as Australia and plants of this
family are known to be rich in volatile oils which
are reported for their medicinal importance. Genus
Eugenia has properties like anti-inflammatory,
analgesic, antipyretic1,2, antifungal3 and used in
peptic ulcer treatment4.
Syzygium aromaticum (Linn.) Merr. & L.M. Perry
(Syn. Eugenia aromatica) Kuntze, Eugenia
caryophyllata Thunberg, belongs to family
Myrtaceae, commonly known as clove, is an
aromatic tree, native to Indonesia and used as a
spice in cuisines in many parts of the world5,6,7. It is
grown naturally in Moluku Islands of Indonesia
and cultivated in many parts of the world like
Tanzania, Madagascar, Sri Lanka, India, China,
Indonesia, Malaysia, Brazil, Malagasy Republic,
Jamaica and Guinea8,9. It is an ever-green plant of
10 to 20 m in height with spear-shaped leaves and
racemiferous yellowish flowers, has a strong
phenolic smell and sharp acrid taste, whereas,
essential oil of clove is a colorless or light
yellowish fluid extracted from dried flower buds.
Flower buds collected twice a year, in the months
of October and February when they change color
from green to crimson, dried carefully and
separated from their peduncles. Clove is broadly
used in cooking (biryanis, salads, pickles and
garam masala), pharmacy, perfumery and
cosmetics.
Vernacular Names
Arabic: Kabsh qarunfil, Kabsh quaranful;
Bulgarian: Karamfil; Chinese: Ding xiang; Danish:
Nellike; French: Giroflier; German: Nelke; Greek:
Garifalo; Georgian: Mikhaki, Mixaki; Indian:
Laung, Clove; Indonesian: Cengke; Italian: Chiodo
di garifano; Japanese: Garifla, Choji, Kurobu;
Korean: Jeonghyang; Nepalis: Lewaang;
Portuguese: Cravo de India; Persian: Mikhak;
Pasto: Kala; Russian: Gvosdika, Shambala;
Spanish: Clovo, Clovo de olor; Swedish:
Kryddnejlika, Nejlikor; Turkish: Caranfil; Thai:
Khan plu, Garn ploo; Vienamese: Ding huong10.
Description
The Eugenia caryophyllata tree is an evergreen
tree, which grows to a height ranging from 10-20
m. Flower buds are first of a pale color and
gradually become green after which they develop
into dark brown or dusty red. Flower buds are
generally 10-17.5 mm in length and consist of a
sub-cylindrical, slightly flattened, four sided
hypanthium. Upper portion of hypanthium consists
of two celled inferior ovary with numerous ovules
attached to an axile placenta, surmounted by four
thick, divergent sepals and covered by unopened
corolla consisting of four membranous imbricate
petals, frequently detached, enclosing numerous
incurved stamens, odor, strongly aromatic; taste,
pungent, aromatic followed by slight tingling of the
tongue11.
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Identity, Purity and Strength
The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India listed the
standards of clove as Foreign matter Not more than
2 per cent, Total ash Not more than 7 per cent,
Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 1 per cent,
Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 3 per cent,
Water-soluble extractive Not less than 9 per cent,
Volatile oil Not less than 15 percent11.
ETHANOPHARMACOLOGY
In British Columbia, Flower of Clove is widely
used in the treatment of roundworms and
tapeworms in pets and pigs12 whereas, flower bud
of E. caryophyllata has been used as traditional
medicine for the treatment of asthma and various
allergic disorders; as vermifuge, antibacterial agent
and in toothache in China, Japan and Korea13,14.
The flower bud is a well known food flavor for
exotic food preparations and a popular remedy for
headache, soar throat, dental and respiratory
disorders, digestive system ailments, in traditional
medicines of Australia and Asian countries8,13,15,16.
In addition, the clove is widely used as traditional
medicine for treatment of dyspepsia, gastritis and
diarrhea; as antipyretic, aphrodisiac, appetizer,
expectorant, antiemetic, anxiolytic, myorelaxant,
analgesic, decongestant, anti-inflammatory and
hypnotic17,18,19,20. Clove is widely used in Indian
Ayurvedic medicines, Chinese medicines, Unani
medicines of Asian countries and Western herbal
medicines and considered as warm, aromatic, to
fortify the kidney yang (hypochlorhydria),
carminative, in toothache, as aphrodisiac and in the
treatment of male sexual disorders15,21,22.
