ArticlePDF Available

Patterns from Nature: Contact Printing

Authors:
  • Dokuz Eylul University Faculty of Fine Arts

Figures

Content may be subject to copyright.
July - August 2016 81
Journal of the TEXTILE Association
1. Introduction
Currently, there is a growing interest in rejuvenation
of natural dyeing and niche products on the basis of
sustainability, green chemistry and ecological ap-
proaches. Natural dyes have historical, cultural, eco-
nomic importance and value for colouring of textiles.
Up to the middle of the 19th century natural dyes were
the main colorants available for textile dyeing and
printing processes. The Englishman Sir William Henry
Perkin was only 17 years old, when he discovered and
manufactured the first synthetic organic dye (mauveine)
in 1856. Mauveine's shade was similar to "Royal
purple" (Tyrian purple) of antiquity [1]. Use of natural
dyes for textile dyeing almost disappeared with the
synthesis of synthetic dyes. Every country has local
plants and endemic species to be utilised and protected.
This potential can be valorised to present novel natu-
ral dye sources in terms of using sustainable and re-
newable colorants in dyeing/printing processes.
With over 9000 species, Turkey is one of the richest
countries of Europe and the Middle East from the flora
point of view. Among them more than 3000 are dis-
tributed as endemics. As a parallel of this floristic
richness, the number of dye plants is relatively high in
Turkey. In the regions where natural dyeing is stil alive,
it was identified that the colours obtained from the
number of species are as follows: yellow from 84
species, green from 41 species, brown from 33 spe-
cies, grey from 10 species, red from 7 species, pink
from 5 species, orange from 5 species, purple from 4
species, blue from 3 species and black from 3 species
[2].
Nowadays, considerable research works on the utiliza-
tion of bio wastes, bio materials and by-products from
food, beverage, timber, agriculture and other indus-
tries in natural dyeing have been conducted. Many
researches are also underway to valorise these wastes
in beneficial and ecofriendly route.
Some plant/fruit wastes, bio masses and by-products
are sustainable and eco friendly natural dye sources.
Plant wastes such as rosemary, rose, lavender, mate
tea extracts[3], orange peel[4], rose wastes [5], pulps
of lavender, broom and red wine [6], outer green shell
Patterns from Nature: Contact Printing
Özlenen Erdem Ismal
Dokuz Eylül University, Faculty of Fine Arts, Textile and Fashion Design Department
Abstract
Contact printing is a creative method applied by printmakers, textile designers and artists. Mostly wool and
silk fabrics are used to obtain darker and more vivid colours in natural dyeings and printings. The present
study reports the effects of various mordants, process conditions and fixation techniques on the most
satisfactory patterns, textures and colour shades by direct using of various plant/vegetable/fruit parts and bio
wastes with cotton, viscose, Tencel, Tencel/cotton and cotton/polyester blend fabrics. The best conditions
were identified and vivid, sharp edged and impressive visual effects were successfully achieved. An useful
method was also developed by using egg white to simulate protein structure of animal fibers. Egg white
apparently amplified the print effect and resulted in more sharp edged, attractive and vivid patterns due
to its protein structure and adhesive property. It allows plants to stick on fabric by forming clear and vivid
traces, textures and colours. Mordants enriched the colour gamut, changed the colour shades, intensified the
plant patterns and improved colour yield in print. Mostly copper, iron and alum produced cinnamon,
brownish, greenish shades; dark khaki, mink, brown, navy shades; more pinkish, reddish, yellowish lighter/
softer shades respectively. Creating successful patterns is resultant of technical knowledge, experience,
practice and accurate recipes. Interesting surface effects can be imparted through manipulation of process
parameters. Even, change of only one parameter causes significant variation and entirely different unique
designs.
Keywords
Contact/eco printing, Eco dyeing, Mordant, Natural dyeing, Plant
*All the correspondance should be addressed to,
Dr. Özlenen Erdem Ismal
Professor, Faculty of Fine Arts,
Textile and Fashion Design Department,
Dokuz Eylül University
35320 Balçova, izmir,Turkey
Email: ozlenen.ismal@deu.edu.tr
PRINTING PEER REVIEWED
July - August 2016
82
Journal of the TEXTILE Association
of almond fruit [7] and prina (crude olive cake) [8]
which is an essential by-product of olive oil produc-
tion were used to extract natural dye successfully.
Most of the traditional natural dyeings are carried out
by exhaust method to dye textile materials made of
various fibres. Padding method can also be applied. A
wide range of dye-rich plants/wastes/by-products, vari-
able colouring methods and parameters offer favourable
opportunities to practitioners, dyers, printmakers, de-
signers and artists.
Colouring material (plant/fruit/vegetable/waste/by-prod-
uct), extraction, colouring, post treatments (fixation,
washing) are crucial stages of natural dyeing and print-
ing. Colour coordinates and fastness properties are
highly affected by parameters of these pocesses.
Optimisation of extraction and dyeing/printing condi-
tions is essential in terms of obtaining dyestuff effec-
tively and the best colour yield on textile material.
Table 1.1 shows the factors significantly affecting
extraction yield, colour shade, colour strength and
fastness properties.
Table 1.1 Main components and substantial parameters of natural colouring processes
Vegetal Colourants Extraction Dyeing/printing Process
plants/fruits/trees/ waste materials/by Process Use of extracted Direct use of
vegetables products dye solution colouring material
from agricultural,
food, beverage,
timber industries
Fresh, dried, frozen natural colorant
Growing conditions of the plant/fruit/tree/
vegetable
Part of the plant/fruit/tree/vegetable: leaves,
branches, stems, flowers, buds, skins, seeds,
hulls, roots, barks, peels, wood, shells, etc.
Particule size/dimension of colouring mate-
rial
parts: Whole part, big pieces, powder, sliced,
crushed, chopped etc.
Usage form: Direct use of colouring mate-
rial or extracted dye solution
Solvent type (Aqueous
or non-aqueous
medium)
Water quality and
hardness
Extraction time
Extraction temperature
Liquor ratio: amount of
colouring material/
volume of solvent
pH: Acidic, basic,
neutral
Direct extraction,
incubation or
combination method.
