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State-trait anxiety inventory (STAI)

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... This tool was adopted from Spielberger et al., (1983) (19) , it was aimed to assess the severity of mothers' anxiety. using items that measure subjective feelings of tension, apprehension, nervousness, worry. ...
... The number of statements correct direct were 3,4,6,7,9,12,13,14,17,18, the responses were rated from not at all, scored (one), Novelty Journals somewhat, scored (two), moderately so, scored (three) and very much so, scored (four). The adverse statements number were 1,2,5,8,10,11,15,16,19,20, the responses for this statement were rated from not at all, scored (four), somewhat, scored (three), moderately so, scored (two), and very much so, scored (one). ...
... The validity of tools were reviewed and tested by a panel of 5 experts in the pediatric nursing and pediatric surgeons and their comments were considered. The reliability of knowledge was tested giving Cronbach's α coefficient of 0.83, practice was tested giving Cronbach's α coefficient of 0.823, state-trait anxiety inventory was tested giving Cronbach's α coefficient of ranged from 0.91 to 0.93 Spielberger et al., (1983) (19) and zarit psychosocial burden interview was tested giving Cronbach's α coefficient of 0.93 Yap, (2010) (20) . ...
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Child's hospitalization for imperforate anus surgery considered a source of anxiety for the children and the parents that persists for a long time after discharge. Therefore, involving mothers in treatment of their children are extremely required to decrease their anxiety and children's postoperative complications. Aim: The present study aimed to investigate the effect of nursing interventions on reducing postoperative complications among children with imperforate anus and mothers' anxiety. Design: A quasi experimental design [study and control groups], pre / post-tests were used. Setting: This study was carried out at pediatric surgical department and surgery outpatient clinic affiliated to Mansoura University Children's Hospital, Egypt. Sample: A purposive sampling composed of 70 mothers of children with imperforate anus, who were admitted to the previous setting, after fulfilling inclusion criteria. They were divided into 2 equal groups (study and control). Tools: 5 tools were used.1. A structured Interview Questionnaire [Socio-demographic characteristics of mothers and children, surgical history and mothers' knowledge]. 2. Performance Observational Checklists. 3. Postoperative Complications Assessment Questionnaire. 4. State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. 5. Zarit Psychosocial Burden Interview Scale. Results: The present study revealed that, there were high statistical significant differences between both groups (p <0.001) after intervention regarding studied mother's knowledge and practice. In addition, the children in study group have less postoperative complications than those children in control group post intervention. Also, about two third (60.0%) and three quarter (74.3%) respectively of mothers in study group had mild anxiety level post one week and one month, compared to about one quarter (20.0% & 28.6% respectively) of mothers in control group. Also, more than one third (37.1%) and about half (48.5%) of mothers in study group have little or no psychosocial burden level after one week and one month, compared to less than one quarter (14.3% & 20.0% respectively) of mothers in control group. There were statistical significant differences between both groups after intervention. Conclusion: Nursing interventions affected positively on mothers' knowledge, practice, decrease children's postoperative complications and decrease mothers' anxiety, psychosocial burden level. Recommendation: It was suggested replication of this nursing interventions on a larger sample and future research to monitor the long-term postoperative complications.
... We performed random effects meta-analysis (performed by MLF and checked by a statistician) for psychoeducational interventions using State-Trait anxiety inventory (STAI) [34], a validated outcome measure assessing state and trait anxiety; ...
... Trait anxiety: personality related, experienced regularly rather than situationally [34]. ...
... 1. State-trait anxiety inventory (STAI) [34]. 2. Zung self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) [47]. ...
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Background: The worldwide prevalence of paternal perinatal anxiety (PPA) ranges between 3.4% and 25.0% antenatally, and 2.4% and 51.0% postnatally. Experiencing PPA can adversely impact the individual, partners, and infants. Research concerning PPA is lagging and fragmented compared to research for new mothers. Objectives: To establish the effectiveness of prevention or treatment interventions for PPA in adults identifying as male. Data sources: We completed searches of Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Web of Science from inception to 2 December 2021, as well as hand searches of references from relevant papers. Search selection and data extraction: Randomised controlled trials delivering prevention or treatment interventions and reporting anxiety outcomes for new/expectant fathers in the perinatal mental health period were included. Our review follows the PRISMA reporting guidelines. One reviewer independently screened 5170 titles/abstracts; second reviewers screened 50%. Two reviewers independently screened full text, extracted data, and conducted risk of bias assessments. Synthesis: Cochrane’s collaboration tool 2 was used to assess quality. Primarily results are synthesised narratively, a post-hoc sub-group analysis was completed on four studies using the same outcome measure. Main results: Twelve of the 5170 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Studies used psychoeducational or practical skills interventions. Interventions mostly involved couple-dyads and three studies assessed PPA as a primary outcome. Included interventions were prevention-based; no treatment interventions were found. Father-only interventions consistently reported a significant reduction of PPA. Conclusions: Systematic searching yielded no treatment interventions, highlighting a substantial gap in the evidence base. Within a limited and heterogenous sample, no studies targeted diagnosed PPA. Evidence suggested father-focused interventions may be effective in preventing PPA, regardless of the intervention delivery mode or intervention content. However, consistency between study design and options within the field are lacking compared to interventions available for mothers.
... The questionnaire used is based on the STAI scale (State Trait Anxiety Inventory) developed by Spielberg et al. (1970) (19) and validated in Italian by Pedrabissi & Santinello (1989) (20). It consists of 40 items on a 4-point Likert scale, from 1 to 4, where point 1 corresponds to "never" and point 4 correspond to "always". ...
... The questionnaire is made up of two parts: the first 20 items assess trait anxiety (STAI-TR) which is defined by the author as a relatively stable personality trait; an example of item is "I'm satisfied with myself "; the other 20 items assess state anxiety (STAI-ST) which is, according to the author, a transitory emotional state felt while coping with threatening situations, that is why students were asked to "contextualize" their answers thinking exactly of the drug administration moment; an example of item is "I'm feeling under pressure". The state anxiety scale was the first to be submitted because the score can be influenced if the trait anxiety scale is the first to be introduced (19). According to the authors, scores range from 20 to 80 (high scores correlate with greater anxiety). ...
... The Pearson correlation coefficient for the total scores of both STAI_TR and STAI_ST was calculated; unlike what is found in the literature, a moderate and, in particular, with Spielberg's basic assumption, according to which a positive correlation between trait and state anxiety is to be expected (19). ...
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Background and aim: Medication administration errors represent a topic of great scientific interest. Medication administration is considered by nursing students a complex process during which it is easy to make mistakes; therefore, institutional measures have been adopted in order to reduce medication errors. However, it remains a critical issue in nursing practice for which several causes have been identified, including environmental factors and individual knowledge. Mistakes can be made by nurses and especially by students who must cope with additional causal factors including anxiety management. The aim was to investigate state anxiety levels among nursing students when it comes to medication administration. Research design and methods: An observational study involving a convenience sample of 150 nursing students from a Northern Italy University has been conducted; they were asked to complete a questionnaire to measure the levels of state anxiety in relation to medication administration. Results. There were no particularly high levels of state anxiety among students associated with medication administration; however, state anxiety levels were slightly higher in third-year students than in second-year students, and this is most likely due to the growing complexity of the medication administration process compared to the lack of experience. Conclusions. Although the results don't show statistically significant data, the effectiveness of nursing education plays a crucial role in reducing medication errors, which is why it is essential to provide suitable tools for the professionals of the future and invest in clinical simulations.
... * = informed by Lenze and Potts (2017). Anxiety measures as follows: 1 = the 6-item State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Brief STAI; Marteau & Bekker, 1992); 2 = Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (YBOCS; Goodman et al., 1989); 3 = Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-anxiety scale (DASS; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995); 4 = Strait Trait Anxiety Inventory-state scale (STAI-S; Spielberger, 1970); 5 = Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI; Beck & Steer, 1991); 6 = the 6-item State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-state scale (Brief STAI-S; Berg et al., 1998; no interpretation of scores available); 7 = the Generalised Anxiety Disorder screening tool (GAD-7; Spitzer et al., 2006); 8 = posttraumatic stress disorder or generalised anxiety disorder assessed via the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-R for Axis I disorders (SCID-IV-R; First et al., 1998); 9 = participants scoring ≥8 on the GAD-7; 10 = Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A, Hamilton, 1959). Colour shading indicates anxiety severity level: orange-severe; yellow-moderate/'moderately severe'; green-mild/mild to moderate levels. ...
... Sources for interpretation of dimensional anxiety scores included relevant studies (e.g., Werner 2016 for HAM-A), original work (e.g., Spitzer et al., 2006;GAD-7) or the broader anxiety literature (e.g., Julian, 2011; BAI, STAI). (Beck & Steer, 1991); Brief STAI, six-item State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Marteau & Bekker, 1992); Brief STAI-S, State Scale of the Brief STAI (Berg et al., 1998); CBCL, Child Behavioural Checklist (Rescorla, 2005); CBT, Cognitive Behavioural Therapy; EDS/EPDS, Edinburgh Postnatal (Depression) Scale (Cox et al., 1987); CIB, Coding Interactive Behaviour manual (Feldman, 1998); DASS, Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995); ECBQ, Early Childhood Behaviour Questionnaire (Putnam et al., 2006); ERA, Parent Child Early Relational Assessment (Clark, 2015); GAD-7, Generalised Anxiety Disorder Screener (Spitzer et al., 2006); HAM-A, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (Hamilton, 1959); IBQ-R, Revised Infant Behaviour Questionnaire Short Form (Gartstein & Rothbart, 2003); IBQ-VS, Infant Behaviour Questionnaire-Revised Very Short Form (Putnam et al., 2014); ICD-10, International Classification of Diseases-version 10 (World Health Organization, 1990); ITSEA, Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (Carter et al., 1999); ITQ/ICQ, Bates Infant Temperament/Characteristics Questionnaire (Bates et al., 1979); Lab-TAB, Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery (Goldsmith & Rothbart, 1991); PBQ, Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire (Brockington et al., 2006); PIPE, Paediatric Infant Parent Exam (Fiese et al., 2001); PREPP-Practical Resources for Effective Postpartum Parenting (Werner et al., 2016); PMR, Progressive Muscle Relaxation (Carlson & Hoyle, 1993); PSI-4, Parenting Stress Index (Abidin, 2012); PSI-SF, Parenting Stress Index Short Form (Abidin, 1995); SSAI, Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory (Spielberger et al., 1970); SSP, Strange Situation Procedure (Ainsworth et al., 1978); STAI, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Spielberger et al., 1970); STSI, Short Temperament Scale for Infants (Sanson et al., 1987); STST, Short Temperament Scale for Toddlers (Sewell et al., 1988); VFT, Video Feedback Therapy (Juffer et al., 2008); YBOCS, [clinician-rated] Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Goodman et al., 1989). ...