Clove oil has been used to improve peristalsis, as
anodyne, in anaesthesia and is said to be a natural
anthelmintic23,24,25,26. Due to its frequent use in
teeth problems, it is widely used as an ingredient in
popular toothpastes and mouth fresheners in
India27. Clove is broadly used in cooking, food
processing, pharmacy, perfumery and cosmetics.
PHARMACOLOGICAL UPDATE
Several studies have been reported on clove as a
potent antifungal28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36, antiviral (such
as Herpex simplex, Hepatitis C virus)37,38,39,
antiseptic and antibacterial effect against several
bacteria including Escherichia coli, Helicobacter
pylori, Staphylococcus aureus etc.
25,30,40,41,42,43,44,45,46,47,48.
Mishra and Singh has demonstrated the biphasic
nature of hexane extract of flower buds on testis.
The lower dose (15 mg/kg) increased testosterone
production, while higher doses (30 and 60 mg/kg)
caused reduction in testosterone production thereby
perturbation in spermatogenesis of mice49. In
addition, the clove is antimutagenic50, anti-
inflammatory13, antiulcerogenic42,45,
antithrombotic5 and antiparasitic51.
The essential oil of this plant has been proved
efficacious repellency on the mosquitoes Ades
aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles
dirus52, insecticidal activity on Pediculus capitis51
as well as acaricidal activity against
Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus14.
It is also effective against Psoroptes cuniculi, a
mange mite53 and possesses anti-inflammatory,
cytotoxic, anesthetic and antimicrobial properties.
It is commonly associated with dental caries and
periodontal disease25,39.
Sesquiterpenes, found in clove, were investigated
as potent anticarcinogenic agents9. Eugenol, the
major aromatic constituent of clove oil, has been
reported to have a variety of different applications,
e.g. as an antioxidant54,55,56,57,58,59, antimycotic60,61,
antibacterial62,63, antifungal64, participates in
photochemical reactions65, as insecticidal66, in
photocytotoxicity67 and also as an additive used in
certain cigarettes68,69.
It has been reported that eugenol at low
concentration acts as an antioxidant and anti-
inflammatory agent, whereas its higher
concentrations act as a pro-oxidant resulting from
the enhanced generation of tissue-damaging free
radicals70,71 and it induced apoptosis of human
cancer cells72. It also prevents the transmission of
HSV-2 in a mouse model of intra vaginal HSV-2
challenge and was found to give protection in
guinea pig model of HSV73. It has been reported
that the essential oil of clove has anticonvulsive
effect in tonic seizures but not in colonic seizures
in mice74 and produces a sustained increase in the
mounting frequency of normal male rats and
mice21,75. On the other hand, Eugenol, a chief
constituent of clove oil, causes desquamation of the
inner secretory columnar cell layer and exerts
adverse effects on secretory activity of seminal
vesicle76, spermicidal activity on ejaculated human
spermatozoa77 and possesses significant anti-
inflammatory activity at 0.025 mL/kg78.
It has been reported that eugenol at various
concentrations 5, 10, 50 and 100 µM exhibited a
remarkable DPPH free radical scavenging potential
and showed the cytotoxic effect. The IC50 values
of eugenol were reported to be 700 µM in HepG2
cells; 1000 µM in Caco-2 cells and 700 µM in
VH10 cells. The terpenes, beta-caryophyllene,
beta-caryophyllene oxide, alpha-humulene, alpha-
humulene epoxide I and eugenol isolated from
essential oil of Eugenia caryophyllata induce
glutathione S-transferase enzyme which plays a
vital role in detoxification in liver and intestines79.
It is stated that induction of glutathione S-
transferase inhibits chemical carcinogens, hence
these terpenes are promising anticarcinogens9.