Extraction method:
Conventional heating
or modern and
ecofriendly methods
such as ultrasound,
microwave, enzymatic,
supercritical
carbondioxide (CO2)
extraction etc.
In case of extracted dye solution usage:
liquor ratio (amount of textile material/
volume of dye bath)
In case of direct use of coloring mate-
rial: liquor ratio (amount of textile ma-
terial/volume of water) and amount of
colouring material based on fabric
weight)
Water quality and hardness
Mordant type (Metallic, biomordants
etc.)
Mordanting method: Pre, meta/simul-
taneous and post mordanting dyeing/
printing
pH: Acidic, basic, neutral
Use of salt and/or auxiliaries
Dyeing temperature
Dyeing time
Dyeing method: Conventional heating
by exhaust method, padding method,
modern ecofriendly methods such as ul-
trasound, microwave, enzymatic, solar
energy dyeing etc.
Fixation method: steaming, boiling or
batching
PRINTING
July - August 2016 83
Journal of the TEXTILE Association
Natural dyes can be processed in several ways, includ-
ing one or more water based extractions of the dye
from the dyestuff, dyestuff fermentation to produce a
useable dye, immersion in a dyebath, or repeated im-
mersions in a dyebath. There are many other options
open to dyers including contact dyeing, extracting with
a solvent other than water, fermentation, and low im-
mersion dyeing where the water to fiber ratio is low
[9].
2. Mordants
Some of the natural dyes can form metal-complexes
with metal salts of iron, aluminium, copper, tin and
chromium. Mordants can impart fastness properties and
widen colour gamut depending on the type of the
mordant. Dramatic colour changes are achieved by
using same natural dyestuff only by changing mordant
type. A wide range of colours with very different
shades, darkness and fastness values can be obtained
depending on the kind and concentration of natural
dye and mordant and mordanting method.
Conventional Metallic mordants: Most mordanting
agents are metallic salts of chromium, tin, iron,
copper and aluminum. Copper and chromium
containing compounds (e.g., copper sulfate and
potassium dichromate) were widely used as mor-
dants, but their usage has declined because of
toxicity concerns. Likewise, iron and tin mordants
(e.g., iron sulfate and tin chloride) can affect the
color and tactile qualities of the dyed textile.
Aluminum mordanting agents are commonly used
and considered among the safest in the applica-
tion of natural dyes to cellulosic textiles Alumi-
num containing mordant agents, aluminum potas-
sium sulfate (APS) and aluminum acetate (AA),
are the most widely used for dyeing cotton with
natural dyes [10]. Generally, it is believed that
the metallic mordants are hazardous ecologically.
However, the concentration and the amount of
mordant consumed during reaction and left in
waste water have to be considered according to
the upper limits of ecological criteria.
Oil mordants: These are mainly used in dyeing
Turkey Red colour from madder. The main func-
tion of the oil mordant is to form a complex with
alum used as the main mordant [11].
Bio mordants: These are tanin, tannic acid, tar-
taric acid and metal containing plants. Myrabolan
(Terminalia chebula), pomegranate rinds (punica
granatum), tannin, tannic acid, tartaric acid, guava,
banana leaves ash [12], valex, rosemary, pome-
granate rind and thuja [13, 14] are reported as
bio and eco-friendly mordants providing satisfac-
tory dyeing and fastness properties.
Commonly used mordants include aluminum potas-
sium sulfate, iron sulfate, copper sulfate, stannous
chloride, and potassium dichromate, although there are
health and environmental concerns about the last three
[9].
Natural dyeings can be conducted according to pre,
simultaneous/meta and post mordanting methods.
Mordant and mordanting method choice directly af-
fects colour shades and fastness properties obtained. It
is not possible to present strict rules and instructions
for mordanting method because results vary depend-
ing on plant and mordant type. Pre and post mordanting
method may produce darker shades depending on plant
and mordant type. Mordant concentration is also es-
sential factor on darkness.
3. Environmentally Friendly Textile Design
Global warming, decrease in water sources, chemical
waste problems and ecological legislation make all
productions of every sector done on ecological basis.
Considering ecological criteria of the product from the
beginning is the inevitable result of growing environ-
mental consciousness. Technically, selection of eco
friendly raw materials and cleaner production methods
is crucial through ecological production process. How-
ever, with a wider point of view, the evaluation of
ecological side of design which adds positive value
and closely connected to technology should not be
ignored. In this connection, designers should work
together as a team and interdisciplinary with workers
technically. Many concepts have been suggested nowa-
days such as green textiles, organic textiles, carbon
footprint, sustainability, eco design, ecological textiles,
Design for Environment, sustainability, Life Cyle
Assesment (LCA), Design for Sustainability (D4S).
The concept of the Design for the Environment (DfE)
requires the detailed consideration of the process start-
ing from the material selection, product packaging,
product life cycle up to the recyling of the products at
end of the life. The criteria that have be taken into
consideration by the designers and technologists exsist
and they are responsible for the ecological textile and
design approach under the ligth of current develop-
ments and concepts [15].
PRINTING
July - August 2016
84
Journal of the TEXTILE Association
Environmentally friendly textile colouring, wet and
finishing treatments are less water, energy and time
consuming labour and cost effective processes. In this
connection contact print and dyeing technique can be
presumed as environmentally friendly aesthetical pat-
terning technique that allows producing unique sur-
faces.
4. Contact/Eco Print and Dyeing
Most of the textiles are dyed and printed by using
synthetic dyes. However, nowadays environmental
impacts, chemical structures and contents of synthetic
dyes are frequently questioned and criticised. There-
fore, environmentally benign alternative natural dyes
and methods arouse interest among researchers, de-
signers, artists and practitioners. All natural fibres
and majority of man made fibres can be coloured with
natural dyes. It is possible to reveal very different
colours and designs by using natural colourants, mate-
rials, substrates and methods.
The terms such as contact/eco dyeing, contact/eco
printing are used to describe direct use of plants with-
out any extraction in natural dyeing. However, their
different end results and similarities have to be well
defined and distinguished. In fact contact dyeing and
eco/contact print can be assumed as methods with
different effects. Every fabric bundle with parts of
plants/fruits/vegetables produces more or less partial
colour effects on fabric like watercolour effects. In
eco printing or contact printing a pattern/design is trans-
ferred onto the fabric surface. Compromise on process
parameters and technical knowledge is strongly required
to achieve vivid, sharp and satisfactory print effects on
the fabric. Chemical bonding of the dye molecules to
the textile fibres occurs in both methods.
