ArticlePDF Available

Synopsis Of The Melolonthini (Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) Of Israel, With A First Description Of The Female Of Anoxia (Protanoxia) Laevimacula Petrovitz, 1973


Abstract and Figures

an updated species list with distribution pattern, phenology and some additional notes on the melolonthini of Israel are given. a note regarding the original name spelling of Anoxia laevimacula Petrovitz, 1973 and a first description of the female are also given. Anoxia (Mesanoxia) cypria Zurcher, 1911 is no longer considered as occurring in Israel and remains an endemic species to Cyprus. Melolontha albida is also no longer considered to occur in Israel.
Content may be subject to copyright.
ISRAEL JOURNAL OF ENTOMOLOGY, Vol. 46, pp. 99 –108 (24 November 2016)
Synopsis of the Melolonthini (Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae)
of Israel, with a rst description of the female
of Anoxia (Protanoxia) laevimacula Petrovitz, 1973
Oz Ri t t n e R
The Steinhardt Museum of Natural History, Israel National Center for Biodiversity Studies and
Department of Zoology, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, 6997801 Israel.
Email: israelbutter
An updated species list with distribution pattern, phenology and some additional
notes on the Melolonthini of Israel are given. A note regarding the original name
spelling of Anoxia laevimacula Petrovitz, 1973 and a rst description of the
female are also given. Anoxia (Mesanoxia) cypria Zurcher, 1911 is no longer
considered as occurring in Israel and remains an endemic species to Cyprus.
Melolontha albida is also no longer considered to occur in Israel.
KEYWORDS: Scarabaeidae, Melolonthinae, Israel, June beetles, identication
The tribe Melolonthini (sensu Bezdek 2016) in the Palaearctic region com-
prises approximately 220 species in 18 genera (Bezdek 2016). Adults of the Me lo-
lonthini possess the antennal club consisting of 4 –7 antennomeres, and are main-
ly crepuscular and active after dusk. Males are easily attracted to articial light,
whereas females arrive to a light source in a much smaller numbers or do not
appear at all. Adults and larvae are generally phytophagous. In some species, adults
apparently do not feed. In Israel there were almost no observations regarding the
feeding and mating habits of the June beetles and their natural history remains
poorly known.
The examined Melolonthini beetles are housed in the collections of the Stein-
hardt Museum of Natural History, Israel National Center for Biodiversity Studies,
Tel Aviv University, Israel (SMNH). Previously unpublished data on the local
distribution range and phenology of the Melolonthini species are now updated and
given based mainly on the SMNH holdings and the author’s private collection.
Unless stated otherwise, all specimens are deposited in the SMNH. The abbreviation
OR refers to the private collection of the author.
Transliterated names of Israeli localities mentioned in the present article follow
the Israel Touring Map and List of settlements published by the Survey of Israel
(2009) and are listed in the Appendix 1. Where names of localities have changed,; ISSN (online) 2224-6304
the most recent transliterated Hebrew or Arabic names are given with old names in
square brackets; for example: Nahal ’Iron [Wadi ’Ara]. Erroneous spellings are also
bracketed. Collecting localities were plotted on a map available from Google Earth
and Google Maps services according to their guidelines (
permissions/geoguidelines.html). The morphological ter mi no logy follows Torre-
Bueno et al. (1989). Photographs were taken with a Nikon D610 and a Tamroon
180 mm macro lense. Specimens were photographed using layers and were stacked
with Zerene Stacker. Images were edited with Adobe Pho toshop CS6.
Based on the examined material, I ascertain that six species belonging to four
genera occur in Israel:
Anoxia (Anoxia) maculiventris Reitter, 1890
Anoxia (Protanoxia) laevimacula Petrovitz, 1973
Anoxia (Protanoxia) orientalis Krynicki, 1832
Anoxioides bytinskisalzi Petrovitz, 1971a
Cyphonoxia praestabilis Reitter, 1889
Polyphylla (Polyphylla) olivieri Laporte, 1840
According to Chikatunov and Pavliček (1997) and Bezdek (2006, 2016) Melo-
lontha (Melolontha) albida Frivaldszky, 1835 occurs in Israel. Chikatunov and
Pav liček (l. c.) do not give any collecting data beyond mentioning a specimen(s)
from the Upper Galilee deposited in the SMNH. It is also mentioned from Israel
by Bezdek (2006, 2016), who probably followed Chikatunov and Pavliček (1997).
However, in the SMNH collection no local specimens of M. albida were found
among the Melolonthini. Chikatunov (pers. comm.) does not recall any actual spe-
cimens from Israel that he examined. Although the species’ presence in Israel can-
not be ruled out, it must be regarded as not occurring in the country in the absence
of actual records. To date, the species distribution range includes Greece, Turkey
and Syria (Bezdek 2016).