... Sources for interpretation of dimensional anxiety scores included relevant studies (e.g., Werner 2016 for HAM-A), original work (e.g., Spitzer et al., 2006;GAD-7) or the broader anxiety literature (e.g., Julian, 2011; BAI, STAI). (Beck & Steer, 1991); Brief STAI, six-item State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Marteau & Bekker, 1992); Brief STAI-S, State Scale of the Brief STAI (Berg et al., 1998); CBCL, Child Behavioural Checklist (Rescorla, 2005); CBT, Cognitive Behavioural Therapy; EDS/EPDS, Edinburgh Postnatal (Depression) Scale (Cox et al., 1987); CIB, Coding Interactive Behaviour manual (Feldman, 1998); DASS, Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995); ECBQ, Early Childhood Behaviour Questionnaire (Putnam et al., 2006); ERA, Parent Child Early Relational Assessment (Clark, 2015); GAD-7, Generalised Anxiety Disorder Screener (Spitzer et al., 2006); HAM-A, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (Hamilton, 1959); IBQ-R, Revised Infant Behaviour Questionnaire Short Form (Gartstein & Rothbart, 2003); IBQ-VS, Infant Behaviour Questionnaire-Revised Very Short Form (Putnam et al., 2014); ICD-10, International Classification of Diseases-version 10 (World Health Organization, 1990); ITSEA, Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (Carter et al., 1999); ITQ/ICQ, Bates Infant Temperament/Characteristics Questionnaire (Bates et al., 1979); Lab-TAB, Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery (Goldsmith & Rothbart, 1991); PBQ, Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire (Brockington et al., 2006); PIPE, Paediatric Infant Parent Exam (Fiese et al., 2001); PREPP-Practical Resources for Effective Postpartum Parenting (Werner et al., 2016); PMR, Progressive Muscle Relaxation (Carlson & Hoyle, 1993); PSI-4, Parenting Stress Index (Abidin, 2012); PSI-SF, Parenting Stress Index Short Form (Abidin, 1995); SSAI, Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory (Spielberger et al., 1970); SSP, Strange Situation Procedure (Ainsworth et al., 1978); STAI, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Spielberger et al., 1970); STSI, Short Temperament Scale for Infants (Sanson et al., 1987); STST, Short Temperament Scale for Toddlers (Sewell et al., 1988); VFT, Video Feedback Therapy (Juffer et al., 2008); YBOCS, [clinician-rated] Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Goodman et al., 1989). ...
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Infants of parents with perinatal anxiety are at elevated likelihood of experiencing disruption in the parent‐infant relationship, as well as difficulties with socio‐emotional functioning in later development. Interventions delivered in the perinatal period have the potential to protect the early dyadic relationship and support infants’ ongoing development and socio‐emotional outcomes. This review primarily aimed to examine the efficacy of perinatal interventions on parent anxiety, infant socio‐emotional development/temperament, and parent‐infant relationship outcomes. Secondarily, the review sought to understand how interventions focused principally on one member of the dyad affected the outcomes of the other, and which intervention components were common to successful interventions. Five electronic databases as well as manual search procedures were used to identify randomised controlled trials according to a PICO eligibility criteria framework. Risk of bias assessments were undertaken, and a narrative synthesis was conducted. The review was pre‐registered on PROSPERO (CRD42021254799). Twelve studies were analysed in total, including five interventions focused on the adult, and seven interventions focused on the infant, or the infant’s relationship with their parent. Interventions incorporating cognitive behavioural strategies for affective disorders showed reductions in parent anxiety (N = 3), and interventions focusing on altering distorted maternal internal representations showed positive change in parent‐child dyadic interactions, and infant outcomes (N = 2). Evidence that interventions focused on one partner of the dyad led to improved outcomes for the other partner was limited. However, evidence was of mixed methodological quality. It is important to integrate both parents and infants into treatment programmes for perinatal anxiety. Implications for clinical practice and future intervention trials are discussed.
... On Day 1, participants provided informed consent. Next, skin conductance electrodes were attached and participants completed a questionnaire battery controlling for individual difference factors: anxiety and depressive symptoms during the last week (PROMIS Short Form v1.0-Anxiety 8a (Wahl et al., 2011), General Depression Scale (Hautzinger et al., 2012)), state and trait anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Spielberger et al., 1983); anxiety facet of the NEO-PI-R (Costa & McCrae, 1992)), general risk taking (short-scale risk-taking-1 (Beierlein et al., 2014)), acceptance of unpleasant distress (Acceptance scale (Wolgast, 2014)), health related behaviors, and basic sociodemographic data (age and sex). Next, the US electrode was attached. ...
... Means (and standard deviations) for the three groups. NEO-PI-R-N1 = anxiety subscale of NEO-PI-R, range = 0-32(Costa & McCrae, 1992); STAI-S = State Anxiety Inventory, range = 20-80(Spielberger et al., 1983); PROMIS Short Form v1.0-Anxiety 8a(Wahl et al., 2011), range = 8-40; ADS-L = General Depression Scale, range 0-60(Hautzinger et al., 2012); Risk taking = Short-scale risk-taking-1, range = 1-7(Beierlein et al., 2014); AS = Acceptance scale, range = 7-49(Wolgast, 2014). ...
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Enhancing the reduction of avoidance may optimize treatment for anxiety disorders. Past research focused on boosting fear extinction to reduce avoidance, however, with limited success. Directly extinguishing avoidance may be more promising. This preregistered study tested the impact of incentives and instruction for non-avoidance compared to passive fear extinction on long-term avoidance and fear reduction. On Day 1, participants acquired conditioned fear and avoidance to a conditioned stimulus (CS) paired with an aversive outcome. Next, incentives or instructions encouraged non-avoidance to the CS, which was no longer reinforced by a US regardless of avoidance (Incentives and Instruction group). In a third group, avoidance was unavailable and the CS was passively presented in absence of the US (Passive Fear Extinction group). On Day 2, avoidance retention and reinstatement and return of fear were tested. In the short term, incentives and instruction strongly reduced avoidance with similar fear reduction compared to passive fear extinction. Importantly, incentives and instruction were linked to lower long-term avoidance retention. Avoidance reinstatement was evident in all groups, but avoidance remained higher after passive fear extinction. Finally, incentives yielded a lower return of threat expectancies. Thus, targeting avoidance instead of fear better reduced long-term avoidance and, for incentives, the return of fear. Especially, incentives could be a promising add-on to exposure.
... c Participants respond to statements about how they generally feel using a Likert scale in which 1 = almost never and 4 = almost always. Scores are summed to produce a total score ranging from 20-80 [45]. d Participants respond as according to how they feel in the present moment. ...
... The primary psychosocial outcome is anxiety, as measured by the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) [45]. The STAI is administered from T1-T4 (see Table 3) to enable analysis within and across time points. ...
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Reproductive genetic carrier screening (RGCS) provides people with information about their chance of having children with autosomal recessive or X-linked genetic conditions, enabling informed reproductive decision-making. RGCS is recommended to be offered to all couples during preconception or in early pregnancy. However, cost and a lack of awareness may prevent access. To address this, the Australian Government funded Mackenzie’s Mission—the Australian Reproductive Genetic Carrier Screening Project. Mackenzie’s Mission aims to assess the acceptability and feasibility of an easily accessible RGCS program, provided free of charge to the participant. In study Phase 1, implementation needs were mapped, and key study elements were developed. In Phase 2, RGCS is being offered by healthcare providers educated by the study team. Reproductive couples who provide consent are screened for over 1200 genes associated with >750 serious, childhood-onset genetic conditions. Those with an increased chance result are provided comprehensive genetic counseling support. Reproductive couples, recruiting healthcare providers, and study team members are also invited to complete surveys and/or interviews. In Phase 3, a mixed-methods analysis will be undertaken to assess the program outcomes, psychosocial implications and implementation considerations alongside an ongoing bioethical analysis and a health economic evaluation. Findings will inform the implementation of an ethically robust RGCS program.
... Portrait photographs of both panel members in white lab coats were presented during the memory reactivation task, see example in Fig. 2. The control cue was the same type of photograph but depicting a woman and man who were unfamiliar to the particular participant (i.e., who served as panel members for other participants), thereby controlling for general emotions associated with stern faces. Spielberger et al., 1983), which was a back translation from the Dutch scale. State anxiety was measured pre-TSST (i.e., before hearing the speech instructions), directly (post1) and 20 min after exiting the panel room (post2). ...
... To explore the relationship between the emotional memory response and individual differences, we assessed various individual traits, most of which were measured on D0. Trait anxiety was assessed using the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-T; Spielberger et al., 1983), which was an English back translation from the Dutch version. The STAI-T is a 20-item inventory, rated on a four-point Likert scale (1 = Fig. 2. Visualisation of memory reactivation. ...
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A myriad of clinical theories places emotional memory or mental representations at the root of mental disorders. Various cognitive-behavioural interventions are based on the assumption that targeting the underlying emotional memory is the working mechanism of treatment efficacy. To test the assumptions about the role of emotional memory in the development, maintenance, and treatment of mental disorders, we first need to establish ecologically valid paradigms that can induce emotional memory in the lab. For this, we used the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), a standardized protocol to elicit social distress, paired with a neutral unfamiliar ambient odour, to create a sensory-rich and personally meaningful episodic experience. Seven days later, participants (N = 132) reactivated the memory of the TSST with the aid of auditory, olfactory, and visual retrieval cues, during which their heart rate and self-reported affective responses were collected. Although increases in heart rate were only observed during encoding, and not at retrieval, self-report ratings showed that cues which directly referred to the aversive experience evoked more negative valence, arousal, and feelings of lack of control during memory reactivation compared to control cues across sensory modalities. These findings are indicative of successful memory induction and corroborate the utility of ambient odours as retrieval aids. Moreover, the self-reported response to the reactivated emotional memory correlated with individual differences in indices of (social) anxiety and depression. Thereby, we provide preliminary evidence of the translational significance of this paradigm that offers potential for being a model to induce ecologically valid emotional memory in the lab.