However, clove oil is toxic to human cells26. If
ingested or injected in large quantity, it has been
shown to cause life threatening complications,
including Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome,
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Fulminant Hepatic Failure and Central Nervous
System disorder. The lethal oral dose of clove has
been reported as 3.752 g/Kg body weight80,81 and
the median lethal dose of Eugenia caryophyllata
and its etheric oil were reported as 0.613 mL/kg
and 0.863 mL/kg in mice respectively82.
PHYTOCHEMISTRY
Many Eugenia species were reported as a good
source of polyphenols, gallic and ellagic acid
derivatives83,84, tannins85,86 and flavonol
glycosides1,2,86,87,88.
Eugenia caryophyllata is a rich source of essential
oil. It contains 15-20% essential oil, 13% tannins,
10% fixed oil and 6-12% non-essential ether
extract. Essential oil of clove is a colorless or light
yellowish fluid, a distillate of dried flowers, stalks
and leaves7,89. Several constituents of clove oil
have been identified but eugenol (C10H12O2),
eugenyl acetate and β-caryophyllene represent the
major components of the oil. Eugenol (4-allyl-2-
methoxyphenol), makes up 70 to 90% by
weight90,91, eugenol acetate (> 17%) and cariofilen
(> 12%), β-caryophyllene (9%), 1,8-Cineole
(0.1%), Linalool (0.2%), α-Copaene (1.2%), α-
Humulene (3.5%), β-Cadinene (0.5%),
Epizonarene (0.1%), α -Muurolene (0.1%),
Eugenyl acetate (4.2%), δ-Cadinene (3.6%), α-
copaen (1.0%), methoxy benzaldehyde, benzyl
alcohol, benzaldehyde, carvacrol, 2-heptanone,
methyl salicylate, isoeugenol, methyl eugenol,
phenyl propanoides, dehydrodieugenol, trans-
confireryl aldehyde, biflorin, kaempferol,
rhamnocitrin, myricetin, gallic acid, ellagic acid,
oleanolic acid, thymol, cinnamaldehyde, acetyl
salicylate, vanillin, and crategolic acid. It has been
reported that clove also contains tannins
(gallotannic acid), flavonoids (eugenin, rhamnetin,
and eugenitin), triterpenoids (oleanolic acid,
stigmasterol and campesterol)6,7,9,25,39,51,53,78,92,93.
The characteristic smell and taste of clove oil is due
to the presence of a wide range terpene
compounds94,95.
CONCLUSION
Clove is a medicinally important drug, reported to
have a variety of different applications like
antioxidant, antifungal, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-
inflammatory, antithrombic, antipyretic, analgesic,
anticonvulsant, antimycotic, insecticidal,
antimutagenic, antiulcerogenic etc. Eugenol is the
main constituent reported to be responsible for
these activities. There is a great scope for
researchers to develop efficacious formulations
using clove or eugenol. This review will be helpful
to the future researchers for the up-to-date
information on clove.
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... The clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.), a member of the Myrtaceae family, is an aromatic tree native to the Moluccas and southern Philippines, but currently grown in many tropical areas including Africa, South America, Indonesia, Malaysia and Sri Lanka [40,48]. It is an evergreen tree, 10-20 m tall, with spear-shaped leaves and cluster-like, yellowish flowers. ...
... It is an evergreen tree, 10-20 m tall, with spear-shaped leaves and cluster-like, yellowish flowers. Dried flower buds are commonly used in cooking, pharmacy, perfumery and cosmetics [40]. The main ingredient (up to 20%) is essential oil, characterised by the presence of eugenol, eugenol acetate and aand b-caryophyllene [48]. ...