According to Guido Sabatinelli (pers. comm.) Cryptotrogus weisei Kraatz, 1888
was collected in the gardens of the Royal Palace in Aqaba (Jordan), which is on the
border with Israel near Elat. It is therefore very possible that C. weisei may also
be collected in Israel in the future. Since it is similar to Cyphonoxia praestabilis in
its general appearance all specimens that were labelled as such in the SMNH were
closely examined but so far no specimens of Cryptotrogus weisei were found.
Genus Anoxia Laporte, 1832
Anoxia (Anoxia) maculiventris Reitter, 1890
(Figs 2, 7)
Anoxia israelitica Petrovitz, 1971b: 184, gs 2, 3.
The distribution of this species includes Israel, Lebanon and Syria (Bezdek
2006). According to Chikatunov and Pavliček (1997) and Bezdek (2006, 2016)
Anoxia (Mesanoxia) cypria Zurcher, 1911 (= A. mavromoustakisi Miksic, 1959)
occurs in Israel in the area of the Northern Coastal Plain. Specimens labelled as
A. cypria in the SMNH by Chikatunov were re-examined and re-identied as A.
maculiventris. These specimens, all collected in the Northern Coastal Plain, were
probably the reason of A. cypria being mistakenly reported from Israel by Chi-
katunov. There are no other references for the occurrence of this species in Israel
and it therefore should be removed from the checklist of the Coleoptera of Israel.
Material examined: Sea of Galilee: Deganya, 14.iv.1967 (1♂ 1♀), Bytinski-Salz. Carmel Ridge:
1♂ Haifa, vii.1973, Bytinski-Salz; Nahal Oren, (1♂), (2♂), V. Chikatunov
& T. Pavliček (misident. by Chikatunov as A. cypria), (1♂), light trap, V. Chikatunov &
T. Pavliček. Northern Coastal Plain: Nahariyya, (1♂), Moses; ’Akko, (1♂), R.
Sherman; Manof Youth Village, v.2011 (7♂ 1♀), light trap, O. Rittner (OR). Samaria: Nahal ’Iron
[Wadi ’Ara], 1981 (1♂), J. Kugler. Central Coastal Plain: Ramat Gan, 5.v.1944 (3♂), Bytinski-Salz.
Southern Coastal Plain: Neta’im, 24.iv.1958 (1♂ 2♀), C. Levinsohn; Rehovot, 15.v.1938 (1♂) (OR),
25.iv.1946 (2♂), 28.iv.1946 (4♂ 1♀), Bytinski-Salz, 1.v.1955 (1♀), J. Halperin; Giv’at Brenner,
iv.1939 (1♀), A. Shulov; Gedera, 25.iv.1941 (3♂), Bytinski-Salz; Nizzanim, 14.v.1946 (1♂) (paratype
of Anoxia israelitica Petrovitz, 1971b, syn. of A. maculiventris).
Anoxia (Protanoxia) laevimacula Petrovitz, 1973
(Figs 1, 7)
The species is endemic to Israel. Each specimen from the type series of this
species bears a red note that reads “Anoxia laevimaculata n. Petrovitz”. However,
in his original description Petrovitz repeatedly used the name Anoxia laevimacula
without once using the name A. laevimaculata.
Chikatunov and Pavliček (1997) also used the name Anoxia laevimacula. How-
ever, Baraud (1989), Bezdek (2006, 2016) and Krajcik (2012, 2013) referred to this
species as Anoxia laevimaculata, which is more frequently used than the original
name, but is an incorrect subsequent spelling according to the International Code
of Zoological Nomenclature (Article 33.3).
The Code does not state any criteria (minimum/maximum limits) for treating
an incorrect subsequent spelling. The name bears a minor change of spelling by
adding two letters at the end, with no change of meaning. However, since the
name laevimaculata has not been cited yet at a large scale, the author opines that it
should not be regarded as a name with a prevailing usage and the original spelling
(laevimacula) should be preserved.
Among species that are placed in the subgenus Protanoxia, A. laevimacula is the
only one with the male antennal club being longer than the agellum. The natural
history and early stages of this species are unknown. Adults are mainly active from
May to June.
At present, it is distributed along the southern coastal dunes in the area of Niz-
zanim and nearby dunes, where it is fairly abundant and occurs in large numbers at
times. However, there are two records from North Israel (Hula and Upper Jordan
Valley and Golan Heights), which seems to be slightly odd. Among the two is
the holotype itself. The substantial gap between a large population conned to a
narrow area of coastal dunes and two specimens from the north cannot be explained
at the present moment and may well result from mislabelling. As A. laevimacula is
endemic to Israel, the two northern localities (if correct) may suggest the presence
of this species in Lebanon, which borders Israel only a few kilometers to the north.
Since this species has never been seen in Lebanon and has never been collected by
scores of light traps run in this area, it only supports the author’s hypothesis that
the northern localities are dubious.
As dune areas in Israel become more fragmented, smaller and disturbed, the
lo cal population of A. laevimacula seems to be threatened. The largest popula tion
of this species is found in Nizzanim sand dunes, a natural reserve bordering two
large cities (at it north and south). In addition, new neighborhoods that were built
on the natural reserve eastern border are making even closer strong articial lights
and this could as well cause more harm and change the local population density.