Contact dyeing and printing can be suggested as a
different approach to conventional natural dyeing. This
technique is very rich application field involved in
combination of art and scientific method. It allows
designers and artists to present their imagination
unrestrictedly. Unpredictible results, patterns, colours
and visual effects are possible.
Contact dyeing and printing is a kind of art form cre-
ating visual effects through natural colourants existing
in plants, fruits, vegetables, waste materials, by-prod-
ucts etc. These techniques are contact methods using
plants as natural stencils consequently producing as-
tonishing and interesting shades, textures, traces and
marks on fabric surface. Different kinds of fabrics such
as cotton, linen, jute, hemp, viscose, Tencel, wool,
silk, specialty protein fibers, synthetics etc. can be
used. On the basis of practices and core knowledge of
traditional natural dyeing methods, contact dyeing and
printing process can be guided to obtain unique sur-
face properties on the fabric.
It is distinguished from conventional dyeing and print-
ing techniques applied in industial and artistic studies
using natural and synthetic dyes. This sustainable tech-
nique can be defined as an alternative way to produce
random/symmetrical/asymmetrical patterns, marks and
partially coloured surfaces through direct use of dif-
ferent parts of plants/trees/fruits/vegetables etc.
Unlike conventional natural dyeing and printing meth-
ods, vegetal parts are directly enclosed and bundled in
fabric with or without rod. Single fabric layer or
multiple layers containing plants like sandwich can
also be employed. Fabric pockets are post treated to
extract, activate and fix the dye molecules into the
fabric. This fixation step which is made by steaming,
boiling or batching is crucial to generate satisfactory
print effects, textures, darkness, colour shades and
colour yields.
There are many designers and artists dealing with
natural dyeing and contact deying/eco printing. Karen
Leigh (Diadick) Casselman, India Flint, Velma
Bolyard, Arlee Barr, Paula Burch, Bonnie Bowman,
Jenny Dean, Jennifer Cooper, James Dennison, Irit
Dulman, Michel Garcia, Sherry Haar, Lois Jarvis, Mary
Marlowe Leverette, Amelia Poole, Cassandra Tondro,
Elena Ulyanova, Pat Vivod, Sandy Webster, Trace
Willans, Celia Wilson, Isabella Whitworth and Rio
Wrenn and Wendy Feldberg are some artists involving
in eco print and natural dying [16].
An intriguing and attractive characteristic of an eco
printed surface is the tendency of plant pigments to
separate into unexpected constituent colors, giving
impressions of "broken colour" on the substrate, with
patterning and colourings of spontaneous nature. These
effects can be made more predictable by the selective
use of mordants (pre or post dyeing) and dye assis-
tants such as iron or copper, by applying acid (e.g.,
vinegar) or alkalis (e.g., ammonia) to shift pH, or by
combining dye plants in the bundle in order to mix
new colors right on the substrate. An example is pH-
sensitive Red cabbage which eco prints blue with alum;
when splashed with vinegar and placed nearby Gold-
enrod blooms or some Osage Orange (Maclura
PRINTING
July - August 2016 85
Journal of the TEXTILE Association
pomifera) dye powder, it will produce a mingled range
of greens and blues; when printed beside the yellows
it will produce blue-reds [17].
Plant materials (along with branches, barks, rocks or
metals, too) should be securely wrapped in a pre-
mordanted textile or layered between sheets of water-
color paper; the bundle is tied tightly with string and
perhaps weighted with a brick, then steamed over water
or simmered in water or natural dye. Different print
effects are obtained by layering, tying, folding, clamp-
ing or stitching metals, rocks, twigs, etc. onto the
substrate [17].
Different colors can be obtained depending on recipe,
mordant and extraction. It is reported that purple or
maroon is most often produced by the first extract
while blue is usually more consistent with the third
extract of elderberries. Use of ferrous sulfate will cre-
ate browner areas while copper sulfate will produce
green areas (Kadolph, 2008). Slow dyeing using the
power of the sun is another tool for the dyer and cre-
ates subtly different colours from the normal methods
[18].
It is reported that there are only a few artists who
combine resist methods with natural dyes and many of
them work with indigo. Resist method was applied to
silk chiffon by using goldenrod. As an another expe-
rience intense blue occurred with alum and copper and
one week of contact dyeing with cabbage. Less in-
tense colors were achieved using aluminum foil, cop-
per, and two weeks of contact dyeing [19].
Although natural dyes are generally are associated with
protein fibres in terms of achieving more vivid, dark
colours and satisfactory results than cellulosic fabrics,
nowadays researchers, designers and artists also focuse
on other textile fibres. It is known that cotton fibre
generally produces more dull colour shades. Papers
and nonwovens can also be substrates for contact
dyeing/eco printing.
It is seen that mostly protein fibres such as wool and
silk are used in contact dyeing and eco printing appli-
cations. In this study, different vegetal colourants, bio
wastes, mordants, mordantings, application and fixa-
tion methods were applied on cellulosic fabrics such
as cotton, viscose, Tencel and blend fabrics to obtain
the best colours, textures and pattern effects. In the
light of experimental studies, the most effective meth-
ods, satisfactory results and key topics were highlighted.
5. Materials and Methods
5.1 Fabrics
Light weight cotton (100 %) , heavy weight cotton(100
%), raised cotton (100 %), cotton knit, viscose (100
%), Tencel (100 %), Tencel/cotton (50/50 %) blend
and cotton/polyester (50/50 %) blend fabrics were used
in this study.
5.2 Plants, vegetables and biowastes
Leaves, peels and skins of various plants, trees, veg-
etables namely grape leaf, red onion skin, hibiscus,
cranberry, lemon tree leaf, olive tree leaf, rose and
rosewood leaf, pine tree leaf, eucalyptus tree leaf,
chamomile, walnut leaf, buckthorn, sumac, fern, oak
leaf, nettle, myrtle, purple cabbage and biowastes such
as outer green shell of almond fruit and prina which is
a by-product of olive oil production were used in this
study.