... State and trait anxiety were measured using the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) (Spielberger, Gorsuch & Lushene, 1970). Participants tracked and reported their menstrual cycles (using a paper/pen calendar). ...
... Participants tracked and reported their menstrual cycles (using a paper/pen calendar). State and trait anxiety were measured once during the investigation; Spielberger, Gorsuch & Lushene (1970) defined state anxiety as a temporal reaction to an adverse event and trait anxiety as the tendency to respond with concerns and worries to various situations. ...
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Background Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with major depression and premenstrual mood symptoms, and menstrual irregularity has been correlated with mental anxiety. However, the potential effect of increased vitamin D intake on reducing the risk of menstrual irregularities by decreasing psychological anxiety is yet to be fully elucidated. The existence of such a relationship in athletes with high levels of psychological anxiety and adequate dietary intake remains unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the effects of vitamin D intake on psychological anxiety levels and the risk of menstrual irregularities in healthy college-and international-level female athletes. Methods Female intercollege-level track and field and international-level rowing athletes ( n = 107) aged 15–24 years were included in this study. Their nutritional intake, body mass, body fat, mental anxiety, and menstrual irregularities were investigated. A generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) was used to examine the effects of several parameters on menstrual irregularities. The independent variables introduced into the GLMM were determined based on Akaike’s information criterion. Results The GLMM identified a significant interaction effect of vitamin D intake and state anxiety on menstrual irregularities, with a p -value of 0.049 and an odds ratio of 0.423. The study results suggest that increased vitamin D intake in relatively young endurance athletes may reduce mental anxiety, consequently decreasing menstrual irregularities.
... Angst De ouders hebben de twintig items tellende Trait Anxiety Inventory ingevuld (TAI: Spielberger et al. 1983). De TAI is een kort maar betrouwbaar meetinstrument voor zelf-gerapporteerde angst en dit instrument kan goed onderscheid maken tussen klinische en niet-klinische populaties (Spielberger et al. 1983). ...
... Angst De ouders hebben de twintig items tellende Trait Anxiety Inventory ingevuld (TAI: Spielberger et al. 1983). De TAI is een kort maar betrouwbaar meetinstrument voor zelf-gerapporteerde angst en dit instrument kan goed onderscheid maken tussen klinische en niet-klinische populaties (Spielberger et al. 1983). De totaalscore ligt tussen de 20 en 80 en een hogere waarde geeft een grotere mate van angst weer. ...
Article
De laatste decennia wordt in onderzoek weliswaar meer aandacht besteed aan de betrokkenheid van de vader bij de zorg voor de kinderen, maar we weten nog maar weinig over gezinnen met vader als primaire verzorger, helemaal als het gaat om de psychische gezondheid van de ouder en de kwaliteit van het ouderschap. In dit artikel worden de bevindingen gepresenteerd van een studie met als deelnemende gezinnen: 41 gezinnen met vader als primaire verzorger, 45 gezinnen met moeder als primaire verzorger en 41 gezinnen met tweeverdieners. De gezinnen hebben kinderen tussen de drie en zes jaar en zijn woonachtig in het Verenigd Koninkrijk. Voor deze studie zijn gestandaardiseerde interviews afgenomen met vaders, moeders en leerkrachten en deze deelnemers hebben ook vragenlijsten ingevuld over het psychisch welzijn van de ouders, over het ouderschap en over de aanpassing van het kind. Voor geen van deze maten zijn verschillen gevonden tussen de gezinstypen. Maar uit multi-level modellen blijkt wel dat een toename van stress bij de ouders gerelateerd is aan een toename van problemen bij de kinderen, ongeacht het gezinstype. Uit de bevindingen blijkt ook dat de gezinnen met vader als primaire verzorger goed waren aangepast aan deze ouderschapsrol en dat er wat betreft de kwaliteit van het ouderschap geen verschillen waren met de gezinnen waarin de moeder de primaire verzorger was. Deze bevindingen spreken de aanname tegen dat vrouwen meer geschikt zijn voor de rol van primaire verzorger dan mannen. De beleidsgevolgen voor vaders en hun gezin worden besproken.
... For that, it uses a two-component scale and each of them has 20-items. The higher the score, the greater the intensity of the anxiety symptoms (Spielberger (1983)). It was translated to Brazilian Portuguese and demonstrates adequate reliability and vality by Biaggio (1979). ...
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INTRODUCTION: intrinsic motivation of medical students results in improvements in learning, technical competence and the doctor-patient relationship. OBJECTIVES: verify the motivation of medical students and the association with variables related. METHODS: A transversal study using: visual analogue scale for self-perception of motivation, Academic Motivation Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, State Trait Anxiety Inventory, Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure, Resilience Scale and grade point average. RESULTS: 627 (55.68%) students, with a mean age of 23 years, being 72.90% female, with a mean of 8.49 ± 1.62 for self-perception of motivation. The intrinsic motivation to know and extrinsic motivation for identified regulation showed higher averages, both being higher in females. Amotivation had the lowest overall averages, being more common in males. Clinical phase and clerkship had higher means for extrinsic motivation by external regulation. Educational environment had moderate association with intrinsic motivations to accomplish things and to experience stimulation. Resilience showed moderate association with the three types of intrinsic motivation, and negative moderate association with amotivation. The practice of religion had higher averages for intrinsic motivations to accomplish things and to experience stimulation. Physical activity showed higher means for extrinsic motivation by external regulation. Students without previous graduation had higher averages for extrinsic motivations to introjected regulation and by external regulation. Practicing extracurricular activities showed higher averages for the three types of intrinsic motivation and for extrinsic motivation by identification. Students who do not work showed higher averages for extrinsic motivations to introjected regulation and to external regulation. CONCLUSION: Students demonstrated high global motivation to continue their studies, predominance of intrinsic motivation to know, with low rates of amotivation. There was an increase in extrinsic motivation from the third year of the course. It's important to rethink the teaching and learning processes and to invest in strategies that encourage students' autonomy, resulting in an increase in intrinsic motivation.
... All participants were characterized by gender, age, full-scale IQ (FSIQ-4 as estimated by the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, 2 nd Edition (WASI-II; [51]), and self-reported clinical characteristics on several questionnaires, including the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ; [52]); Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire (BAPQ; [53]); Social Responsiveness Scale, Second Edition (SRS-2; [48]); Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI; [54]); State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI; [55]); and the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS; [56]). See S3 and S4 Tables for detailed demographic and statistical comparisons between the two groups. ...
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Reluctance to make eye contact during natural interactions is a central diagnostic criterion for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, the underlying neural correlates for eye contacts in ASD are unknown, and diagnostic biomarkers are active areas of investigation. Here, neuroimaging, eye-tracking, and pupillometry data were acquired simultaneously using two-person functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) during live “in-person” eye-to-eye contact and eye-gaze at a video face for typically-developed (TD) and participants with ASD to identify the neural correlates of live eye-to-eye contact in both groups. Comparisons between ASD and TD showed decreased right dorsal-parietal activity and increased right ventral temporal-parietal activity for ASD during live eye-to-eye contact (p≤0.05, FDR-corrected) and reduced cross-brain coherence consistent with atypical neural systems for live eye contact. Hypoactivity of right dorsal-parietal regions during eye contact in ASD was further associated with gold standard measures of social performance by the correlation of neural responses and individual measures of: ADOS-2, Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, 2 nd Edition (r = -0.76, -0.92 and -0.77); and SRS-2, Social Responsiveness Scale, Second Edition (r = -0.58). The findings indicate that as categorized social ability decreases, neural responses to real eye-contact in the right dorsal parietal region also decrease consistent with a neural correlate for social characteristics in ASD.
... STAI was developed (13) , translated and adapted for Brazil (14) , with questions that demand answers ac-cording to the individual's self-perception regarding anxiety as a state (STAI-S) and another that deals with anxiety as a trait (STAI-T). State anxiety is related to the provisional reaction directly linked to a situation at a certain point in life (in this study, anxiety during the pandemic period); whereas trait anxiety is linked to a stable aspect associated with the individuals' self-perception of their anxiety throughout life (15) . ...
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Objective: to compare the average anxiety among undergraduate Nursing students during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: it was a cross-sectional study conducted with 101 undergraduate Nursing students. Data collection took place through WhatsApp®, by sending a link containing a consent form, a Google Forms® instrument and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The analysis was carried out through central tendency, absolute and relative frequency, and analytical tests. Results: trait anxiety and state anxiety presented medium (52.5%) and high (67.3%) levels, respectively, with mean state anxiety (48.1) higher than the mean trait anxiety (42.3) and positive correlation (r=0.479) between the two scales (p<0.000). They were high among students who lived with family members with risk factors for COVID-19 aggravation, underwent social isolation, without confirmatory tests for the disease, and performed an internship in internal medicine. Conclusion: significant percentages of anxiety levels were identified among undergraduate Nursing students in mandatory internship during the COVID-19 pandemic, thus revealing the need for preventive actions for this public. Contributions to practice: based on these findings, proposals to prevent mental health problems in this public can be developed seeking to change the current mental health scenario.
... The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). The State Anxiety subscale of the STAI was used to measure participants' anxiety levels [30]. The subscale contains 20 items on a 4-point Likert-type scale from 1 ("not at all") to 4 ("extremely"). ...
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Previous studies have explored the differences in moral judgments under normal situations and acute stress using the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). The present study examined whether anticipatory stress (i.e., induced by an anticipated speech) could elicit similar effects and further explored the mediation of emotional responses between acute stress and moral judgments with a process-dissociation approach. Fifty-three undergraduate students (20 males and 33 females) were randomly assigned to the stress and control groups. In the first stage, they were instructed to prepare a public speech (the stress group) or just recall events during the previous vacation (the control group). In the second stage, they reported emotional valence and arousal for each moral dilemma in a set of 12 moral dilemmas, followed by judgments on moral acceptability of the agent’s action. The manipulation check confirmed that anticipatory stress was reliably induced, as indicated in both self-reported and physiological data. The traditional dilemma analysis revealed that participants in the stress group would make fewer utilitarian judgments than those in the control group. The process dissociation (PD) analyses further revealed that the stress group exhibited higher deontological inclinations than the control group, but no significant differences in utilitarian inclinations. Emotional valence played a mediating role in the association between stress and deontological inclinations. To sum up, our study extended the investigation of the relationship between acute stress and moral judgment to anticipatory stress, clarified its distinct impact on deontological and utilitarian inclinations, and revealed the mediating effect of emotional valence.