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feed additives (pumpkin seed cake and cloves) on the egg excretion of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in sheep. Thirty ewes naturally infected with GIN were randomly selected from a flock and assigned to the following groups of 10 animals each: clove group (received 1.8 g ground cloves/ewe/day, for 7 days), pumpkin seed cake group (200 g pumpkin seed cake/ewe/day, for 7 days) and control group. Before starting the study, on day 0, and 5 days after the 7-day supplementation, on day 12, the body condition and FAMACHA scores were assessed and individual faecal egg counts (FEC) were performed. The mean body condition and the FAMACHA scores did not change significantly between day 0 and 12 with the exception of a significantly deteriorated FAMACHA score in the clove group. The percentage reduction of FEC was 40.7% on day 12 in the clove group and 52.9% in the pumpkin seed cake group. In the control group, FEC increased by 8.7%. A coproculture of faecal samples from four of the most infected animals on day 0 revealed Trichostrongylus spp. larvae L3 in all four selected ewes, Ostertagia spp. and Cooperia spp. in three and Haemonchus contortus in one ewe. These results are promising and encourage further studies aimed to evaluate the possibility that these plant supplements could be a complementary method for parasite control, thus reducing the need for chemotherapy.
... Clove is an aromatic dried flowering bud obtain from an evergreen tree (Syzygium aromaticum); appertaining to the family Myrtaceae is extensively used in the food, agricultural, perfumery, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries [34] . Clove is rich in phenolic compounds, namely gallic acid, eugenol acetate eugenol. ...
... Clove is rich in phenolic compounds, namely gallic acid, eugenol acetate eugenol. As a traditional medication in Asian countries, it is very often used in the treatment of headaches, asthma, sore throats as well as respiratory, dental, and digestive system disorders [35] ; moreover it has a large-scale application in the remedy of diarrhea, dyspepsia, and gastritis [34] . It has been found to have antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, anesthetic, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antifungal, and insecticidal properties [36] . ...
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Medicinal plants are being used by human beings from the beginning of civilization to treat different ailments. As an origin of medicine, these plants played essential roles in almost every civilization. Bangladesh is a country of a tropical region having large amounts of medicinal plants which native people are using. A large portion of therapeutically active molecules is present in these plants, which can be used to synthesize modern medicines. However, a lot of plant-based substances are used to make the cooking more tasteful. In this review, we gathered the chemical compositions and pharmacological activities of several culinary agents which are very commonly used in this country. These substances contain several secondary metabolites, including alkaloids, tannins, glycosides, flavonoids, and important medicinal properties, including anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-pyretic antidiabetic, and anticancer. A detailed study may be performed on the structure of these medicinal compounds and designing novel drugs. This work will help those who want to explore the activities and use them to treat diseases better.
... Syzygium aromaticum is known for its use as spice in the preparation of food. Besides being valued for its flavoring properties, it can be used as an anti-cancer agent and a traditional remedy for many diseases such as asthma; digestive system, dental, and respiratory disorders; headaches; and sore throats [1]. It is also used in traditional medicine. ...
... Syzygium aromaticum is known for its use as spice in the preparation of food. Besides being valued for its flavoring properties, it can be used as an anti-cancer agent and a traditional remedy for many diseases such as asthma; digestive system, dental, and respiratory disorders; headaches; and sore throats [1]. It is also used in traditional medicine. ...
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The essential oil of Syzygium (S.) aromaticum (CEO) is known for its good biological activity. The aim of the research was to evaluate in vitro and in situ antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of the essential oil produced in Slovakia. The main components of CEO were eugenol 82.4% and (E)-caryophyllene 14.0%. The antimicrobial activity was either weak or very strong with inhibition zones ranging from 4.67 to 15.78 mm in gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and from 8.22 to 18.56 mm in yeasts and fungi. Among the tested bacteria and fungi, the lowest values of MIC were determined for Staphylococcus (S.) aureus and Penicillium (P.) expansum, respectively. The vapor phase of CEO inhibited the growth of the microscopic filamentous fungi of the genus Penicillium when tested in situ on bread. The strongest effect of mycelia inhibition in a bread model was observed against P. expansum at concentrations of 250 and 500 μL/mL. The best antimicrobial activity of CEO in the carrot model was found against P. chrysosenum. Differences between the mass spectra of Bacillus (B.) subtilis biofilms on the tested surfaces (wood, glass) and the control sample were noted from the seventh day of culture. There were some changes in mass spectra of Stenotrophomonas (S.) maltophilia, which were observed in both experimental groups from the fifth day of culture. These findings confirmed the impact of CEO on the protein structure of older biofilms. The findings indicate that, besides being safe and sensorially attractive, S. aromaticum has antimicrobial activity, which makes it a potential substitute for chemical food preservatives.