5.3 Mordants
Alum (dodecahydrate) (potassium aluminium sulphate),
iron II sulphate (heptahydrate) and copper II sulphate
(pentahydrate) mordants were used. Moreover, influ-
ence of citric acid on colour and texture effects pro-
duced was examined. Mordants alone and their mix-
tures in various proportions were applied in the ex-
periments. Egg white was also employed to intensify
the print effect.
5.4 Mordanting Methods
Experiments were conducted in accordance with pre
and simultaneous mordanting methods
5.5 Equipments and materials
Sand bath, hot plate, glass beakers, large pots, strainer,
plastic or wooden bars, aluminium foil, package rope,
nylon bags were used.
5.6 Method
Swatches were prepared using various plant/tree leaves,
flowers, branches and vegetable/fruit leaves and peels
in conjunction with mordants. Thus, it was observed
that how different mordants affected the colour and
trace effects obtained by using same plant/tree parts.
After mordant solutions were incorporated into fabrics
according to pre or simultaneous mordanting method,
plants were placed decoratively on surface and rolled
by tightly fastening. Then, fixation process was per-
formed with different methods. Table 5.2 shows pro-
cess conditions for trials.
Experimental processes were led in the light of addi-
PRINTING
July - August 2016
86
Journal of the TEXTILE Association
tional samples and mid evaluations. Through trials, in
addition to effects of the mordant type, mordanting
method and plants the following parameters on colour
and trace characteristics were also assessed:
Mordant type: Alum (potassium aluminium sul-
phate), iron II sulphate and their mixtures were
used. Copper II sulphate, citric acid and control
sample without mordant were also tried.
Mordanting method: Fabric was pre mordanted
by boiling for 1 hour in mordant solution before
rolling with plants. In simultaneous mordanting,
fabric was immersed for 5 minutes in solution at
room temperature. Plant parts were decorated on
the surface and rolled by fastening. In this method
mordant solution may be applied by using a spoon
or spraying after placing the plants on the fabric.
Various wrapping styles and tightness: Fabric was
rolled with and without bar. Moreover different
fastening tightness degrees were also tried.
Fixation method: Three fixation ways were con-
ducted:
Direct boiling in water: Fabric roll boils in
water directly.
Non-contact boiling in water: Fabric roll is
boiled in water by wrapping aluminium foil.
Steaming: Fabric roll is steamed above boiling
water.
Fabric rolls and some print samples are seen in Figure
5.1 and 5.2.
After contact print process, samples were rinsed using
tap water and dried at ambient temperature. Subse-
quently, no fading or staining was observed. Original
swatch cards were prepared with major samples of
trials.
Figure 5.1. Fabric rolls
Figure 5.2. Some samples of trials
PRINTING
July - August 2016 87
Journal of the TEXTILE Association
Table 5.2. Application conditions for trials
Fabric layer
Plants were
sandwiched
between two
fabric plies
Single ply
Single ply
Single ply
Single ply
Single ply
Single ply
Single ply
Single ply
Single ply
Single ply
Single ply
Single ply
Single ply
Single ply
Single ply
Trial
No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
Mordant
5 g/L alum
15 g/L alum
15 g/L iron
6 g/L iron
6 g/L iron
6 g/L alum
12 g/L alum
12 g/L alum
6 g/L iron+1 g/
L citric acid
6 g/L alum+1 g/
L citric acid
10 g/L iron
10 g/L alum
10 g/L iron+0,5
g/L citric acid
10 g/L iron+0,5
g/L citric acid
5 g/L iron+5 g/
L alum
1 g/L copper
Mordanting method
Simultaneous mordanting
Simultaneous mordanting
Simultaneous mordanting
Pre mordanting
(Boiling for 1 hour)
Simultaneous mordanting
Simultaneous mordanting
Simultaneous mordanting
Pre mordanting
(Boiling for 1 hour)
Simultaneous mordanting
Simultaneous mordanting
Simultaneous mordanting
Simultaneous mordanting
Simultaneous mordanting
Simultaneous mordanting
Simultaneous mordanting
Simultaneous mordanting
Rolling style
Rolling without
bar
Rolling without
bar
Rolling without
bar
Rolling with
bar
Rolling with
bar
Rolling with
bar
Rolling with
bar
Rolling with
bar
Rolling with
bar
Rolling with
bar
Rolling with
bar
Rolling with
bar
Rolling with
bar
Rolling with
bar
Rolling with
bar
Rolling with
bar
Contact /non
contact fixation
Without aluminium
foil
Without aluminium
foil
Without aluminium
foil
With aluminium foil
With aluminium foil
Without aluminium
foil
Without aluminium
foil
Without aluminium
foil
Without aluminium
foil
Without aluminium
foil
Without aluminium
foil
Without aluminium
foil
Without aluminium
foil
Without aluminium
foil
Without aluminium
foil
Without aluminium
foil
Fixation Method
Boiling for 1 hour
in 5 g/L alum
Steaming for 1
hour over boiling
water
Steaming for 1
hour over boiling
water
Boiling for 1 hour
in water
Boiling for 1 hour
in water
Steaming for 1
hour over boiling
water
Steaming for 1
hour over boiling
water
Steaming for 1
hour over boiling
water
Steaming for 1
hour over boiling
water
Steaming for 1
hour over boiling
water
Steaming for 1
hour over boiling
water
Steaming for 1
hour over boiling
water
Steaming for 1
hour over boiling
water
Steaming for 1
hour over boiling
water
Steaming for 1
hour over boiling
water
Steaming for 1
hour over boiling
water
Wet batch
after
fixation
Wet batch
in nylon bag
for 1 day
Wet batch
in nylon bag
for 1 day
Wet batch in
nylon bag
for 1 day
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
PRINTING
July - August 2016
88
Journal of the TEXTILE Association
Fabric layer
Single ply
Single ply
Single ply
Single ply
Single ply
Single ply
Single ply
Single ply
Single ply
Single ply
Single ply
Single ply
Single ply
Single ply
Trial
No
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
Mordant
2.5 g/L citric
acid
10 g/L iron
10 g/L iron
15 g/L alum
10 g/L iron
15 g/L alum
10 g/L alum+10
g/L iron
6 g/L alum+6 g/
L iron
5 g/L alum+10
g/L iron
10 g/L alum+5
g/L iron
15 g/L iron
15 g/L alum
5 g/L copper
-
Mordanting method
Simultaneous mordanting
Simultaneous mordanting
(Before spraying mordant
solution, egg white was spread
on fabric.)
