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Restoration through formalization? Assessing the potential of Peru’s Agroforestry Concessions scheme to contribute to restoration in agricultural frontiers in the Amazon region

Article

Restoration through formalization? Assessing the potential of Peru’s Agroforestry Concessions scheme to contribute to restoration in agricultural frontiers in the Amazon region

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Abstract

Agroforestry Concessions are an innovative legal provision of the Forest Law of Peru. Granted to farmers at the agricultural frontier and conditioned on the compliance with the maintenance of tree cover and the adoption of agroforestry and soil and water conservation practices, Agroforestry Concessions have the potential of a win-win option to meet country pledges to 20 × 20 Restoration Initiative. The case study, conducted in one of the oldest deforestation frontier of Amazon, shows that the pathway for this mechanism to succeed starts from the recognition of local agroforestry practices including fallow-based systems and the understanding of the shift in farmers’ livelihoods this mechanism might require.

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... The initiative is expected to integrate thousands of small-scale farmers into the formal economy, to consolidate local livelihoods, to stimulate land restoration, and to halt deforestation (Robiglio & Reyes, 2016). This initiative is essentially based on the assumption that small-scale farmers working with agroforestry will achieve economically and environmentally robust livelihoods and stop converting forests for agricultural purposes. ...
... But, the cultivation of annual crops often suffers from low productivity levels and environmental drawbacks if produced with traditional shifting agriculture schemes (Tremblay et al., 2015), or hold elevated risks in the case of intensively managed mono-crop systems that insufficiently consider local conditions (Klerkx et al., 2016;Andres et al., 2016;Butler & Laurance, 2009). Forest uses are mostly limited to the traditional management of forest fallows (Hoch et al., 2012;Robiglio & Reyes, 2016), whereas tree plantations are seldom established despite many good arguments in their favor (Sears et al., 2018). For many farmers, off-farm income became increasingly important (FAO, 2017a, b;World Bank, 2017). ...
... Simply issuing access and management rights on trees and land resources, and demand the establishment of cocoa and agroforestry systems is not enough to solve the complex problem of poverty and environmental degradation (Little, 2014). Long-term support is needed that grounds on a realistic understanding of the local feasibility of the proposed measures, that takes into consideration the specificities of the local socio-ecological contexts, and the farmer's interests, capacities, and capabilities (Bebbington & Larrinaga, 2014;Coe et al., 2014;Rasmussen et al., 2017;Brodt et al., 2011;Castro-Nunez et al., 2020), and that carefully addresses the potentials of the already established production systems (Robiglio & Reyes, 2016;Pokorny, 2013). Substantial investments into the provision of public services such as education, health, infrastructure, finance, and administration are of utmost importance as well as properly organized logistics and markets (Rapsomanikis, 2015). ...
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Agroforestry Concessions, foreseen by the new Peruvian Forest Law, anticipate integrating thousands of small-scale farmers encroached on public forest land into the formal economy, to strengthen local livelihoods, stimulate land restoration, and halt deforestation. But, there are contrasting opinions regarding the potential of agroforestry and land tenure security to create economically and environmentally robust livelihoods. To better understand the relevance of this potential, this study analyses the economic and environmental robustness of 118 informally settled small-scale cocoa farmers in three districts in the Peruvian Amazon. The study shows that the vast majority of these farmers faced serious obstacles to overcome. Less than 20 % of the households have managed to establish economically robust livelihoods on a robust natural production basis. Farm size, specialization in cocoa, and participation in associations positively influenced the economic performance of the households but had little effect on the quality of natural resource management and on the capacity to conserve forests. To harness the potential of cocoa farming requires long-term support well adapted to local specificities. The legal recognition of sustainable land-use practices on public forest land is a meaningful step. To effectively address deforestation, however, requires broader integrated approaches that go far beyond the promotion of sustainable land-uses.
... The registry attempts to minimize bureaucratic and financial burdens for operators who plant trees for sale, allowing for the registration of areas up to 40,000 ha. The operator can establish a plantation on titled land, in a concession on public land, or on public land under usufruct contract (Robiglio and Reyes, 2016). Operators are not allowed to clear natural forest to establish timber plantations, and they are encouraged to use the plantation to restore degraded soils. ...
... Thus, prior to pursuing any option to formalize their timber production, they would have to apply either for land title or a contract for usufruct rights. Until the land titling program has been extended to all corners of the country, which unlikely in the near future, and until the usufruct contract mechanism is activated (Robiglio and Reyes, 2016), the new law becomes a yet another policy innovation that misses the urgent needs of a significant portion of rural Amazonians. ...