... State and trait anxiety were measured using a short form of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Spielberger et al., 1970;Zsido et al., 2020). Participants were asked to consider "how you feel right now" when responding to the state anxiety items and "how you generally feel" when responding to the trait anxiety items. ...
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As warnings about the seriousness of climate change become increasingly dire, there is growing concern about its psychological outcomes, particularly climate anxiety. There is not yet consensus on how to conceptualize and measure climate anxiety, but Clayton and Karazsia (2020) recently proposed a climate change anxiety scale as a possible solution to this problem. To build on their measurement work, this study sought to replicate and extend their initial investigation of the scale's structural and discriminant validity. The results indicate that the scale is generally valid and reliable, but there is some ambiguity about its factor structure. Specifically, although the results clarify that the two subscales cannot be treated as two separate constructs, they do not rule out either a first-order unidimensional model or a second-order unidimensional model. Continued conceptual and item development would be of practical and theoretical value. In future studies, a fruitful approach would be to begin with the full scale, then use confirmatory factor analysis to examine the structure and identify indicators that are invalid for a particular sample.
... Individuals with high levels of trait anxiety are characterized by a relatively stable tendency to react with more anxiety to perceived dangers or to feel higher threat across a variety of situations compared with individuals with lower trait anxiety levels (Spielberger, Gorsuch, Lushene, Vagg, & Jacobs, 1983). Chronic anxiousness has been described as interfering with occupational functioning, as greater levels of stress, worrisome arousal, and fears of failure, insufficiency, negative evaluation, or physical injuries may lead to performance declines (e.g., King et al., 2012). ...
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We conducted multilevel random effects meta-analyses to estimate mean effect sizes for 15 personality characteristic groups as predictors of the success of plane and helicopter pilot training. We integrated results from 25 primary studies with a total of 283 effect sizes, including several newer studies that were not previously included in meta-analyses. Pilot training success exhibited small significant positive relationships with conscientiousness and self-confidence and a small negative association with neuroticism. Furthermore, we aimed to examine the moderating effects of four variables. Criterion type was a significant moderator of the relationship between conscientiousness and success, whereas the year of publication did not moderate the association between personality and training success. We descriptively examined two potential moderators: aviation field and personality test type. Limitations with respect to the interpretation of the results and implications for future aviation selection research and practice are discussed with reference to self-report versus objective personality measurement.
... Anxiety was assessed using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) [28], a 40-item self-report questionnaire that measures state anxiety (i.e., how anxious one feels at the present moment) and trait anxiety. ...
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Background Recent research suggests that anhedonia, or the inability to experience pleasure, is elevated in individuals with eating disorders (EDs). However, past literature has only studied anhedonia in EDs as a unidimensional construct rather than separately examining anticipatory (i.e., prediction of pleasure for a future event) and consummatory (i.e., enjoyment of a present event) pleasure. Given that these subcomponents of pleasure have distinct neurobiological correlates, studying pleasure as a multifaceted construct may yield important insights into the underlying mechanisms of binge eating or food restriction. Methods A sample of 124 women with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or other specified feeding or eating disorder and 84 control women (CW) completed self-report measures of anticipatory pleasure, consummatory pleasure, ED symptoms, depression, harm avoidance, and anxiety. Results Individuals with EDs endorsed significantly lower anticipatory pleasure than CW, but there were no significant group differences in consummatory pleasure. Further, there were no significant differences in self-reported pleasure among ED diagnostic groups. Within the ED sample, anticipatory pleasure but not consummatory pleasure was positively related to binge eating frequency and significantly negatively correlated with cognitive ED symptoms, state and trait anxiety, and harm avoidance. Both anticipatory and consummatory pleasure was negatively associated with depression. Conclusion The results of the current study suggest that lower pleasure across the ED spectrum may be due to deficits in anticipatory, but not consummatory, pleasure. Future research should continue to explore the behavioral, affective, and neural correlates of anticipatory pleasure in EDs to characterize better how it relates to the onset and maintenance of binge eating and other eating disorder pathology.
... 45 The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were used for the assessment of psychological status. 46,47 ...
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Sleep abnormalities are prevalent in Alzheimer’s disease, with sleep quality already impaired at its preclinical stage. Epidemiological and experimental data point to sleep abnormalities contributing to the risk of Alzheimer’s disease. However, previous studies are limited by either a lack of Alzheimer’s disease biomarkers, reduced sample size or cross-sectional design. Understanding if, when, and how poor sleep contributes to Alzheimer’s disease progression is important so that therapies can be targeted to the right phase of the disease. Using the largest cohort to date, the European Prevention of Alzheimer’s Dementia Longitudinal Cohort Study, we test the hypotheses that poor sleep is associated with core Alzheimer’s disease CSF biomarkers cross-sectionally and predicts future increments of Alzheimer’s disease pathology in people without identifiable symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease at baseline. This study included 1168 adults aged over 50 years with CSF core Alzheimer’s disease biomarkers (total tau, phosphorylated tau and amyloid-beta), cognitive performance, and sleep quality (Pittsburgh sleep quality index questionnaire) data. We used multivariate linear regressions to analyse associations between core Alzheimer’s disease biomarkers and the following Pittsburgh sleep quality index measures: total score of sleep quality, binarized score (poor sleep categorized as Pittsburgh sleep quality index > 5), sleep latency, duration, efficiency and disturbance. On a subsample of 332 participants with CSF taken at baseline and after an average period of 1.5 years, we assessed the effect of baseline sleep quality on change in Alzheimer’s disease biomarkers over time. Cross-sectional analyses revealed that poor sleep quality (Pittsburgh sleep quality index total > 5) was significantly associated with higher CSF t-tau; shorter sleep duration (<7 h) was associated with higher CSF p-tau and t-tau; and a higher degree of sleep disturbance (1–9 versus 0 and >9 versus 0) was associated with lower CSF amyloid-beta. Longitudinal analyses showed that greater sleep disturbances (1–9 versus 0 and >9 versus 0) were associated with a decrease in CSF Aβ42 over time. This study demonstrates that self-reported poor sleep quality is associated with greater Alzheimer’s disease-related pathology in cognitively unimpaired individuals, with longitudinal results further strengthening the hypothesis that disrupted sleep may represent a risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease. This highlights the need for future work to test the efficacy of preventive practices, designed to improve sleep at pre-symptomatic stages of disease, on reducing Alzheimer’s disease pathology.
... The demographic composition of the sample is reported in Table 1. All the survey waves comprised an evaluation of sleep quality, insomnia symptoms, chronotype, depressive symptomatology, perceived stress and anxiety through the following validated questionnaires: the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI; Curcio et al., 2013), the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI; Castronovo et al., 2016), the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire-reduced version (MEQr; Natale et al., 2006), the Beck Depression Inventory-second edition (BDI-II; Sica & Ghisi, 2007), the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10; Mondo et al., 2021) and the state-anxiety subscale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-X1; Spielberger et al., 1970). The administration order of mandatory sleep questionnaires was as follows: PSQI, ISI and MEQr. ...
Article
Since the first lockdown of Spring 2020, the COVID-19 contagion waves pervasively disrupted the sleep and mental health of the worldwide population. Notwithstanding the largest vaccination campaign in human history, the pandemic has continued to impact the everyday life of the general population for 2 years now. The present study provides the first evidence of the longitudinal trajectories of sleep disturbances and mental health throughout the pandemic in Italy, also describing the differential time course of age groups, genders and chronotypes. A total of 1062 Italians participated in a three-time-point longitudinal study covering two critical stages of the emergency (the first lockdown in April 2020 and the second partial lockdown in December 2020) and providing a long-term overview 2 years after the pandemic outbreak (April 2022). We administered validated questionnaires to evaluate sleep quality/habits, insomnia, depression, stress and anxiety symptoms. Analyses showed a gradual improvement in sleep disturbances, depression and anxiety. Conversely, sleep duration progressively decreased, particularly in evening-type and younger people. Participants reported substantial earlier bedtime and get-up time. Stress levels increased during December 2020 and then stabilised. This effect was stronger in the population groups apparently more resilient during the first lockdown (older people, men and morning-types). Our results describe a promising scenario 2 years after the pandemic onset. However, the improvements were relatively small, the perceived stress increased, and the re-establishment of pre-existing social/working dynamics led to general sleep curtailment. Further long-term monitoring is required to claim the end of the COVID-19 emergency on Italians' sleep and mental health.
... Furthermore, participants abstained from consuming caffeinated beverages and alcohol for 24 h before the experiment. Prior to each experimental session, participants reported a low level of state anxiety (i.e., scores between 20 and 37; Spielberger et al., 1970) which excludes this variable as an explanatory or contributing factor to the results. Participants could withdraw from the experiment without negative consequences at any time. ...
Article
This research focused on investigating the effectiveness of Transcutaneous Vagal Nerve Stimulation (tVNS) as compared to Galvanic Cutaneous Stimulation (GCS) at mitigating Simulator Adaptation Syndrome (SAS). Fifty drivers (mean age = 23.04 ± 17.71 years old, twenty-two men) participated in a driving simulation experiment. The total scores of the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire, head movements (body balance index), and driving performance variables were measured under five stimulation conditions: i) baseline (no stimulation delivered), ii) sham GCS, iii) sham tVNS, iv) active GCS, and v) active tNVS. The results showed that tVNS alleviated SAS and improved driving performance variables more effectively than GCS. We conclude that GCS and tVNS have similar neurological mechanisms to reduce SAS, providing possible explanations for the greater effectiveness of tVNS. We encourage the use of tVNS to decrease SAS.
... A full list of collected items is available in the Supplementary material: List of covariates. Apart from standard demographical questions, we have used a personality questionnaire 10 item big five questionnaire (BFI-10; Rammstedt and John, 2007), a state and trait anxiety inventory (STAI; Spielberger et al., 1983), aesthetic responsiveness assessment scale (AREA; Schlotz et al., 2020), and connectedness to nature scale (CNS; Mayer and Frantz, 2004). As a part of the questionnaire, we have also asked questions living conditions during upbringing [based on urbanicity score by Lederbogen et al. (2011)], current living conditions, whether they work from home at the moment and if so, for how long. ...