Pre mordanting
(Boiling for 1 hour)
(After premordanting, egg white
was spread on fabric.)
Pre mordanting
(Boiling for 1 hour)
(After premordanting, egg white
was spread on fabric.)
Simultaneous mordanting
(After premordanting, egg white
was spread on fabric.)
Simultaneous mordanting
(After premordanting, egg white
was spread on fabric.)
Simultaneous mordanting
(After premordanting, egg white
was spread on fabric.)
Simultaneous mordanting
(After premordanting, egg white
was spread on fabric.)
Simultaneous mordanting
(After premordanting, egg white
was spread on fabric.)
Simultaneous mordanting
(After premordanting, egg white
was spread on fabric.)
Simultaneous mordanting
(After premordanting, egg white
was spread on fabric.)
Simultaneous mordanting
(After premordanting, egg white
was spread on fabric.)
Simultaneous mordanting
(After premordanting, egg white
was spread on fabric.)
-
(only egg white was used)
Rolling style
Rolling with
bar
Rolling with
bar
Rolling without
bar
Rolling without
bar
Rolling without
bar
Rolling without
bar
Rolling without
bar
Rolling with
bar
Rolling with
bar
Rolling with
bar
Rolling with
bar
Rolling with
bar
Rolling with
bar
Rolling with
bar
Contact /non
contact fixation
Without aluminium
foil
Without aluminium
foil
With aluminium foil
With aluminium foil
With aluminium foil
With aluminium foil
With aluminium foil
With aluminium foil
With aluminium foil
With aluminium foil
With aluminium foil
With aluminium foil
With aluminium foil
With aluminium foil
Fixation Method
Steaming for 1
hour over boiling
water
Steaming for 1
hour over boiling
water
Steaming for 1
hour over boiling
water
Steaming for 1
hour over boiling
water
Steaming for 1
hour over boiling
water
Steaming for 1
hour over boiling
water
Steaming for 1
hour over boiling
water
Steaming for 1
hour over boiling
water
Steaming for 1
hour over boiling
water
Steaming for 1
hour over boiling
water
Steaming for 1
hour over boiling
water
Steaming for 1
hour over boiling
water
Steaming for 1
hour over boiling
water
Steaming for 1
hour over boiling
water
Wet batch
after
fixation
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
PRINTING
JTA : An effective marketing tool for
strengthening business promotion
July - August 2016 89
Journal of the TEXTILE Association
6. Discussion
Appropriate mordant concentration, fixation condition
and method (time/steaming/boiling/contact/non-contact
etc.) are main factors to be determined by experience
of practitioner. Each variable develops entirely differ-
ent appearance. Fibre type (natural/man-made), absor-
bency, thickness and construction of the fabric are also
essential factors directly affecting the result of the
contact print.
Trial 1: Light weight cotton and raised cotton fabrics
were used. Plants were sandwiched between two plies
of fabric. Although plants partially dyed where they
contacted fabric surface, their traces were very weak.
Relatively looser wrapping/fastening tightness and
especially direct boiling in mordant solution resulted
in unsatisfactory result. Fabric highly absorbs water
and this blurs the texture traces of plants.
Trial 2 and Trial 3: Viscose and light weight cotton
were tried. Alum mordant ensured lighter and different
shades (pinkish, yellowish etc.) while iron resulted in
darker and more vivid colours and sharper patterns.
Both fabric provided good print results.
Trial 4, Trial 5 and Trial 6: Light weight cotton, vis-
cose, Tencel, Tencel/cotton blend fabrics were used in
these sets of trial. Comparison of the samples pro-
duced so far showed that, tight packaging and use of
single layer fabric and rolling bar enhanced colour and
texture effects. Rolling bar intensifies the pressure and
contact between plant and fabric, consequently traces
can be achieved successfully. Wrapping with aluminium
foil prevents from impairing effect of plant traces by
non-contact fixation. During fixation it was observed
that traces on the fabrics fixed in water were signifi-
cantly weaker than that of fabrics placed above the
boiling water. Almost the same effects were obtained
by pre and simultaneous mordanting. Therefore, mostly
simultaneous mordanting was preferred for other ex-
periments in terms of time, energy and water con-
sumption. Completely different results were obtained
depending on light weight cotton, viscose, Tencel and
Tencel/cotton blend fabrics. Tencel/cotton fabric had
the lightest colours and the weakest traces. Light weight
cotton and viscose fabrics were the best in this trials.
Trial 7 and Trial 8: Light weight cotton, viscose and
cotton/polyester blend fabrics were used.
Trial 9, Trial 10, Trial 11 and Trial 12: Heavy weight
cotton and viscose fabrics were used. The effect of
citric acid with iron and alum mordant was assessed.
Acid mordan mixture led to lighter and weaker colours/
patterns than mordants alone. However, iron resulted
in darker shades and stronger plant traces than alum in
both cases; alone and mixture. Trial 11 ensured good
results with viscose and heavy weight fabrics. Thus
this recipe was decided to apply to light weight cotton
and Tencel/cotton blend fabrics. Viscose fabric gave
good results with Trial 12. This recipe was decided to
apply to light weight cotton and Tencel/cotton blend
fabrics.
Trial 13, Trial 14 and Trial 15: Light weight cotton
fabric was used and mirror effect with plants was tried
at the decorating stage. Alum highlights pinkish and
reddish shades and generates softer colours than iron.
In Trial 15, reddish colours were prominent but green
shades also become remarkable.
Trial 16, Trial 17 and Trial 18: Light weight cotton
and viscose fabrics were used. Low concentration of
copper mordant was found unsatisfactory. There was
no difference between two fabrics types. Higher cop-
per concentration was decided to use to see colour and
texture effects. Citric acid alone was not effective.