The natural history of A. laevimacula is unknown. The female of this spe cies was
also unknown until recently.
During many evenings of collecting with light traps in search for A. laevima-
cula females, only males appeared, sometimes in great numbers. As it seems, un-
like some of the other Anoxia species, A. laevimacula females are not attracted to
articial light at all. Day searches yielded only one resting male. Eventually a fe-
male landed on a person that stood at the right place at the right time under a Ficus
sycomorus tree during twilight (after sunset).
Description. Female (based primarily on Southern Coastal Plain: Nizzanim dunes,, M. Shemesh, G. Sinaiko & O. Auster): The specimen (Fig. 1b) lacks
most of its scales, giving it a shiny red-brown appearance. It is most probable that
the female was completely covered with scales similar to the already known males
of this species and other Anoxia species. The absence of the scales might have
re sulted from the female digging through soil for egg laying. Females of Anoxia
ori entalis without scales are numerous in the SMNH, which may also support the
assumption about the scale loss. Different Anoxia males with fewer scales are also
represented in the SMNH but to a much lesser extent. This includes one of the pa-
ratypes of A. laevimacula as mentioned by Petrovitz (1973) in his description.
In general, the female resembles the male with some exceptions. Clypeus not en-
larged at its front as with males (Fig. 1c). Anterior corners of clypeus are rounded
(ob tusely protruding in male). Anterior border slightly depressed at its center (a bit
convex in male) [this is clearer in the ventral view]. In same size specimens, lab -
rum length of the female is about a third of that of the male.
Pronotal punctation irregular in size and sparse. Pronotal scales much ner and
slender than in male. Elytra rugosely punctate and covered with ner scales than
those in male.
Protibia tridentate with large and robust teeth; compared to tridentate protibia
in male, female protibia also wider and thicker. Basal tooth separated from both
apical teeth. Apical tooth widest at its center. Outer edges of tibia dark coloured
Figs 1 –6. Melolonthini of Israel: (1) Anoxia laevimacula, male and male genitalia (a), female (b);
heads of male (above) and female (below) (c), male protibia and tarsus (regular on left and
tri dentate) (d); (2) Anoxia maculiventris, male and male genitalia; (3) Anoxia orientalis,
female; (4) Anoxoides bytinskisalzi, male and male genitalia; (5) Cyphonoxia praestanilis,
male; (6) Polyphylla olivieri, male.
and attened. Protibia covered with ne slender scales that are about as wide
as protibial scales in male. Terminal spur at inner margin of the tibia opposite to
outer median tooth. Inner margin of protibia bear some setae. Base of tarsi located
on ventral side of the tibia, opposite to the center between two apical outer median
teeth. Tibia with shallow punctae. Mesotibia with two small teeth.
Fig. 7. Distribution of Melolonthini species in Israel.
Remark: According to the description of A. laevimacula (Petrovitz 1973) the
male protibia bear one external apical tooth only. However, males show a great
va riability in protibial shape and can bear one to three teeth (Fig. 1d).
Material examined: Golan Heights: Mas’ada, (1♂), Lustig. Hula and Upper Jordan
Valley: Dan, 20.iv.1968 (♂ holotype), Bytinski-Salz. Central Coastal Plain: Bet Dagon, 26.vii (1♂
paratype). Southern Coastal Plain: Rehovot, 1.v.1955 (1♂), J. Halperin; Nizzanim, 3.ix.1986 (1♂), J.
Cnaani (OR), (1♂), S. Zabari, 28.v.1997 (1♂), V. Chikatunov, (3♂), O. Rittner
(OR), (1♀), M. Shemesh, G. Sinaiko & O. Auster (OR). Note: I have seen more than 200
additional male specimens collected in Nizannim during 2000 –2015 in several private collections. All
those were collected during May– June with light traps.
Anoxia (Protanoxia) orientalis Krynicki, 1832
(Figs 3, 7)
This species has a wide distribution range, which includes Austria, Bosnia and
Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Macedonia, Romania,
Russia, Turkey, Ukraine, Serbia, Slovenia, Syria, Lebanon, and Israel (Bezdek
2016). It is the commonest and most wide spread species of the genus in Israel, of-
ten seen inside crowded cities. The distribution area seems to be poorly represen ted
in the examined collections and is probably larger. It is the only species to be found
from the Mt Hermon to the Northern Negev. Adults start to emerge in late spring
(April) and are active until the beginning of the hot summer months (July).
Material examined: Mount Hermon: Majdal Shams, (1♂), light trap, V. Kravchenko.
Lower Galilee: Kokhav HaYarden, (1♂), light trap, V. Kravchenko. Hula and Upper Jor-
dan Valley: Dafna, 6.iv.1943 (1♂), (1♀), F. Kaplan, 15.v.1986 (2♂ 1♀), H. Shlezinger;
HaGosherim, 15.v.1978 (1♂), A. Diamand, 16.iv.1996 (1♂), O. Rittner (OR); Ma’oz Hayyim [Kib.