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In 2015 the Peruvian government launched a new set of regulations associated with the forest law aimed to increase competiveness of the timber sector, ensure the conservation and sustainable production of timber on public and private forestlands, and improve rural livelihoods. Small-scale timber producers have been marginalized in the sector in the past, and the new regulations claim to provide pathways to formalization for these actors. We draw on policy analysis and field research in the central Amazon region of Peru using mixed methods to characterize smallholder on-farm timber production and evaluate the feasibility of the new regulatory mechanisms for formalizing small-scale timber producers. Through examining a case study on the production and sale of the fast-growing pioneer timber species Guazuma crinita, locally known as bolaina, we found a diversity of management practices, with the strongest reliance on natural regeneration in agricultural fallows, an informal supply chain, and no case of formal documentation at time of sale. We assessed that none of the new regulatory mechanisms will accommodate the sale of timber produced in agricultural fallow stands. We recommend the inclusion of fallow timber in the new forest plantation registry, which could result in the formalization of the supply chain and create an incentive to increase production by small-scale producers.
... Based on the conceptual framework and methodological approach of the work, the classification factors and criteria that identify and plan the priority areas for the implementation of agroforestry systems were selected and established, under different scenarios. A review of the literature on existing decision support tools also allowed to identifying the main driving forces and measuring each defined criteria (Araújo Costa et al., 2019;Bagio et al., 2017;Blanco Sepúlveda and Aguilar Carrillo, 2015;Blinn et al., 2013;Bloomberg Davis et al., 2011;Brancalion et al., 2019Brancalion et al., , 2016Caldas et al., 2018;Carvalho Ribeiro et al., 2020;Chazdon, 2019;Crepani et al., 2001;De Matos et al., 2019;Elevitch et al., 2018;Ganatsios et al., 2021;Guo et al., 2020;Han et al., 2021;Langemeyer et al., 2016;Laurance, 1991;Mendonça et al., 2018;Metzger, 2009;Metzger et al., 2020Metzger et al., , 2019Murcia, 1995;Navas and Silva, 2016;Noiuish, 2017;Oliveira Fiorini et al., 2020;Pacheco, 2020;Pacheco et al., 2018Pacheco et al., , 2014Parras et al., 2020;Pissarra et al., 2021;Rex and Malanson, 1990;Robiglio and Reyes, 2016;da Rocha et al., 2020;Rodrigues et al., 2011;Rodríguez-Merino et al., 2020;Ruete et al., 2017;Saaty, 2008;Valente and Vettorazzi, 2008). ...
... The prioritization of legal reserve is an important incentive for rural producers to adhere to the implementation of AFS. For Robiglio and Reyes (2016) the recovery of degraded rural areas must meet the ecological, cultural and socioeconomic dimensions of the region. This requires the restoration of ecological functions within the agricultural context, with the involvement of rural producers in the process of conserving resources and generating income (forest/agricultural products). ...
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The ecological functions restoration in agricultural areas is a major challenge on a landscape scale. In the specific case of active restoration through Agroforestry Systems (AFS), the absence of a specific direction hinders ecological restoration processes, especially in regions that prefer intensive agriculture. Thus, this study aims to develop a Spatial Indicator of Priority Areas to guide Agroforestry Systems implementation in agricultural landscapes. A spatial multicriteria decision analysis (MDCA) was carried out based on environmental factors: soil, geology and slope (which determine the natural vulnerability of the land) and anthropogenic factors: land use and land cover, forest fragments, potential land use capacity and legal protected areas in rural properties (which reflects human pressure and land use suitability). Subsequently, four priority levels were classified for agroforestry interventions: (1) Low priority; (2) Average priority; (3) High priority; (4) Extreme priority. A final map was made to identify priority areas for landscape recovery in 9 cities located at the mouth of the Mogi Guaçu River Hydrographic Basin, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Considering the natural vulnerability of the land and the multifunctional aspects of the landscape, the scenarios projection allowed a consensus for forest conservation and agricultural suitability perspectives. A final combination of the explored aspects culminated in the spatial indicator, which model foresees 22,300 ha available for urgent actions for restoration, reforestation and sustainable exploitation through agroforestry systems. We emphasize the challenges in reconciling the socioeconomic and ecological functions in the agroecosystem, however, the metric provides a more inclusive and assertive management strategy for natural resources and advances towards the goal of reforestation and implementation of payment for environmental services (PES) schemes.
... A recent change in the formal forest definition, creates new space for agroforestry and community-based restoration in Peru (Robiglio and Reyes, 2016). The largest impact so far in this realm may well be the new Agroforestry policy of India (Singh et al., 2016) which levels the playing field between agricultural and forestry based regulations and frees the 70% of Indian timber production that derives from farms from the fees and administrative controls aimed at protecting remaining forests. ...