Egg white generated much stronger colour and texture
effects due to its adhesive property and protein struc-
ture. Trial 19, Trial 20, Trial 21 Trial 22 Trial 23:
Light weight cotton fabric was used.
Trial 24, Trial 25, Trial 26, Trial 27, Trial 28, Trial 29,
Trial 30: Light weight cotton fabric was used. All of
these recipes provided satisfactory results. It was con-
cluded that colour shades and trace effects dramati-
cally changes depending on mordant type and mordant
mixtures also can create alternative results. Among
these group, Trial 25, Trial 26 and Trial 27 exhibited
the best eco print effect.
Trial 30: Only egg white was used on light weight
cotton fabric without mordant. Although no mordant
was applied, adhesive and protein structure of egg white
allows plants to stick on fabric forming definite traces,
texture and colours. Control samples without mordant
were also prepared to compare with this and other
samples. However, results of controls were not good
and only partial colours with blurred effects existed.
It was concluded that tight wrapping and non-contact
boiling in water produced more penetrating and vivid
patterns.
PRINTING
July - August 2016
90
Journal of the TEXTILE Association
7. Application of selected print recipes
Selected recipes applied on light weight cotton, % 50
Tencel/ % 50 cotton blend and cotton knit fabrics are
demonstrated in Table 7.3.
Table 7.3. Selected recipes and conditions
Application Fabric Mordant
1 %50 Tencel/ %50 15 g/L Iron II
cotton blend sulphate
2 Light weight cotton 15 g/L Iron II
sulphate
3 Light weight cotton 10 g/L Alum+ 5
g/L Iron II sulphate
4 Light weight cotton 15 g/L Copper II
sulphate
5 Light weight cotton 10 g/L Iron II
sulphate +
5 g/L Alum
6 Light weight cotton 10 g/L Alum
7 Light weight cotton 10 g/L Iron II
sulphate +
5 g/L Alum
8 Cotton knit 15 g/L Copper II
sulphate
Fabrics were immersed for 5 minutes in relevant mor-
dant solution and laid down the table, egg white was
applied over the fabric. Plant pieces were decorated
symmetrical/ assymetrical/irregular forms and tightly
rolled using bar and wrapped with aluminium foil.
They were put in the strainer by capping and steamed
above the boiling water. After cooling they were un-
fastened, rinsed with tap water and dried at room tem-
perature. Figure 7.3 shows some of the visual effects
obtained.
PRINTING
July - August 2016 91
Journal of the TEXTILE Association
Figure 7.3. Some print effects obtained via selected
recipes and conditions
8. Evaluation and Implications
In this study, the effects of various mordants, applica-
tions and fixation techniques on obtaining the impres-
sive patterns, textures and colour shades were exam-
ined by using cotton, viscose, Tencel, Tencel/cotton
and cotton/polyester blend fabrics. The most satisfac-
tory methods were identified and visual effects were
achieved successfully. Irrespective of plant and recipe
content, light colours, faint and very blurred traces
may be achieved on the fabrics only with water. How-
ever, if more satisfactory results, vivid and impressive
traces are aimed, experimental parameters such as
fabric/fibre and mordant kind, fastening, packaging,
wrapping and fixation methods etc. have to be com-
promised. These processes need to use recipes in the
light of technical knowledge, experience and practices
including each parameter.
An useful method was also developed by using egg
white to simulate protein structure of animal fibers.
Egg white apparently amplified the print effect and
resulted in more sharp edged, attractive and vivid
patterns due to its protein structure and adhesive prop-
erty. It allows plants to stick on fabric by forming
clear and vivid traces, textures and colours.
Each fabric and mordant ensure different results. The
best traces and darkest colours were achieved by iron
mordant. With alum mordant relatively lighter/softer
colours and patterns were produced. If rolling bar is
not used plants and consequently deformed or more
faint patterns may occur. Steaming the package wrapped
with aluminium foil supports the creation of more
impressevive visual effects on fabric surface. Mordants
enriched the colour gamut, changed the colour shades,
intensified the plant patterns and improved colour yield
in eco print. Mostly copper, iron and alum produced
cinnamon, brownish, greenish shades; dark khaki, mink,
brown, navy shades; more pinkish, reddish, yellowish
lighter/softer shades respectively. Technical knowledge,
experience, practice and accurate recipes are the key
elements of successful patterns. Even, the change of
only one parameter causes significant variation and
entirely different unique designs. Contact/eco print and
dyeing technique is a vast and rich application field
bringing art and scientific method together in which
designers and artist may exhibit their unlimited cre-
ativity and imagination.
Acknowledgement
I would like to thank Edanur Gündo?du for conduct-
ing experiments at the laboratory and atelier of Dokuz
Eylül University Faculty of Fine Arts Textile and Fash-
ion Design Department.
References
1 Ismal Ö E, Yedi, Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Güzel
Sanatlar Fakültesi Dergisi, 6, 23, (2011)
2 Dogan Y, Ba?lar S, Mert, H H, Ay G, Economic Botany,
57 (4), 442, (2003)
3 Oktav Bulut M & Akar E, Journal of Cleaner Produc-
tion,32, 1, (2012)
4 Hou X, Chen X, Cheng Y, Xu H, Chen L, Yang Y,
Journal of Cleaner Production,52 ,410, (2013)
5 Karaboyaci M, The Journal of Textile Institute, 105,
11, 1160, (2014)
6 Karaboyaci M & U?ur, ? S, The Journal of Textile
Institute,105, 8, 821, (2014)
7 Ismal Ö E & Yildirim L, Indian Journal of Fibre &
Textile Research,37, 4, 358, (2012a)
8 Ismal Ö E, Coloration Technology, 130, 2, 147, (2014)
9 Kadolph S J & Casselman K D, Clothing and Textiles
Research Journal,22 (1/2), 15, (2004)
10 Haar S, Schrader E, Gatewood, B M, Clothing and
Textiles Research Journal,31(2), 97, (2013)
11 Siva R, Current Science,92 (7), 916, (2007)
12 Mathur J P, Gupta N P, Indian Journal of Fibre &
Textile Research,3, 28 (2003) 90.