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Nature is frequently operationalized as greenery or water to estimate the restorativeness of the environment. Pursuing a deeper understanding of the connection between representation of naturalness and its relationship with restoration, we conducted an experiment aimed to investigate if the sky is perceived as an element of nature. The main goal of this study was to understand how the composition of the environment guides people’s selection of sky as nature in an explicit task. Moreover, we investigated how the amount of visible sky determines this relationship. One hundred five participants participated in a novel explicit judgment task conducted online. In this task, we prepared a set of images trimmed out of 360-degree high dynamic range images. The images were classified according to two primary independent variables representing type of environment (four levels: Nature, Some Nature, Some Urban and Urban) and horizon level (three levels: Low, Medium and High). Each participant was asked to select, by clicking on the image, what they consider as “nature.” In addition, they were asked to judge images on five visual analogue scales: emotional response, aesthetic preference, feeling of familiarity, the openness of the space and naturalness. For analysis, images were segmented into 11 semantic categories (e.g., trees, sky, and water) with each pixel being assigned one semantic label. Our results show that, sky is associated with selections of nature in a specific pattern. The relationship is dependent on the particular set of conditions that are present in the environment (i.e., weather, season of the year) rather than the type of the environment (urban, nature). The availability of sky on the image affects the selection of other nature labels with selections more likely when only a small amount of sky was available. Furthermore, we found that the amount of sky had a significant positive association with the naturalness rating of the whole image, but the effect was small. Our results also indicate that subjective selections of sky predict the naturalness better than trees and water. On the other hand, objective presence of trees and water has a stronger positive association with naturalness while objective presence of sky is positively associated with naturalness. The results show that, relative to its availability sky is considered as nature.
... Participants completed computer-based surveys which included the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) [34], State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) [35], Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) for Sleep Disturbance [36], reduced Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) [37], and mid-sleep point on a free day (MSF), calculated using the Munich Chronotype Questionnaire (MCTQ; [38]. BDI-II is a psychometric test used to measure the presence and severity of clinical depression (one-week test-retest reliability of r = 0.93, an internal consistency α = 0.91 and high construct validity of 0.93 for college student samples), with scores ranging from 0 to 63. Participants are assessed as being minimally depressed (0-13), mildly depressed (14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19), moderately depressed (20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25)(26)(27)(28) or severely depressed (> 28). ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic has posed unique academic, social, financial, and health-related challenges for young adults. While numerous studies have documented average increases in reported mental health issues in the general population, few have measured the magnitude of changes in mental health symptoms and sleep difficulties within individuals. Here, we measure the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health and sleep of university students pre- and mid-pandemic. Prior to the pandemic (Fall 2019), individuals (n = 23) were recruited to participate in an eight-day, comprehensive sleep study using Fitbit® actigraphy. Participants also completed detailed mental health and sleep surveys, including depression (BDI-II), anxiety (STAI), and sleep disturbance (PROMIS) surveys. One year later, these individuals repeated the study during the pandemic (Fall 2020); participants completed the original surveys and sleep study, in addition to a targeted survey on mental and sleep health due to the pandemic. Self-reported levels of anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbance, and sleep parameters, measured by actigraphy, were compared within the same individuals pre- and mid-pandemic. Self-report survey data revealed that three-quarters of participants experienced an increase in stress and anxiety due to the pandemic. In addition, intra-individual depression and anxiety symptoms increased to clinically significant levels within individuals from pre- to mid-pandemic. Over two-thirds of participants reported sleeping less, and more than half reported that their sleep health had worsened during the pandemic. Changes in sleep disturbance were positively associated with changes in depression and anxiety, reinforcing the robust relationship between poor sleep quality and mental health. Furthermore, individuals who reported greater sleep disturbance during the pandemic experienced lower relative proportions of both REM and deep sleep. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on university students is multi-faceted-mental health, sleep quality, and the amount of restorative sleep are negatively affected by the pandemic environment. These compounded effects exacerbate the health consequences of the pandemic and highlight a need for increased attention to the prevention and treatment of mental health disorders, particularly in vulnerable populations of young adults.
... Anger was harmonized using the Spielberger State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, specifically the State-Trait for MASALA/MESA, which measured anger as a personality trait, and Anger-Out for JHS, which measured anger as a dynamic expression. Although these are different components of the measure, both anger scales were associated with CVD and were harmonized and categorized into tertiles (Spielberger et al., 1983). Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale, and a score of 16 was used to determine a binary depressive symptoms variable (Radloff, 1977). ...
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Purpose Social support may have benefits on cardiovascular health (CVH). CVH is evaluated using seven important metrics (Life's Simple 7; LS7) established by the American Heart Association (e.g., smoking, diet). However, evidence from longitudinal studies is limited and inconsistent. The objective of this study is to examine the longitudinal relationship between social support and CVH, and assess whether psychosocial risks (e.g., anger and stress) modify the relationship in a racially/ethnically diverse population. Methods Participants from three harmonized cohort studies – Jackson Heart Study, Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America, and Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis – were included. Repeated-measures modified Poisson regression models were used to examine the overall relationship between social support (in tertiles) and CVH (LS7 metric), and to assess for effect modification by psychosocial risk. Results Among 7724 participants, those with high (versus low) social support had an adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for ideal or intermediate (versus poor) CVH of 0.99 (0.96–1.03). For medium (versus low) social support, the aPR (95% CI) was 1.01 (0.98–1.05). There was evidence for modification by employment and anger. Those with medium (versus low) social support had an aPR (95% CI) of 1.04 (0.99–1.10) among unemployed or low anger participants. Corresponding results for employed or high anger participants were 0.99 (0.94–1.03) and 0.97 (0.91–1.03), respectively. Conclusion Overall, we observed no strong evidence for an association between social support and CVH. However, some psychosocial risks may be modifiers. Prospective studies are needed to assess the social support-CVH relationship by psychosocial risks in racially/ethnically diverse populations.
... To assess depressiveness, state anxiety, and habitual emotion regulation, we used the German versions of Beck's Depression Inventory II (German version: Hautzinger et al., 2006), the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI; Spielberger et al., 1983;German version: Laux et al., 1981), the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ; Gross & John, 2003; German version: Abler & Kessler, 2009) and the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS; Gratz & Roemer, 2004;German Version: Ehring et al., 2008). Participants received the questionnaires a few days before further behavioral testing. ...
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The ability to regulate emotions is indispensable for maintaining psychological health. It heavily relies on frontal lobe functions which are disrupted in frontal lobe epilepsy. Accordingly, emotional dysregulation and use of maladaptive emotion regulation strategies have been reported in frontal lobe epilepsy patients. Therefore, it is of clinical and scientific interest to investigate emotion regulation in frontal lobe epilepsy. We studied neural correlates of upregulating and downregulating emotions toward aversive pictures through reappraisal in 18 frontal lobe epilepsy patients and 17 healthy controls using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Patients tended to report more difficulties with impulse control than controls. On the neural level, patients had diminished activity during upregulation in distributed left‐sided regions, including ventrolateral and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, angular gyrus and anterior temporal gyrus. Patients also showed less activity than controls in the left precuneus for upregulation compared to downregulation. Unlike controls, they displayed no task‐related activity changes in the left amygdala, whereas the right amygdala showed task‐related modulations in both groups. Upregulation‐related activity changes in the left inferior frontal gyrus, insula, orbitofrontal cortex, anterior and posterior cingulate cortex, and precuneus were correlated with questionnaire data on habitual emotion regulation. Our results show that structural or functional impairments in the frontal lobes disrupt neural mechanisms underlying emotion regulation through reappraisal throughout the brain, including posterior regions involved in semantic control. Findings on the amygdala as a major target of emotion regulation are in line with the view that specifically the left amygdala is connected with semantic processing networks. We investigated hemodynamic correlates of upregulation and downregulation of emotions toward negative images in frontal lobe epilepsy patients and healthy controls. Group comparisons revealed diminished activations in patients during upregulation of emotions in distributed left‐sided regions, implicated in semantic control. These group differences were related to habitual emotion regulation as upregulation‐related activity changes in the left inferior frontal gyrus, insula, orbitofrontal cortex, anterior and posterior cingulate cortex, and precuneus correlated with questionnaire data on habitual emotion regulation.
... testretest reliability coefficients have ranged from .65 to .75 over a 2-month interval. Considerable evidence attests to the construct and concurrent validity of the scale (Spielberger et al., 1983). ...
Article
Maternal psychopathology given a history of maltreatment and domestic violence exposure increases the risk for child psychopathology. Infant social withdrawal is one warning sign of adverse developmental outcomes including child anxiety and depression. It remains unclear how maternal trauma-related psychopathology might affect infant social withdrawal six-months postpartum. Methods: One-hundred ninety-five women and their six-month-old infants were studied in an at-risk community sample. Maternal trauma history, posttraumatic stress (PTSD) and major depressive (MDD) disorders were assessed. Maternal and infant behaviors were coded from videotaped interactions. Results: Maternal trauma was correlated with atypical maternal behavior (AMB) and infant social withdrawal (p ≤ .001). PTSD and MDD, and comorbid PTSD/MDD predicted increased AMB (p ≤ .001) but only maternal MDD was predictive of infant social withdrawal (p ≤ .001). Effects of maternal MDD on infant withdrawal were mediated by AMB. Conclusions: At six-months postpartum, maternal MDD was associated with infant withdrawal. AMB is an important target for early intervention.
... The STAI is a 40-item questionnaire that assesses symptoms of anxiety by having participants indicate how they feel at the time they are completing the questionnaire (i.e., "state" anxiety) and how they "generally feel" (i.e., "trait" anxiety) [61]. Each subscale ranges from 20-80. ...
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Childhood maltreatment may alter fear neurocircuitry, which results in pathological anxiety and depression. One alteration of fear-related behaviors that has been observed in several psychiatric populations is an overgeneralization of fear. Thus, we examined the association between childhood maltreatment and fear generalization in a non-clinical sample of young adults. Two hundred and ninety-one participants underwent differential fear conditioning in a fear-potentiated startle paradigm. One visual stimulus (CS+), but not another (CS−), was associated with an aversive airblast to the throat (US) during acquisition. The next day, participants were tested for their fear responses to the CS+, CS−, and several generalization stimuli (GS) without the presence of the US. Participants also completed questionnaires that assessed symptoms of childhood maltreatment, anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Participants reporting high childhood maltreatment (n = 71; 23 males, 48 females) exhibited significantly greater anxiety, depression, and symptoms of PTSD than participants reporting low childhood maltreatment (n = 220; 133 males, 87 females). Females reporting high childhood maltreatment demonstrated significantly enhanced fear learning and greater fear generalization, based on their fear-potentiated startle responses. Our findings suggest that childhood maltreatment may sex-dependently influence the development of fear neurocircuitry and result in greater fear generalization in maltreated females.