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Poverty has many faces and poverty reduction many pathways in different contexts. Lack of food and income interact with lack of access to water, energy, protection from floods, voice, rights and recognition. Among the pathways by which agricultural research can increase rural prosperity, integrated natural resource management deals with a complex nexus of issues, with tradeoffs among issues that are in various stages of denial, recognition, analysis, innovation, scenario synthesis and creation of platforms for (policy) change. Rather than on a portfolio of externally developed ‘solutions’ ready for adoption and use, the concept of sustainable development may primarily hinge on the strengths and weaknesses of local communities to observe, analyse, innovate, connect, organize collective action and become part of wider coalitions. ‘Boundary work’ supporting such efforts can help resolve issues in a polycentric governance context, especially where incomplete understanding and knowledge prevent potential win-win alternatives to current lose-lose conflicts to emerge. Integrated research-development approaches deal with context (‘theory of place’) and options (‘theory of change’) in multiple ways that vary from selecting sites for studying pre-defined issues to starting from whatever issue deserves prominence in a given location of interest. A knowledge-to-action linkage typology recognizes three situations of increasing complexity. In Type I more knowledge can directly lead to action by a single decision maker; in Type II more knowledge can inform tradeoff decisions, while in Type III negotiation support of multiple knowledge+multiple decision maker settings deals with a higher level of complexity. Current impact quantification can deal with the first, is challenged in the second and inadequate in the third case, dealing with complex social-ecological systems. Impact-oriented funding may focus on Type I and miss the opportunities for the larger ultimate impact of Type II and III involvements.
... Hence, the use of biodiverse agroforestry systems instead of other production systems enhances the ability of the agricultural landscape to have less negative impact on biodiversity as well as increase ES provision. They can be used as an alternative method to recover degraded areas where production systems based on sustainable management of natural resources are allowed by law, such as in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (Brancalion et al., 2016) or in African countries such as Mozambique (Chiziane et al., 2015), Niger and Ethiopia (Reij and Garrity, 2016), or other South American countries such as Peru (Robiglio and Reyes, 2016) and Colombia (Calle et al., 2013). Within an international context, recent studies from FAO, CIFOR and the World Agroforestry Centre supports the use of agroforestry for landscape restoration in the world (FAO, 2017), as well as regionally, in Latin America (Schweizer et al, 2018) and Central Asia (Djanibekov, et al., 2015). ...
... In supporting the development of these guidelines, Robiglio and Reyes (2016) identified a mix of possible interventions that are consistent both with existing farmer livelihoods, and with land and tree conservation strategies, including restoration of forest cover through planting, promotion of succession in fallows, agroforestry, and enrichment of fallows in areas maintained for crop production. 153 Their analysis suggested that the provision had potential to offer tens of thousands of farmers a route to acquiring land rights, dependent on implementation of restorative practices. However, this was only likely to be realized if the implementation of guidelines accommodated livelihood aspirations of farmers by: ...
... 150 In order to encourage more climate resilient land use at the agricultural frontier in the Peruvian Amazon, the government constituted an innovative legal provision in 2011, referred to as agroforestry concessions. 151 This grants formal land title (in the form of a 40-year renewable lease) to farmers who had encroached on forest land before the law was passed, provided that they commit to conserve forest remnants; maintain, or establish agroforestry on 20 percent or more of the land; and to implement soil and water conservation measures. The provision has significance with respect to the Peruvian national commitment to restore a land area of 3.5 M ha under the 20 x 20 initiative. ...
... Development of integrated policy responses [149] in the face of trade-offs [150],has to effectively deal with anticipating actor choices in response to proposed policies [151] and the diversity of opinions and interpretations of current system state, trends and leverage factors [152], including the balance between what can be locally achieved versus what is determined at national scale [153]. ...
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Restoration depends on purpose and context. At the core it entails innovation to halt ongoing and reverse past degradation. It aims for increased functionality, not necessarily recovering past system states. Location-specific interventions in social-ecological systems reducing proximate pressures, need to synergize with transforming generic drivers of unsustainable land use. After reviewing pantropical international research on forests, trees, and agroforestry, we developed an options-by-context typology. Four intensities of land restoration interact: R.I. Ecological intensification within a land use system, R.II. Recovery/regeneration, within a local social-ecological system, R.III. Reparation/recuperation, requiring a national policy context, R.IV. Remediation, requiring international support and investment. Relevant interventions start from core values of human identity while addressing five potential bottlenecks: Rights, Know-how, Markets (inputs, outputs, credit), Local Ecosystem Services (including water, agrobiodiversity, micro/mesoclimate) and Teleconnections (global climate change, biodiversity). Six stages of forest transition (from closed old-growth forest to open-field agriculture and re-treed (peri)urban landscapes) can contextualize interventions, with six special places: water towers, riparian zone and wetlands, peat landscapes, small islands and mangroves, transport infrastructure, and mining scars. The typology can help to link knowledge with action in people-centric restoration in which external stakeholders coinvest, reflecting shared responsibility for historical degradation and benefits from environmental stewardship.
... Peru, dealing with similar issues of past undocumented and illegal agricultural encroachment into forest zones, has created a legal category of an 'agroforestry concession' [191]. These schemes allow for agreements that re-establish government authority over forest lands but allow current tree-based land uses to continue, within agreed conditions. ...