Maoz], light trap, 21.v.1977 (18♂ 2♀), D. Gerling; Sede Nehemya, (1♀), Z. Shoham, (1♂), Z. Shoham; Kefar Blum, (1♂), Z. Shoham. Lower Jordan Valley: Bet
She’an, vi.1956 (1♀), B. Peretz; Ma’oz Hayyim [Maoz], v.1952 (1♀). Carmel Ridge: Zikhron Ya’aqov
In terchange, 27.v.1986 (1♂), A. Freidberg. Judean Foothills: Gal’on, (1♂); Park Canada,
23.iv.2010 (1♂), O. Rittner (OR). Central Coastal Plain: Binyamina, 17.v.1945 (1♂), Bytinski-Salz;
Pardes Hanna Karkur, 3.iv.1946 (1♂), Bytinski-Salz; Hadera, 19.v.1946 (1♂), Bytinski-Salz; Bet Yan-
nay, 20.v.1994 (1♂), W. Ferguson; Ilanot, 15.v.1963 (1♀), J. Halperin; Bet Berl, 28.iv.1979 (1♀), K.
Yefenof; Tel Aviv, 15.v.1946 (1♀), Bytinski-Salz, 22.v.1957 (1♀), L. Fishelson, 5.vii.1958 (1♀), J.
Krystal, (1♂), Zafrir, (2♂), [Abu Kabir] (2♂), Y. Kugler, 4.vii.1972
(1♂), Y. Kugler, 6.vii.1972 (1♂), Y. Kugler, 14.v.1974 (1♂), A. Freidberg, 9.v.1978 (1♂), W. Ferguson, (1♂), A. Shlagman (OR), 16.v.2016 (1♀), A. Ben-Dov Segal (OR). Southern Coastal Plain:
Rishon LeZiyyon, 11.v.2001 (1♂) (OR); Rehovot, (1♂), Bytinski-Salz, vi.1951 (1♂), Paz, (1♀), Y. Zvik; Giv’at Brenner, (2♂), D. Gerling; Ben Zakkay [Ben Zaquai],
25.v.1970 (1♂), G. Levy; Nizzanim, 17.v.1999 (1♂), O. Rittner (OR). Northern Negev: Brosh, (1♂), light trap, V. Kravchenko.
Genus Anoxoides Petrovitz, 1971a
Anoxioides bytinskisalzi Petrovitz, 1971a
(Figs 4, 7)
The genus Anoxoides is closely related to Anoxia from which it differs in the
overall oviform shape and in lacking mirror-spots on the pronotum. It is a mo-
nospecic genus endemic to the Central Coastal Plain area (HaSharon) of Israel.
At the present moment this species is only known from four males. Two speci mens
form the type series, which was collected during the 1960–1970s, whereas another
two specimens have been collected recently in the Haruzim Nature Reserve area.
One specimen was collected while resting during the day, whereas the second one
arrived to an articial light in the nearby village of Basra. The small territory of the
Haruzim Nature Reserve is now the only known habitat of this genus and spe cies,
since the type locality is today heavily populated and in fact no longer a natural
habitat. More recent deployment of light traps failed to procure any further adults.
This species is likely to be heavily threatened since it is restricted to a very small
(ca 300× 600 m) protected area, which is surrounded by agricultural land with tiny
and disturbed natural patches. The possibility of the existence of other populations
is not ruled out and should be examined, but there is no doubt that A. bytinskisalzi
must be assigned the status of the critically endangered species, which justies
further protection of its habitat.
Material examined: Central Coastal Plain: Herzliyya, v.1963 (♂ holotype), Bytinski-Salz; Tel Aviv,
3.v (1♂ paratype), Bytinski-Salz; Haruzim Nat. Res., 1.v.2010 (1♂), A. Nir (Coll. M. Uliana, Italy);
Basra, 10.v.2012 (1♂), L. Raijman (OR).
Genus Cyphonoxia Reitter, 1889
Cyphonoxia praestabilis Reitter, 1889
(Figs 5, 7)
The population of this species in Israel, as presently known, is isolated and far
from other populations in Iran and Iraq (Bezdek 2016). This distributional gap may
suggest that the population in Israel represents a different undescribed species, or a
collection bias. In Israel, this species is distributed only along the Arava valley and
it is the only species in the Melolonthini, which is known at present in this area.
Adults are active during early evening. Since all the examined material con sists
of males and most specimens have been collected near light sources it seems that
fe males are not attracted to articial light.
Material examined: Arava Valley: Ne’ot HaKikkar, 19.iv.1999 (8♂), I. Yarom & V. Kravchenko,
5.v.2008 (1♂), V. Kravchenko; ’Arvat Sedom, 17–23.iii.2014 (1♂), I. Renan; ’En Yahav, iv.1978
(1♂), Netta, 3.v.1986 (1♂) (OR); Yotvata, 13.v.2010 (2♂), A. Weinstein (OR); Elat, 29.iv.1974 (1♂),
A. Freidberg.
Genus Polyphylla Harris, 1842
Polyphylla (Polyphylla) olivieri (Laporte, 1840)
(Figs 6, 7)
The species has a wide distribution range that includes Greece, Turkey, Russia,
Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iran, Turkmenistan, Syria (Bezdek 2016) and Le-
banon (Rittner 2016). Despite its large size this species has been rarely collected
and is poorly represented on the distribution map. It is very likely that the range of
its real dispersal in Israel is yet to be discovered.