13 Ismal Ö E, Yildirim L, Özdogan E, Journal of Cleaner
Production,70, 5, 61, (2014)
14 Ismal Ö E, Yildirim L, Özdogan E, The Journal of
Textile Institute,106, 4, 343, (2015)
15 Ismal Ö E & Yildirim L, Akdeniz Sanat Dergisi, I.
International Fashion and Textile Design Symposium
Proceedings Special Edition-II,5 (8), 9, (2012b)
16 Eco Printmakers and Natural Dyers. Retrieved from
https://wendyfe.wordpress.com/what-if-eco-print-artists/
17 Feldberg W, Turkey Red Journal,18 (2), (2014)
(http://www.turkeyredjournal.com/archives/V18_I2/
feldberg.html)
18 Melvin H, Journal for Weavers, Spinners and Dyers,
234, 28, (2010, Summer)
19 Kadolph S J, Textile Society of America Symposium
Proceedings. Paper 105, (2008)
(http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/tsaconf/105)
❑ ❑ ❑
PRINTING
... As mordanting materials, mineral salts are generally preferred and mordanting can be applied in three methods. In pre-mordanting method, mordant materials are applied before dyeing, in simultaneous mordanting method, mordant materials are applied during dyeing and in post-mordanting method, mordant materials are applied after dyeing [2,3,5,8,9,10,[20][21][22][23]. Mordant materials form coordinative bonds between fiber and dyestuff by complexing dyestuff molecules [2,3,5,8,9,11,24,25]. Potassium aluminumsulphate (KAl(SO4)2.12H2O) that is an important and common mordanting material has been used to give brightness and clarity to natural dyed materials. ...
... It has generally been used in light colors since it does not affect the actual color of the dyestuff due to be colorless [2,3,6,24]. In addition, it is also safe for environment and human health [2,22,24]. Tannic acid (C76H52O46) is another mordanting material known as tannin and is a polyphenolic compound found in tea, gall oak, acorn, colza and bean. Tannic acid crystals are amorphous materials like powder or flake in light yellow-brown color and generally used in coloring and leather finishing processes [26][27][28][29]. ...
... Tannic acid crystals are amorphous materials like powder or flake in light yellow-brown color and generally used in coloring and leather finishing processes [26][27][28][29]. Likewise to potassiumaluminum sulphate, tannic acid is also known to be eco-friendly mordant [22]. ...
... This method is a natural dyeing process different from any other methods commonly used in the community; it transfers dyes and produces natural forms of the plants, such as leaves and flowers, fruits, vegetables, and waste materials directly on leather. The eco-printing method is used to decorate the leather surface with various shapes and dyes from natural materials (5) . ...
... Currently, eco-printing dyes are broadly applied to textiles, like cotton, cotton-polyester blend, and Tencel cotton blend (5) . Another study compares eco-printing on wool, silk, cotton, and flax (6) . ...
... In addition, different colors or different shades of the same color can also be obtained by using different mordant materials with one kind of extract [6], [9], [12], [20]. On the other hand, besides the much color alternatives, they have some disadvantages like having carcinogen or toxic properties, causing ecological problems and being inadequate and these disadvantages limit their applications [2], [21]. Among the metal salts, potassiumaluminumsulphate is known to be the most preferred mordant material due to be abundant, pure, ecologic and to enable bright color shades [2], [4], [21]. ...
... On the other hand, besides the much color alternatives, they have some disadvantages like having carcinogen or toxic properties, causing ecological problems and being inadequate and these disadvantages limit their applications [2], [21]. Among the metal salts, potassiumaluminumsulphate is known to be the most preferred mordant material due to be abundant, pure, ecologic and to enable bright color shades [2], [4], [21]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Chitosan solutions were prepared by dissolving chitosan polymers, which were provided in three different molecular weight as low, medium and high, in acetic acid solution and were applied to wool fabrics. After chitosan treatment, the half of the samples were dyed with dried mint by mordanting with potassiumaluminumsulphate and another half of the samples were dyed with dried mint without mordanting. In addition, mordanted and unmordanted dyeing processes were also applied to the samples that were not treated by chitosan for comparison. Following the dyeing processes, the color values of the samples were measured via spectrophotometer by selecting the wool sample dyed with mint only as a reference. Then, the samples were exposed to washing, rubbing and light fastness tests and evaluated. Moreover, the color values of the samples after washing were measured again in order to determine the effect of washing process to color yield. From the results, it was observed that wool samples dyed with mint were in yellow and green colors and chitosan treatment had positive effects on color yield. Mordanting process caused for the wool samples to be in yellower color shades and to significant changes in color yield. Washing process decreased the color yield in all samples. Rubbing and light fastness values were found to be in acceptable limits for natural dyeing. On the other hand, chitosan treatment in different molecular weights was not found to be significant but generally medium molecular weight chitosan resulted in the most available one.
... Colors in nature are often less saturated and more pleasing to the eye than their artificial substitutes [1]. İşmal [2] proposes to use natural colors derived from waste products, biomass, when staining fabrics. After a number of studies, the author concludes that the color obtained on the textile material depends to a large extent on the type of material to be applied. ...
Article
Full-text available
Nature is an inexhaustible source of inspiration for fashion designers when it comes to colours, materials, textures and pattern of garments or accessories. Its suggestive potential, the infinite imaginative resources that nature forms generates and reveals alwyas remain relevant, continuously feeding the creative imagination. The flexibility of shapes, angles, overlays of volumes, all these we find in clothes, in prints, in the search of cutouts, in the way that many designers chose to put their mark on their fashion creations in order to harness the expressive language of human body. The purpose of this article is to offer models of clothing based on combinations of colors and shapes inspired bu natural sources. The colors used from natural sources and their values in the RGB color model were presented. Also, the procedure for obtaining a four-color wheel and the method for creating “rose” curves were described. Different geometric shapes based on the rose curve were defined. Based on he selected colors and the defined shapes, the design of 3 models of nature-inspired dresses was made in order to visualize how the proposesd colors and shapes will look in a completed garment, Discussion and a comparative analysis have been made with the results obtained by other authors.