... Participants were asked if they had a concurrent opioid use and/or a concurrent stimulant use in the previous month. Depression symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and impulsivity features were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) [29], the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-A and STAI-B) [30], and the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale (UPPS-Ps) [31], respectively. ...
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Improving physical activity (PA) in patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) has recently emerged as an important component of the global treatment strategy to improve drinking outcomes and quality of life. However, this new approach should focus on AUD patients with insufficient baseline PA and requires this subgroup to be better characterized. In a population of 382 treatment-seeking AUD patients, PA was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and participants were divided into two groups: insufficient PA group and sufficient PA group. The severity of the AUD was assessed using the DSM-5 criteria, the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, and the Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire. In logistic regression models, individuals with insufficient PA were more likely than other AUD individuals to present a higher Body Mass Index (p < 0.001), a higher number of AUD DSM-5 criteria (p < 0.05), more frequent opioid use (p < 0.05), higher scores at the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (p < 0.001), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (p < 0.001), impulsivity scale (p < 0.05), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory (p < 0.05), and lower WHO Quality of Life (p < 0.001) scores. In AUD, an insufficient baseline PA is associated with several markers of severity, and physical exercise interventions should be part of a multimodal treatment program integrating the global impairments of patients.
... Healthy controls from the neurobiology study did not meet criteria for any current psychiatric disorder on the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (KSADS) [17]. Adults and children from MTurk and Rally were classified as HC through a self-report battery; they had to score below clinical cut points including < 2.3 on the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire [2], < 44 on the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory trait scale [18], < 16 on the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale [19], and < 10, 9, and 10, respectively, on the Picky Eating, Appetite, and Fear subscales of the Nine-Item ARFID Scale [10,11]. To ensure data quality for individuals recruited through MTurk, we set our survey such that individuals could not participate twice. ...
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Background The Pica, ARFID, and Rumination Disorder Interview (PARDI) is a structured interview that can be used to determine diagnosis, presenting characteristics, and severity across three disorders, including avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a questionnaire focused specifically on ARFID (PARDI-AR-Q), which has the potential to provide related information with less participant burden. Methods Adolescents and adults ( n = 71, ages 14–40 years) with ARFID ( n = 42) and healthy control participants (HC, n = 29) completed the PARDI-AR-Q and other measures. A subset of the ARFID group ( n = 27) also completed the PARDI interview. Results An exploratory factor analysis of proposed subscale items identified three factors corresponding to the ARFID phenotypes of avoidance based on the sensory characteristics of food, lack of interest in eating or food, and concern about aversive consequences of eating. Further analyses supported the internal consistency and convergent validity of the PARDI-AR-Q subscales, and subscale ratings on the questionnaire showed large and significant correlations (all p -values < 0.001; r ’s ranging from 0.48 to 0.77) with the corresponding subscales on the interview. The ARFID group scored significantly higher than HC on all subscales. Furthermore, 90% of the ARFID group scored positive on the PARDI-AR-Q diagnostic algorithm while 93% of the HC scored negative. Conclusions Though replication in larger and more diverse samples is needed, findings provide early support for the validity of the PARDI-AR-Q as a self-report measure for possible ARFID in clinical or research settings.
... We evaluated parental mental health by using two standard scales with high reliability and validity: the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) (Cox et al., 1987) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory State (STAI-S) (Spielberger et al., 1970). Both the scales were included as part of each LEAPP-HIT follow-up questionnaire. ...
Article
Air pollution, outdoor residential environment, indoor household characteristics, and parental mental health are potential factors associated with child development. However, few studies have simultaneously analyzed the association between the aforementioned factors and preschool child (aged 2–5 years) development. This study investigated the effects of those factors on child development and their potential modifying effects. A total of 142 participants were recruited from a birth cohort study in the Greater Taipei Area, and the evaluation was conducted at each participant's home from 2017 to 2020. Child cognitive development was assessed by psychologists using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development and the Wechsler Preschool & Primary Scale of Intelligence. Household air pollutants, outdoor residential environment, indoor household characteristics, parental mental health, and other covariates were evaluated. Multiple regressions were used to examine the relationships between child development and covariates. Stratified analysis by child sex and parental mental health was conducted. Average indoor air pollutant levels were below Taiwan's Indoor Air Quality Standards. After adjustment for covariates, the indoor total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) level was significantly associated with poor child development (per interquartile range increase in the TVOC level was associated with a 5.1 percentile decrease in child cognitive development). Sex difference was observed for the association between TVOC exposure and child development. Living near schools, burning incense at home, purchasing new furniture, and parental anxiety were related to child development. Indoor TVOC level was associated with poor child cognitive development, specifically with the girls. Indoor and outdoor residential environment and parental anxiety interfered with child development. TVOCs should be used cautiously at home to minimize child exposure. A low-pollution living environment should be provided to ensure children's healthy development.
... All items were assessed using a 4-point Likert scale from 1 (almost never) to 4 (almost always). A higher MC-STAI-S score indicates greater anxiety [35]. The MC-STAI-S was reported to be reliable and valid for a Taiwanese population [36]. ...
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Background To investigate whether perceived attitudes of family and peers toward same-sex marriage (SSM) is a type of distal sexual minority stressor, as defined in minority stress theory, this cross-sectional study examined the associations of perceived attitudes of family and peers toward SSM with perceived sexual stigma from family and peers, internalized homonegativity, and mental health problems (e.g., depression, loneliness, anxiety) among gay and bisexual men in Taiwan. Methods We recruited 400 gay and bisexual men and assessed their perceived attitudes of family and peers toward SSM; perceived sexual stigma from family and peers; internalized homonegativity; and severity of depression, loneliness, and anxiety. Results Perceived attitudes of family and peers toward SSM (1) significantly correlated with various aspects of perceived sexual stigma from family and peers and (2) were significantly associated with internalized homonegativity, depression, loneliness, and anxiety. Conclusions Perceived attitudes of family and peers toward SSM matched the characteristics of a distal sexual minority stressor, and as a new type of distal sexual minority stressor for lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals, these perceived attitudes and related stress warrant greater attention from mental health professionals for the development of intervention programs.
... Ordinate scaling is the representation of the scores displayed on the y-axis by adjusting the maximum or minimum values from the entire possible measurement range . For example, the full range of possible scores for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI; Spielberger et al., 1983) is 20 to 80, but ordinate truncation would be only displaying a range of 30 to 60. Dart and Radley (2017) found that when graphs displayed a truncated ordinate, for example setting y-max to 80%, 60%, or 40% instead of 100%, Type I errors increased based on the severity of the truncation. The DPPXYR is a metric that captures the ratio of the x:y axis lengths while also considering the density of the data points plotted along the x-axis-it is computed using the formula (x-axis length/y-axis length)/number of data points that could be plotted along the x-axis . ...
Article
In this article, we outline standards and recommendations for single-case research design (SCRD) graph construction to improve readability, transparency, and interpretation. Prior research indicates large variability among graph representation resulting in misinterpretation and lack of clarity of reported findings. Prominent graph features are discussed including esthetic and analysis altering characteristics. We provide a conceptual checklist along with visual and narrative descriptions to support the construction of SCRD graphs and help guide practitioners and researchers with reporting and displaying SCRD data.
... It has a 40-item self-report that assesses "state anxiety" and 'trait anxiety' together and has two sub-dimensions which are high internal consistency and strong validity (Spielberger et al., 1983). An increase in scale scores is associated with an increase in anxiety. ...
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Regarding symptoms, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a heterogeneous disorder, and the dimensions of contamination, harm, unwanted thoughts, and symmetry may vary in each patient. This study aims to investigate cognitive and emotional factors that are considered effective on OCD dimensions. One hundred ten patients with OCD and 104 healthy controls were included in this study. Dimensional Obsessions and Compulsions Scale (DOCS), Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire-44 (OBQ-44), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI), Guilt Inventory (GI), Disgust Scale (DS-R), Leahy Emotional Schema Scale-II (LESS-II), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were administered to the OCD with healthy control to check clinical differences. As a result of the study, it was found that both cognitive and emotional factors and their relations with each other varied depending on the OCD dimensions. OCD is a disorder that differs in each patient in terms of clinical course, response to treatment, and age of onset. Establishing the cognitive and emotional factors that may be related to the difference might be significant for developing therapeutic interventions focused on these factors.
... The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) questionnaire includes 40 self-assessment questions, 20 for state anxiety (STAI-S) and 20 for trait anxiety (STAI-T), respectively [41]. The STAI-S is used to assess anxiety levels at a specific time and as an indicator in certain special stressful situations. ...
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We evaluated the effects of breathing Pseudotsuga menziesii (P. menziesii) and Lavandula angustifolia (L. angustifolia) essential oils (EOs) during a horticultural activity on older adults. A total number of 92 older adult (71.2 ± 7.7 years old) participants were guided through a leaf printing procedure. In the meantime, water vapor and EOs were diffused in an orderly manner. The heart rate variability-related parameters as well as the brain waves were recorded. In addition, we also collected data for the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory-State (STAI-S) questionnaires before and after the whole indoor natural activity program. The physiological parameters including standard deviation of normal to normal intervals, normalized high frequency (nHF), and high alpha wave increased while the normalized low frequency (nLF), the ratio of LF-to-HF power, high beta wave, and gamma wave decreased following the breathing of P. menziesii and L. angustifolia EOs. These changes indicated a relaxing effect of breathing both EOs during a horticultural activity on older adults. Our results demonstrated a beneficial effect of P. menziesii EO which is as good as a well-known relaxant L. angustifolia EO. This notion was supported by the results of STAI-S. Here we developed an indoor natural activity program for older adults to promote physical and mental health.