... clove [19]. It is an aromatic flower bud with a vast range of medical and dietary applications since ancient times [20]. German Commission E has approved its use as a safe dental analgesic and a treatment for oropharyngeal inflammations [21]. ...
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Premature ejaculation is one of the most common sexual disorders worldwide without a satisfying treatment. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of a topical formulation of clove oil in premature ejaculation patients. Eligible patients were randomly divided into two groups to use either Syzygium aromaticum (SA) 1% gel or placebo gel 10 minutes before the intercourse for a period of 8 weeks. Outcome measurement were Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT) and International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaires in addition to Intravaginal Ejaculation Latency Time (IELT). A total number of 22 (11 patients in each group) participants completed the study. At the end of the intervention, the IELT scores changed from 29.84 ± 18.59 to 97.09 ± 91.86 and 42.51 ± 13.98 to 52.45 ± 32.7 seconds in SA gel and placebo groups, respectively (p-value = 0.003). Also, the changes of PEDT scores in the SA gel group (from 14 ± 3.55 to 9.2 ± 4.56) comparing to that of placebo gel group (from 14.63 ± 3.61 to 13.5 ± 3.78) was significantly different (p-value =0.001). Moreover, results of IIEF questionnaire revealed significant improvement of “Intercourse Satisfaction” in SA gel group (p-value = 0.016). No adverse event was observed. It seems that SA gel could be beneficial in the treatment of premature ejaculation; however, it should be further evaluated in larger studies.
... Eugenia caryophyllus Tumb, pertence à família Myrtaceae, comumente conhecida como cravobotão, é uma árvore aromática nativa da Indonésia, sendo usada como tempero na culinária de diversas partes no mundo. Estudos farmacológicos têm relatado E. caryophyllus como potente antifúngico, anti-inflamatório, analgésico, antioxidante, antitrombótico, antipirético, anticonvulsivante, inseticida, antimutagênico, antiulcerogênico, antiviral, antisséptico e antibacteriano [15]. O óleo essencial obtido de E. caryophyllus à vista do seu potencial de uso como medicinal vem sendo utilizado em pesquisas em todo o mundo. ...
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Os óleos essenciais extraídos de plantas exibem funções ecológicas importantes demonstradas através de diversos estudos, com potencial para serem utilizados como agentes antimicrobianos naturais em substituição aos pesticidas convencionais. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar in vitro a fungitoxidade do óleo essencial de Eugenia caryophyllus Tumb, em diferentes concentrações, contra o crescimento micelial de Cladosporium herbarum, agente etiológico da doença conhecida como “verrugose” que afeta todos os órgãos aéreos do maracujazeiro, reduzindo seriamente a produtividade, o suprimento, os preços e a qualidade da fruta. A partir de frutos e flores, o fungo foi isolado, recuperado e analisado em batata-dextrose-ágar (BDA) com os tratamentos 12,8; 6,4; 3,2; 1,6; 0,8; 0,4 e 0,2 μL de óleo essencial de E. caryophyllus. O óleo essencial de E. caryophyllus inibiu o crescimento micelial de C. herbarum a partir da concentração de 1,6 μL e apresentou uma inibição micelial total na concentração de 12,8 μL. Assim, o óleo essencial de E. caryophyllus apresentou-se promissor para aplicações futuras como agente biofungicida contra C. herbarum.
... Eugenia caryophyllus were traditionally used as antiinflammatory and pain-relieving activity, also dental analgesic, used in the preparation of various marketed formulations like cream paste etc. clove oil specifically used as a pain reliving ingredient present in cream. This plants were show antibacterial, antimicrobial, antifungal and anticancer properties [3,4]. ...