Material examined: Upper Galilee Hills: Nahal Senir [Hazbani], 7.vii.1977 (1♂), on Platanus, A.
Freidberg. Hula and Upper Jordan Valley: Dan, (1♀), viii.1980 (1♀), Elimelech; Dafna,
5.iv.1943 (1♀); Sede Nahum, iv.1965 (1♀), Z. Shoham; Sede Nehemya [Huliot], 10.vii.1956 (1♂),
Bytinski-Salz, (1♀), Bytinski-Salz, (1♀), Z. Shoham, 9.vii.1971 (1♀), Z. Shoham,
11.viii.1971 (1♀), Z. Shoham, 19.vii.1973 (1♀), Z. Shoham. Lower Jordan Valley: ’En Harod, (1♀), O. Rittner (OR). Sea of Galilee: Gesher Arik, 24 .v.2011 (1♂), O. Rittner (OR); Park
HaYarden, (1♀), A. Valdenberg, 15.viii.1982 (1♂), A. Valdenberg. Northern Coastal Plain:
Ma’agan Mikha’el, (1♀), Bytinski-Salz.
Key to the Israeli Melolonthini species
1 Protibia with internal apical spur in both sexes. Parameres with a forked apex.
Elytra without longitudinal striae. Female antennal club with ve antennomeres,
male antennal club with seven antennomeres ........................Polyphylla olivieri
– Protibia without internal spur (at least in males). Elytra with longitudinal striae.
Antennal club with different number of antennomeres ..................................... 2
2 Male protibia with a single external apical tooth (excl. A. laevimacula in which
protibia can bear a second tooth and sometimes a third weaker tooth creating a
semi-tridentate appearance, however easily distinguished by small size of the
slender teeth as shown in Fig. 1d). Female protibia tridentate with an internal
apical spur. Third antennomere at least as long as the previous two combined
(Anoxia) ............................................................................................................. 3
– Protibia in both sexes tridentate without an internal apical spur. Third antenno-
mere of different length ..................................................................................... 5
3 Apex of pygidium notched ................................................. Anoxia maculiventris
– Apex of pygidium rounded ................................................................................ 4
4 Male antennal club is longer than the agellum .................. Anoxia laevimacula
– Male antennal club is shorter than the agellum ..................... Anoxia orientalis
5 Male antennal club with 5 antennomeres (4 in female); third antennomere shorter
than preceding two antennomeres combined .............. Cyphonoxia praestabilis
– Male antennal club with 5 antennomeres (female unknown); third antennomere
longer than preceding two antennomeres combined .... Anoxioides bytinskisalzi
I would like to thank Oren Auster, Merav Shemesh and Guy Sinaiko for collecting and passing
on the female of Anoxia laevimacula. I am grateful to Dr Andrew B.T. Smith (Canadian Museum of
Nature) and Dr Frank T. Krell (Denver Museum of Nature & Science) for reviewing the manuscript
and for their valuable comments. I would also like to thank Guido Sabatinelli and Marco Uliana (Italy)
for their long-time friendship and collaboration in the eld of Scarabaeoidea research in Israel and in
the Levant in general.
Ba R a u d , J. 1989. Révision des Anoxia Castelnau d’Europe et d’Asie 1re note: le sous-genre Protanoxia
Medvedev (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae). Bulletin de la Société entomologique de France
93 (9–10): 273–284.
Be z d e k , A. 2006. Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae: Melolonthini. In: Löbl, I. & Smetana, A. (Eds.),
Ca talogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera, Vol. 3. Scarabaeoidea Scirtoidea – Dasciloidea
Buprestoidea – Byrrhoidea. Apollo Books, Stenstrup, pp. 191–198.
–––––2016. Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae: Melolonthini. In: Löbl, I. & Löbl, D. (Eds.), Catalogue
of Palaearctic Coleoptera, Vol. 3. Scarabaeoidea – Scirtoidea – Dascilloidea – Buprestoi-
dea – Byrrhoidea. Brill, Stenstrup, Leiden, Boston, pp. 226–236.
Ch i k a t u n o v , v. & Pa v l i č e k , T. 1997. Catalogue of the beetles (Coleoptera) in Israel and adjacent
areas: 1. Scarabaeoidea. Klapalekiana 33: 37– 65.
kR a j c i k , M. 2012. Checklist of the world Scarabaeoidea. Animma.X (Plzeň), Supplement 5: 1–278.
–––––2013. Addenda to checklist of world Scarabaeoidea 2012. Animma.X (Plzeň) 49–54: 1–299.