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With 15–20% of Indonesian oil palms located, without a legal basis and permits, within the forest zone (‘Kawasan hutan’), international concerns regarding deforestation affect the totality of Indonesian palm oil export. ‘Forest zone oil palm’ (FZ-OP) is a substantive issue that requires analysis and policy change. While spatial details of FZ-OP remain contested, we review literature on (1) the legal basis of the forest zone and its conversion, (2) social stratification in oil palm production (large-scale, plasma and independent growers), and (3) environmental consequences of forest conversion to FZ-OP, before discussing policy options in a range of social and ecological contexts. Policy options range from full regularization (as FZ-OP stands could meet international forest definitions), to conditional acceptance of diversified smallholder plantings in ‘agroforestry concessions’, to gradually phasing out FZ-OP and eviction/destruction. A nuanced and differentiated approach to FZ-OP is needed, as certification of legality along supply chains is vulnerable to illegal levies and corruption. Corporate actors trading internationally can avoid use of uncertified raw materials, effectively shifting blame and depressing farmgate prices for domestic-market palm oil, but this will not return forest conditions or stop further forest conversion. We discuss an agenda for follow-up policy research.
... Yet SERFOR requested a soils analysis. The cessions help to regulate certain land uses already in place also providing a technology package (039-EI-06 2019-National).Experts from the World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) based in Peru conducted relevant research to evaluate the necessary conditions for this mechanism to succeed(Robiglio and Reyes 2016). One of the experts shared that:33 National Service for Forests and Wild Fauna (Servicio Nacional Forestal y de Fauna Silvestre -SERFOR by its acronym in Spanish). ...
Thesis
The Amazon Forest is changing at unprecedented rates and is facing significant forest-cover loss. While governments have made important progress in addressing some major threats and pressures, current policies have still failed to halt the decline. While there is a growing body of evidence on the limitations for the implementation of public policies (implementation gaps), this only explains to a certain degree the limits for public policy implementation in the Amazon. The aim of this study is to understand and explain policy implementation in a complex policy context such as the frontier and to advance knowledge on how to improve natural resource governance with a specific focus on reducing deforestation and forest degradation in the Amazon rainforest. The current literature does not sufficiently explain the limits of policy implementation in frontier economies. It was developed for advanced industrial democracies and assumes rule of law and therefore, the theory needs to be modified for frontier economies. This thesis contributes new knowledge to address this research gap by investigating the question: what are the limits to implementing forest policies that aim to reduce deforestation and degradation in the forest-agriculture interface in the Peruvian Amazon? Its aim is twofold: i) to expand the understanding on some of the main obstacles for environmental policy implementation in the specific policy context of a frontier economy, and ii) to analyse and contrast stakeholders’ perspectives on the main factors underpinning policy implementation outcomes. In doing so, this thesis analyses the implementation of Forest Policies and their interaction with other key sector policies in Ucayali, a frontier region in the Peruvian Amazon. It applies thematic analysis and case study research to fifty six stakeholders’ interviews from the local, regional and national levels over a period of three years. The methodology for data collection in this research relied on a qualitative multi-method approach which includes key informant interviews (semi-structured), focus groups, case study research and policy mapping. This thesis makes contributions in three critical knowledge domains: politics of implementation, policy implementation in a frontier economy context and application of MLG outside of the European context. The thesis uses four case studies to explore the link between policies and deforestation which are: State Capacity (Multi-Level Governance), Land Use Planning (Network Governance) and Forest Policy (Policy Implementation and Implementation in the Frontier). The first case study demonstrates that the interdependence dynamics taking place within multi-level governance are leading to an erosion of State Capacity in Ucayali. The key elements identified to shift erosion into transformation are the allocation of authority, resources and competences, distribution of power and coordination. It also finds a growing interdependence between governments and nongovernmental actors at the regional and local levels as an indicator of a burgeoning MLG. The involvement of non-State actors can support the fulfilment of policy’s goals, therefore, complementing State capacity. This will require more coordination to prevent the duplication of actions of various actors working towards similar objectives. The second case study shows that in a frontier context, the ‘rules of the game’ within networks apply for only some cases. While in Ucayali there is evidence of network governance integrating a vast array of elements of land use planning under a set of agreed rules of the game, this thesis also finds that policy networks resist policy change and can foster corruption. The absence of agreed ‘rules of the game’ for forests and land use planning reveals the absence of ‘shared policy objectives.’ The results also show that in the frontier agreement on a set of rules is relevant, yet rigid rules and institutional complexity can deter the transition from illegality to legality. The findings show that the lack of trust is a prevalent characteristic in the frontier, which is fertile ground for illegality, where covert networks collaborate to achieve their goals. Network management is a fundamental tool for breaking through sectoral silos and economic interests in the frontier through the application of metagovernance - network steering, bureaucracy, and markets. The co-existence of various networks in the frontier requires a more hierarchical intervention to deter covert networks in action. Further, metagovernance strategies must address horizontal integration across sectors as a key determinant for forest governance. In the frontier, network governance takes a predominant role in the local level as there is fewer presence of the State. This also shows the way that MLG and network governance are interconnected, and how MLG is important to strengthen network governance in the local levels. The third case study shows that power – dependence, politics and policy ambiguity underly and affect the dynamics taking place in Ucayali in relation to forest governance. While the politics of implementation are closely intertwined with inequality. Further, the role of the State is changing as there is an upward trend of non-State actors having an active participation in forest governance which will require the strengthening of decentred governance. The fourth and last case study showed that implementation in the frontier interacts with six core conditions that interface with implementation and which are not considered in the Western literature of implementation gaps. These are informality, corruption, weak rule of law, unfair market conditions, covert networks and inequality and they feed into each other. While there are barriers to reduce informality such as the high costs of formalisation and weak enforcement; corruption in the frontier is entrenched reaching the highest levels of authority providing a fertile ground for covert networks; and longtime seated social structures support inequality. In this context, is key to consider the politics that underpin decisions being made and the synchronicity between the various components of policies across sectors.