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Objective: Eugenia caryophyllus, Zingiber officinale and Nyctanthes arbor-tristis are medicinal plants; these plants are used traditionally from ancient year in the various herbal medicinal system such as Ayurvedic, Homeopathic and Siddha. The clove buds of Eugenia caryophyllus, rhizomes of Zingiber officinale and dried leaves of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis have anti-inflammatory analgesic activity. The present research was focus on the formulation of polyherbal cream and their evaluation by using various evaluation parameters of the present research are to formulate polyherbal cream and to evaluate the polyherbal cream. Methods: the slab method was used for the preparation of cream. Results: The evaluation parameters are coming under this heading physical parameter like color was slightly white green, the odor was characteristics, consistency was smooth and the state was semisolid. PH of the cream was 6.5; Spreadability was 7.4g. cm/sec time required for this test was 15 sec, Washability was easily washable, the cream was nonirritant, viscosity of the formulated cream was 39010 cps and no phase separation was observed during storage of polyherbal cream. Conclusion: This cream formulation was used in rheumatoid arthritis to reduce joint pains. This cream formulation was o/w type of emulsion; hence this formulation was easily washed with plane water after application.
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Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) is one of the most precious spices that has been used since ages. Cloves are well-known for their many medicinal properties. It is also widely used in food, flavours and cosmetics industry. One of the main usage of cloves is in the dentistry field to treat bad odour, toothache etc. Though it is native to Indonesia, it has been cultivated in several parts of the world. Clove oil is the richest source of phenolic compounds such as eugenol, eugenyl acetate. It is most powerful source of antioxidant as per oxygen radical absorption capacity. Many review articles had already been published on clove oil which elucidate its morphology, biological and pharmacological benefits. The characteristics of this review study is the exploration and elaborate discussion about extraction methods, discrepancies between the chemical composition due to geographic conditions and identification of marker compounds in leaf, stem and bud clove oil. The comprehensive review revealed that the clove oil mainly consists of phenolic compounds such as eugenol, eugenyl acetate followed by sesquiterpene namely beta-caryophyllene.
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Imipenem is the most efficient antibiotic against Acinetobacter baumannii infection, but new research has shown that the organism has also developed resistance to this agent. A. baumannii isolates from a total of 110 clinical samples were identified by multiplex PCR. The antibacterial activity of Syzygium aromaticum multiple extracts was assessed following the GC-Mass spectra analysis. The molecular docking study was performed to investigate the binding mode of interactions of guanosine (Ethanolic extract compound) against Penicillin- binding proteins 1 and 3 of A. baumannii. Ten isolates of A. baumannii were confirmed to carry recA and iutA genes. Isolates were multidrug-resistant containing blaTEM and BlaSHV. The concentrations (0.04 to 0.125 mg mL−1) of S. aromaticum ethanolic extract were very promising against A. baumannii isolates. Even though imipenem (0.02 mg mL−1) individually showed a great bactericidal efficacy against all isolates, the in-silico study of guanosine, apioline, eugenol, and elemicin showed acceptable fitting to the binding site of the A. baumannii PBP1 and/or PBP3 with highest binding energy for guanosine between −7.1 and −8.1 kcal/mol respectively. Moreover, it formed π-stacked interactions with the residue ARG76 at 4.14 and 5.6, Å respectively. These findings might support the in vitro study and show a substantial increase in binding affinity and enhanced physicochemical characteristics compared to imipenem.
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Essential oils are fragrant and oily mixtures, mostly consisting of monoterpenoids or sesquiterpenoids, used in medicine, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry for bactericidal, virucidal, fungicidal, antiparasitic, insecticidal, medicinal ve cosmetic purposes. In addition, they provide aroma and preservation in the food industry. Essential oil composition in plants varies depending on plant organ, environmental factors such as the harvest time, extraction method, ecotype, climate, edaphic factors, altitude and topography, genetic factor and their interaction. Essential oils obtained from plants have many important activities according to their active ingredients. The phenolic components contained in essential oils take an active role in the realization of various reactions in both the plant development process and human metabolism or it acts as a trigger for these reactions to take place. In peppermint essential oil the main components are menthol, menthon, isomentone, 1,8-sineol, 1-5% limonene, while in thyme essential oil are carvacrol, linalol, p-cymene, thymol and ß-caryophylde. Linalool, linalyl acetate, terpinen-4-ol, borneol are dominant in lavender essential oil. The constituents of laurel essential oil are 1,8-sineol, α-terpinyl acetate sabin, α-pinene, β-pinene, terpinen-4-ol, α-terpineol, and medicinal sage components are α- and β- tuion, camphor, sineol and borneol. Essential oil components have been observed to exhibit antiviral activity in humans against a wide variety of viruses such as Hepatitis-A virus, Herpes Simplex Virus type-1 (HSV-1), Herpes Simplex Virus type-2 (HSV-2), influenza A (H1N1), enveloped mumps viruses (MV), immunodeficiency virüs (HIV), rotavirus (RV), yellow fever virus and avian influenza. It has been revealed that studies have been conducted on the antiviral effects of essential oils on plants, mostly against tobacco mosaic virus, cucumber mosaic virus, and vesicular stomatitis viruses. The studies conducted are on the mechanisms of action of essential oils and the treatment of viral infections, and there is no up-to-date and comprehensive information on the interaction between essential oil components and antiviral effects. Therefore, further studies are required on the antiphytoviral activity of essential oils and their constituents, and the essential oil concentrations that should be used.