Pe t R O v i t z , R. 1971a. Scarabaeidae from the Near East (Lamellicornia, Coleoptera). Israel Journal of
Entomology 6 (2): 215– 237.
–––––1971b. Drei neue Anoxia-Arten (Scarabaeidae, Melolonthini). Koleopterologische Rund schau
49: 183–187.
–––––1973. Scarabaeidae from the Near East (Lamellicornia, Coleoptera). Second part. Israel Journal
of Entomology 8: 27– 34.
Ri t t n e R , O. 2016. First record of Polyphylla olivieri (Laporte de Castelanu, 1840) from Lebanon (Sca-
rabaeidae: Melolonthinae). Israel Journal of Entomology 46: 77– 78.
Su R v e y O f iS R a e l . 2009. Israel Touring map. North & South sheets. List of settle ments, antiquity
sites and road distances. Scale 1:250,000. The Survey of Israel, Tel Aviv.
tO R R e -Bu e n O , j.R. d e l a , ni c h O l S , S.W., tu l l O c h , G.S. & Sc h u h , R.t. 1989. The Torre-Bueno glos-
sary of entomology. Rev. ed. New York Entomological Society, New York, 840 pp.
Appendix 1
List of georeferenced locations mentioned in the present article.
’Akko 32°55'N 35°05'E
’Arvat Sedom 30°56'N 35°22'E
Basra 32°12'N 34°52'E
Ben Zakkay 31°51'N 34°43'E
Bet Berl 32°11'N 34°55'E
Bet Dagon 32°00'N 34°49'E
Bet She’an 32°29'N 35°29'E
Bet Yannay 32°22'N 34°51'E
Binyamina 32°31'N 34°57'E
Dafna 33°13'N 35°38'E
Dan 33°14'N 35°39'E
Deganya 32°42'N 35°34'E
Elat 29°33'N 34°57'E
’En Harod 33°11'N 35°37'E
’En Yahav 30°39'N 35°14'E
Gal’on 31°38'N 34°50'E
Gedera 31°48'N 34°46'E
Gesher Arik 32°54'N 35°36'E
Giv’at Brenner 31°51'N 34°47'E
Hadera 32°26'N 34°55'E
HaGosherim 33°13'N 35°37'E
Haifa 32°47'N 34°59'E
Haruzim Nat. Res. 32°13'N 34°51'E
Herzliyya 32°09'N 34°50'E
Ilanot 32°17'N 34°54'3E
Kefar Blum 33°10'N 35°36'E
Kokhav HaYarden 32°35'N 35°31'E
Ma’agan Mikha’el 32°33'N 34°55'E
Majdal Shams 33°16'N 35°46'E
Manof Youth Village 32°56'N 35°05'E
Ma’oz Hayyim 32°29'N 35°33'E
Mas’ada 33°13'N 35°45'E
Nahal ’Iron 32°30'5N 35°04'E
Nahal Oren 32°42'N 34°58'E
Nahal Senir 33°13'N 35°36'E
Nahariyya 33°00'N 35°06'E
Ne’ot HaKikkar 30°56'N 35°22'E
Neta’im 31°56'N 34°46'E
Nizzanim 31°44'N 34°36'E
Pardes Hanna Karkur 32°28'N 34°58'E
Park Canada 31°50'N 34°59'E
Ramat Gan 32°04'N 34°49'E
Park HaYarden 32°54'N 35°37'E
Rehovot 31°53'N 34°49'E
Rishon LeZiyyon 32°00'N 34°47'E
Sede Nahum 32°31'N 35°28'E
Sede Nehemya 33°11'N 35°37'E
Tel Aviv 32°06'N 34°48'E
Yotvata 29°53'N 35°03'E
Zikhron Ya’aqov Interchange 32°34'N 34°56'E
... Anoxia (Protanoxia) orientalis Krynicki, 1832 ( Figure 1) is a beetle of the family Melolonthidae, characterized by an overall length of 21-32 mm, with an Eastern European chorotype (sensu [3]). Its wide range includes Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Macedonia, Romania, Russia, Turkey [4,5], Ukraine, Serbia, Slovenia, Syria, Lebanon and Israel [6][7][8]. This species also occurs in Italy. ...
Full-text available
Anoxia (Protanoxia) orientalis is a beetle of the family Melolonthidae for which Italy represents the western limit of its distribution. The ecology of this species is little known from the quantitative point of view. The ecological correlates of A. orientalis presence in the whole European range and, more specifically, at its western border in Sicily, are analyzed in this paper in order to develop a potential distribution map for Sicily, and to define the habitat selection of this species. There was a clear non-random habitat selection by A. orientalis at both the European and the Sicilian scales and a clear difference in the factors affecting the presence of this species in the larger spatial scale (where the species appeared to be a habitat generalist) compared to Sicily. In Sicily, the populations were statistically influenced by a combination of predictors that make their potential optimal distribution very narrow and mostly limited to few coastal areas, suggesting a region-specific ecological diversification. Since A. orientalis is in strong decline in Italy due to the degradation of coastal environments, it is necessary to minimize the degradation of the dune and back dune en-vironments in Sicily in order to achieve a better management for the populations of this beetle species.