... For example, land restoration helps in ending discrimination against women up to a certain extent by providing equal employment opportunities in restoration sector which in turn creates better opportunities for education to their children including girls (www.foreststreesagroforestry.org) [47][48][49]. Restoration initiatives will also result in poverty alleviation by improving financial conditions of the women and also by converting degraded lands into agroforestry-based food production systems [50]. In a nutshell, the benefits of land restoration are enormous and inclusive restoration programs will directly or indirectly support the realization of other SDG targets also [2]. ...
Article
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Restoring the health of degraded land is critical for overall human development as land is a vital life-supporting system, directly or indirectly influencing the attainment of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (UN-SDGs). However, more than 33% of the global land is degraded and thereby affecting the livelihood of billions of people worldwide. Realizing this fact, the 73rd session of the UN Assembly has formally adopted a resolution to celebrate 2021-2030 as the UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration (UN-DER), for preventing, halting, and reversing degradation of ecosystems worldwide. While this move is historic and beneficial for both people and the planet, restoration of degraded land at different scales and levels requires a paradigm shift in existing restoration approaches, fueled by the application of applied science to citizen/community-based science, and tapping of indigenous and local knowledge to advanced technological breakthroughs. In addition, there is a need of strong political will and positive behavioral changes to strengthen restoration initiatives at the grassroot level and involvement of people from all walks of life (i.e., from politicians to peasants and social workers to scientists) are essential for achieving the targets of the UN-DER. Similarly, financing restoration on the ground by the collective contribution of individuals (crowd funding) and institutions (institutional funding) are critical for maintaining the momentum. Private companies can earmark lion-share of their corporate social responsibility fund (CSR fund) exclusively for restoration. The adoption of suitable bioeconomy models is crucial for maintaining the perpetuity of the restoration by exploring co-benefits, and also for ensuring stakeholder involvements during and after the restoration. This review underpins various challenges and plausible solutions to avoid, reduce, and reverse global land degradation as envisioned during the UN-DER, while fulfilling the objectives of other ongoing initiatives like the Bonn Challenge and the UN-SDGs.
... Their sale of fallow timber is viewed by neighbors as a legitimate transaction. Shifting producers into formal markets will require innovative efforts by the state to develop mechanisms to recognize property rights of long-established farm foresters, either through expedited land titling programs or usufruct contracts (CU-SAFs) (Robiglio and Reyes, 2016). That would allow them to gain legal authorization to harvest and sell small dimension timber. ...
Article
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On-farm timber production is an important subsistence and economic activity of smallholder farmers around the world. Farmer investment in wood production and the degree of formality in the sector depends on access to and conditions of the market, the nature of the regulatory frameworks that govern rights to and movement of timber, and access to financing. We evaluate the process of formalization of a thriving and adaptive existing supply chain for small-dimension lumber originating in the fallows of smallholder farmers in the Peruvian Amazon. Through field research over three years based in semi-structured interviews with diverse actors in the Amazon, we found that the supply chain for fallow timber is driven entirely by informal and some illegal transactions. A key reason for this is the lack of an appropriate regulatory mechanism by which producers can gain authorization to harvest and sell this timber. We identify conditions necessary to formalize this sector, and evaluate the degree to which these are met under several scenarios. We recommend that the state develop mechanisms that recognize property rights of long-term residents and establish a simple fallow forestry registration mechanism; and that local governments or non-governmental organizations adopt adaptive and collaborative approaches to support farmers and provide training, information and networking among actors. State recognition of and support for fallow forestry, coupled with producers organizing for collective action on processing and marketing their timber, could result in the formalization of a significant volume of timber, improvements in income security for rural people, and the development of local entrepreneurial activities.
... Anecdotal evidence suggests that technicians count forest fallows as evidence of prior land use and so include it within the property title, but usually old-growth forest areas are excluded from the formal land titles. In an attempt to address the needs of families settled on public land where no titling is allowed, the 2011 forest law introduced a new mechanism to grant usufruct rights to households that could prove occupation prior to the law's ratification and that agree to comply with environmental regulations [67]. Known as an Agroforestry Concession, sub-national government agencies are preparing its implementation. ...