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Background/aims: Clinical trials are fundamental for the development of new medicines and patient participation is based on free consent. Our study sought to identify psychological characteristics that may influence patient willingness to participate in a clinical trial. Methods: A total of 100 participants were invited to participate with 80% positive response rate. The psychological characteristics of each patient were evaluated using the following validated psychometric scales: Self-Efficacy Scale, Curiosity, Exploration Inventory-Trait, Social Support Satisfaction, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Social Avoidance and Distress, and Fear of Negative Evaluation. Results: Patients who agreed to participate in the clinical trial were significantly younger than those who refused (p=0.028). There were no differences in sex, lifestyle, employment status, monthly income or education. After adjusting for age and sex, patients who agreed to participate scored significantly higher in the following: self-efficacy total score (p<0.001), effectiveness in adversity (p<0.001), social effectiveness (p<0.001) and initiation and persistence (p<0.001); social support total score (p<0.001), family satisfaction (p=0.015), friendship satisfaction (p<0.001), social activities satisfaction (p=0.002) and intimacy (p<0.001); total curiosity score (p<0.001), absorption (p<0.001) and exploration (p<0.001). Compared with patients who agreed to participate, those who refused scored significantly higher for both state (p<0.001) and trait anxiety (p<0.001), fear of negative evaluation (p<0.001) and social avoidance and distress (p<0.001). Conclusions: Patients who were willing to participate in clinical trials exhibited different psychological characteristics to patients who refused. Specifically, they were more curious and self-efficacious, less anxious and reported a higher level of social support than patients who declined to participate. Identifying characteristics that condition the individual's decision to participate in a clinical trial has important implications for the development of patient-focused communication strategies and improved recruitment approaches.
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Background Childhood maltreatment can result in lifelong psychological and physical sequelae, including coronary artery disease (CAD). Mechanisms leading to increased risk of illness may involve emotional dysregulation and shortened leukocyte telomere length (LTL). Methods To evaluate whether (1) childhood maltreatment is associated with shorter LTL among older adults with CAD or other chronic illnesses; (2) sex and/or CAD status influence these results; and (3) symptoms of anxiety, depression, and stress moderate or mediate the association between childhood maltreatment and LTL, men and women ( N = 1247; aged 65 ± 7.2 years) with and without CAD completed validated questionnaires on childhood maltreatment, symptoms of depression, anxiety, and perceived stress. LTL was measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Analyses included bivariate correlations, hierarchical regressions, and moderation/mediation analyses, controlling for sociodemographic and lifestyle variables. Results Childhood maltreatment was associated with significantly shorter LTL ( r = −0.059, p = 0.038, b = −0.016, p = 0.005). This relation was not moderated by depression, anxiety, nor perceived stress, though there was mitigated evidence for absence of a maltreatment-LTL relation in men with CAD. Stress perception (but not anxiety or depression) partially mediated the relation between childhood maltreatment and LTL [Indirect effect, b = −0.0041, s.e. = 0.002, 95% CI (−0.0085 to −0.0002)]. Conclusions Childhood maltreatment was associated with accelerated biological aging independently of patient characteristics. Emotional dysregulation resulting in chronic stress may contribute to this process. Whether stress management or other interventions may help prevent or slow premature aging in those who have suffered maltreatment requires study.
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Background Anxiety represents one of the most prevalent psychiatric symptoms in multiple sclerosis (MS), impacting the overall disease burden and quality of life. This psychopathological feature can be expressed as state (S-ANX) and trait (T-ANX) anxiety, but few studies specifically evaluated these two components in MS. The present study was aimed at investigating the prevalence and specific correlates of S-ANX and T-ANX in a cohort of people with MS (PwMS). Methods 88 in- and out-patients with MS were consecutively recruited. S-ANX and T-ANX were evaluated with the two subscales of the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory. Bivariate analyses were performed to compare PwMS who displayed clinically significant S-ANX and T-ANX and those who did not. Two logistic regression models were run in order to identify variables significantly associated with S-ANX and T-ANX. Results S-ANX and T-ANX presented a prevalence of 42% and 45.5%, respectively. S-ANX was more frequent in subjects hospitalized due to recent MS onset. PwMS and S-ANX more frequently had a recent relapse, as well as evidence of disease activity on brain magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects with T-ANX were more often females and displayed higher severity of fatigue. Depressive features at the Beck Depression Inventory were more severe in both S-ANX and T-ANX subjects. PwMS with S-ANX reported a higher prevalence of T-ANX and vice versa. At the logistic regressions, depression severity displayed a significant association with S-ANX and T-ANX. We also detected positive associations between S-ANX and inpatient status, as well as between T-ANX and female sex. Conclusion Both S-ANX and T-ANX are highly prevalent features in PwMS. These two components of anxiety should be adequately identified and discriminated in the clinical practice. The higher severity of depression in PwMS with clinically significant anxiety should not be neglected.
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Introduction The Social Provisions Scale (SPS) measures a person’s perceived social support. We evaluated the perceived social support in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients before and after subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) and its impact on clinical outcomes following DBS. Methods We analyzed 55 PD patients who underwent STN DBS surgery and completed the SPS, PDQ-39, and MDS-UPDRS Parts I–IV before and 6–12 months after surgery. Some patients also completed global cognitive, mood and apathy scales. Caregivers completed the CBI at each visit. Linear regression models and linear mixed models evaluated the association between the SPS baseline score, MDS-UPDRS and PDQ-39 scores, the association between MDS-UPDRS, CBI and the SPS follow-up score, and the association between SPS, global cognition and other psychological variables. Results DBS implantation improved MDS-UPDRS I-IV and PDQ-39 scores. Perceived social support declined after DBS (baseline SPS total 82.55 ± 7.52 vs. follow-up SPS total 78.83 ± 9.02, p = 0.0001). Baseline SPS total score was not significantly associated with the MDS-UPDRS or PDQ-39 scores at follow-up. MDS-UPDRS scores and the CBI at follow-up had no significant association with SPS total score at follow-up. Measures of global cognition, mood and apathy were associated with the SPS before and after DBS, and the association was independent of STN DBS. Conclusion After STN DBS, PD patients experienced a decrease in perceived social support, but baseline perceived social support did not impact clinical outcomes. It is important to further identify factors that may contribute to this perception of worsened social support.
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Recent advancement in technology has made virtual reality (VR) more accessible and immersive than ever before, resulting in its increasing utility in various industries. Despite this, VR has remained an underutilised tool within clinical psychology. This study aimed to explore the potential of using VR for therapeutic benefits through examining the level of flow and anxiety-reducing effects of freeform drawing in real life (on paper) versus drawing in VR (using Tilt Brush) via a randomised-controlled trial with 40 participants. State and trait anxiety was measured using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, level of flow was measured using the Long Flow State Scale, and level of presence was measured using the iGroup Presence Questionnaire. Overall level of flow was not significantly different between both groups, implying drawing in VR induces as much flow as drawing in real life. Level of flow was positively correlated to level of presence experienced in the VR group ( p < .01). Although there was no significant interaction effect, both groups experienced an overall decrease in state anxiety, with the VR group experiencing a significant reduction of state anxiety from pre- to post-test ( p < .01).
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Even after successful extinction, conditioned fear can return. Strengthening the consolidation of the fear-inhibitory safety memory formed during extinction is one way to counteract return of fear. In this preregistered direct replication study, we confirm that spontaneous post-extinction reactivations of a neural activation pattern evoked in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) during extinction predict extinction memory retrieval 24 h later. We do not confirm that L-DOPA administration after extinction enhances retrieval and that this is mediated by enhancement of the number of vmPFC reactivations. However, additional preregistered analyses reveal a beneficial effect of L-DOPA on extinction retrieval when controlling for salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) levels, an indicator of arousal, at extinction onset. Further, pre-extinction sAA negatively predicts retrieval and (at trend) vmPFC reactivations, and these impeding effects are abolished by L-DOPA treatment. Our results suggest that L-DOPA may enhance extinction consolidation under high-arousal conditions, as typically present during exposure therapy sessions.
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Objective: The COVID-19 pandemic has been associated with increased hospitalization rates and worsened symptom severity in patients with eating disorders (ED), but most studies focused exclusively on adolescents. Further, research evaluating the impact of COVID-19 on response to inpatient treatment for ED is limited. This study aimed to compare demographic characteristics, symptom severity at admission, and discharge outcomes for adult and adolescent inpatients with EDs admitted before and after onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. We expected the post-COVID cohort would report elevated symptomatology and poorer response to treatment compared to the pre-COVID cohort and that this effect would be amplified for adolescents. Method: Patients were consecutively hospitalized adults and adolescents treated in a specialized behavioral integrated inpatient-partial hospitalization program for eating disorders between March 2018 and March 2022 (N = 261). Results: The effect of COVID-19 on symptomatology was moderated by age group such that adolescents in the post-COVID cohort, but not adults, reported higher levels of eating disorder and depressive symptoms compared to the pre-COVID cohort. No group differences were observed for discharge outcomes (rate of weight gain, length of stay, or percent target weight). Discussion: Findings with respect to elevated symptomatology in adolescents but not adults may reflect the particularly negative impact of social isolation on adolescents. Future research is needed to assess the impact of COVID-19 on long-term treatment outcomes including relapse at 1-year, as well as the potential impact of COVID-19 on treatment availability for chronically ill adults or those with public insurance. Public significance: Patients with eating disorders (ED) admitted to a specialty inpatient program after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic were younger and more likely to be male than those admitted pre-pandemic. Adolescents admitted post-COVID, but not adults, reported elevated ED and depressive symptoms compared to the pre-COVID cohort. Group differences were not observed for treatment response. Future research should evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on relapse risk in EDs.
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Objectives As the aging population increases, it is critical to find ways to sustain older adults’ health and well-being. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) may be one approach, but its effects are difficult to discern because few studies have conducted randomized controlled trials with an active control group and blinded examiners. We begin to address these gaps with a pilot study examining the feasibility of conducting an MBSR intervention with an active control condition in healthy older adults. Methods Participants were randomly assigned to one of two classes, MBSR or Brain Health education. Classes were matched for time, format, and instructor. The study examined acceptability, practicality, implementation, and preliminary efficacy using a range of participant questionnaires, instructor ratings, cognitive measures assessed by blinded examiners, and attendance. Results Both MBSR and the Brain Health class evidenced high rates of recruitment, participant satisfaction, and retention. Implementation procedures were successful, and preliminary results revealed similar levels of efficacy across both classes. Conclusions This study demonstrates the feasibility of an MBSR intervention in healthy older adults. Clinical Implications MBSR, with its focus on improving stress and self-awareness, has the potential to be an approach that can improve aging adults’ health and coping skills.