... Anoxia (Protanoxia) orientalis Krynicki, 1832 ( Figure 1) is a beetle of the family Melolonthidae, characterized by an overall length of 21-32 mm, with an Eastern European chorotype (sensu [3]). Its wide range includes Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Macedonia, Romania, Russia, Turkey [4,5], Ukraine, Serbia, Slovenia, Syria, Lebanon and Israel [6][7][8]. This species also occurs in Italy. ...
Full-text available
Polyphylla ragusae (Coleoptera Scarabaeidae) is an endemic beetle restricted to the island of Sicily (Italy). This species is among the most threatened invertebrates in Italy. Currently, scientific knowledge of the distribution and habitat selection of P. ragusae is scarce, though anecdotal observations suggest that the species is primarily found in intact dune systems associated with river mouths with rich riparian vegetation and reeds. We assembled data between 2012 - 2021on the species’ distribution and activity from direct collections and observations of beetles throughout the island. We also included additional distribution data from published literature. Our results showed that: (i) there was a significant skewed sex-ratio in specimens; (ii) there were differences in flying behaviour between the sexes, and (iii) habitat selection was non-random. We also analysed (i) the relationship between the occurrence of P. ragusae and CORINE landcover variables in Sicily and (ii) built a potential distribution map using MAXENT. We showed that the species occurrence was correlated with areas with more permanent freshwater waterbodies and less with those areas with more shrubs and croplands, indicating that P. ragusae could be a habitat specialist. These habitat features are common along coastal areas in Sicily, often linked to relatively unaltered dune environments. The degradation of these habitats is therefore likely to have caused the decline of the species in Sicily. We suggest that P. ragusae should be used as a flag species to attract attention for the protection of Sicilian dune systems.
... (P.) laevimacula Petrovitz, 1973) or by the presence of only an apical external tooth on the protibia (A. (P.) orentalis (Krynicki, 1832), A. (P.) cingulata Marseul, 1868, A. (P.) baraudi Keith, 2003, and A. (P.) rotroui), see also Baraud (1989) and Rittner (2016). Males of the Moroccan species A. (P.) kocheri also bear a barely visible basal external tooth on the protibia (Baraud 1980). ...
Full-text available
The melolonthine species Cyphonoxia maljuzhenkoi Zaitzev, 1928 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae: Melolonthini) was described from three specimens collected by Dmitriy M. Maljuzhenko, a physician by profession, while he was working in the former Erivan Governorate from 1906 to at least 1914 (Anonymous 1914). Type series was cited by Zaitzev (1928) differently in the Russian and in German versions of the primary description. In the Russian version, Zaitzev stated on p. 393 in Cyrillic script: “Arm. Alishar u Araksa (3 ekz. Maljuzhenko, koll. Muz. Eriv. univ. i Muz. Gruzii)”, while in the German version, he mentioned on p. 397: “Nachkraj: Alishar, distr. Sharur (3 ♀♀, dr. Maljuzhenko, Koll. d. Museen Georgien und Armenien)”. At the time of collecting the type specimens (no later than 1914 when Maljuzhenko finished his collecting activity in the region (S.M. Iablokoff-Khnzorian, personal communication to M.K. in 1993)), the locality was a part of the Erivan Governorate of the Russian Empire. Currently, it is situated in the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic of Azerbaijan.
... Remarque. Cette espèce, présente en Égypte, en Jordanie et en Israël (Bezděk 2006(Bezděk , 2016Rittner 2016 ; sous le nom Cyphonoxia praestabilis), se sépare de Cryptotrogus praestabilis par les caractères vus précédemment, et de C. buettikeri par l'ongle externe des tarses antérieurs pourvu d'une très petite dent à la base de son bord inférieur ( Figure 52) et par sa massue antennaire à six articles, le premier incomplètement développé (Figure 18), alors que C. buettikeri est dépourvue de dent à la base du bord inférieur de l'ongle des tarses antérieurs et possède une massue antennaire de cinq articles. ...