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Natural forest regrowth is critical for restoring ecosystem services in degraded landscapes and providing forest resources. Those who control tenure and access rights to these secondary forest areas determine who benefits from economically charged off-farm opportunities such as finance for forest restoration, selling carbon credits, and receiving payment for ecosystem services. We explore multiple dimensions of secondary forest governance in Peru, where the lack of official government statistics of the extent, geography, and ownership, coupled with low state capacity, prevents the development of governance structures that could stimulate their sustainable management. In this paper, we review the challenges to secondary forest governance, and the opportunities to strengthen it, focusing on beneficial outcomes for smallholder farmers. We characterize secondary forest types, extent, and persistence in Peru, followed by a presentation of the social dimensions of their governance. We identify four entry points for government to take action: national mapping of the socio-geography of second growth forest, regularize the property rights of untitled landholders, relax forest regulations, and provide incentives, not sanctions, for secondary forest management. Overall, we recommend folding secondary forest governance into a landscape approach. In Peru, strengthening local forest governance could help to drive benefits of climate change mitigation incentives directly to local forest stewards.
... This requires both for actors along the value chain to be aware of territorial governance in their supplying territories and increased leadership and capacity of local governments to plan and enforce land policies that reconcile production with forests and watershed protection. One opportunity emerging in Peru is the recently introduced legal mechanism of agroforestry concession, which seeks to conserve forest and restore forest related ecosystem functions by acknowledging farmers' role in sustainable forest management and agroforestry-based restoration at forest frontiers (Robiglio and Reyes, 2016;Pokorny et al., 2021). In clarifying land rights in remote forest frontier areas, Agroforestry Concessions are also expected to favor opportunities for diversification and facilitate market access and inclusion of farmers by granting rights for the legal sale of forestry products from the area. ...
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Coffee is a major global commodity whose production is sustained by and provides livelihoods for millions of smallholder families in the tropics. However, it is highly sensitive to climate change and the climate risk family farmer's face from direct impacts on coffee production are often compounded by further impacts on the physical and social landscapes and infrastructure. We examine the vulnerability (sensitivity and adaptive capacity) of smallholder coffee farmers in northeastern Peru via the lens of their central participation in a value chain that mediates access to livelihood assets, affecting their adaptive capacity and aspects of their sensitivity. Using a staged and participatory, mixed-methods approach, we sought to understand the territorial climate exposure, the structure of the regional value chain and role of different actors in supporting farmer adaptive capacity, and assess the vulnerability of the entire value chain (including other actors in addition to farmers). We found heterogeneity not only in the potential impact of climate change on coffee production, future adaptation needs and vulnerability of farmers across the territory (among elevational zones and regions), but in the distribution of vulnerability among value chain actors. Farmers are the most vulnerable actors, simultaneously the most sensitive and with the lowest adaptive capacity, issues stemming from their strong territorial dependence and pre-existing social and economic asymmetries with actors in the coffee value chain who are not as territorially dependent (e.g., private companies). We make the case that supporting the adaptation of smallholder farmers in the study region requires moving beyond a value-chain approach to a territorial systems perspective that more intentionally involves those actors with stronger, locally vested interests (e.g., local governments and institutions) in their adaptation and requires the strengthening capacities of these actors in various areas.
... In Peru, a national policy on agroforestry concessions grants land rights to smallholders who encroached forest land before 2011 on the condition that they conserve and sustainably manage forests and establish agroforestry. 280 Given adequate carbon prices and institutional support, payments for carbon sequestration may further incentivize uptake. 304 A study in Ethiopia found that carbon revenue made agroforestry more profitable than monocropping, with carbon revenue being even higher than the net revenue of any monoculture plot when the sequestration rate was high and the price of carbon was at its highest. ...
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"VIABLE OPTIONS EXIST FOR SCALING UP INVESTMENT IN THE FOREST PATHWAYS – WITH POTENTIALLY CONSIDERABLE BENEFITS" Against the backdrop of the Glasgow Leaders’ Declaration on Forests and Land Use and the pledge of 140 countries to eliminate forest loss by 2030 and to support restoration and sustainable forestry, the 2022 edition of The State of the World’s Forests (SOFO) explores the potential of three forest pathways for achieving green recovery and tackling multidimensional planetary crises, including climate change and biodiversity loss. The three interrelated pathways are halting deforestation and maintaining forests; restoring degraded lands and expanding agroforestry; and sustainably using forests and building green value chains. The balanced, simultaneous pursuit of these pathways can generate sustainable economic and social benefits for countries and their rural communities, help sustainably meet increasing global demand for materials, and address environmental challenges. The State of the World’s Forests 2022 presents evidence on the feasibility and value of these pathways and outlines initial steps that could be taken to further pursue them. There is no time to lose – action is needed now to keep the global temperature increase below 1.5 °C, reduce the risk of future pandemics, ensure food security and nutrition for all, eliminate poverty, conserve the planet’s biodiversity and offer young people hope of a better world and a better future for all.