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Araştırmada yaşlı hastaya bakım verenlerin bakım yükü ve anksiyete düzeylerinin belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. İlişkisel tanımlayıcı modeline uygun olarak yapılan bu araştırma, 2019 yılında Ordu ilinde bir devlet hastanesinin Evde Bakım Hizmetleri merkezine kayıtlı 65 yaş ve üzeri bireylere bakım veren ve araştırmaya katılmayı kabul eden 199 bakım veren ile yapılmıştır. Verilerin toplanmasında bakım veren aile bireylerine “Kişisel Bilgiler Anket Formu”, “Bakım Verme Yükü Ölçeği” ile “Durumluk Kaygı ve Süreklilik Kaygı Ölçeği” uygulanmıştır. Araştırmada cinsiyet, medeni durum, çocuk sahibi olma durumu, kronik hastalık, evde kaç kişi yaşadığı, bakım vermekten memnun olma durumu gibi etmenlerin bakım yükü üzerinde istatistiksel olarak anlamlılık bulunmuştur. Araştırmada cinsiyet, aylık gelir, kronik hastalık, yaşlıya bakım verme nedeni, bakım vermekten memnun olma gibi etmenlerin de anksiyete düzeyi üzerinde istatistiksel olarak anlamlılık bulunmuştur. Yaşlı hastaya bakım verenlerde bakım yükü puan ortalamaları arttıkça durumluk kaygı ve süreklilik kaygı puan ortalamalarının arttığı sonucu saptanmıştır.
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Views provided by windows are key factors that affect occupants' overall psychological and physiological comfort inside buildings. Despite their importance, there are no established approaches and regulations to guide designers and researchers in investigating view perception. This paper systemically reviews studies on view perception in terms of quality and quantity factors affecting view perception (i.e., content-related factors, design-related factors including window's shape and size, shading devices, mullions, and partitions, dynamic changes in views based on observer-related factors, and view size) and discuss views impact on other visual (i.e., glare) and non-visual (i.e., privacy and thermal comfort) perceptions. In addition, the notion of view quality and quantity is discussed. Furthermore, methods used to visually represent views from windows, and methods used to quantify view perception subjectively and objectively are critically reviewed. As a result, knowledge gaps were identified for future studies in relation to view quality assessment and experimental design; and an all-inclusive comprehensive approach to quantify view quality using subjective and objective assessments along with an adequate representation method is proposed.
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The number of Americans receiving some level of healthcare at home is rapidly increasing, often leaving family members responsible for providing care for their loved ones. The impact on these unpaid caregivers, who must also balance the stressors of work and other daily responsibilities, can lead to compassion fatigue (CF). A growing body of evidence suggests that the practice of mindfulness meditation can reduce the symptoms of CF, such as stress, anxiety, and depression. This quality improvement project sought to determine if using a mindfulness-based smartphone app daily for 6 weeks would have any impact on CF in family caregivers. The project sought to determine whether it was feasible for caregivers to use the app and examined the impact on stress, depression, and anxiety. Participants completed two validated instruments before and after the 6-week intervention and results were compared using Wilcoxon signed rank tests. Results indicated a significant reduction in stress (p = .043) and a marginal reduction, though not significant, in depression (p = .075) and anxiety (p = .149). The caregivers found the app to be useful. Future projects should investigate the patterns of use by family members and use of the app as an adjunct to other interventions.
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Purpose This study evaluated sleep quality, chronotype, and excessive diurnal somnolence in persons with Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy (JME) and their possible association with clinical variables. Methods This cross-sectional controlled study evaluated 49 consecutive patients (65% females, mean age 27.53 years) with an electroclinical diagnosis of JME and 49 healthy controls (55% females, mean age 28.55 years). The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory (PSQI) was used to assess sleep quality and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) to evaluate excessive daytime sleepiness. The patients' chronotype was evaluated by the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ). Epilepsy-related factors gathered from the medical chart and personal interview were epilepsy duration, age at onset, frequency of myoclonic (Mcl), generalized tonic-clonic (GTC) and absence (ABS) seizures, pharmacoresponse, and current antiseizure medication (ASM). Results Persons with JME did not differ from the control group regarding daytime sleepiness (p=0.840); however, the JME group had worse sleep quality (p=0.01) than the controls. Persons with JME presented a more evening chronotype than controls (p = 0.003). The age at onset, epilepsy duration, frequency of Mcl seizure, frequency of GTC seizure, frequency of Abs seizure, and drug response did not predict ESS and MEQ scales. Pharmacoresponsive patients had lower PSQI scores compared with pharmacoresistant patients (p=0.036). Conclusion Persons with JME have worse sleep quality and a more evening chronotype. Notably, pharmacoresistant patients present a worse sleep quality that deserves attention and special care due to the relationship between sleep deprivation and seizure worsening.
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Introduction: Anxiety negatively affects pregnant women and their fetuses. It can cause misleading test readings in electronic fetal monitoring, affect the duration of the first stage of labor, and influence certain aspects related to childbirth. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of virtual reality and music therapy on anxiety levels, maternal and fetal physiologic parameters, and labor and birth outcomes. Methods: A total of 343 full-term pregnant women participated in a randomized controlled trial and were divided into 3 parallel groups: music therapy intervention (n = 104), virtual reality intervention (n = 124), and control (n = 115). The interventions were delivered during a nonstress test in the third trimester and during labor. Data were collected from April 2017 to May 2018. Measures included the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, maternal blood pressure, maternal and fetal heart rates, and labor and birth outcomes. The study was registered in the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry (ACTRN12621001647820). Results: Women in the music therapy and virtual reality groups had lower levels of anxiety after a nonstress test (P < .001), and the women were more likely to have a reactive nonstress test (P < .001) compared with the control group. After the nonstress test and intervention were complete, the music therapy and virtual reality groups had significant decreases in systolic blood pressure (P < .001), diastolic blood pressure (P < .001), and maternal heart rate (P = .003) compared with the control group. Furthermore, fetuses in the control group were more likely to experience nonreassuring fetal heart rate tracings compared with the music therapy and virtual reality groups, respectively (P = .004). Discussion: Our findings support the use of music and virtual reality during nonstress tests and labor as nonpharmacologic interventions to reduce anxiety, improve maternal and fetal physiologic parameters, and improve labor and birth outcomes. This research should be replicated in diverse perinatal settings.
Article
Introduction: Insomnia affects nearly 1/3 of the worldwide population. Electroencephalography neurofeedback (EEG-NFB) is one of the methods used in applied psychophysiology, which can improve nightly sleep scheme. Research objective: The aim of this pilot study was to assess the relative effect of a 20-day neurorehabilitation intervention based on EEG-NFB therapy in insomnia patients treated at a day rehabilitation centre. Materials and methods: Seventy-four patients with insomnia: 28 women (mean age ± SD: 67.9 ± 8.84 years, range: 42–83 years) and 46 men (mean age ± SD: 63.0 ± 9.24 years, range: 42-80 years) were subjected to the EEG-NFB training-neurorehabilitation using the C4 protocol: sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) (12-15 Hz)/theta (4-7 Hz). The individual everyday EEG-NFB training consisted of 20, 30-minute sessions. Before and after the training, the data was collected from 12-electrode quantitative EEG (QEEG) tests. In addition, several standardised psychological questionnaires were performed: Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Results: The EEG-NFB therapy reduced anxiety (7.39 ± 1.0 vs. 6.12 ± 0.88 in STAI, p< 0.001) and improved patients' mood (17.6 ± 3.9 vs. 14.65 ± 3.39 in BDI, p< 0.001). During the PSQI test, the time of falling asleep and number of night awakenings were statistically reduced (both p<0.001). However, there was no significant difference in the -SMR amplitude between pre- to post-treatment (9.15 ± 3.11 and 8.62 ± 2.82, respectively, p=0.095). Conclusions: Due to the subjective improvement of sleep quality, without statistically significant changes in the electrophysiological record (expressed by SMR amplitude), it is advisable to continue research with the use of EEG-NFB therapy.
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SEE FAR CBT is an integrative treatment protocol for PTSD and anxiety disorders which combines CBT, body-mind (somatic experience) and imagery-based (fantastic reality; FR) methods. FR is introduced using associative therapeutic cards (COPE cards) to represent both “a pleasant/safe place” and the re-narrating process of the traumatic story. Although some preliminary evidence exists regarding the impact of COPE cards integration in psychotherapy, further validation is needed as to whether these cards can induce distinct arousal-affective states in the observer. The aim of this study was to examine whether exposure to COPE cards evoke different emotional-psychophysiological states using objective physiological measures reflecting autonomic nervous system responses; hence, to further validate its use as a potentially effective tool within the context of SEE FAR CBT therapeutic process. Ninety-five healthy under-graduate participants were first exposed to high-arousal, negatively-valenced cards and asked to put themselves in a state of emotional/physical arousal. Afterwards, they were exposed to low-arousal, positively-valenced cards and were asked to try to calm and relax to the best of their ability. Heart rate, blood pressure and heart rate variability (HRV) were measured at baseline, at the arousal phase and finally at the relaxation phase. It was found that exposure to arousing negative cards resulted in significant increase in blood pressure and a decrease in HRV, while exposure to relaxing positive cards resulted in significant decrease in blood pressure and an increase in HRV. These findings support the efficacy and utility of associative COPE cards in affecting psychophysiological arousal.
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Background Pain continues to be underrecognized and undertreated in people with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The periaqueductal gray (PAG) is essential to pain processing and modulation yet is damaged by AD. While evidence exists of altered neural processing of pain in AD, there has not been a focused investigation of the PAG during pain in people with AD.PurposeTo investigate the role of the PAG in sensory and affective pain processing for people living with AD.Methods Participants from a larger study completed pain psychophysics assessments and then a perceptually-matched heat pain task (warmth, mild, and moderate pain) during a functional MRI scan. In this cross-sectional study, we examined blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) responses in the PAG and other pain-related regions in participants with AD (n = 18) and cognitively intact older adults (age- and sex-matched, n = 18). Associations of BOLD percent signal change and psychophysics were also examined.ResultsThere were significant main effects of AD status on the temperature needed to reach each perception of warmth or pain, where people with AD reached higher temperatures. Furthermore, participants with AD rated mild and moderate pain as more unpleasant than controls. PAG BOLD activation was greater in AD relative to controls during warmth and mild pain percepts. No significant differences were found for moderate pain or in other regions of interest. Greater PAG activation during mild pain was associated with higher affective/unpleasantness ratings of mild pain in participants with AD but not in controls.Conclusion Results suggest a role for the PAG in altered pain responses in people with AD. The PAG is the primary source of endogenous opioid pain inhibition in the neuroaxis, thus, altered PAG function in AD suggests possible changes in descending pain inhibitory circuits. People with AD may have a greater risk of suffering from pain compared to cognitively intact older adults.
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