Book
Full-text available
The Palmae family includes a wide variety of species and they’re considered the main source of livelihood for significant proportion of the world population. Unfortunately, their byproducts (secondary products) are often regarded as waste, despite that they represent a sustainable material base for a wide spectrum of industries ranging from compost, wood substitutes, pulp, up to fiber reinforcements for advanced composites. ByPalma is the only conference solely focusing on the byproducts of palm plantation around the globe and their current and potential applications. This includes all Palmae family, such as Date palms, Coconut palms, Oil palms, Doum palms, sugar palm…etc. This conference will highlight the great potential of the palm byproducts in the circular bioeconomy of the future! • Bringing together leading academic scientists, researchers, artisans, entrepreneurs and industry professionals active in the area of palm byproducts R&D, manufacturing, and crafts from all around the globe to exchange recent developments, technologies, innovations, trends, concerns, challenges and opportunities. • Rediscovering palm byproducts and maximizing their added-value and creating an economical resource that can help in the sustainable development of vast rural areas in different countries in the world. • Establishing an international network of scientists, artisans, and industry professionals ByPalma 2021 conference is covering a wide range of trends on palm byproducts in wood substitutes, composite reinforcements, biotechnology, fertilizers, food, paper, textiles and bioenergy. ByPalma 2021 is the main gathering for celebrating and rediscovering palm byproducts!
Article
Full-text available
Due to the reasons such as harms that chemical paints cause, environmental pollution, awareness of people on the environment, etc. new recyclable and eco-credential pursuits commenced and ecological textiles emerged. Ecological textile is the production of complete nature compatible and harmless products from the fiber form until it becomes a product. Ecological printing is a printing method which is performed to transfer the natural color and shapes of colorants that are used on surfaces such as fabric, leather, felt, etc. with materials which have colorant characteristics in nature. In ecological printing which is quite popular today and is used by many artists, fastness measurement of the products could not be performed. However, it is important for products to have high levels of fastness in ecological printing in order to increase their resistance against physical and chemical factors. The aim of the research is to determine the resistance levels of ecological printed products by determining the washing, friction and light fastness levels of printings that were obtained from the printing experiments which were conducted on cotton and silk fabrics with eucalyptus, daisy, and cherry plum and rose petal plants. In the research, survey model was used for gathering the information on ecological printing and experiment model was used in the ecological printing process. The population of the research comprised of plants that have colorant characteristic in Turkey. The sample is eucalyptus, daisy, cherry plum, rose petal and silk-cotton fabrics. Washing, friction and light fastness analyses were conducted on ecologically-printed cotton and silk fabrics. The fastness levels of ecological printings that were performed on cotton and silk fabrics were determined to be at a good level.
Article
Full-text available
Nowadays, natural dye applications have gone beyond well known traditional practices as a result of scientific and technological developments and interdisciplinary studies among different disciplines such as chemistry, physics, biology, biotechnology, electric-electronics. In this study, some opinions and suggestions about natural dyeing applications are presented, usage of food, beverage, agricultural and industrial wastes/by-products in natural dyeing, biomordants, imparting multifunctional finishing effects to textiles (antibacterial, UV protection, insect repellent, deodorizing) and some recent developments in the application of modern ecological methods (plasma, enzyme, ozone, chitosan, ultrasound, microwave, UV, gamma rays, etc.) are discussed. Keywords: Natural dye, waste/by-product, mordant/biomordant, functional textiles, plasma, microwave, enzyme, ultrasound
Article
Two mordanting agents, aluminum potassium sulfate and aluminum acetate, in three concentrations (5%, 10%, and 20% owf) were evaluated for colorfastness to laundering and light of natural dye extracts (madder, weld, and coreopsis) on cotton print cloth. The type of aluminum mordant had a greater influence on colorfastness to laundering, whereas dye type had a greater influence on fastness to light. Aluminum acetate at 5% owf concentration gave slightly higher Gray Scale ratings for colorfastness to laundering of coreopsis and weld. All treatments had negligible to no staining on cotton. Weld had slightly better colorfastness to light ratings than the other dye types with 20% aluminum potassium sulfate rating highest. Even though the aluminum acetate mordant improved the colorfastness to laundering on weld and coreopsis at the 5% and 10% owf concentrations, it did not improve fastness to light and resulted in slightly lower fastness to light grades on coreopsis.
International Fashion and Textile Design Symposium Proceedings Special Edition-II
  • Ö Ismal
  • L Yildirim
  • Akdeniz Sanat Dergisi
Ismal Ö E & Yildirim L, Akdeniz Sanat Dergisi, I. International Fashion and Textile Design Symposium Proceedings Special Edition-II, 5 (8), 9, (2012b)
  • Ö E Ismal
  • L Yildirim
  • E Özdogan
Ismal Ö E, Yildirim L, Özdogan E, The Journal of Textile Institute, 106, 4, 343, (2015)
  • Ö Ismal
  • L Yildirim
Ismal Ö E & Yildirim L, Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research, 37, 4, 358, (2012a) 8
Retrieved from https://wendyfe.wordpress.com/what-if-eco-print-artists
  • Eco Printmakers
  • Natural Dyers
Eco Printmakers and Natural Dyers. Retrieved from https://wendyfe.wordpress.com/what-if-eco-print-artists/ 17 Feldberg W, Turkey Red Journal, 18 (2), (2014) (http://www.turkeyredjournal.com/archives/V18_I2/ feldberg.html)
  • Ö E Ismal
  • L Yildirim
  • E Özdogan
Ismal Ö E, Yildirim L, Özdogan E, Journal of Cleaner Production, 70, 5, 61, (2014)
  • Oktav Bulut
  • M Akar
Oktav Bulut M & Akar E, Journal of Cleaner Production, 32, 1, (2012) 4
  • X Hou
  • X Chen
  • Y Cheng
  • H Xu
  • L Chen
  • Y Yang
Hou X, Chen X, Cheng Y, Xu H, Chen L, Yang Y, Journal of Cleaner Production, 52,410, (2013) 5
  • J P Mathur
  • N Gupta
Mathur J P, Gupta N P, Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research, 3, 28 (2003) 90.
  • Ö E Ismal
Ismal Ö E, Yedi, Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Güzel Sanatlar Fakültesi Dergisi, 6, 23, (2011)