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Cocoa cultivation is labeled as a driver of both deforestation and reforestation, yet the extent of the phenomena varies at farm and landscape level and as a response to national and local contexts. In this study, we documented the main pathways and contexts behind cocoa cultivation in two sites with different histories of cocoa cultivation. We combined official statistics, land-use trajectory, satellite imagery, and the Q-analysis to explore the discourses of country experts in Nicaragua and Peru. The Q-statements were based on an analysis of a set of legal, institutional, social, and technical guidelines that the cocoa cultivation/sector influences or is influenced by. Based on the responses of national experts to 31 statements we found four discourses linking cocoa cultivation and reforestation and deforestation in each country-case study. The enabling and limiting conditions driving tree cover change were a combination of landscape configuration, governance, management/commercialization models, and farmer's knowledge. Overall, between 60 and 64% of the variance was explained by four discourse factors in each country. In Nicaragua, the conditions associated with reforestation were the cocoa-agroforestry model promoted by local organizations/NGOs, the existence of incentives, degree of technical knowledge, access to safe market, and availability of improved genetic material. The circumstances associated with deforestation were the age of the farmers, fluctuation of cocoa beans prices, low productivity of cocoa plantations, and weak legal environmental frameworks. Whereas, in Peru, the main factors connecting cocoa cultivation to reforestation were access to market, degree of experimentation in cocoa, the economic weight of cocoa on family's income, certification processes, the existence of incentives, and the level of organization/association of cocoa farmers. The elements linking cocoa farming to deforestation were the influence of stakeholders in the cocoa value chain, weak legal environmental frameworks, fluctuation of cocoa prices, the existence of private investors, and insecure land tenure rights. This article demonstrated the utility of discourse analysis, through its application to two contrasting country case-studies, to elucidate the conditions that might minimize the deforestation footprint of cocoa cultivation and maximize its role as an agent for reforestation/restoration in the agricultural landscape of cocoa-growing areas in Latin America.
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Logging has depleted timber resources across a considerable portion of the world's tropical forests, leaving them vulnerable to conversion to other land‐use types. This raises the question of whether management for restoration represents an economically viable alternative. We reviewed restoration concessions (areas of degraded state forest land leased to enterprises on long‐term [≥60‐year] licenses for restoration‐compatible business development) in Indonesia since their introduction in 2004 and found that, although many opportunities and actions are being explored, business models remain largely aspirational. Costs – including those associated with taxes and reporting, forest protection, community development, and restoration interventions – are high, while developing revenues at sufficient scale from carbon markets, non‐timber forest products, and ecosystem services is challenging. Potential solutions include the development of restoration‐compatible revenue streams and value‐added processing to generate income, investment in communities to bring them in as partners in restoration enterprises, and creation of a supportive regulatory environment by reducing statutory costs and eliminating perverse regulations. Restoration concessions are a scalable policy option for promoting private investment in restoration that could be replicated internationally to help meet ambitious global restoration targets.
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Agroforestry systems that provide permanent tree cover should be promoted in forest landscape restoration initiatives where neither natural forest restoration nor full sun crops are viable large-scale options. An intimate knowledge of local livelihoods, forest use, and farming systems are required for successful initiatives that aspire to revive forest landscapes and develop sustainable agriculture. Agroforestry can improve the resiliency of agricultural systems and mitigate the impacts of temperature change. Existing research suggests that integrating trees on farms can prevent environmental degradation, improve agricultural productivity, increase carbon sequestrati on (Aertsens et al. 2013), generate cleaner water, and support healthy soil and healthy ecosystems while providing stable incomes and other benefits to human welfare. Although these claims became more widely accepted because the body of agroforestry research increases, systematic understanding of the evidence supporting them remains lacking for high-income countries. Most up-to-date definitions of land degradation also embrace negative changes within the capacity of ecosystems to produce a spread of social and environmental goods and services. Over time, land degradation can increase the vulnerability of rural communities to biological and environmental hazards and to the results of global climate change. Poverty and natural resources/environmental degradation tend to negatively reinforce each other; that's, because the land is degraded, agricultural productivity is lowered , leading to decreasing incomes and food security and vice-versa. For agroforestry to satisfy its potential as an FLR strategy, variety of challenges remains. First, because it tends to fall between the forestry and agriculture sectors, agroforestry has not received much support or planning in many countries. Access to top quality propagation materials (including seeds/seedlings) is addition ally key but often lacking. Adoption of agroforestry also requires that local landholders are ensured proper tenure rights (especially tree tenure) which they need ready access to relevant markets .
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Forest and landscape restoration (FLR) provides a framework for implementing restorative interventions that collectively address major environmental challenges such as soil and land degradation, biodiversity loss, water scarcity, lack of sustainable rural livelihoods, and climate change mitigation and adaptation. Restorative interventions can take many forms, which vary in cost, trajectory and specific economic and social outcomes; likewise, their benefits accrue to various actors and stakeholders. Over the last decade, the CGIAR Program on Forests, Trees and Agroforestry (FTA) has undertaken innovative basic and applied research across different scientific disciplines on the multiple dimensions of FLR for improving policy and practice and facilitating the uptake of new knowledge, tools and approaches — both from the top down and the bottom up. This publication presents key FTA outputs on forest and landscape restoration from 2011 to 2021. Many of them have contributed to informing the implementation of FLR interventions at multiple scales of work. These outputs are presented according to five broad areas of influence: (i) contributions to restoration science; (ii) contributions to global narratives and discourses; (iii) contributions to policy and governance; (iv) focusing on actors on the ground; and (v) contributions to national and international dialogues. The last section discusses ways to move forward.
