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Annotated checklist of moths and butterflies of the Czech Republic

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... Indeed, these species are far more widely distributed in Europe than at first thought (Nowacki 1998, Nowacki & Fibiger 1996. They have been recorded in quite a lot of localities along their northern range boundaries, very close to Poland: in Germany (Gaedike et al. 2017), the Czech Republic (Laštůvka & Liška 2011), Slovakia (Reiprich & Okali 1989), southwestern Ukraine (Klyuchko 2006, Romania (Rákosy 1996) and Hungary (Varga et al. 2005). In the light of the above evidence, we set up our research hypothesis, namely, that the xerothermic hills above the Nida valley are an extremely interesting refuge of xerothermic noctuid moth fauna in Poland and are crucial for the preservation of noctuid biodiversity in Poland and central Europe. ...
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As a result of the revision of the noctuid moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuoidea) collection of A. S. Kostrowicki from the River Nida valley (Małopolska Upland, southern Poland) from mid-20th century, and recent fieldwork, a total of 37 species of noctuid moths are listed for the first time from the xerothermic hills of this area. One species, Pechipogo plumigeralis (Hübner, 1825), is formally removed from the checklist of Polish fauna of Lepidoptera.
... Czech Republic (Laštůvka and Liška, 2011). Due to the absence of reliable records, the species was excluded from the list of the Slovakian fauna (Tokár et al., 2010). ...
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The assemblage of hymenopteran parasitoids associated with the leafminer Phyllonorycter apparella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) developing on the aspen Populus tremula L. was studied near Izhevsk in Udmurtia in 2014-2016. Eighteen species (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae and Braconidae) were reared from Ph. apparella, four of them (Pnigalio mediterraneus, Sympiesis dolichogaster, Chrysocharis phryne, and Neochrysocharis formosus) representing the fi rst records as parasitoids of this pest. Monitoring a steady outbreak site of Ph. apparella revealed an annual increase in the number of species in the parasitoid complex: 6 species in 2014, 9 in 2015, and 16 in 2016. Accordingly, the rate of infestation of the leafminer larvae and pupae increased from 7.4 ± 1.4% in 2014 to 19.6 ± 1.6% in 2016. The dominant parasitoid species changed annually. In 2014 there was only one dominant species, P. circumscriptus (92.4%); in 2015, two dominants: M. frontalis + C. trifasciatus (65.6%); in 2016, three species: C. trifasciatus + C. pictus + M. frontalis (59.5%). The percentage of each species declined in subsequent years. The ratio of ecto-to endoparasitoid species was similar in the three years of research: 1 : 1 in 2014, 1 : 1.25 in 2015, and 1.29 : 1 in 2016. The shares of endoparasitoids in 2014, 2015, and 2016 were 95.1, 50.3, and 56.9%, respectively. The role of endoparasitoids in controlling the leafminer was slightly greater than that of ectoparasitoids.
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Sex chromosomes play a central role in genetics of speciation and their turnover was suggested to promote divergence. In vertebrates, sex chromosome–autosome fusions resulting in neo-sex chromosomes occur frequently in male heterogametic taxa (XX/XY), but are rare in groups with female heterogamety (WZ/ZZ). We examined sex chromosomes of seven pests of the diverse lepidopteran superfamily Gelechioidea and confirmed the presence of neo-sex chromosomes in their karyotypes. Two synteny blocks, which correspond to autosomes 7 (LG7) and 27 (LG27) in the ancestral lepidopteran karyotype exemplified by the linkage map of Biston betularia (Geometridae), were identified as sex-linked in the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Gelechiidae). Testing for sex-linkage performed in other species revealed that while LG7 fused to sex chromosomes in a common ancestor of all Gelechioidea, the second fusion between the resulting neo-sex chromosome and the other autosome is confined to the tribe Gnoreschemini (Gelechiinae). Our data accentuate an emerging pattern of high incidence of neo-sex chromosomes in Lepidoptera, the largest clade with WZ/ZZ sex chromosome system, which suggest that the paucity of neo-sex chromosomes is not an intrinsic feature of female heterogamety. Furthermore, LG7 contains one of the major clusters of UDP-glucosyltransferases, which are involved in the detoxification of plant secondary metabolites. Sex chromosome evolution in Gelechioidea thus supports an earlier hypothesis postulating that lepidopteran sex chromosome–autosome fusions can be driven by selection for association of Z-linked preference or host-independent isolation genes with larval performance and thus can contribute to ecological specialization and speciation of moths.