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Objective: To determine lethal doses of fixed and/or volatile oils extracted from leafs or fruits of Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare, Sesamum indicum, Eugenia caryophyllata, Nigella sativa, Urtica pilulifera, Apium graveolens, Cuminum cyminum, Coriandrum sativum and Thymus fallax, Method: Swiss albino mice were injected intraperitoneally with different concentrations of the extract and results were evaluated with the method of probit analysis. Results: Maximum volume of oil administered to mice was kept below 0.5 ml. The oils of Sesamum indicum and Urticapilulifera was completely non-lethal even at doses reaching 12.8 ml/kg and considered non-toxic. Conclusion: Lethal doses were determined for all other plants and LD1, LD10, LD50, LD90 and LD99 values were given.
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From the dried flower-buds of Syzygium aromaticum Merr. et Perry (Myrtaceae), seven compounds, i.e., eugenol (1), oleanolic acid (2), kaempferol 7-O-metylether (3), 3,3',4-tri-O-methylellagic acid (4), maslinic acid (5), β-sitosterol-3-O-glucoside (6), and isorhamnetin 3-O-glucoside (7) were isolated. Compound 1 showed cydooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitory activity.
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Concentrations of eugenol and carvacrol in ethanolic extracts of cloves and savory, respectively, were determined quantitatively by GC. Both compounds were exclusively responsible for the antifungal action of these spices against Cladosporium herbarum and Penicillium glabrum. Other constituents showed no or insignificant activity.
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Eugenol (4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol) was found to exhibit an anesthetic effect on various fishes. Carp, Cyprinus carpio, medaka, Oryzias latipes, crucian carp, Carassius auratus and rainbow trout, Salmo gairdnerii irideus were anesthetized in a short time in water containing 12.5 to 100 ppm of eugenol as added to water in the form of FA-100 (a pharmaceutical preparation of 10% eugenol). Eugenol was effective at only one fourth the concentration of MS-222 that would give comparable effects in gold fish, Carassius auratus, medaka and crucian carp. Anesthesia by FA-100 and recovery from it required longer time at low water temperatures (5 and 10°C) than at normal temperature (24.5°C).
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Eugeniflorins D1 and D2 new hydrolysable tannin dimers, were isolated, together with four known polyphenols, from Eugenia uniflora leaves. Their macrocyclic structures were elucidated from spectral and chemical evidence.
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Two new ellagitannins, named syzyginins A and B, were isolated from the leaves of clove (Syzygium aromaticum.). Syzyginin A was characterized as 1,2,3-tri-O-galloyl-4,6-(S)-tergalloyl-beta-D-glucopyranose. Syzyginin B was a novel hydrolysable tannin possessing a new aromatic acyl group, syzygyl, which has a dibenzo-1,4-dioxin structure probably derived from a tergalloyl group. Structures were established on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic evidence. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd
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Two flavonol glycosides have been isolated and characterised from leaves of Syzygium samarangense. One is the rare mearnsitrin (1) while the second, 2′-C-methyl-5′-O-galloylmyricetin-3-O-a-l-rhamnopyranoside (2), is new. Detailed spectral data are provided for both.