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This paper presents an evidence gap map of forest conservation interventions in low- and middle-income countries based on evidence published over the period 2016 to mid-2018. It serves as an update to a similar effort by 3ie, with refinements to the framework that distributes studies across three tiers based on quality and considers environmental and socioeconomic outcomes. Compared to the previous evidence gap map, the evaluation of forest conservation outcomes has clearly accelerated in recent years, but from a modest base: the body of evidence still remains insufficient across most intervention types. Community-based management (especially in South Asia) and protected areas are well represented, though the latter distinguishes few subcategories. In turn, both PES and REDD+ evaluations are less available, and the latter surprisingly features more welfare than forest conservation or carbon impacts. Capacity-building interventions are almost absent in the matrix. It is also notable that policy mixes, often dominant in real-world implementation, have so far received little scrutiny. Among forest types, conservation interventions in mangroves lag behind, despite their environmental importance. Geographically, Asia and Latin America generally publish much more evaluated evidence than Africa. In conclusion, despite the incipient progress we have undoubtedly seen, many important knowledge gaps still remain.
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SUMMARY REDD+ has been perceived in Brazil as a way of complementing an effective command-and-control policy to help small-scale farmers transition out of deforestation. A large array of incentives have been suggested within the REDD+ framework, involving trade-offs between efficiency and equity. However, few studies have so far addressed the adaptation of these incentives to the needs of the farmers. In order to develop this perspective, our work aims at understanding how small-scale farmers perceive deforestation and what would make them engage in a transition towards sustainable alternatives. Interviews were conducted in São Felix do Xingu, where The Nature Conservancy has been developing a REDD+ pilot programme. The three discourses identified following the application of Q methodology reveal differing needs to reduce deforestation. If equity is defined as the opportunity for all to engage in a transition, a differentiated REDD+ initiative targeting the farmers' needs may be more equitable than standardized support options.
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Present classification schemes confuse agroforestry practices, where trees are intimately associated with agricultural components at a field scale, with the whole farm and forest systems of which they form a part. In fact, it is common for farming systems to involve the integration of several reasonably discrete agroforestry practices, on different types of land. The purpose of a general classification is to identify different types of agroforestry and to group those that are similar, thereby facilitating communication and the organized storage of information. A new scheme is proposed that uses the ‘practice’ rather than the ‘system’ as the unit of classification. This allows an efficient grouping of practices that have a similar underlying ecology and prospects for management. A two stage definition of agroforestry is proposed that distinguishes an interdisciplinary approach to land use from a set of integrated land use practices. Four levels of organization are recognized through analysis of the role of trees in agricultural landscapes: the land use system, categories of land use within systems, discrete groups of components (trees, crops, animals) managed together, and functionally connected groups of such discrete practices in time and space. Precedents for this form of analysis are found in the literature and it conforms with generally accepted methods of systems analysis. Classification of major types of agroforestry practice proceeds primarily according to the components involved and the predominant usage of land. A secondary scheme further classifies these in terms of the arrangement, density and diversity of the tree components involved.
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Despite continued forest conversion and degradation, forest cover is increasing in countries across the globe. New forests are regenerating on former agricultural land, and forest plantations are being established for commercial and restoration purposes. Plantations and restored forests can improve ecosystem services and enhance biodiversity conservation, but will not match the composition and structure of the original forest cover. Approaches to restoring forest ecosystems depend strongly on levels of forest and soil degradation, residual vegetation, and desired restoration outcomes. Opportunities abound to combine ambitious forest restoration and regeneration goals with sustainable rural livelihoods and community participation. New forests will require adaptive management as dynamic, resilient systems that can withstand stresses of climate change, habitat fragmentation, and other anthropogenic effects.
Ley Forestal y de Fauna Silvestre N° 29763
  • Ministerio De Agricultura Y Riego
Ministerio de Agricultura y Riego (2015). Ley Forestal y de Fauna Silvestre N° 29763.
Diagnóstico de los productores familiares en la amazonía peruana. Lima: ICRAF Oficina Regional para América Latina
  • V Robiglio
Robiglio, V. et al. (2015). Diagnóstico de los productores familiares en la amazonía peruana. Lima: ICRAF Oficina Regional para América Latina.
Guía sobre la Metodología de evaluación de oportunidades de restauración (ROAM): Evaluación de las oportunidades de restauración del paisaje forestal a nivel nacional o subnacional
  • Wri Uicn
UICN and WRI (2014). Guía sobre la Metodología de evaluación de oportunidades de restauración (ROAM): Evaluación de las oportunidades de restauración del paisaje forestal a nivel nacional o subnacional. Documento de trabajo (edición de prueba). Gland, Suiza, UICN: 125p.