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The catalogue of alien animal species registered in the Czech Republic, with data on their origin, date on the first observation, way of introduction (accidental, deliberate, spontaneous), invasive status (casual, non-invasive, post-invasive, invasive), habitat (eusynanthropic, urban, agricultural, natural), trophic requirements and possible influences (plant or stored-product pest, biodiversity influence). In total 595 species are listed, i.e. 1.8% of the fauna of this country; of these, 22 species of molluscs (8.8% of the local fauna), 451 spp. of arthropods (1.5%), 383 spp. of insects (1.4%), and 55 spp. of vertebrates (9.2%). Among the registered species, 248 spp. (41.8%) are confined to closed and heated spaces by their occurrence, and 287 spp. have become naturalized (48.2%). Of these 113 spp. are considered invasive (19% of alien spp.). 65 spp. (10.9% of aliens) are pests of stored products, 84 spp. (14.1%) are parasites of important animals, 53 spp. (8.9%) are pests of plants grown in heated rooms (above all, glasshouses), 28 ssp. (4.7%) are agricultural or forest pests, and 39 spp. (6.6%) may influence local biodiversity. The origin of the naturalized alien species is mostly in North America (70; 24.4%), the Mediterranean (61; 21.3%), E Asia (44; 15.4%), Central and SW Asia (43; 15%), and S or SE Asia (30; 10.5%).
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Synanthedon mesiaeformis (Herrich-Schäffer, 1846) has been found in the Czech Republic and in Spain for the first time. The species was found in the south-easternmost part of the Czech Republic, near the town of Břeclav (faunistic quadrat 7267) in May 2008. The holes and pupae were found only in one, solitary growing group of trees about 20 years old. This finding place lies at a distance of more than 250 km from the localities in SW Hungary and about 550 km from the localities in eastern Poland. In June 2008, the species was found also in alders growing in the flat river alluvium on gravel sands between La Jonquera and Figueres in northern Catalonia. This locality is in a close contact with the finding places near Perpignan and Beziers in southern France. The diagnostic morphological characters and bionomics of this species are briefly summarized and figured. The history of its distribution research is recapitulated and the causes of its disjunct range are discussed as follows. The present disjunct range represents a residual of the former distribution over the warmer and moister postglacial period; landscape modifications and elimination of solitary alder trees as "weeds" from the 18th up to the mid-20th century in large areas of Europe; narrow and partly unknown habitat requirements and specific population ethology; an insufficient level of faunistic investigations in several parts of southern and eastern Europe.
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Till present about 900 Lepidoptera species have been recorded in the whole area of the Giant Mountains. Approximately one third of them has been found at mountain sites. The 1993-1995 investigation indicates that the diversity of Lepidoptera species in the montane and subalpine zone of the Giant Mountains is comparable with the situation in the past. However, the abundance of most species was considerably reduced. On the other hand, in the whole area an increased abundance of eurytopic (ubiquitous) species can be observed. This documents a serious interference with the nature in these mountains. The worst situation is in the montane zone, where spruce forests were destroyed to a considerable extent.
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Evidence is presented that all British specimens of Calybites hauderi (Rebel, 1906) are not that species but the first brood of bivoltine Caloptilia semifascia (Haworth, 1828). C. hauderi is removed from the British list and its occurrence in Belgium is questioned. C. semifascia is normally univoltine in the British Isles but bivoltine populations are now spreading in southern counties.
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An experiment with yellow pan water traps was conducted in the Hruby Jesenik Mts in 1997. A loglinear model was constructed to evaluate the pattern of trap capture distribution. The habitat, species, time interval and sex significantly affected the distribution. The four Erebia species in the study area differ in habitat preferences and phenology. E. epiphron catches peaked at the highest elevations of the study area (above and/or around the timberline, where the habitat is arctic-alpine tundra). E. sudetica occurred mainly in avalanche slopes of a glacial cirque (around and/or below the timber-line). E. euryale was found in a wide range of habitats (forests to arctic-alpine tundra), while E. ligea was confined to forest zones. Phenologically, E. epiphron had maximum population density before those of the other species. Capture sex ratios of the four species were male biased, possibly due to behavioural differences between sexes. Reasons for the niche differentiation, e.g. the possibility of past competition resulting into character displacement, are discussed.