Full-text available
Le genre Cryptotrogus Kraatz, 1888 est étudié. Après étude des spécimens-types des espèces associées et de nouveaux matériels, ce genre est redéfini et Cyphonoxia Reitter, 1889 en est à nouveau considéré comme synonyme. Les nouvelles combinaisons et synonymies suivantes sont établies ou restaurées : Cryptotrogus buettikeri (Sabatinelli & Pontuale, 1998) n. comb., Cryptotrogus delhiensis (Anand, 1988) n. comb., Cryptotrogus haarlovi (Petrovitz, 1955) n. comb., Cryptotrogus kermanensis (Semenov & Medvedev, 1936) n. comb., Cryptotrogus kircheri (Balthasar, 1930) n. comb., Cryptotrogus praestabilis (Reitter, 1889) n. comb., Cryptotrogus tatianae (Semenov & Medvedev, 1936) n. comb., Cryptotrogus zarudnyi (Semenov & Medvedev, 1936) n. comb., Cyphonotus bicoloratus Petrovitz, 1962 n. syn. de Cryptotrogus mesopotamicus (Petrovitz, 1962), Cryptotrogus miksici Petrovitz, 1965, et Cryptotrogus orita (Reitter, 1902) n. syn. de Cryptotrogus niveus (Hampe, 1852), Cyphonoxia glasunowi Semenov, 1897 n. syn. de Cryptotrogus brenskei (Reitter, 1895) comb. rev., Cyphonoxia kermanensis Semenov & Medvedev, 1936 n. syn. de Cryptotrogus zarudnyi (Semenov & Medvedev, 1936) n. comb., Cryptotrogus zemindar (Sharp, 1876) n. comb. Par ailleurs, huit espèces sont décrites et comparées aux espèces proches : sept d’Iran, Cryptotrogus borumandi n. sp., Cryptotrogus ebrahimii n. sp., Cryptotrogus miesseni n. sp., Cryptotrogus mirzayansi n. sp., Cryptotrogus monodi n. sp., Cryptotrogus morgani n. sp. et Cryptotrogus parallelus n. sp., et une, Cryptotrogus irakanus n. sp., d’Irak. Enfin, de nouvelles données sont présentées pour quelques espèces de la faune iranienne appartenant aux genres Melolontha Fabricius, 1775, Anoxia Castelnau, 1832, Polyphylla Harris, 1841 et Microphylla Kraatz, 1890. Une espèce est nouvelle pour la faune d’Iran : Melolontha aceris Faldermann, 1835.
Full-text available
Polyphylla (Polyphylla) olivieri (Laporte de Castelanu, 1840) is a widely distri­buted June Beetle that occurs in Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Greece, Turkey, Iran, Syria and Israel (Bezdek 2006). Although it would be only logical to assume that the species is present also in Lebanon, it was never actually reported from there and so Lebanon remained a blank spot in its known range of distribution. During the examination of the Melolonthini beetles deposited in the National Collection of Insects, The Steinhardt Museum of Natural History, Israel National Research Center, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel (SMNHTAU), the author encountered two specimens accompanied with hand­written data labels that read ‘Syria Bokaah [or Bekaah, as ink is blurred]’. Bekaah is recently known as Beqaa [Becaa] Valley (in English), Wadi al-Biqa? (in Arabic) or el-Bohah (Lebanese dialect). It is a large valley situated east of Beirut in Lebanon between the Anti-Lebanon mountains to the east and Mount Lebanon to the west.
Catalogue of the beetles (Coleoptera) in Israel and adjacent areas: 1. scarabaeoidea
  • V Chikatunov
  • T Pavliček
Chikatunov, v. & Pavliček, t. 1997. Catalogue of the beetles (Coleoptera) in Israel and adjacent areas: 1. scarabaeoidea. Klapalekiana 33: 37-65.
The TorreBueno glos sary of entomology. rev
  • J R Bueno
  • S W Tulloch
  • G S Schuh
tORRe-BuenO, j.R. de la, nichOlS, S.W., tullOch, G.S. & Schuh, R.t. 1989. The TorreBueno glos sary of entomology. rev. ed. new york entomological society, new york, 840 pp.
scarabaeidae: melolonthinae: melolonthini
  • A Bezdek
Bezdek, a. 2006. scarabaeidae: melolonthinae: melolonthini. In: löbl, I. & smetana, a. (eds.), Ca talogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera, Vol. 3. scarabaeoidea -scirtoidea -Dasciloidea -Buprestoidea -Byrrhoidea. apollo Books, stenstrup, pp. 191-198.
Checklist of the world scarabaeoidea
  • M Krajcik
kRajcik, m. 2012. Checklist of the world scarabaeoidea. Animma.X (Plzeň), Supplement 5: 1-278. -----2013. addenda to checklist of world scarabaeoidea 2012. Animma.X (Plzeň) 49-54: 1-299.
scarabaeidae from the near east (lamellicornia, Coleoptera)
  • R Petrovitz
PetROvitz, r. 1971a. scarabaeidae from the near east (lamellicornia, Coleoptera). Israel Journal of Entomology 6 (2): 215-237.
Israel – Touring map. North & South sheets. List of settle ments, antiquity sites and road distances. Scale 1:250,000. the survey of Israel
  • Survey Of
SuRvey Of iSRael. 2009. Israel – Touring map. North & South sheets. List of settle ments, antiquity sites and road distances. Scale 1:250,000. the survey of Israel, tel aviv.
Drei neue Anoxiaarten (scarabaeidae, melolonthini)
-----1971b. Drei neue Anoxiaarten (scarabaeidae, melolonthini). Koleopterologische Rund schau 49: 183-187.
scarabaeidae from the near east (lamellicornia, Coleoptera). second part
-----1973. scarabaeidae from the near east (lamellicornia, Coleoptera). second part. Israel Journal of Entomology 8: 27-34.